Sample records for evaluating pressure locking

  1. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  2. A method for evaluating pressure locking and thermal binding of gate valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, T.


    A method is described to evaluate the susceptibility of gate valves to pressure locking and thermal binding. Binding of the valve disc in the closed position due to high pressure water trapped in the bonnet cavity (pressure locking) or differential thermal expansion of the disk in the seat (thermal binding) represents a potential mechanism that can prevent safety-related systems from functioning when called upon. The method described here provides a general equation that can be applied to a given gate valve design and set of operating conditions to determine the susceptibility of the valve to fail due to disc binding. The paper is organized into three parts. The first part discusses the physical mechanisms that cause disc binding. The second part describes the mathematical equations. The third part discusses the conclusions.

  3. Commonwealth Edison Company pressure locking test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunte, B.D.; Kelly, J.F.


    Pressure Locking is a phenomena which can cause the unseating thrust for a gate valve to increase dramatically from its typical static unseating thrust. This can result in the valve actuator having insufficient capability to open the valve. In addition, this can result in valve damage in cases where the actuator capability exceeds the valve structural limits. For these reasons, a proper understanding of the conditions which may cause pressure locking and thermal binding, as well as a methodology for predicting the unseating thrust for a pressure locked or thermally bound valve, are necessary. This report discusses the primary mechanisms which cause pressure locking. These include sudden depressurization of piping adjacent to the valve and pressurization of fluid trapped in the valve bonnet due to heat transfer. This report provides a methodology for calculating the unseating thrust for a valve which is pressure locked. This report provides test data which demonstrates the accuracy of the calculation methodology.

  4. Workshop on gate valve pressure locking and thermal binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.J.


    The purpose of the Workshop on Gate Valve Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding was to discuss pressure locking and thermal binding issues that could lead to inoperable gate valves in both boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The goal was to foster exchange of information to develop the technical bases to understand the phenomena, identify the components that are susceptible, discuss actual events, discuss the safety significance, and illustrate known corrective actions that can prevent or limit the occurrence of pressure locking or thermal binding. The presentations were structured to cover U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff evaluation of operating experience and planned regulatory activity; industry discussions of specific events, including foreign experience, and efforts to determine causes and alleviate the affects; and valve vendor experience and recommended corrective action. The discussions indicated that identifying valves susceptible to pressure locking and thermal binding was a complex process involving knowledge of components, systems, and plant operations. The corrective action options are varied and straightforward.

  5. Pressure locking and thermal binding of gate valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, E.M.


    Pressure locking and thermal binding represent potential common mode failure mechanisms that can cause safety-related power-operated gate valves to fail in the closed position, thus rendering redundant safety-related systems incapable of performing their safety functions. Supplement 6 to Generic Letter 89-10, {open_quotes}Safety-Related Motor-Operated Gate Valve Testing and Surveillance,{close_quotes} provided an acceptable approach to addressing pressure locking and thermal binding of gate valves. More recently, the NRC has issued Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves,{close_quotes} to request that licensees take certain actions to ensure that safety-related power-operated gate valves that are susceptible to pressure locking or thermal binding are capable of performing their safety functions within the current licensing bases. Over the past two years, several plants in Region I determined that valves in certain systems were potentially susceptible to pressure locking and thermal binding, and have taken various corrective actions. The NRC Region I Systems Engineering Branch has been actively involved in the inspection of licensee actions in response to the pressure locking and thermal binding issue. Region I continues to maintain an active involvement in this area, including participation with the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation in reviewing licensee responses to Generic Letter 95-07.

  6. External laser locking using a pressure-tunable microbubble resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Madugani, Ramgopal; Le, Vu H; Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Síle Nic


    The tunability of an optical cavity is an essential requirement for many areas of research especially for the rapidly progressing field of photonics. In particular, low-cost laser tuning methods and miniaturization of the optical components are desirable. By applying aerostatic pressure to the interior surface of a microbubble resonator, optical mode shift rates of around $58$ GHz/MPa are achieved. The micobubble can measure pressure with a limit of detection of $2\\times 10^{-4}$ MPa. Here we use the Pound-Drever-Hall technique, whereby a laser is locked to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of the microbubble resonator, to show that linear tuning of the WGM and the corresponding locked laser display almost zero hysteresis. The long-term frequency stability of this tuning method for different input pressures is measured. The frequency noise of the WGM, measured over 10 minutes, with a maximum input pressure of 0.5 MPa has a standard deviation of 36 MHz.

  7. The effect of distal radius locking plates on articular contact pressures. (United States)

    Walker, Matthew H; Kim, Hyunchul; Hsieh, Adam H; O'Toole, Robert V; Eglseder, W Andrew


    Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common injuries treated in hand surgery practice, and distal radius locking plates have become an increasingly popular method of fixation. Despite widespread use of this technology, it is unknown whether the subchondral placement of locking screws affects the loading profile of the distal radius. Our study was designed to determine whether subchondral locking screws change the articular contact pressures in the distal radius. Twelve cadaveric forearms underwent a previously described axial loading protocol in a materials testing machine. We used an intra-articular, real-time computerized force sensor to measure peak contact pressure, total pressure, and contact area in the distal radius. Internal validation of sensor placement and reproducibility was conducted. Each specimen was tested before fixation (control), after application of a palmar distal radius locking plate, and after simulation of a metaphyseal fracture. We identified no statistically significant differences in maximum pressure, total pressure, and contact area among control, plated, and plated and fractured specimens. However, the contact footprint-represented by squared differences in force across the sensor-were significantly different between the control group and both plated groups. The technique for measuring contact pressures produces highly repeatable values. Distal radius locking plates with subchondral hardware placement do not seem to significantly change articular contact pressures. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Triple rotary gas lock seal system for transferring coal continuously into, or ash out of, a pressurized process vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enright, F.J.; Seidl, R.M.


    A multiple rotary gas lock apparatus using a buffer seal gas is disclosed to enable the transfer of solid materials into or out of a pressurized process containing high temperature, flammable or toxic gases. The buffer seal gas, has a pressure higher than the process pressure and is introduced between two series connected gas locks; this prevents process gas backflow to the feed system. Buffer seal leakage gas from the first pair of gas locks and air from a third gas lock are removed from an opening in a connection between the pair of gas locks and the third gas lock at subatmospheric pressure. This system enables control and usuage of toxic or flammable gases as a buffer for mixing compatibility with the process gas when a suitable inert gas is not available. It also prevents the flow of any toxic gas to the worker environment.

  9. NRC staff review of licensee responses to pressure-locking and thermal-binding issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, H.J.


    Commercial nuclear power plant operating experience has indicated that pressure locking and thermal binding represent potential common mode failure mechanisms that can cause safety-related power-operated gate valves to fail in the closed position, thus rendering redundant safety-related systems incapable of performing their safety functions. In Generic Letter (GL) 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves,{close_quotes} the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff requested that nuclear power plant licensees take certain actions to ensure that valves susceptible to pressure locking or thermal binding are capable of performing their safety functions within the current licensing bases of the facility. The NRC staff has received summary information from licensees in response to GL 95-07 describing actions they have taken to prevent the occurrence of pressure locking and thermal binding. The NRC staff has developed a systematic process to help ensure uniform and consistent review of licensee submittals in response to GL 95-07.

  10. The braking performance of a vehicle anti-lock brake system featuring an electro-rheological valve pressure modulator (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Sung, Kum-Gil; Cho, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yang-Sub


    This paper presents the braking performances of a vehicle anti-lock brake system (ABS) featuring an electro-rheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the ER valve and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering the Bingham property of the ER fluid and the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. An ER fluid composed of chemically treated starch particles and silicone oil is used. An electrically controllable pressure modulator is then constructed and its pressure controllability is empirically evaluated. Subsequently, a quarter-car wheel slip model is established and integrated with the governing equation of the pressure modulator. A sliding mode controller for slip rate control is designed and implemented via the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS). In order to demonstrate the superior braking performance of the proposed ABS, a full car model is derived and a sliding mode controller is formulated to achieve the desired yaw rate. The braking performances in terms of braking distance and step input steering are evaluated and presented in time domain through full car simulations.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of the locking titanium cable in the fixture of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi YAO


    Full Text Available Objective  The article aims at evaluating the biological properties of tibiofibular titanium cable fixation device in terms of both anti-separation and stress shielding by comparison to the interior fixation with lag screw based on experimental observation. Methods  Six corpse ankle specimens were first tested of pressure-separation and stress measurement, the data from which were compared to the normal group, and then a syndesmosis injury model was established. All the samples are randomly divided into 2 groups of 3 specimens each, which were treated with tibiofibula locked titanium cable and lag screw fixation respectively for syndesmosis injury. Then, the samples were tested for pressure-separation and stress measurement. The biomechanical properties as anti-separation ability and stress shielding were analyzed and compared between the two fixation method. Results  Both tibiofibula locked titanium cables and lag screws were able to provide enough strong lateral anti-separation ability, but strong fixation screws were inferior to tibiofibular titanium cable fixation device in fibular longitudinal stress transduction. Conclusion  Tibiofibular titanium cable fixation device not only provide sufficient lateral anti-separation, but also reduces the tibial and fibular longitudinal stress shielding, thus being superior to the traditional lag screw in biomechanical properties. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.09

  12. Crash test and evaluation of locking architectural mailboxes. (United States)


    Some homeowners and businesses are becoming increasingly concerned about mail-identity theft. : Consequently, there is a growing demand for the use of locking mailboxes for theft deterrence and vandal : resistance. There are a number of mailbox produ...

  13. Hydraulic Evaluation of Culvert Valves at Eisenhower and Snell Locks, St. Lawrence Seaway (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 7 Hydraulic Evaluation of Culvert Valves at Eisenhower and Snell Locks, St. Lawrence Seaway Co as ta l a nd H...client/default. ERDC/CHL TR-15-7 June 2015 Hydraulic Evaluation of Culvert Valves at Eisenhower and Snell Locks, St. Lawrence Seaway...ERDC/CHL TR-15-7 ii Abstract The aged, double-skin-plate valves of the Eisenhower and Snell Locks on the St. Lawrence Seaway are being replaced

  14. Water pressure and ground vibrations induced by water guns near Bandon Road Lock and Dam and Lemont, Illinois (United States)

    Adams, Ryan F.; Koebel, Carolyn M.; Morrow, William S.


    Multiple geophysical sensors were used to characterize the underwater pressure field and ground vibrations of a seismic water gun and its suitability to deter the movement of Asian carps (particularly the silver [Hypophthalmichthys molitrix] and bighead [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] carps) while ensuring the integrity of surrounding structures. The sensors used to collect this information were blast-rated hydrophones, surface- and borehole-mounted geophones, and fixed accelerometers.Results from two separate studies are discussed in this report. The Brandon Road study took place in May 2014, in the Des Plaines River, in a concrete-walled channel downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam near Joliet, Illinois. The Lemont study took place in June 2014, in a segment of the dolomite setblock-lined Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont, Illinois.Two criteria were evaluated to assess the potential deterrence to carp migration, and to minimize the expected effect on nearby structures from discharge of the seismic water gun. The first criterion was a 5-pound-per-square-inch (lb/in2) limit for dynamic underwater pressure variations. The second criterion was a maximum velocity and acceleration disturbance of 0.75 inch per second (in/s) for sensitive machinery (such as the lock gates and pumps) and 2.0 in/s adjacent to canal walls, respectively. The criteria were based on previous studies of fish responses to dynamic pressure variations, and effects of vibrations on the structural integrity of concrete walls.The Brandon Road study evaluated the magnitude and extent of the pressure field created by two water gun configurations in the concrete-walled channel downstream of the lock where channel depths ranged from 11 to 14 feet (ft). Data from a single 80-cubic-inch (in³) water gun set at 6 ft below water surface (bws) produced a roughly cylindrical 5-lb/in2 pressure field 20 ft in radius, oriented vertically, with the radius decreasing to less than 15 ft at the water

  15. Development and evaluation of a tutorial to improve students’ understanding of a lock-in amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth DeVore


    Full Text Available A lock-in amplifier is a versatile instrument frequently used in physics research. However, many students struggle with the basic operating principles of a lock-in amplifier which can lead to a variety of difficulties. To improve students’ understanding, we have been developing and evaluating a research-based tutorial which makes use of a computer simulation of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial is based on a field-tested approach in which students realize their difficulties after predicting the outcome of simulated experiments involving a lock-in amplifier and check their predictions using the simulated lock-in amplifier. Then, the tutorial provides guidance and strives to help students develop a coherent understanding of the basics of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial development involved interviews with physics faculty members and graduate students and iteration of many versions of the tutorial with professors and graduate students. The student difficulties with lock-in amplifiers and the development and evaluation of the research-based tutorial to help students develop a functional understanding of this device are discussed.

  16. Pulsed Phase Lock Loop Device for Monitoring Intracranial Pressure During Space Flight (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Macias, Brandon R.; Yost, William T.; Hargens, Alan R.


    We have developed an ultrasonic device to monitor ICP waveforms non-invasively from cranial diameter oscillations using a NASA-developed pulsed phase lock loop (PPLL) technique. The purpose of this study was to attempt to validate the PPLL device for reliable recordings of ICP waveforms and analysis of ICP dynamics in vivo. METHODS: PPLL outputs were recorded in patients during invasive ICP monitoring at UCSD Medical Center (n=10). RESULTS: An averaged linear regression coefficient between ICP and PPLL waveform data during one cardiac cycle in all patients is 0.88 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SE). Coherence function analysis indicated that ICP and PPLL waveforms have high correlation in the lst, 2nd, and 3rd harmonic waves associated with a cardiac cycle. CONCLUSIONS: PPLL outputs represent ICP waveforms in both frequency and time domains. PPLL technology enables in vivo evaluation of ICP dynamics non-invasively, and can acquire continuous ICP waveforms during spaceflight because of compactness and non-invasive nature.

  17. Evaluation of Green Dot's Locke Transformation Project: Findings for Cohort 1 and 2 Students. CRESST Report 815 (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.; Wang, Jia; Rickles, Jordan; Hsu, Vivian; Monroe, Scott; Leon, Seth; Straubhaar, Rolf


    With funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, CRESST conducted a multi-year evaluation of a major school reform project at Alain Leroy Locke High School, historically one of California's lowest performing secondary schools. Beginning in 2007, Locke High School transitioned into a set of smaller, Green Dot Charter High Schools,…

  18. Evaluation of Green Dot's Locke Transformation Project: From the Perspective of Teachers and Administrators. CRESST Report 824 (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.; Wang, Jia; Ong, Christine; Straubhaar, Rolf; Schweig, Jon; Hsu, Vivian


    With funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, CRESST researchers conducted a multi-year evaluation of a major school reform project at Alain Leroy Locke High School, historically one of California's lowest performing secondary schools. We found the one-year teacher retention rate at GDL in 2010-2011 was 79%; Green Dot Locke teachers,…

  19. Evaluation of Green Dot's Locke Transformation Project: Supplemental Report on Cohort 2 Student Outcomes. CRESST Report 825 (United States)

    Rickles, Jordan; Wang, Jia; Herman, Joan


    With funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, CRESST conducted a multi-year evaluation of a major school reform project at Alain Leroy Locke High School, historically one of California's lowest performing secondary schools. Beginning in 2007, Locke High School transitioned into a set of smaller, Green Dot Charter High Schools,…

  20. Mechanical evaluation of fourth-generation composite femur hybrid locking plate constructs. (United States)

    Goswami, Tarun; Patel, Vinit; Dalstrom, David J; Prayson, Michael J


    Locking compression plates are routinely used for open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. Such plates allow for locking or non-locking screw placement in each hole. A combined use of both types of screw application for stabilization of a fracture is commonly applied and referred to as hybrid internal fixation. Locking screws improve the stability of the fixation construct but at the expense of significant additional cost. This study experimentally analyzes various combinations of locking and non-locking screws under simultaneous axial and torsional loading to determine the optimal hybrid locking plate-screw construct in a fourth generation composite femur. Clinically it is necessary to ensure adequate fixation stability in a worse case fracture-bone quality scenario. A locking screw near the fracture gap increased the axial and torsional strength of the locked plate system. Greater removal torque remained in non-locked screws adjacent to locked screws compared to an all non-locking screws control group.

  1. Evaluating the Gapless Color-Flavor Locked Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna


    effects that are known to be small, we perform a comparison of the free energies of the gCFL, CFL, 2SC, gapless 2SC, and 2SCus phases. We conclude that as density drops, making the CFL phase less favored, the gCFL phase is the next spatially uniform quark matter phase to occur. A mixed phase made...... of colored components would have lower free energy if color were a global symmetry, but in QCD such a mixed phase is penalized severely....... and a nonzero electron density. In this paper, we evaluate the gapless CFL phase, in several senses. We present the details underlying our earlier work which showed how this phase arises. We display all nine quasiparticle dispersion relations in full detail. Using a general pairing ansatz that only neglects...

  2. Perioperative Use of Bispectral Monitor (BIS) for a Pressure Ulcer patient with Lock-In Syndrome (LIS) (United States)

    Yoo, Christine; Ayello, Elizabeth A.; Robins, Bryan; Salamanca, Victor R.; Bloom, Marc J.; Linton, Patrick; Brem, Harold; O'Neill, Daniel K.


    The bispectral (BIS) monitor uses brain electroencephalographic data to measure depth of sedation and pharmacological response during anesthetic procedures. In this case, the BIS monitor was used for another purpose, to demonstrate postoperatively to the nursing staff that a patient with history of locked-in syndrome (LIS), who underwent pressure ulcer debridement, had periods of wakefulness and apparent sensation, even with his eyes closed. Furthermore, as patients with LIS can feel pain, despite being unable to move, local block or general anesthesia should be provided for sharp surgical debridement and other painful procedures. This use of the BIS has shown that as a general rule, the staff should treat the patient as though he might be awake and sensate even if he does not open his eyes or move his limbs. Our goal was to continuously monitor pain level and communicate these findings to the entire wound team, ie anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses. PMID:25252146

  3. Locking plate external fixation and negative pressure wound therapy for treatment of a primary infection in a closed clavicle fracture. (United States)

    Kenyon, Robert M; Morrissey, David I; Molony, Diarmuid C; Quinlan, John Francis


    Infection in a clavicle fracture is uncommon, but remains a challenging problem. A paucity of soft tissue coverage often combined with significant displacement and interfragmentary movement add complexity to an already difficult situation for effective infection treatment. External fixation in principle offers a means of achieving fracture stability, while the infection is being eradicated. We present the case of a closed clavicle fracture, initially treated conservatively, that presented 5 weeks later with infection. The fracture was definitively treated with external fixation using a locking plate positioned superficially to the skin, plus negative pressure wound therapy and subsequent secondary closure and antibiotic therapy. This case illustrates a novel method of treatment in this unusual presentation that was well tolerated by the patient and resulted in a good clinical outcome. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Concept of variable angle locking--evolution and mechanical evaluation of a recent technology. (United States)

    Lenz, Mark; Wahl, Dieter; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Jupiter, Jesse B; Perren, Stephan Marcel


    Applications for fracture-adapted screw positioning offered by variable angle locking screws are increasing. The locking strength of the variable angle locking mechanism at different insertion angles was compared to conventional fixed angle locking screws. Stainless steel (S) and titanium (Ti) variable and fixed angle 2.4 mm locking screws, inserted at different inclinations (0°-15°), and locked at 0.8 Nm were subjected to a load-to-failure test. Ultimate failure moment at the screw-head interface and failure mode of the screws were determined. Significant differences were detected by one-way ANOVA (p 2° did not lock properly in the plate hole, providing insufficient locking strength. Variable angle locking screws offer a stable head-locking mechanism at different inclinations, comparable to the locking strength of orthogonal inserted fixed angle locking screws. Marginal inclinations >15° should be used with care. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Magnetic resonance evaluation of nonsurgical treatment for internal derangement with closed lock of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Masatoshi; Kumagai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Teshima, Teiichi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Dentistry)


    This study used 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the positional and morphological changes of the disc and condyle in patients with closed lock treated nonsurgically. A total of 20 joints (19 patients) which were successfully unlocked by nonsurgical treatment were studied. Nonsurgical treatment was gradually applied a follows: mandibular manipulation, anterior splint assisted manipulation, pumping manipulation, and stabilization splint therapy. The joints were evaluated by MRI in the closed-and open-mouth positions before and after treatment. Post-treatment MRI was also performed with the splint in place. Each imaging procedure was made in the same sagittal plane. After treatment, 19 patients experienced significant improvement in pain, range of motion, and mandibular dysfunction. Post-treatment MRI revealed that only one joint was normal. Six joints had anterior disc displacement with reduction (DWR), and 13 joints had anterior disc displacement without reduction (DNR). Evidence of disc repositioning with the splint in place was seen in 4 joints in the DWR group. Disc mobility increased with improved condylar translation in 19 joints. Disc deformity progressed in 10 joints of the DNR group. These results suggest that successful treatment for internal derangement with closed lock may require an increase in the mobility of the disc, regardless of disc position. (Author).

  6. A Gustilo type IIIB open forearm fracture treated by negative pressure wound therapy and locking compression plates: a case report. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naohide; Mae, Takao; Hotokezaka, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kosuke; Matsushita, Akinobu; Miake, Go; Kuchiishi, Rintaro; Noguchi, Yasuo


    A 91-year-old female sustained injuries to her left forearm while walking across a crosswalk. X-rays showed left radial shaft and ulna shaft fractures, and the injury was a type IIIB open fracture. On the day of admission, irrigation and debridement of the open wound, and temporary fixation of the radius and ulna using an external fixator and a Kirschner wire were peformed. Six days after the surgery, we used negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using the V.A.C.ATS system for the open wound. Thirteen days after the first surgery, definitive fixation was performed by using locking compression plates, and full thickness skin grafting was undertaken for the open wound. NPWT is a treatment that accelerates the wound healing process through the delivery of continuous subatmospheric pressure within a closed environment. In our case, we could reduce the healing period of the soft tissue and could convert to the definitive fixation in a timely fashion. NPWT is thought to be a useful adjunct in the management of the soft tissues of open fractures.

  7. In vitro evaluation of the implant-abutment bacterial seal: the locking taper system. (United States)

    Dibart, Serge; Warbington, Martha; Su, Ming Fan; Skobe, Ziedonis


    To test in vitro whether the seal provided by the locking taper used in the implant-abutment connection was capable of preventing the invasion of oral microorganisms. Twenty-five wide-body implants (5 x 11 mm) and 25 abutments were divided into 2 groups for a 2-phase experiment. The first phase tested the ability of the seal to shield the implant well from outside bacteria; the second phase tested the ability of the seal to prevent bacteria present in the implant well from seeping out. For phase 1, 10 implant-abutment units were immersed in a bacterial broth for 24 hours. The abutments were then separated from the implants and bacterial presence was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. In phase 2, the tested abutments were inoculated with a droplet of soft agar bacterial gel and assembled with the implant. These units were incubated in a sterile nutrient broth for 72 hours, sampled, and plated to assess bacterial presence. In phase 1, no bacteria were detected in any of the implant wells. In phase 2, no bacteria were detected in the nutrient broth or on the agar plates at 72 hours. In implants where a microgap is present, microbial leakage could lead to inflammation and bone loss; thus, it is important to minimize bacterial presence in and around the the implant-abutment junction. The seal provided by the locking taper design has been demonstrated to be hermetic with regard to bacterial invasion in vitro.

  8. Locking devices on cigarette vending machines: evaluation of a city ordinance. (United States)

    Forster, J L; Hourigan, M E; Kelder, S


    Policymakers, researchers, and citizens are beginning to recognize the need to limit minors' access to tobacco by restricting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines. One policy alternative that has been proposed by the tobacco industry is a requirement that vending machines be fitted with electronic locking devices. This study evaluates such a policy as enacted in St. Paul, Minn. A random sample of vending machine locations was selected for cigarette purchase attempts conducted before implementation and at 3 and 12 months postimplementation. The rate of noncompliance by merchants was 34% after 3 months and 30% after 1 year. The effect of the law was to reduce the ability of a minor to purchase cigarettes from locations originally selling cigarettes through vending machines from 86% at baseline to 36% at 3 months. The purchase rate at these locations rose to 48% at 1 year. Our results suggest that cigarette vending machine locking devices may not be as effective as vending machine bans and require additional enforcement to ensure compliance with the law.

  9. Laser-frequency locking using light-pressure-induced spectroscopy in a calcium beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, A. K.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Hoekstra, R.

    We demonstrate a spectroscopy method that can be applied in an atomic beam, light-pressure-induced spectroscopy (LiPS). A simple pump and probe experiment yields a dispersivelike spectroscopy signal that can be utilized for laser frequency stabilization. The underlying principles are discussed and

  10. The Advanced Locking Plate System (ALPS): a retrospective evaluation in 71 small animal patients. (United States)

    Guerrero, Tomás G; Kalchofner, Karin; Scherrer, Nicole; Kircher, Patrick


    To evaluate use of the Advanced Locking Plate System (ALPS) in dogs and cats and report outcome. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 29) and cats (n = 42). The medical records (April 2007-April 2010) of dogs and cats treated with ALPS were reviewed evaluated. Data retrieved included signalment, indication for surgery, complications, and outcome. ALPS was used for 54 fractures, 12 tarsal or carpal ligament injuries and in 6 cases, to prevent or treat fractures during total hip replacement. Complications needing revision surgery occurred in 4 cases (5.5%): fixation failure was identified in 3 (2 fracture-fixations, 1 pancarpal arthrodesis), and a fracture occurred through a screw hole. The most common complication after tarsal arthrodesis was suture dehiscence. All cases had healed by study end. ALPS offers a reliable alternative for fracture treatment and some other orthopedic conditions in small animals. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikumar C. J


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fractures of the distal femur present considerable challenges in management. Older patients especially women sustain fractures due to osteoporosis. Supracondylar fractures of femur have a bimodal distribution. They account for 6% of all femur fractures and 31% if hip fractures were excluded. Nearly, 50% of distal femur intra-articular fractures are open fractures. Before 1970, most supracondylar fractures were treated nonoperatively; however, difficulties were often encountered including persistent angulatory deformity, knee joint incongruity, loss of knee motion and delayed mobilisation. The trend of open reduction and internal fixation has become evident in recent years with good results being obtained with AO blade plate, dynamic condylar screw, intramedullary supracondylar nail and locking compression plate. Elderly patients and osteoporosis pose difficulty in treating intra-articular fractures of the lower end of femur. Loss of stable fixation is of great concern in these cases. Hence, locking compression plate use has an advantage in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, 20 patients with closed fracture of distal femur were studied. All the cases were treated at the Department of Orthopaedics, Rangaraya Medical College/Government General Hospital, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, between November 2013 and November 2015. The method used for fracture fixation was open reduction and internal fixation with distal femoral locking plate. The duration of follow up ranged from 3 months to 24 months. All the fractures in this series were posttraumatic. The patients were functionally evaluated with Neer’s scoring system. 1 RESULTS Twenty distal femoral fractures were treated with distal femoral locking plates. 15 patients were males and 5 patients were females. The median age was 47 years ranging from 28-70 years. 16 of the fractures were caused by road traffic accidents and 2 were due to fall, 2 were due to assault. 12 patients

  12. Perioperative use of bispectral (BIS) monitor for a pressure ulcer patient with locked-in syndrome (LIS). (United States)

    Yoo, Christine; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Robins, Bryan; Salamanca, Victor R; Bloom, Marc J; Linton, Patrick; Brem, Harold; O'Neill, Daniel K


    The bispectral (BIS) monitor uses brain electroencephalographic data to measure the depth of sedation and pharmacological response during anaesthetic procedures. In this case, the BIS monitor was used for another purpose, to demonstrate postoperatively to the nursing staff that a patient with history of locked-in syndrome (LIS), who underwent pressure ulcer debridement, had periods of wakefulness and apparent sensation, even with his eyes closed. Furthermore, as patients with LIS can feel pain, despite being unable to move, local block or general anaesthesia should be provided for sharp surgical debridement and other painful procedures. This use of the BIS has shown that as a general rule, the staff should treat the patient as though he might be awake and sensate even if he does not open his eyes or move his limbs. The goal of this study was to continuously monitor pain level and communicate these findings to the entire wound team, i.e. anaesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and vertical well, eventually, compared based dimensionless pressures and pressure derivatives computed by varying the reservoir geometry. Results presented as type curves show that the rate of decline of the pressure derivative curve is.

  14. Comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and vertical well, eventually, compared based dimensionless pressures and pressure derivatives computed by varying the reservoir geometry. Results presented as type curves show that the rate of decline of the pressure derivative curve is ...

  15. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks. (United States)


    ... mechanically ventilated to make the pressure in the space greater than that in the air lock; and (2) Has a... when the pressure in the space falls to or below the pressure in the air lock. ... a gas-safe space. (b) Each air lock must: (1) Consist of two steel doors, at least 1.5 m (4.9 ft...

  16. Noninvasive measurements of intramuscular pressure using pulsed phase-locked loop ultrasound for detecting compartment syndromes: a preliminary report. (United States)

    Wiemann, John M; Ueno, Toshiaki; Leek, Bryan T; Yost, William T; Schwartz, Alexandra K; Hargens, Alan R


    To develop a human model for compartment tamponade and test the efficacy of ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop (PPLL) fascial displacement waveform analysis for noninvasive measurement of intramuscular pressure (IMP). Human subject experiment. University Level 1 trauma center. Nine male and 1 female volunteers (age 20 to 59),3 male acute compartment syndrome (ACS) patients (age 31 to 38). Thigh tourniquet was inflated in a stepwise fashion from 40 to 100 mm Hg to increase IMP transiently in volunteers. Invasive IMP by slit catheter and PPLL fascial displacement waveform in volunteers with model ACS and patients with ACS. In the model compartment tamponade group, thigh cuff occlusion increased IMP in the anterior compartment from a mean of 12.1 mm Hg (SE = 1.5) to a mean of 27.4 mm Hg (SE = 2.4, N = 8, P displacement waveform as measured by PPLL increased from a resting mean of 1.12 (SE = 0.07) to a mean of 1.85 (SE = 0.18) under the same protocol (N = 6, P = 0.001). Combined data with compartment syndrome patients revealed linear correlation between IMP and PPLL with an R value of 0.8887. Subarterial thigh cuff pressure causes a significant and transient increase in IMP, serving as a model for anterior compartment tamponade. PPLL is able to detect fascial displacement waveforms corresponding to arterial pulsation and furthermore distinguishes between normal and elevated IMP. There is a linear correlation between PPLL measurements and invasive IMP. The PPLL shows potential utility as a device for noninvasive measurement of IMP for detecting compartment syndromes.

  17. Design, construction, and evaluation of "sensor lock": an electromechanical stance control knee joint. (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Baniasad, Mina; Samadian, Mohammad; Golchin, Navid


    Most currently-available stance control knee ankle foot orthoses (SCKAFOs) still need full knee extension to lock the knee joint, and they are still noisy, bulky, and heavy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design, construct, and evaluate an original electromechanical SCKAFO knee joint that could feasibly solve these problems, and thus address the problems of current stance control knee joints with regards to their structure, function, cosmesis, and cost. Ten able-bodied (AB) participants and two (knee ankle foot orthosis) KAFO users were recruited to participate in the study. A custom SCKAFO with the same set of components was constructed for each participant. Lower limb kinematics were captured using a 6-camera, video-based motion analysis system. For AB participants, significant differences were found between normal walking and walking with the SCKAFO for temporal-spatial parameters and between orthoses with two modes of knee joints in the healthy subjects. Walking with stance control mode produced greater walking speed and step length, greater knee flexion during swing, and less pelvic obliquity than walking with a locked knee, for both AB and KAFO users. The feasibility of this new knee joint with AB people was demonstrated. Implications for rehabilitation Stance control knee ankle foot orthoses (SCKAFOs) are designed to stop knee flexion in stance phase and provide free knee movement during swing phase of walking. Due to their high cost, size, excessive weight, and poor performance, few SCKAFO were optimal clinically and commercially. The feasibility of the new knee joint with able-bodied people and poliomyelitis subjects was demonstrated.

  18. Clinical evaluation of a mini locking plate system for fracture repair of the radius and ulna in miniature breed dogs. (United States)

    Kang, Byung-Jae; Ryu, Hak-Hyun; Park, Sungsu; Kim, Yongsun; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong; Hayashi, Kei


    To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of a novel 1.2 mm mini locking plate system in treating fractures of the radius and ulna in miniature breed dogs. Medical records and radiographs of miniature breed dogs with fractures treated with a 1.2 mm mini locking plate system were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were: body weight of 2.5 kg or less, transverse or short oblique fracture of the radius and ulna, and treatment with a mini locking plate system as the sole method of fixation. For each patient, data including signalment, time to radiographic union, use of bone graft or other agents, and previous repair attempts were recorded. The outcome and complications were determined from clinical and radiographic follow-up examinations. Fourteen cases with a mean radial width of 4.5 mm (± 0.8 mm) were included into this study. The fractures healed without failure of fixation in all cases. Mean time to adequate radiographic union was 8.4 weeks (± 2.6 weeks). Major complications were not seen in any of the cases, and minor complications occurred in three of the cases. Limb function was graded as 'normal' in 10 cases and 'occasional lameness' in four cases. The mini locking system evaluated in this study was an effective treatment method for radial and ulnar fractures in miniature breed dogs with a radial width smaller than 5.5 mm.

  19. Outcomes evaluation of locking plate osteosynthesis in displaced fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Emilio Conforto Gracitell


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate functional outcomes, radiographic findings and complications of proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plates and to determine prognostic factors for successful clinical outcomes. Methods: Forty patients undergoing internal fixation of fractures of the proximal humerus with the Philos(r plate were included in the study. The surgeries were performed between 2004 and 2011 and the patients underwent radiographic and clinical evaluation, by Constant -Murley and Dash score. Outcomes were analyzed by use of multivariate regression with several different variables. Results: Patients were on average of 61.8 ± 16.28 years, and most were female (70%. The Constant -Murley score was 72.03 ± 14.01 and Dash score was 24.96 ± 19.99. The postoperative radiographs showed a head-shaft angle of 135.43º± 11.82. Regression analysis showed that the patient's age and the Hertel classification influenced the Constant -Murley scale (p = 0.0049 and 0.012, respectively. Other prognostic criteria such as Neer and AO classification, head-shaft angle, the presence of metaphyseal comminution and extension of the humeral metaphyseal fragment showed no effect on prognosis. Complications occurred in four patients (10%. Conclusion: The fixation with the Philos(r plate provided good clinical and radiographic results in fractures of the proximal humerus, with a low complication rate. Patient's age and Hertel classification were defined as prognostic factors that led to worse functional outcomes.

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of fixation of comminuted olecranon fractures: one-third tubular versus locking compression plating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, G.A.; Blankevoort, L.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.; Sierevelt, I.N.; Kloen, P.


    New concepts in plate fixation have led to an evolution in plate design for olecranon fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the stiffness and strength of locking compression plate (LCP) fixation to one-third tubular plate fixation in a cadaveric comminuted olecranon fracture model with

  1. Application of infrared lock-in thermography for the quantitative evaluation of bruises on pears (United States)

    Kim, Ghiseok; Kim, Geon-Hee; Park, Jongmin; Kim, Dae-Yong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan


    An infrared lock-in thermography technique was adjusted for the detection of early bruises on pears. This mechanical damage is usually difficult to detect in the early stage after harvested using conventional visual sorting or CCD sensor-based imaging processing methods. We measured the thermal emission signals from pears using a highly sensitive mid-infrared thermal camera. These images were post-processed using a lock-in method that utilized the periodic thermal energy input to the pear. By applying the lock-in method to infrared thermography, the detection sensitivity and signal to noise ratio were enhanced because of the phase-sensitive narrow-band filtering effect. It was also found that the phase information of thermal emission from pears provides good metrics with which to identify quantitative information about both damage size and damage depth for pears. Additionally, a photothermal model was implemented to investigate the behavior of thermal waves on pears under convective conditions. Theoretical results were compared to experimental results. These results suggested that the proposed lock-in thermography technique and resultant phase information can be used to detect mechanical damage to fruit, especially in the early stage of bruising.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Berhane


    Full Text Available Process capability analysis is a vital part of an overall quality improvement program. It is a technique that has application in many segments of the product cycle, including product and process design, vendor sourcing, production or manufacturing planning, and manufacturing. Frequently, a process capability study involves observing a quality characteristic of the product. Since this information usually pertains to the product rather than the process, this analysis should strictly speaking be called a product analysis study. A true process capability study in this context would involve collecting data that relates to process parameters so that remedial actions can be identified on a timely basis. The present study attempts to analyze performance of drilling, pressing, and reaming operations carried out for the manufacturing of two major lock components viz. handle and lever plate, at Gaurav International, Aligarh (India. The data collected for depth of hole on handle, central hole diameter, and key hole diameter are used to construct histogram. Next, the information available in frequency distribution table, the process mean, process capability from calculations and specification limits provided by the manufacturing concern are used with Taguchi technique. The data obtained from histogram and Taguchi technique combined are used to evaluate the performance of the manufacturing process. Results of this study indicated that the performance of all the processes used to produce depth of hole on handle, key hole diameter, and central hole diameter are potentially incapable as the process capability indices are found to be 0.54, 0.54 and 0.76 respectively. The number of nonconforming parts expressed in terms of parts per million (ppm that have fallen out of the specification limits are found to be 140000, 26666.66, and 146666.66 for depth of hole on handle, central hole diameter, and key hole diameter respectively. As a result, the total loss incurred

  3. Laguna Verde annulus pressurization loads evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M. A.; Cruz, M. A.; Cardenas, J. B.; Vargas, A.; Cruz, H. J.; Mercado, J. J., E-mail: miguel.castaneda01@cfe.gob.m [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)


    Annulus pressurization, jet impingement, pipe whip restraint and jet thrust are phenomena related to postulated pipe ruptures. A postulated pipe rupture at the weld between recirculation, or feedwater piping and a reactor nozzle safe end, will lead to a high flow rate of flashing water/steam mixture into the annulus between the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield wall. The total effect of the vessel and pipe inventory blowdown from the break being postulated must be accounted for in the evaluation. A recirculation line break will give rise to an angular dependent short term pressure differential around the vessel, followed by a longer term pressure buildup in the annulus. A recirculation line postulated rupture may not produce worst case conditions and reference to time intervals for only the recirculation break should be treated superficially. A postulated rupture of the feedwater piping may produce the extreme case for determining: 1) the shield wall and reactor vessel to pedestal interactions, 2) loading on the reactor vessel internals, or 3) responses for the balance of piping attached to the vessel. Recently it was identified a potential issue regarding the criteria used to determine which cases were evaluated for Annulus Pressurization (A P) loads for new loads plants. The original A P loads methodology in the late 1970 and early 1980 years separated the mass/energy release calculation from the structural response calculation based on the implicit assumption that the maximum overall mass/energy release will result in maximizing the structural response and corresponding stresses on the reactor pressure vessel, internals, and containment structures. This process did not consider the dynamic response in the primary and secondary safety related structures, components and equipment. Consequently, the A P loads used as input for design adequacy evaluations of Nuclear Steam Supply System safety related components for new loads plants might have

  4. [Infected pressure ulcers: evaluation and management]. (United States)

    Iori, Ido; Pizzini, Attilia Maria; Arioli, Dimitriy; Favali, Davide; Leone, Maria Cristina


    Pressure ulcers in elderly individuals can cause significant morbidity and mortality and are a major economic burden to the health care system. Prevention should be the ultimate objective of pressure ulcer care, and it requires an understanding of the pathophysiology leading to pressure ulcers and the means of reducing both intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Clinical examination often underestimates the degree of deep-tissue involvement, and its findings are inadequate for the detection of associated osteomyelitis. Microbiological data, if obtained from deep-tissue biopsy, are useful for directing antimicrobial therapy, but they are insufficient as the sole criterion for the diagnosis of infection. Imaging studies, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are useful, but bone biopsy and histopathological evaluation remain the "gold standard" for the detection of osteomyelitis. The goals of treatment of pressure ulcers should be resolution of infection and promotion of wound healing. A combination of surgical debridement and medical interventions may be required. Systemic antimicrobial therapy should be used for patients with serious pressure ulcers infections, including those with spreading cellulitis, bacteremia or osteomyelitis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Babu S


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Supracondylar fractures of femur have a bimodal distribution. They account for 6% of all femur fractures. Nearly, 50% of distal femur intraarticular fractures are open fractures. Despite many changes and refinements in the surgical treatment of the supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of femur their surgical management remains challenging. Since the introduction of the condylar blade plate to the present retrograde supracondylar nailing and locking condylar plates, these fractures particularly if open and associated with severe fragmentation of the articular cartilage and in the elderly with severe osteoporosis continue to be a major unsolved surgical challenge. Improved imaging facilities rendered surgical results far better than those treated with long periods of traction on bed with accompanying complications. LCP along with isolated 6.5 mm cannulated cancellous screw systems are best suited for with unicondylar fractures of distal femur in young patient with good bone stock. The functional outcome is largely determined by the degree of accompanying soft tissue injury. Presence of a compound fracture leads to a higher incidence of infection. With good preoperative antibiotics and sterile surgical techniques along with stable fixation, infection can be brought under control and a good outcome can be achieved. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of femur (Muller’s type ‘A’, type ‘B’ and type ‘C’ fractures, which were treated with open reduction and internal fixation by locking compression plate were included in the study. The study was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, from August 2014 to November 2016. Among 30 patients, 5 patients were lost for follow up due to various reasons leaving 25 fractures from 25 patients for the study. RESULTS There were 16 males and 9 females. Age range was 19 years to 80 years with an average of 44

  6. Posterior bone block of chronic locked posterior shoulder dislocations with glenoid augmentation: a retrospective evaluation of ten shoulders. (United States)

    Aksekili, Mehmet Atıf Erol; Uğurlu, Mahmut; Işık, Çetin; Yüksel, Kağan; Biçici, Vedat; Bozkurt, Murat


    The aim of this study, which is the most extensive series to date on this subject, was to present the results of ten shoulders of seven patients treated with the posterior bone block augmentation method with autograft taken from the iliac wing for a chronic locked posterior shoulder dislocation and to evaluate the results in the light of the relevant literature. A retrospective examination was made of patients who underwent iliac autograft with glenoid augmentation for chronic posterior shoulder dislocation in our clinic between 2004 and 2011. All of the patients had been initially treated at another centre and referred to our hospital because of continuing or relapsing posterior shoulder dislocation. Assessment was made by physical examination X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and the Constant-Murley score. All the patients were male with a mean age at the time of surgery of 42.4 years (range, 23-53 years), with a mean follow-up period of 40.6 months (range, 24-55 months). On presentation, all the patients had locked posterior shoulder dislocation. Radiological union was evaluated from the CT images taken 24 months postoperatively. The graft was observed to have been incorporated in all cases. The mean postoperative Constant-Murley score was 81.25/100 ± 17.8. In seven of the shoulders, arthropathy findings increased by varying degrees. A functional and stable shoulder can be obtained with glenoid augmentation in patients with chronic locked posterior shoulder dislocation. When other treatment alternatives are considered for a young patient group, this is a safe and applicable treatment method.

  7. Locked Out. (United States)

    Johansson, Veronica; Soekadar, Surjo R; Clausen, Jens


    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can enable communication for persons in severe paralysis including locked-in syndrome (LIS); that is, being unable to move or speak while aware. In cases of complete loss of muscle control, termed "complete locked-in syndrome," a BCI may be the only viable solution to restore communication. However, a widespread ignorance regarding quality of life in LIS, current BCIs, and their potential as an assistive technology for persons in LIS, needlessly causes a harmful situation for this cohort. In addition to their medical condition, these persons also face social barriers often perceived as more impairing than their physical condition. Through social exclusion, stigmatization, and frequently being underestimated in their abilities, these persons are being locked out in addition to being locked-in. In this article, we (1) show how persons in LIS are being locked out, including how key issues addressed in the existing literature on ethics, LIS, and BCIs for communication, such as autonomy, quality of life, and advance directives, may reinforce these confinements; (2) show how these practices violate the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and suggest that we have a moral responsibility to prevent and stop this exclusion; and (3) discuss the role of BCIs for communication as one means to this end and suggest that a novel approach to BCI research is necessary to acknowledge the moral responsibility toward the end users and avoid violating the human rights of persons in LIS.

  8. An automated pressure data acquisition system for evaluation of pressure sensitive paint chemistries (United States)

    Sealey, Bradley S.; Mitchell, Michael; Burkett, Cecil G.; Oglesby, Donald M.


    An automated pressure data acquisition system for testing of pressure sensitive phosphorescent paints was designed, assembled, and tested. The purpose of the calibration system is the evaluation and selection of pressure sensitive paint chemistries that could be used to obtain global aerodynamic pressure distribution measurements. The test apparatus and setup used for pressure sensitive paint characterizations is described. The pressure calibrations, thermal sensitivity effects, and photodegradation properties are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of locked plate in the osteosynthesis of fractures in osteoporotic bones. (United States)

    Oboirien, Muhammad; Agbo, Stephen Patrick; Ajiboye, Lukman Olalekan


    The use of conventional dynamic compression plates (DCPs) in osteoporotic bones is associated with higher chances of implant failure. The advent and use of locking combi-plates have ensured a stable construct during osteosynthesis of fractures in osteoporotic bones. The study aims to assess the outcome of use of locking combi-plates in the management of fractures in osteoporotic bones in our environment. Cases of patients with nonunion and localized osteoporosis from January 2014 to December 2014 that were managed with locked combi-plates were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by time to healing, stability of implant construct after 6 and 12 months. There were 10 patients with mean age of 47.4 ± 12.63 years. There were 9 males and 1 female, and road traffic crashes were the mechanism of injury in 90% (n = 9) and gunshot injuries in 10% (n = 1). Atrophic nonunion was the most common indication for osteosynthesis with 80%, followed by fibrous nonunion with 10.0%. The humerus was the most common long bone involved with 50%. Locked broad DCP was used in 62.5%, and the duration between initial injury and surgery was 6 and 48 months, with an average of 17.5 months. The outcome was such that 90% healed after 12 months on follow-up while one case had the implant backing out and delay union at 6 months. The use of locked plate in the management of nonunion in the presence of osteoporosis ensures stable fixation construct and healing. Contexte: L'utilisation de plaques de compression dynamiques conventionnelles dans les os ostéoporotiques est associée à des chances plus élevées de défaillance de l'implant. L'avènement et l'utilisation de combi-plaques de verrouillage ont assuré une construction stable lors de l'ostéosyntheis de fractures dans les os ostéoporotiques. Objectifs: L'étude vise à évaluer le résultat de l'utilisation de combi-plaques de verrouillage dans la gestion des fractures dans les os ostéoporotiques dans notre environnement. Méthodologie: Les

  10. Clinical evaluation of the locking compression plate for fetlock arthrodesis in six thoroughbred racehorses. (United States)

    Carpenter, Ryan S; Galuppo, Larry D; Simpson, Edwin L; Dowd, Joseph P


    To report use of a locking compression plate (LCP) for fetlock arthrodesis in Thoroughbred racehorses after catastrophic disruption of the suspensory apparatus. Retrospective case study. Racing Thoroughbreds (n=6) with a catastrophic breakdown injury of the suspensory apparatus. Medical records (2004-2006) of horses that had fetlock arthrodesis using an LCP were reviewed. Preoperative recorded variables were: age, gender, affected limb, injury type and occurrence, limb support used and time to surgery. Recorded surgical variables were: implants used and cost, surgery time, and anesthetic recovery method. Postoperative recorded variables included: treatment, physical status, complications, and outcome. Of 6 Thoroughbred racehorses that had LCP arthrodesis, 4 were sound for breeding purposes the next year and 2 horses were euthanatized (1 at 16 days, 1 at 68 days) because of proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) luxation. No surgical complications were associated with implant application. Postoperative complications were similar to those reported for other arthrodesis techniques. LCP is a viable option for fetlock arthrodesis in Thoroughbred racehorses after catastrophic suspensory apparatus disruption. Adequate fetlock stability can be achieved with an LCP, and although the repair is likely more stable it is approximately 3 times more expensive than using a limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) with cortical screws.

  11. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMJ. VOL 83. NOV 1993. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with once-daily slow-release verapamil. A. CANTOR, H. GILUTZ, T. MEYER. Abstract Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of round- the-clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension.

  12. Magnetic resonance evaluation of temporomandibular joint components in successfully treated cases of closed lock with a stuck disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Takayoshi; Fukuda, Masayuki; Seki, Hiroshi; Iino, Mitsuyoshi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Funaki, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Tetsu


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphological changes in temporomandibular joint components by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5 Tesla) before and after treatment for closed lock with a stuck disc. A total of 25 joints (25 patients) that were successfully treated and showed marked improvement in range of motion and articular pain after treatment were studied. Each joint was evaluated on the basis of pretreatment and posttreatment MRI findings, including disc mobility, condylar translation, disc reduction, disc shape, degree of disc displacement, bone changes of the condyle, and signal intensity of the posterior disc attachment. Posttreatment MRI revealed that all joints had mobile discs, and the range of the condylar translation had increased. Deformity of the disc and condyle had progressed remarkably. The posterior disc attachment showed low signal intensity. These results suggest that improved disc mobility is indispensable for successful treatment. The results also reveal that the disc, condyle, and posterior attachment showed various changes caused by remodeling. (author)

  13. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation for docetaxel-loaded brain targeting liposome with "lock-in" function. (United States)

    Li, Xiaocen; Qu, Boyi; Jin, Xiuxiu; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong


    Abstract Background: Glucose-modified liposome showed a good brain-targeting ability. However, bidirectional transport of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) might reversely pump drugs out of the brain before releasing from the liposomes. Purpose: To overcome the bidirectional delivery of GLUT1, the thiamine disulfide system (TDS), with ability of "lock-in", was introduced and a new ligand, L-TDS-G, was designed and synthesized. Methods: The liposome was prepared and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, surface morphological property, encapsulation efficiency and release profile. C6 glioma cells were used as an in vitro model to access the cellular uptake abilities and cytotoxicity of the liposomes. Competition assay was performed to validate the GLUT1-mediated transport mechanism. Furthermore, the brain targeting abilities of the liposomes were evaluated through in vivo. Results: The preliminary evaluation in vivo demonstrated that L-TDS-G-coated liposome has an improved targeting ability and significantly increased the area under the concentration-time of docetaxel in brain as compared to naked docetaxel, non-coated and L-G coated liposomes. The relative uptake efficiency and concentration efficiency were enhanced by 3.82- and 4.99-fold compared to that of naked docetaxel, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that L-TDS-G-coated liposome is a promising drug delivery system to enhance the brain concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents.

  14. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of roundthe- clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension and its response to treatment. The effect of sustained-release verapamil (240 mg taken once a day) on blood pressure at rest and during isometric effort was therefore ...

  15. Evaluation of pressure tuning of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naghshineh, Mahsa

    and high energy consumption. Therefore, searching for an environmentally friendly method of pectin extraction is a task for science and industry. Employment of hydrolytic enzymes may represent a green approach to obtain intact pectin polymer. However, the low stability/activity of enzymes, and low polymer...... yield of enzymatic extraction limits the application of enzyme in pectin production. There is evidence that emerging technology of high hydrostatic pressure processing can result in stabilization and activation of some enzymes. Therefore, the use of high hydrostatic pressure in combination with enzyme...... (cellulase/xylanase: 50/0, 50/25, 50/50, 25/50, and 0/50 U/g lime peel) at ambient pressure, 100 and 200 MPa were used to extract pectin from dried lime peel waste. It was found that pressure level, type and concentration of enzyme significantly influenced pectin yield and degree of esterification (DE...

  16. Water Quality And Sediment Evaluation for Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Lock Replacement Project, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States)


    Leptocheirus plumulosus 10-day solid phase toxicity tests. .............................................. 127 Table 44. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater...solid phase bioaccumulation tests. ................... 131 Table 45. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater solid phase bioaccumulation tests...132 Table 46. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater solid phase bioaccumulation potential evaluation

  17. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder


    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional...

  18. Lost Treasures: Locks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Locks have been widely used in our daily life. In this paper an attempt is made to study the history of locks and to give the kinds of locks and samples from past to present: Ancient Egypt, Chinese, Iran, Roman, Turk-Islam Locks. Ancient locks relied on the pin tumbler principle that many of today's locks use. Many early Roman Keys were made to be worn as rings, because clothing of Romans did not have pockets. It is hoped that this article can simulate more research and publications regarding the development of ancient locks.

  19. Importance Has Been Considered in Satisfaction Evaluation: An Experimental Examination of Locke's Range-of-Affect Hypothesis (United States)

    Wu, Chia-huei; Yao, Grace


    Importance weighting is a common practice in quality of life (QOL) measurement research. Based on the widespread idea that important domains should make a greater contribution to individuals' QOL total score, the weighting procedure of multiplying item satisfaction by an item's importance has been adopted in many QOL instruments. Locke's [1969,…

  20. Experimental evaluation of pulsed thermography, lock-in thermography and vibrothermography on foreign object defect (FOD) in CFRP


    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hai; Fernandes, Henrique; Maldague, X


    In this article, optical excitation thermographic techniques, including pulsed thermography and lock-in thermography, were used to detect foreign object defect (FOD) and delamination in CFRP. Then, vibrothermography as an ultrasonic excitation technique was used to detect these defects for the comparative purposes. Different image processing methods, including cold image subtraction (CIS), principal component thermography (PCT), thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) and Fourier transform ...

  1. Evaluation of spatial pressure distribution during ice-structure interaction using pressure indicating film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunwook Kim


    Full Text Available Understanding of ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is required to determine design loads on local structures, such as plating and framing. However, obtaining a practical ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is a hard task due to the sensitivity of the data acquisition frequency and resolution. High-resolution Pessure-Idicating Flm (PIF was applied to obtain pressure distribution and pressure magnitude using stepped crushing method. Different types of PIF were stacked at each test to creating a pressure distribution plot at specific time steps. Two different concepts of plotting ‘spatial’ pressure-area curve was introduced and evaluated. Diverse unit pixel size was chosen to investigate the effect of the resolution in data analysis. Activated area was not significantly affected by unit pixel size; however, total force was highly sensitive.

  2. Evaluation of spatial pressure distribution during ice-structure interaction using pressure indicating film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunwook


    Full Text Available Understanding of ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is required to determine design loads on local structures, such as plating and framing. However, obtaining a practical ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is a hard task due to the sensitivity of the data acquisition frequency and resolution. High-resolution Pessure-Idicating Flm (PIF was applied to obtain pressure distribution and pressure magnitude using stepped crushing method. Different types of PIF were stacked at each test to creating a pressure distribution plot at specific time steps. Two different concepts of plotting ‘spatial’ pressure-area curve was introduced and evaluated. Diverse unit pixel size was chosen to investigate the effect of the resolution in data analysis. Activated area was not significantly affected by unit pixel size; however, total force was highly sensitive

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Pressure and Temperature Monitoring System for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farve Daneshvar Fard


    Full Text Available Introduction Pressure ulcers are tissue damages resulting from blood flow restriction, which occurs when the tissue is exposed to high pressure for a long period of time. These painful sores are common in patients and elderly, who spend extended periods of time in bed or wheelchair. In this study, a continuous pressure and temperature monitoring system was developed for pressure ulcer prevention. Materials and Methods The monitoring system consists of 64 pressure and 64 temperature sensors on a 40×50 cm2 sheet. Pressure and temperature data and the corresponding maps were displayed on a computer in real-time. Risk assessment could be performed by monitoring and recording absolute pressure and temperature values, as well as deviations over time. Furthermore, a posture detection procedure was proposed for sitting posture identification. Information about the patient’s movement history may help caregivers make informed decisions about the patient’s repositioning and ulcer prevention strategies. Results Steady temporal behaviour of the designed system and repeatability of the measurements were evaluated using several particular tests. The results illustrated that the system could be utilized for continuous monitoring of interface pressure and temperature for pressure ulcer prevention. Furthermore, the proposed method for detecting sitting posture was verified using a statistical analysis. Conclusion A continuous time pressure and temperature monitoring system was presented in this study. This system may be suited for pressure ulcer prevention given its feasibility for simultaneous monitoring of pressure and temperature and alarming options. Furthermore, a method for detecting different sitting postures was proposed and verified. Pressure ulcers in wheelchair-bound patients may be prevented using this sitting posture detection method.

  4. Evaluation of a continuous-positive pressure generating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera N


    Full Text Available Nestor Herrera,1,2 Roberto Regnícoli,1,2 Mariel Murad1,2 1Neonatology Unit, Italian Hospital Garibaldi, Rosario, Argentina; 2Experimental Medicine and Surgery Unit, Italian University Institute of Rosario, Argentina Abstract: The use of systems that apply continuous-positive airway pressure by means of noninvasive methods is widespread in the neonatal care practice and has been associated with a decrease in the use of invasive mechanical ventilation, less administration of exogenous surfactant, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Few experimental studies on the functioning of the neonatology systems that generate continuous-positive airway pressure have been reported. A flow resistor system associated with an underwater seal resistor in a lung test model was described, and it was compared with an underwater seal threshold resistor system. Important differences in the pressures generated in the different systems studied were verified. The generation of pressure was associated with the immersion depth and the diameter of the bubble tubing. The flow resistor associated with an underwater seal, with small bubble tubing, showed no important differences in the evaluated pressures, exerting a stabilizing effect on the generated pressures. The importance of measuring the pressure generated by the different systems studied was verified, due to the differences between the working pressures set and the pressures measured. Keywords: continuous-positive pressure, flow and threshold resistor, BCPAP

  5. Biomechanical evaluation of reconstruction plates with locking, nonlocking, and hybrid screws configurations in calcaneal fracture: a finite element model study. (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Hsuan; Hung, Chinghua; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Chiang, Chao-Ching


    Calcaneal fractures are the most common fractures of the tarsal bones. The stability of fixation is an important factor for successful reconstruction of calcaneal fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical influence of plate fixation with different combinations of locking and nonlocking screws during early weight-bearing phase. A three-dimensional FE foot model was established using ANSYS software, which comprised bones, cartilages, plantar fascia, and soft tissue. Calcaneal plate was fixed with whole locking (WLS), whole nonlocking (WNS), and hybrid screw configurations for FE analysis. The WNS generated a 6.1° and 2.2° Bohler angle decrease compared with the intact model and WLS (WNS: 18.9; WLS: 21.1; intact: 25.0°). Some hybrid screw configurations (Bohler angle: 21.5° and 21.2°) generated stability similar to WLS. The FE results showed that the fragments at the posterior facet and the posterior tuberosity sustained more stress. This study recommends that the hybrid screw configuration with at least four locking screws, two at the posterior facet fragment and two at the posterior tuberosity fragment, is the optimal choice for the fixation of Sanders type IIB calcaneal fractures.

  6. Overview of locking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, K.T.; Scott, S.H.; Wilde, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Highland, S.E. [Albuquerque Safe Co., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The purpose of this document is to present technical information that should be useful for understanding and applying locking systems for physical protection and control. There are major sections on hardware for locks, vaults, safes, and security containers. Other topics include management of lock systems and safety considerations. This document also contains notes on standards and specifications and a glossary.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Pulsed Thermography, Lock-in Thermography and Vibrothermography on Foreign Object Defect (FOD) in CFRP (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hai; Fernandes, Henrique; Maldague, Xavier


    In this article, optical excitation thermographic techniques, including pulsed thermography and lock-in thermography, were used to detect foreign object defect (FOD) and delamination in CFRP. Then, vibrothermography as an ultrasonic excitation technique was used to detect these defects for the comparative purposes. Different image processing methods, including cold image subtraction (CIS), principal component thermography (PCT), thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) and Fourier transform (FT), were performed. Finally, a comparison of optical excitation thermography and vibrothermography was conducted, and a thermographic probability of detection was given. PMID:27213403

  8. Biomechanical evaluation between the modified Mason-Allen stitch and the locked double-tie stitch on the infraspinatus of sheep,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki


    Full Text Available Objectives:To evaluate and compare the in vitro biomechanical results from two stitches: the Mason-Allen stitch, as modified by Habermeyer; and the locked double-tie stitch developed at our service, on tendons of the infraspinatus muscle of sheep.Methods:Twenty tendons from the infraspinatus muscle of sheep were randomly divided into two groups: LDT, on which the locked double-tie stitch was performed; and MA, with the modified Mason-Allen stitch. The evaluation was performed in the mechanics laboratory, using a standard test machine with unidirectional traction, constant velocity of 20 mm per second and a 500 N load cell, without force cycling.Results:We observed that LDT was superior to MA, for the force needed to form spaces of both 5 mm (p = 0.01 and 10 mm (p = 0.002 and also for the maximum traction resistance (p = 0.003.Conclusion:We confirmed our hypothesis that LDT stitches are superior to MA stitches from a biomechanical point of view. This is a further stitching option for surgeons, when fragile and poorly vascularized tendons need to be sutured, and it improves the quality of fixation without increasing the "strangulation" and, consequently, the ischemic area.

  9. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  10. Hardware locks for a real-time Java chip multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin


    A software locking mechanism commonly protects shared resources for multithreaded applications. This mechanism can, especially in chip-multiprocessor systems, result in a large synchronization overhead. For real-time systems in particular, this overhead increases the worst-case execution time...... and may void a task set's schedulability. This paper presents 2 hardware locking mechanisms to reduce the worst-case time required to acquire and release synchronization locks. These solutions are implemented for the chip-multiprocessor version of the Java Optimized Processor. The 2 hardware locking...... mechanisms are compared with a software locking solution as well as the original locking system of the processor. The hardware cost and performance are evaluated for all presented locking mechanisms. The performance of the better-performing hardware locks is comparable with that of the original single global...

  11. Low Temperature and High Pressure Evaluation of Insulated Pressure Vessels for Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Garcia-Villazana, O.


    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (fuel flexibility, lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). The work described here is directed at verifying that commercially available pressure vessels can be safely used to store liquid hydrogen. The use of commercially available pressure vessels significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the insulated pressure vessel development effort. This paper describes a series of tests that have been done with aluminum-lined, fiber-wrapped vessels to evaluate the damage caused by low temperature operation. All analysis and experiments to date indicate that no significant damage has resulted. Required future tests are described that will prove that no technical barriers exist to the safe use of aluminum-fiber vessels at cryogenic temperatures.

  12. Lock-in thermography, penetrant inspection, and scanning electron microscopy for quantitative evaluation of open micro-cracks at the tooth-restoration interface (United States)

    Streza, M.; Hodisan, I.; Prejmerean, C.; Boue, C.; Tessier, Gilles


    The evaluation of a dental restoration in a non-invasive way is of paramount importance in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the minimum detectable open crack at the cavity-restorative material interface by the lock-in thermography technique, at laser intensities which are safe for living teeth. For the analysis of the interface, 18 box-type class V standardized cavities were prepared on the facial and oral surfaces of each tooth, with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in dentine. The preparations were restored with the Giomer Beautifil (Shofu) in combination with three different adhesive systems. Three specimens were randomly selected from each experimental group and each slice has been analysed by visible, infrared (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lock-in thermography showed the most promising results in detecting both marginal and internal defects. The proposed procedure leads to a diagnosis of micro-leakages having openings of 1 µm, which is close to the diffraction limit of the IR camera. Clinical use of a thermographic camera in assessing the marginal integrity of a restoration becomes possible. The method overcomes some drawbacks of standard SEM or dye penetration testing. The results support the use of an IR camera in dentistry, for the diagnosis of micro-gaps at bio-interfaces.

  13. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of brain targeting l-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen with "lock-in" function. (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Qu, Boyi; Wu, Xueying; Li, Xiaocen; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Xiuxiu; Guo, Li; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong


    A novel brain targeting l-ascorbic acid derivatives with "lock-in" function were designed and synthesized as prodrugs to achieve the effective delivery of ibuprofen to brain by glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na(+)-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2. Ibuprofen-loaded four prodrugs were tested in the animals. Results from the in vivo distribution study after i.v. administration of these four prodrugs and naked ibuprofen indicated that four prodrugs exhibited excellent transport ability across the BBB and significantly increased the level of ibuprofen in brain. Among them, prodrugs 4 showed higher brain concentration. Both biodistribution data and pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that l-ascorbic acid thiamine disulfide delivery system was a promising carrier to enhance CNS drug's delivery ability into brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Suture locking of isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors is not affected by bone quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodmass JM


    Full Text Available Jarret M Woodmass,1 Graeme Matthewson,1 Yohei Ono,1,2 Aaron J Bois,1 Richard S Boorman,1 Ian KY Lo,1 Gail M Thornton1,31Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopaedic Surgery, McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical performance of different suture locking mechanisms including: i interference fit between the anchor and the bone (eg, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock, ii internal locking mechanism within the anchor itself (eg, 5.5 mm SpeedScrew, or iii a combination of interference fit and internal locking (eg, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S. Methods: Anchors were tested in foam blocks representing normal (20/8 foam or osteopenic (8/8 foam bone, using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the anchor to isolate suture locking. Mechanical testing included cyclic testing for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min, followed by failure testing at 60 mm/min. Displacement after 500 cycles at 60 N, number of cycles at 3 mm displacement, load at 3 mm displacement, and maximum load were evaluated. Results: Comparing 8/8 foam to 20/8 foam, load at 3 mm displacement and maximum load were significantly decreased (P<0.05 with decreased bone quality for anchors that, even in part, relied on an interference fit suture locking mechanism (ie, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S. Bone quality did not affect the mechanical performance of 5.5 mm SpeedScrew anchors which have an isolated internal locking mechanism. Conclusion: The mechanical performance of anchors that relied, even in part, on interference fit were affected by bone quality. Isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors functioned independently of bone quality

  15. Single anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using self- locking stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage: evaluation of pain and health-related quality of life. (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Thomaidis, Tryfon; Charitoudis, George; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Theodosiadis, Panagiotis; Gkasdaris, Grigorios


    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) constitutes the conventional treatment of cervical disc herniation due to degenerative disc disease (DDD). ACDF with plating presents a variety of complications postoperatively and stand-alone cages are thought to be a promising alternative. The aim of this study was firstly, to analyze prospectively collected data from a sample of patients treated with single ACDF using C-Plus self-locking stand-alone PEEK cage system, without the use of plates or screws, in order to evaluate pain levels of patients, utilizing Neck and Arm Pain scale as an expression of visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondly, we aimed to evaluate health-related quality of life, via the short-form 36 (SF-36) and Neck Disability Index (NDI). Thirty-six patients (19 male and 17 female) with mean age 49.6±7 years old who underwent successful single ACDF using self-locking stand-alone PEEK cage for symptomatic cervical DDD were selected for the study. Neck and Arm pain, as well as SF-36 and NDI were estimated preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative clinical, neurological and radiological evaluation. The clinical and radiological outcomes were satisfactory after a minimum 1-year follow-up. All results were statistically important (P<0.05), excluding improvement in NDI measured between 6 and 12 months. SF-36, Neck Pain, as well as Arm Pain featured gradual and constant improvement during follow-up, with best scores presenting at 12 months after surgery, while NDI reached its best at 6 months postoperatively. Generally, all scores showed improvement postoperatively during the different phases of the follow-up. Subsequently, ACDF using C-Plus cervical cage constitutes an effective method for cervical disc herniation treatment, in terms of postoperative improvement on pain levels and health-related quality of life and a safe alternative to the conventional method of treatment for cervical DDD.

  16. Locke (adversaires de)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Jørn


    den apologetiske kritik af John Locke i den franske modoplysning centreret om 'medødte idéer' og den 'tænkende materie'.......den apologetiske kritik af John Locke i den franske modoplysning centreret om 'medødte idéer' og den 'tænkende materie'....

  17. Holberg, lecteur de Locke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Jørn


      En undersøgelse af John Lockes modtagelse i dansk Oplysningsfilosofi med særligt henblik på Holberg......  En undersøgelse af John Lockes modtagelse i dansk Oplysningsfilosofi med særligt henblik på Holberg...

  18. Suture locking of isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors is not affected by bone quality (United States)

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Matthewson, Graeme; Ono, Yohei; Bois, Aaron J; Boorman, Richard S; Lo, Ian KY; Thornton, Gail M


    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical performance of different suture locking mechanisms including: i) interference fit between the anchor and the bone (eg, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock), ii) internal locking mechanism within the anchor itself (eg, 5.5 mm SpeedScrew), or iii) a combination of interference fit and internal locking (eg, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S). Methods Anchors were tested in foam blocks representing normal (20/8 foam) or osteopenic (8/8 foam) bone, using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the anchor to isolate suture locking. Mechanical testing included cyclic testing for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min, followed by failure testing at 60 mm/min. Displacement after 500 cycles at 60 N, number of cycles at 3 mm displacement, load at 3 mm displacement, and maximum load were evaluated. Results Comparing 8/8 foam to 20/8 foam, load at 3 mm displacement and maximum load were significantly decreased (Panchors that, even in part, relied on an interference fit suture locking mechanism (ie, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S). Bone quality did not affect the mechanical performance of 5.5 mm SpeedScrew anchors which have an isolated internal locking mechanism. Conclusion The mechanical performance of anchors that relied, even in part, on interference fit were affected by bone quality. Isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors functioned independently of bone quality. Anchors with a combined type (interference fit and internal locking) suture locking mechanism demonstrated similar mechanical performance to isolated internal locking anchors in osteopenic foam comparing similar sized anchors. Clinical relevance In osteopenic bone, knotless suture anchors that have an internal locking mechanism (isolated or combined type) may be advantageous for secure tendon fixation to bone. PMID:26124683

  19. Performance Evaluation of an Anti-Lock Braking System for Electric Vehicles with a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Guo


    Full Text Available Traditional friction braking torque and motor braking torque can be used in braking for electric vehicles (EVs. A sliding mode controller (SMC based on the exponential reaching law for the anti-lock braking system (ABS is developed to maintain the optimal slip value. Parameter optimizing is applied to the reaching law by fuzzy logic control (FLC. A regenerative braking algorithm, in which the motor torque is taken full advantage of, is adopted to distribute the braking force between the motor braking and the hydraulic braking. Simulations were carried out with Matlab/Simulink. By comparing with a conventional Bang-bang ABS controller, braking stability and passenger comfort is improved with the proposed SMC controller, and the chatting phenomenon is reduced effectively with the parameter optimizing by FLC. With the increasing proportion of the motor braking torque, the tracking of the slip ratio is more rapid and accurate. Furthermore, the braking distance is shortened and the conversion energy is enhanced.

  20. Locke on measurement. (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R


    Like many virtuosi in his day, the English philosopher John Locke maintained an active interest in metrology. Yet for Locke, this was no mere hobby: questions concerning measurement were also implicated in his ongoing philosophical project to develop an account of human understanding. This paper follows Locke's treatment of four problems of measurement from the early Drafts A and B of the Essay concerning Human Understanding to the publication of this famous book and its aftermath. It traces Locke's attempt to develop a natural or universal standard for the measure of length, his attempts to grapple with the measurement of duration, as well as the problems of determining comparative measures for secondary qualities, and the problem of discriminating small differences in the conventional measures of his day. It is argued that the salient context for Locke's treatment of these problems is the new experimental philosophy and its method of experimental natural history. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Green Dot's Locke Transformation Project: Findings from the 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10 School Years. CRESST Report 799 (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.; Rickles, Jordan; Hansen, Mark; Thomas, Larry; Gualpa, Alice; Wang, Jia


    The current report looks at the effects of the Green Dot Locke (GDL) transformation on students over the past three years. Although the GDL transformation began in fall 2007 (with two small off-site schools), the majority of Locke students were not included in the transition until fall 2008. Comparing GDL students to a matched sample of students…

  2. Vehicle handling and the application of skid marks during braking with an anti-lock braking system and a sudden loss of tire pressure as a result of an accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandel, J.; Zomoter, A.


    The German Motor Vehicle Inspection Association e.V. (DEKRA) and Daimler-Benz AG conducted joint testing on a Mercedes-Benz car equipped with ABS and subjected to tire blow-outs. Anti-lock braking systems have so radically altered production cars' vehicle dynamics that many questions have arisen begging further investigation. Even during a sudden loss of tire pressure, ABS makes a significant contribution towards maintaining directional control at high speeds. The vehicle remains controllable during simultaneous severe braking and a tire blow-out. Deceleration takes place at a rate slightly lower than it does when brakes are applied in cars with intact tires. As compared to reference measurements, the lowest mean deceleration measured with slit tires is lower by about 20%, although the mean deceleration of 5.7 m/sS can not be considered low in absolute terms. The earlier the tire is slit, the flatter the deceleration curve; however, it remains to be seen how the brake-control system and vehicle would react if the loss of tire pressure did not take place until much later than the brake application. The wheel with the blow-out is not controlled in a manner any different from the one with the intact tire. Immediately after loss of tire pressure, slip rises briefly, only to be counteracted by the brake-control system. When determining slip, one must bear in mind that the dynamic wheel radius becomes noticeably smaller as a result of deflation of the tire. The hig brake pressure applied during the experiments required a high control frequency. This caused the tires to leave continuous skid marks, the intensity of which dependend on the road surface. Changes in the flex mark characteristic left by the deflated tire after initiation of braking were not perceptible. The deflated tire did not slip on its rim. (orig./HW).

  3. Bicycle Parking and Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas


    Cars, trains, and bicycles are designed to be on the move. Mobilities studies have theorized and analyzed these modes of transport as powerful entities slicing through, and speeding-up, cities. Yet they also stand still, being parked and locked, immobilized and secured, until their next trip....... This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...

  4. Evaluation of coating thickness by thermal wave imaging: A comparative study of pulsed and lock-in infrared thermography - Part I: Simulation (United States)

    Shrestha, Ranjit; Kim, Wontae


    This paper investigates the possibilities of evaluating non-uniform coating thickness using thermal wave imaging method. A comparative study of pulsed thermography (PT) and lock-in thermography (LIT) based on evaluating the accuracy of predicted coating thickness is presented. In this study, a transient thermal finite element model was created in ANSYS 15. A single square pulse heating for PT and a sinusoidal heating at different modulation frequencies for LIT were used to stimulate the sample according to the experimental procedures. The response of thermally excited surface was recorded and data processing with Fourier transform was carried out to obtain the phase angle. Then calculated phase angle was correlated with the coating thickness. The method demonstrated potential in the evaluation of coating thickness and was successfully applied to measure the non-uniform top layers ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm; within an accuracy of 0.0003-0.0023 mm for PT and 0.0003-0.0067 mm for LIT. The simulation model enabled a better understanding of PT and LIT and provided a means of establishing the required experimental set-up parameters. This also led to optimization of experimental configurations, thus limiting the number of physical tests necessary.

  5. Physiological Evaluation of Mental Workload in Time Pressure (United States)

    Hioki, Kyu; Nozawa, Akio; Mizuno, Tota; Ide, Hideto

    There can be seen in many situations where office workers have to make decisions under the time restriction. For example, flight control buisiness, dealing work and so on. Such the time restriction can have the time pressure, which is considerd one of mental workload, on them. In addition, it can cause human error on imformation processing. If mental work load appropriately maintained the work level, office workers would be able to go on the work with moderate tention. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate physiological indexes, which are ECG, EEG, Facial skin thermo image by using adding tasks.


    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service


    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  7. Long-term clinical evaluation of the automatic stance-phase lock-controlled prosthetic knee joint in young adults with unilateral above-knee amputation. (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Wright, F Virginia; Rotter, Karin; Garcia, Daniela; Valdebenito, Rebeca; Mitchell, Carlos Alvarez; Rozbaczylo, Claudio; Cubillos, Rafael


    The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the automatic stance-phase lock (ASPL) knee mechanism against participants' existing weight-activated braking (WAB) prosthetic knee joint. This prospective crossover study involved 10 young adults with an above-knee amputation. Primary measurements consisted of tests of walking speeds and capacity. Heart rate was measured during the six-minute walk test and the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) which was calculated from heart rate estimated energy expenditure. Activity was measured with a pedometer. User function and quality of life were assessed using the Lower Limb Function Questionnaire (LLFQ) and Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ). Long-term follow-up over 12 months were completed. Walking speeds were the same for WAB and APSL knees. Energy expenditure (PCI) was lower for the ASPL knees (p = 0.007). Step counts were the same for both knees, and questionnaires indicated ASPL knee preference attributed primarily to knee stability and improved walking, while limitations included terminal impact noise. Nine of 10 participants chose to keep using the ASPL knee as part of the long-term follow-up. Potential benefits of the ASPL knee were identified in this study by functional measures, questionnaires and user feedback, but not changes in activity or the PEQ.

  8. Experimental quantum data locking (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei


    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  9. Locke and botany. (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R; Harris, Stephen A


    This paper argues that the English philosopher John Locke, who has normally been thought to have had only an amateurish interest in botany, was far more involved in the botanical science of his day than has previously been known. Through the presentation of new evidence deriving from Locke's own herbarium, his manuscript notes, journal and correspondence, it is established that Locke made a modest contribution to early modern botany. It is shown that Locke had close and ongoing relations with the Bobarts, keepers of the Oxford Botanic Garden, and that Locke distributed seeds and plant parts to other botanists, seeds of which the progeny almost certainly ended up in the most important herbaria of the period. Furthermore, it is claimed that the depth of Locke's interest in and practice of botany has a direct bearing on our understanding of his views on the correct method of natural philosophy and on the interpretation of his well known discussion of the nature of species in Book III of his Essay concerning human understanding.

  10. [Importance of pleural pressure for the evaluation of respiratory mechanics]. (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia Regina


    Pleural pressure has to be known for the partitioning of respiratory system mechanical measurements into their lung and chest wall components. This review aimed at discussing alternative methods to obtain pleural pressure to calculate pulmonary mechanics, at reporting peculiarities of the esophageal balloon method for obtaining indirect pleural pressure, peculiarities of esophageal pressure measurement in sedated or anesthetized patients, at discussing direct pleural pressure and its correlation with esophageal pressure, in addition to reporting on the impact of PEEP on pleural and esophageal pressures. Esophageal pressure variation reflects pleural pressure variation and may be used as alternative to direct pleural pressure in the study of lungs and chest wall mechanics. Esophageal pressure may be obtained with a delicate balloon placed inside the esophagus. Method and technique were observed and validated in humans and animals in different conditions and body positions. PEEP is a consolidated method for patients under mechanically controlled ventilation, however there are controversies about the close correlation between esophageal and pleural pressure in patients ventilated with PEEP, which may result in wrong respiratory mechanics calculation based on the esophageal pressure. The esophageal balloon is the most common method to obtain indirect pleural pressure. In sedated or anesthetized patients without major respiratory compliance changes, esophageal pressure variation corresponds to pleural pressure variation when PEEP is applied.

  11. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R


    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consisted...... of 50 patients who had an acute, traumatic extension deficit of the knee. All patients were submitted to MRI prior to arthroscopy. Following MRI and surgery, standardized forms were filled out, attempting to objectify the findings. The orthopaedic surgeon was not aware of the MRI result prior to surgery......, the following results were calculated for the overall appearance of a lesion able to cause locking: Positive predictive value = 0.85, negative predictive value = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.95, specificity = 0.53. Two knees were erroneously evaluated with no mechanical locking at MRI (one bucket-handle lesion and one...

  12. Evaluation of skin perfusion pressure to assess refractory foot ulcers. (United States)

    Kawai, M; Mihara, S; Takahagi, S; Iwamoto, K; Hiragun, T; Hide, M


    The number of patients with foot gangrene caused by critical ischaemia and severe infection is increasing significantly in developed countries. The measurement of perilesional skin blood flow by skin perfusion pressure (SPP) is useful to select the appropriate treatment of gangrenous lesions, in that it is not affected by calcifications of blood vessels. However, the prognosis of a foot ulcer may also be affected by the level of blood sugar and infections. This study aimed to validate the use of SPP in cases of foot gangrene and ulcers in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and infection. Clinical symptoms, ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and SPP were assessed to evaluate the condition of each foot ulcer. Every foot ulcer was treated as independent, even if a participant had multiple ulcers. All ulcers for which we measured SPP were subject to the analysis. All ulcers were purely ischaemic in nature and were exclusively located on the foot or toes. Data were collected from 117 foot ulcers on 91 toes and feet from 65 patients. Almost all SPP values in healed cases were > 27 mmHg. There were three patients whose ulcers failed to heal by conservative treatments were complicated with severe infection. However, no effect of DM on the relationship between SPP values and prognosis was observed. Logistic regression analysis of all ulcers except for the 5 cases complicated with infection revealed that those with 30 mmHg or lower SPP values are likely to heal by conservative treatment with 23% or lower probability, whereas any ulcer with more than 50 mmHg SPP value and without severe infection may heal without the need for further operations with 80% or higher probability. The combination of SPP and careful evaluation of infection may be a good parameter to decide the appropriate treatment for ischaemic skin ulcers, regardless of the complication of DM.

  13. Evaluation of minimum residual pressure as design criterion for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of low pressures under modelled peak demand is found in practice is not known at this stage. A new guideline for minimum residual pressure based on previous criteria and results from this study is presented, noting that a physical lower limit of about 10 m water pressure is specified in home appliance specifications.

  14. Design, fabrication and metrological evaluation of wearable pressure sensors. (United States)

    Goy, C B; Menichetti, V; Yanicelli, L M; Lucero, J B; López, M A Gómez; Parodi, N F; Herrera, M C


    Pressure sensors are valuable transducers that are necessary in a huge number of medical application. However, the state of the art of compact and lightweight pressure sensors with the capability of measuring the contact pressure between two surfaces (contact pressure sensors) is very poor. In this work, several types of wearable contact pressure sensors are fabricated using different conductive textile materials and piezo-resistive films. The fabricated sensors differ in size, the textile conductor used and/or the number of layers of the sandwiched piezo-resistive film. The intention is to study, through the obtaining of their calibration curves, their metrological properties (repeatability, sensitivity and range) and determine which physical characteristics improve their ability for measuring contact pressures. It has been found that it is possible to obtain wearable contact pressure sensors through the proposed fabrication process with satisfactory repeatability, range and sensitivity; and that some of these properties can be improved by the physical characteristics of the sensors.

  15. Reasoning about Java's Reentrant Locks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haack, C.; Huisman, Marieke; Hurlin, C.; Ramalingam, G.


    This paper presents a verification technique for a concurrent Java-like language with reentrant locks. The verification technique is based on permission-accounting separation logic. As usual, each lock is associated with a resource invariant, i.e. when acquiring the lock the resources are obtained

  16. Performance evaluation of Honeywell silicon piezoresistive pressure transducers for oceanographic and limnological measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Prabhudesai, S.; Nagvekar, S.; Damodaran, V.

    and limnological measurements, have been carried out at four differing temperatures (10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees, and 40 degrees C) to evaluate their suitability for such applications. The full-scale pressure range of these shallow water absolute pressure...

  17. Hydraulic Structures : Locks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.F.

    These lecture notes on locks are part of the study material belonging to the course 'Hydraulic Structures 1' (code CT3330), part of the Bachelor of Science and the Master of Science, the Hydraulic Engineering track, for civil engineering students at Delft University of Technology. Many of the

  18. Roller Locking Brake (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Roller locking brake is normally braking rotary mechanism allowing free rotation when electromagnet in mechanism energized. Well suited to robots and other machinery which automatic braking upon removal of electrical power required. More compact and reliable. Requires little electrical power to maintain free rotation and exhibits minimal buildup of heat.

  19. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper


    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic physioc...

  20. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  1. Simplified Analytical Methods to Analyze Lock Gates Submitted to Ship Collisions and Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldgen Loic


    Full Text Available This paper presents two simplified analytical methods to analyze lock gates submitted to two different accidental loads. The case of an impact involving a vessel is first investigated. In this situation, the resistance of the struck gate is evaluated by assuming a local and a global deforming mode. The super-element method is used in the first case, while an equivalent beam model is simultaneously introduced to capture the overall bending motion of the structure. The second accidental load considered in this paper is the seismic action, for which an analytical method is presented to evaluate the total hydrodynamic pressure applied on a lock gate during an earthquake, due account being taken of the fluid-structure interaction. For each of these two actions, numerical validations are presented and the analytical results are compared to finite-element solutions.

  2. Management of a locked Strata valve. (United States)

    Bullivant, Kelly J; Mitha, Alim P; Hamilton, Mark G


    The PS Medical Strata valve is a programmable shunt valve used in the treatment of hydrocephalus that allows for noninvasive changes in the pressure setting using a magnet. The Strata valve is sensitive to magnetic fields, and reprogramming is frequently necessary after MR imaging. A known but rare complication of the Strata valve is that the rotor can become locked, causing shunt malfunction. This complication can only occur in a first generation Strata valve.

  3. Evaluation of continuous and intermittent myocardial topical negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Gesslein, Bodil


    to intermittent therapy shows twice as much granulation tissue formation than that exposed to continuous pressure after 2 weeks of therapy. The present study was designed to elucidate the differences in microvascular blood flow in the left anterior descending artery area between continuous and intermittent......Topical negative pressure, commonly used in wound therapy, has been shown to increase blood flow and stimulate angiogenesis in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. In wound therapy, intermittent negative pressure is often preferred to continuous negative pressure as tissue exposed...

  4. Evaluation of minimum residual pressure as design criterion for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    populated nodes representing a cluster of well-distributed par- cels (properties) in .... Schools and other public buildings often make use of auto- matic flushing urinals ... Washing machines and dish washers. H ≥ 10 m. This pressure is used as a typical customer guideline by local furniture suppliers. Pressure flush toilets.

  5. Innovation and Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Vannuccini, Simone


    This study focuses on a well-known but yet elusive concept: (technological) lock-in. We summarize what is known about the nature of lock-in and offer a critical view on history-dependent processes based on recent contributions to the literature. We discuss if lock-ins are really inescapable......, especially when innovation is concerned. Also, we address the question if lock-in is a well-defined concept at all. To offer a fresh view on lock-in and to tackle the issues just raised, we employ the replicator dynamics model. By making a parallel between monopolization in the replicator dynamics...... and the occurrence of lock-ins, we show that the convergence of a system to a given outcome can be reversed, under certain conditions. We highlight the need for a more precise demarcation of the conceptual boundaries of lock-in and path dependence, both from the formal and the empirical side, and suggest...

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Wheeled Ultra-High Pressure Extinguisher System with Novec 1230 (United States)


    AFCEC-CX-TY-TR-2016-0004 Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Wheeled Ultra-High Pressure Extinguisher System with Novec 1230 Dr. Mark Enlow...Report 1 Nov 2014 -- 1 Jul 2015 Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Wheeled Ultra-High Pressure Extinguisher System With Novec 1230 FA8051-14-P...Halon 1211 flightline extinguisher , the Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC) developed and evaluated a prototype wheeled ultra-high pressure

  7. Avoiding lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid


    The paper investigates the initial phase of the cooperative organisation of agricultural processing firms in Denmark. It argues that the variations observed can be explained within the framework of the theory of industrial organisation. The focus is on the success of cooperative creameries. In 19...... of gathering information and of preserving and transporting a perishable product, were ideally suited to overcome the problems of potential lock-in and of asymmetric information...

  8. Data port security lock (United States)

    Quinby, Joseph D [Albuquerque, NM; Hall, Clarence S [Albuquerque, NM


    In a security apparatus for securing an electrical connector, a plug may be fitted for insertion into a connector receptacle compliant with a connector standard. The plug has at least one aperture adapted to engage at least one latch in the connector receptacle. An engagement member is adapted to partially extend through at least one aperture and lock to at least one structure within the connector receptacle.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Pressure Transducers for Water Impacts (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Stegall, David E.; Treadway, Sean


    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is being designed for water landings. In order to benchmark the ability of engineering tools to predict water landing loads, test programs are underway for scale model and full-scale water impacts. These test programs are predicated on the reliable measurement of impact pressure histories. Tests have been performed with a variety of pressure transducers from various manufacturers. Both piezoelectric and piezoresistive devices have been tested. Effects such as thermal shock, pinching of the transducer head, and flushness of the transducer mounting have been studied. Data acquisition issues such as sampling rate and anti-aliasing filtering also have been studied. The response of pressure transducers have been compared side-by-side on an impulse test rig and on a 20-inch diameter hemisphere dropped into a pool of water. The results have identified a range of viable configurations for pressure measurement dependent on the objectives of the test program.

  10. Evaluation of pressure transducers under turbid natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    , the use of rho sub(eff) in contrast to the bulk density, significantly improves the measurement accuracy. For celar waters, precision density measurements made on discrete water samples agreed with rho sub(eff) values derived from pressure measurements...

  11. Update in intracranial pressure evaluation methods and translaminar pressure gradient role in glaucoma. (United States)

    Siaudvytyte, Lina; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Ragauskas, Arminas; Bartusis, Laimonas; Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon


    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Historically, it has been considered an ocular disease primary caused by pathological intraocular pressure (IOP). Recently, researchers have emphasized intracranial pressure (ICP), as translaminar counter pressure against IOP may play a role in glaucoma development and progression. It remains controversial what is the best way to measure ICP in glaucoma. Currently, the 'gold standard' for ICP measurement is invasive measurement of the pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid via lumbar puncture or via implantation of the pressure sensor into the brains ventricle. However, the direct measurements of ICP are not without risk due to its invasiveness and potential risk of intracranial haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, invasive ICP measurements are prohibitive due to safety needs, especially in glaucoma patients. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate ICP non-invasively, including transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, tympanic membrane displacement, ophthalmodynamometry, measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter and two-depth transcranial Doppler technology. Special emphasis is put on the two-depth transcranial Doppler technology, which uses an ophthalmic artery as a natural ICP sensor. It is the only method which accurately and precisely measures absolute ICP values and may provide valuable information in glaucoma. © 2014 The Authors Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  12. Establishment of real time allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR for detection of HBV YIDD (ATT mutation and evaluation of its application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term use of nucleos(tide analogues can increase risk of HBV drug-resistance mutations. The rtM204I (ATT coding for isoleucine is one of the most important resistance mutation sites. Establishing a simple, rapid, reliable and highly sensitive assay to detect the resistant mutants as early as possible is of great clinical significance. METHODS: Recombinant plasmids for HBV YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate and YIDD (tyrosine-isoleucine-aspartate-aspartate were constructed by TA cloning. Real time allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR (RT-AS-LNA-qPCR with SYBR Green I was established by LNA-modified primers and evaluated with standard recombinant plasmids, clinical templates (the clinical wild type and mutant HBV DNA mixture and 102 serum samples from nucleos(tide analogues-experienced patients. The serum samples from a chronic hepatitis B (CHB patient firstly received LMV mono therapy and then switched to LMV + ADV combined therapy were also dynamically analyzed for 10 times. RESULTS: The linear range of the assay was between 1×10(9 copies/μl and 1 × 10(2 copies/μl. The low detection limit was 1 × 10(1 copies/μl. Sensitivity of the assay were 10(-6, 10(-4 and 10(-2 in the wild-type background of 1 × 10(9 copies/μl, 1 × 10(7 copies/μl and 1 × 10(5 copies/μl, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay in detection of clinical samples was 0.03%. The complete coincidence rate between RT-AS-LNA-qPCR and direct sequencing was 91.2% (93/102, partial coincidence rate was 8.8% (9/102, and no complete discordance was observed. The two assays showed a high concordance (Kappa = 0.676, P = 0.000. Minor variants can be detected 18 weeks earlier than the rebound of HBV DNA load and alanine aminotransferase level. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, cost-effective, high sensitive, specific and reliable method of RT-AS-LNA-qPCR with SYBR Green I for early and absolute quantification of HBV YIDD (ATT coding for isoleucine

  13. High pressure inactivation of relevant target microorganisms in poultry meat products and the evaluation of pressure-induced protein denaturation of marinated poultry under different high pressure treatments (United States)

    Schmidgall, Johanna; Hertel, Christian; Bindrich, Ute; Heinz, Volker; Toepfl, Stefan


    In this study, the possibility of extending shelf life of marinated poultry meat products by high pressure processing was evaluated. Relevant spoilage and pathogenic strains were selected and used as target microorganisms (MOs) for challenge experiments. Meat and brine were inoculated with MOs and treated at 450 MPa, 4 °C for 3 min. The results of inactivation show a decreasing pressure tolerance in the series Lactobacillus > Arcobacter > Carnobacterium > Bacillus cereus > Brochothrix thermosphacta > Listeria monocytogenes. Leuconostoc gelidum exhibited the highest pressure tolerance in meat. A protective effect of poultry meat was found for L. sakei and L. gelidum. In parallel, the influence of different marinade formulations (pH, carbonates, citrates) on protein structure changes during a pressure treatment was investigated. Addition of sodium carbonate shows a protection against denaturation of myofibrillar proteins and provides a maximum water-holding capacity. Caustic marinades allowed a higher retention of product characteristics than low-pH marinades.

  14. Integrated hydrodynamic analysis of fluid pressure and leak-off pressure distributions to evaluate seal effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.


    Hydrodynamic methods are used to analyse the present-day fluid overpressure and leak-off pressure distributions in offshore Netherlands in combination with recently completed stratigraphic and structural maps, and knowledge on distribution and characteristics of oil and gas accumulations. This paper

  15. Evaluation of the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure under dehydration due to fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Baser


    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations under dehydration conditions and the relationship between the intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure. Methods: The intraocular pressures (IOP, body weights, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP of 36 fasting healthy volunteers were recorded at 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. in the Ramadan of 2014 and two weeks after it. The data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: As the results demonstrated, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were 2.67±1.33 mmHg, 9.44±8.02 mmHg, 3.33±5.94 mmHg, and 0.90±0.46 kg during the fasting period, respectively. In addition, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were -0.33±1.4 mmHg (P=0.001, 0.55±7.25mmHg (P=0.003, -3.33±5.94 mmHg (P=0.001, and 0.12±0.45 kg (P=0.001 during the control period, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the diurnal IOP and SBP differences (r=0.517, P=0.028. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, the total fluid volume might have a more dominant effect on IOP peaks than the sympathetic system activity. Furthermore, the SBP was found to correlate with the IOP.

  16. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. (United States)


    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect. ...

  17. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    35 mmHg sysrolic and 97 ± 21 mmHg diastolic. Twenty-nine patients were unresponsive to various drug combinations as judged by diastolic blood pressures which remained above 100 mmHg at rest, while 16 had not received any prior medical therapy. Four patients had coronary artery disease, treated with nitrates and.

  18. Intra-abdominal pressure at ICU admission: Evaluation as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and aims. Approximately 20% of acute pancreatitis progresses to a severe form characterised by multiple extrapancreatic organ dysfunction. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), a frequent finding in these patients, further adds to the mortality. Currently used prognostication indices have their own set of ...

  19. A miniature pressure sensor for blast event evaluation (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to people who deal with explosive devices. Protection from TBI has attracted more and more interest. Great efforts have been taken to the studies on the understanding of the propagation of the blast events and its effect on TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges is that the current available pressure sensors are not fast enough to capture the blast wave especially the transient period. This paper reports an ultrafast pressure sensor that could be very useful for analysis of the fast changing blast signal. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. It uses a 45º angle polished fiber sitting in a V-groove on a silicon chip. The endface of the angle polished fiber and the diaphragm which is lifted off on the side wall of the V-groove form the FP cavity. The sensor is very small and can be mounted on different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. The tests were conducted at Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) in Natick, MA. The sensors were mounted in a shock tube, side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increased pressure. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors and their response time is comparable.

  20. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  1. The service impact of failed locking plate fixation of distal tibial fractures: a service and financial evaluation at a major trauma centre. (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Mumith, Aadil; McEwan, Jo; Hancock, Nicholas


    The surgical treatment of distal tibial fractures is challenging and controversial. Recently, locking plate fixation has become popular, but the outcomes of this treatment are mixed with complication rates as high as 50 % in the published literature. There are no reports specifically relating to the financial and resource costs of failed treatment in the literature. Retrospective service analysis of patients who had undergone locking plate fixation of a distal third tibial fracture between 2008 and 2011 with at least 12 months follow-up. Rates of readmission, reoperation, bony union and infection were ascertained. The financial and resource (hospital stay and number of outpatient appointments) implications of failed treatment were calculated. Forty-two patients were identified. There were 31 type A fractures, one type B fracture and 10 type C fractures. Three injuries were open. Twenty patients were treated with minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO). The readmission and reoperation rates were 26 % (n = 11) and 19 % (n = 8), respectively. A total of 89 % of readmissions were due to infection. All patients had received appropriate antibiotic regimens. The average costs of successful and failed treatment were £ 5538 and £ 18,335, respectively. The average time to union was 24.5 weeks. The rate of non-union was 21 % (n = 9). The rate of infection was 28 % (n = 12), with all patients with open fracture incurring an infection. Tourniquet time had no effect on the incidence of complications. Smokers were more likely to incur a complication (p service following failure of locking plate treatment of these fractures, but the outcomes were similar to series published in the literature. Readmission rates were high following these injuries, and failed treatment was costly and had a significant impact on hospital resources. The implementation of major trauma networks and centralised subspecialised units should improve quality and value for money.

  2. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur


    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  3. [Evaluation of blood pressure control by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and study of factors associated with poor blood pressure control in 300 treated hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients]. (United States)

    Ben-Hamouda-Chihaoui, M; Kanoun, F; Ftouhi, B; Lamine-Chtioui, F; Kamoun, M; Slimane, H


    Hypertension is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes and is often difficult to control. Evaluate the frequency of controlled hypertension in our type 2 diabetic patients with known and treated hypertension and determine the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Prospective study concerning 300 type 2 diabetic patients with a known and treated hypertension, sex-ratio: 0.64, mean age: 61.2±9.1 years (37-86). All subjects underwent physical examination, biological investigations and a 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Hypertension was well controlled in 70 patients (23.3%). The concordance rate between clinical measure of blood pressure and ABPM was 70.3%. Subjects with uncontrolled hypertension were older (61.8±8.9 vs 59.1±9.3 years, Pblood pressure rhythm was noted in 239 patients (79.6%) and it was more frequently observed in patients with uncontrolled hypertension (84 vs 66%, PClose monitoring of blood pressure with adjustment of antihypertensive treatment are necessary to improve cardiovascular prognosis of our patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations


    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush


    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 da...

  5. A field performance evaluation of drip emitters: pressure versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field evaluation of irrigation systems (drip) can form a basis for decision making as to whether the irrigation system needs rehabilitation, overhaul or even dismantling if found to be very uneconomical. A comprehensive field evaluation of irrigation systems involves determining the overall efficiency of the system, for example, ...

  6. A field performance evaluation of drip emitters: pressure versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comprehensive field evaluation of irrigation systems involves determining the overall efficiency of the system, for example, determining water use efficiency, field operating efficiency and water management practices in use. However, the objective of this study was to evaluate the operating pressure–discharge relationship ...

  7. An evaluation of pressure and flow measurement in the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald J.


    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt at plant-like conditions for pressure, flow, and temperature. An important need in thermal storage systems that utilize molten salts is for accurate flow and pressure measurement at temperatures above 535ÀC. Currently available flow and pressure instrumentation for molten salt is limited to 535ÀC and even at this temperature the pressure measurement appears to have significant variability. It is the design practice in current Concentrating Solar Power plants to measure flow and pressure on the cold side of the process or in dead-legs where the salt can cool, but this practice wont be possible for high temperature salt systems. For this effort, a set of tests was conducted to evaluate the use of the pressure sensors for flow measurement across a device of known flow coefficient Cv. To perform this task, the pressure sensors performance was evaluated and was found to be lacking. The pressure indicators are severely affected by ambient conditions and were indicating pressure changes of nearly 200psi when there was no flow or pressure in the system. Several iterations of performance improvement were undertaken and the pressure changes were reduced to less than 15psi. The results of these pressure improvements were then tested for use as flow measurement. It was found that even with improved pressure sensors, this is not a reliable method of flow measurement. The need for improved flow and pressure measurement at high temperatures remains and will need to be solved before it will be possible to move to high temperature thermal storage systems with molten salts.

  8. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.


    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  9. Can auscultatory blood pressure normative values be used for evaluation of oscillometric blood pressure in children? (United States)

    Šuláková, Terezie; Šuláková, Astrida; Strnadel, Jiří; Pavlíček, Jan; Obermannová, Barbora; Feber, Janusz


    The aim of the study was to analyze whether auscultatory normative values (Fourth Task Force [4TF]) can be applied to blood pressure (BP) obtained by oscillometric devices. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of oscillometric office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring in 229 children (116 boys), median age 15.31 years. Office systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) values were converted into Z scores using 4TF and oscillometric (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescent [KiGGS]) reference values. There was good correlation between the two normative methods (r=0.9773 for SBP, r=0.9627 for DBP). Results from Bland-Altman test revealed only minimal differences in Z scores between 4TF and KiGGS for SBP, but a significant proportional error for DBP. 4TF and KiGGS Z scores were equally predictive of ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, auscultatory and oscillometric normative data are interchangeable for SBP but not for DBP. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pressure estimation for diamond anvils cell under very-low pressures, hydrostatic conditions -evaluation for quartz Raman peak shifts- (United States)

    Kubo, K.; Okamoto, K.


    Pressure shift of the ruby R1 luminescent shift has been used as primary pressure gauge in diamond-anvils experiments. However, the pressure calibration under low-pressure conditions (quartz Raman-shift pressure gauge reported by Schmidt and Ziemenn (2000). At pressure lower than 1 GPa, their pressure calibration give 0.2 GPa lower conditions than the Ruby pressure gauge at 1 GPa.

  11. Intra-abdominal pressure at ICU admission: Evaluation as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data relating to demographic profile, cause of pancreatitis, ICU admission, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, IAP, interventions instituted and mortality were analysed. Results. Biliary stones (38%) were the most common cause of ...

  12. Evidence-Based Medicine: The Evaluation and Treatment of Pressure Injuries. (United States)

    Ricci, Joseph A; Bayer, Lauren R; Orgill, Dennis P


    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Discuss the approach to and rationale for pressure injury management, including specific techniques for prevention and preoperative evaluation. 2. Develop a management algorithm for these wounds that includes operative and nonoperative modalities. 3. Understand how to identify and manage the complications of surgical intervention for pressure injuries, including recurrence. Pressure injuries are a common problem associated with great morbidity and cost, often presenting as complex challenges for plastic surgeons. Although the cause of these wounds is largely prolonged pressure, the true pathogenesis involves many other factors, including friction, shear, moisture, nutrition, and infection. This article outlines a systematic approach to evaluating and staging pressure injuries, and provides strategies for treatment and prevention. Critical to surgical intervention is thorough débridement, including any involved or causative bony tissues, and postoperative management to prevent wound dehiscence and recurrence.

  13. Is John Locke a democrat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

      Over recent years there has been a tendency to present John Locke as an equalitarian democrat (Ashcraft) and being close to the political views of the levellers (Waldron). This is not a completely new interpretation (Kendall, 1941), but contrasts with the prevalent view presented in textbooks...... (Holden, Held, Ball and Dagger) and monographs on Locke (Dunn, Parry, Marshall). In this paper a new approach to the democratic character of John Locke's political theory is suggested, as his Second Treatise is analysed with Robert A. Dahl's conceptual framework on assumptions for a democratic order...

  14. Test and Evaluation Report of the Physio Control Blood Pressure Monitor Model LIFESTAT (Trademark) 100 (United States)


    oscillometric technique. Arterial pulsations acting against the inflated cuff are used to determine blood pressure and pulse rate. These pulsations are...USAARL Report No. 92-44 AD-A248 352 IIII~~~l1I7 1 111 li-l Test and Evaluation Report of the Physlo Control Blood Pres-sure Monitor Model LIFESTAT5...1. TITLE (Include Securrry Ciaspfication) Test and Evaluation Report of the Phy.’io Control Blood Pressure Monitor Model LIFESTATO 100 12 PERSONAL

  15. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, mechanical. 236.765 Section 236.765 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus by...

  16. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet stop...

  17. Dually-mode-locked ND: YAG laser (United States)

    Osmundson, J.; Rowe, E.; Santarpia, D.


    Mode-locking is stabilized effectively by conventional loss-modulator and phase-modulator, mode-locking elements placed in laser cavity in optical series with one another. Resulting dually-mode-locked system provides pulses with constant phase relative to mode-lock drive signal without presence of relaxation oscillation noise.

  18. John locke on personal identity. (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Namita


    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  19. Evaluation of rocker sole by pressure-time curves in insensate forefoot during gait. (United States)

    Hsi, Wei-Li; Chai, Huei-Ming; Lai, Jin-Shin


    The rocker sole reduces plantar pressure in the insensate forefoot during gait, but the reasons have remained unclear. This study aimed to derive new variables descriptive of the effects of the rocker sole. We measured plantar pressures in eight forefoot areas in the insensate feet of ten diabetic subjects and performed stepwise regression of pressures as cubic functions of time in patients wearing shoes without and with prefabricated rocker soles. Pressure-time curves were all sigmoid in shape, but inflected at different time points, and were regressed by different variables in different forefoot areas in shoes without rocker soles. The rocker sole reduced peak pressures and pressure-time integrals and made pressure-time curves more concave. Inflections occurred at 15% or 16% of the gait cycle time and reached peak pressure later with the rocker. The more anterior the forefoot areas, the more concave their curves and the greater their regression parameters became. To evaluate the effectiveness of a rocker sole, physiatrists may regress sigmoid pressure-time curves as cubic functions of time in the insensate forefoot, check simultaneous inflections of the curves in areas rotated by the rocker sole, and compare their concavity and regression parameters in areas rotated at different distances from the axis of rotation. By doing so, physiatrists may be better able to improve the design of rocker sole and other forms of forefoot orthoses.

  20. Mapping fluids to subduction megathrust locking and slip behavior (United States)

    Saffer, Demian M.


    In subduction zones, high fluid content and pore pressure are thought to promote aseismic creep, whereas well-drained conditions are thought to promote locking and failure in earthquakes. However, observations directly linking fluid content and seismic coupling remain elusive. Heise et al. (2017) use a magnetotelluric survey to image the electrical resistivity structure of the northern Hikurangi subduction thrust to 30 km depth, as an indicator of interconnected fluid content. The authors document a clear correlation between high resistivity and a distinct geodetically locked patch and between conductive areas and weak coupling. Their study, together with other recent geophysical investigations, provides new evidence for the role of fluids in governing subduction thrust locking.

  1. Locked intramedullary total wrist arthrodesis. (United States)

    Orbay, Jorge L; Feliciano, Eric; Orbay, Carolina


    Total wrist arthrodesis is commonly performed using fixation plates, which can produce soft tissue irritation, often require removal, and limit the ability to position the hand in space. The Skeletal Dynamics IMPLATE is an intramedullary total wrist fusion device designed to provide stable fixation while avoiding the problems associated with plates. Radial and metacarpal locked intramedullary nails are inserted and joined by a connector. Desired hand placement is achieved by selecting the proper connector length and angle, then orienting it appropriately. Fusion mass compression is obtained by virtue of longitudinal threads on the radial nail that allow for length adjustment. Seven wrists in three men and four women were treated with this device and followed for a minimum of 24 weeks. In all cases, local cancellous bone graft was used and the third carpometacarpal (CMC) joint incorporated into the fusion. The median age was 49 (range, 28-71) years. Indications for fusion were two posttraumatic arthritides, three rheumatoid arthritides, one spastic deformity, and one infection. Patients were evaluated before surgery and at final follow-up using the Fernandez pain score and grip strength measurements using a hand-held dynamometer. All patients improved their grip strength and decreased their pain scores. All fusions united, and none of the patients presented dorsal soft tissue problems or required implant removal. One rheumatoid patient required secondary surgery for removal of a retained palmar osteophyte. This device delivers stable fixation, facilitates hand placement, and does not require removal.

  2. Clinical evaluation of a new pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary or Secondary Evaluation Tool (PURPOSE T). (United States)

    Coleman, Susanne; Smith, Isabelle L; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Keen, Justin; Muir, Delia; Wilson, Lyn; Stubbs, Nikki; Dealey, Carol; Brown, Sarah; Nelson, E Andrea; Nixon, Jane


    To test the psychometric properties and clinical usability of a new Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instrument including inter-rater and test-retest reliability, convergent validity and data completeness. Methodological and practical limitations associated with traditional Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments, prompted a programme to work to develop a new instrument, as part of the National Institute for Health Research funded, Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056). Observational field test. For this clinical evaluation 230 patients were purposefully sampled across four broad levels of pressure ulcer risk with representation from four secondary care and four community NHS Trusts in England. Blinded and simultaneous paired (ward/community nurse and expert nurse) PURPOSE-T assessments were undertaken. Follow-up retest was undertaken by the expert nurse. Field notes of PURPOSE-T use were collected. Data were collected October 2012-January 2013. The clinical evaluation demonstrated "very good" (kappa) inter-rater and test-retest agreement for PURPOSE-T assessment decision overall. The percentage agreement for "problem/no problem" was over 75% for the main risk factors. Convergent validity demonstrated moderate to high associations with other measures of similar constructs. The PURPOSE-T evaluation facilitated the initial validation and clinical usability of the instrument and demonstrated that PURPOSE-T is suitable of use in clinical practice. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of using the instrument on care processes and outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Insulated Pressure Vessels for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage: Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Garcia-Villazana, O; Espinosa-Loza, F


    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (fuel flexibility, lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). The work described here is directed at verifying that commercially available pressure vessels can be safely used to store liquid hydrogen. The use of commercially available pressure vessels significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the insulated pressure vessel development effort. This paper describes a series of tests that have been done with aluminum-lined, fiber-wrapped vessels to evaluate the damage caused by low temperature operation. All analysis and experiments to date indicate that no significant damage has resulted. Required future tests are described that will prove that no technical barriers exist to the safe use of aluminum-fiber vessels at cryogenic temperatures. Future activities also include a demonstration project in which the insulated pressure vessels will be installed and tested on two vehicles. A draft standard will also be generated for obtaining certification for insulated pressure vessels.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy are important components consisting reactor coolant pressure boundary of a pressurized heavy water reactor, in which unanticipated through-wall cracks and rupture may occur due to a delayed hydride cracking (DHC. The Canadian Standards Association has provided deterministic and probabilistic structural integrity evaluation procedures to protect pressure tubes against DHC. However, intuitive understanding and subsequent assessment of flaw behaviors are still insufficient due to complex degradation mechanisms and diverse influential parameters of DHC compared with those of stress corrosion cracking and fatigue crack growth phenomena. In the present study, a deterministic flaw assessment program was developed and applied for systematic integrity assessment of the pressure tubes. Based on the examination results dealing with effects of flaw shapes, pressure tube dimensional changes, hydrogen concentrations of pressure tubes and plant operation scenarios, a simple and rough method for effective cooldown operation was proposed to minimize DHC risks. The developed deterministic assessment program for pressure tubes can be used to derive further technical bases for probabilistic damage frequency assessment.

  5. Evaluation of noninvasive oscillometric blood pressure monitoring in anesthetized boid snakes. (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Wrenn, Amy; DeVoe, Ryan S


    To determine the accuracy of a noninvasive oscillometric monitor in the measurement of arterial blood pressure in anesthetized boid snakes. Evaluation study. 4 boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), 2 carpet pythons (Morelia spilota), and 2 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus). After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, each snake was instrumented with an arterial catheter connected to a pressure transducer and oscilloscope to obtain invasive measurements of systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean (MAP) arterial blood pressure as well as a pressure waveform. A cuff connected to an oscillometric device was placed on the tail immediately distal to the vent for noninvasive measurements. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and invasive and noninvasive measurements of SAP, DAP, and MAP were obtained every 5 minutes for 45 minutes. Delivered isoflurane concentration was increased in 15-minute increments to induce hypotension. Repeatability of each device and fixed and proportional biases between devices were calculated. Throughout most of the measured ranges of blood pressures, the oscillometric unit overestimated the SAP and underestimated the DAP and MAP, compared with respective direct measurements. When the invasively determined SAP was > 100 mm Hg, the oscillometric unit underestimated all 3 variables. Fixed bias was significant for SAP and DAP, and proportional bias was significant for SAP and MAP. When using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor on anesthetized boid snakes, veterinarians can potentially monitor changes in blood pressure, although the displayed readings may underestimate DAP and MAP and overestimate SAP. Indirect measurements of blood pressure made with the oscillometric device cannot substitute for direct measurements.

  6. Evaluation of detectable defect size for inner defect of pressure vessel using laser speckle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeoung Suk; Seon, Sang Woo; Choi, Tae Ho; Kang, Chan Geun; Na, Man Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chul [Chsoun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Pressure vessels are used in various industrial fields. If a defect occurs on the inner or outer surface of a pressure vessel, it may cause a massive accident. A defect on the outer surface can be detected by visual inspection. However, a defect on the inner surface is generally impossible to detect with visual inspection. Nondestructive testing can be used to detect this type of defect. Laser speckle shearing interferometry is one nondestructive testing method that can optically detect a defect; its advantages include noncontact, full field, and real time inspection. This study evaluated the detectable size for an internal defect of a pressure vessel. The material of the pressure vessel was ASTM A53 Gr.B. The internal defect was detected when the pressure vessel was loaded by internal pressure controlled by a pneumatic system. The internal pressure was controlled from 0.2 MPa to 0.6 MPa in increments of 0.2 MPa. The results confirmed that an internal defect with a 25 % defect depth could be detected even at 0.2 MPa pressure variation.

  7. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai B


    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure and intraocular pressure were taken following which patients were divided into two groups: laryngeal mask airway was inserted in group 1 and tracheal tube in group 2. These measurements were repeated at 15-30 second, every minute thereafter up to 5 minutes after airway instrumentation. RESULTS: A statistically significant rise in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure was seen in both the groups subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Mean maximum increase was statistically more after endotracheal intubation than after laryngeal mask airway insertion. The duration of statistically significant pressure responses was also longer after endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable alternative technique for ocular surgeries, offering advantages in terms of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular stability compared to tracheal intubation.

  8. An evaluation of direct pressure sensors for monitoring the aluminum die casting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.


    This study was conducted as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project Die Cavity Instrumentation. One objective of that project was to evaluate thermal, pressure, and gas flow process monitoring sensors in or near the die cavity as a means of securing improved process monitoring and control and better resultant part quality. The objectives of this thesis are to (1) evaluate a direct cavity pressure sensor in a controlled production campaign at the GM Casting Advanced Development Center (CADC) at Bedford, Indiana; and (2) develop correlations between sensor responses and product quality in terms of the casting weight, volume, and density. A direct quartz-based pressure sensor developed and marked by Kistler Instrument Corp. was acquired for evaluating as an in-cavity liquid metal pressure sensor. This pressure sensor is designed for use up to 700 C and 2,000 bars (29,000 psi). It has a pressure overload capacity up to 2,500 bars (36,250 psi).

  9. Medicine in John Locke's philosophy. (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A


    John Locke's philosophy was deeply affected by medicine of his times. It was specially influenced by the medical thought and practice of Thomas Sydenham. Locke was a personal friend of Sydenham, expressed an avid interest in his work and shared his views and methods. The influence of Sydenham's medicine can be seen in the following areas of Locke's philosophy: his "plain historical method"; the emphasis on observation and sensory experience instead of seeking the essence of things; the rejection of hypotheses and principles; the refusal of research into final causes and inner mechanisms; the ideal of irrefutable evidence and skepticism on the possibilities of certainty in science. The science which for Locke held the highest paradigmatic value in his theory of knowledge was precisely medicine. To a great extent, Locke's Essay on Human Understanding can be understood as an attempt to justify, substantiate, and promote Sydenham's medical method. This method, generalized, was then proposed as an instrument for the elaboration of all natural sciences.

  10. Laser therapy in pressure ulcers: evaluation by the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing and Nursing Outcomes Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Palagi


    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVETo describe the pressure ulcer healing process in critically ill patients treated with conventional dressing therapy plus low-intensity laser therapy evaluated by the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH and the result of Wound Healing: Secondary Intention, according to the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC.METHODCase report study according to nursing process conducted with an Intensive Care Unit patient. Data were collected with an instrument containing the PUSH and the result of the NOC. In the analysis we used descriptive statistics, considering the scores obtained on the instrument.RESULTSA reduction in the size of lesions of 7cm to 1.5cm of length and 6cm to 1.1cm width, in addition to the increase of epithelial tissue and granulation, decreased secretion and odor.CONCLUSIONThere was improvement in the healing process of the lesion treated with adjuvant therapy and the use of NOC allowed a more detailed and accurate assessment than the PUSH.

  11. In vitro biomechanical evaluation and comparison of a new prototype locking plate and a limited-contact self compression plate for equine fracture repair. (United States)

    Quinteros, D D; García-López, J M; Abuja, G A; Tarkanian, M; Maranda, L S; Bubeck, K; Kowaleski, M P


    To determine if the mechanical properties (strength and stiffness) of a new prototype 4.5 mm broad locking plate (NP-LP) are comparable with those of a traditional 4.5 mm broad limited-contact self compression plate (LC-SCP), and to compare the bending and torsional properties of the NP-LP and LC-SCP when used in osteotomized equine third metacarpal bones (MC3). The plates alone were tested in four-point bending single cycle to failure. The MC3-plate constructs were created with mid-diaphyseal osteotomies with a 1 cm gap. Constructs were tested in four-point bending single cycle to failure, four-point bending cyclic fatigue, and torsion single cycle to failure. There were not any significant differences in bending strength and stiffness found between the two implants. The MC3-NP-LP construct was significantly stiffer than the MC3-LC-SCP in bending. No other biomechanical differences were found in bending, yield load in torsion, or mean composite rigidity. Mean cycles to failure for bending fatigue testing were similar for both constructs. The NP-LP was comparable to the LC-SCP in intrinsic, as well as structural properties. The NP-LP construct was more rigid than the LC-SCP construct under four-point bending, and both constructs behaved similarly under four-point bending cyclic fatigue testing and torsion single cycle to failure. The new NP-LP implant fixation is biomechanically comparable to the LC-SCP in a simulated MC3 fracture.

  12. The healing philosopher: John Locke's medical ethics. (United States)

    Short, Bradford William


    This article examines a heretofore unexplored facet of John Locke's philosophy. Locke was a medical doctor and he also wrote about medical issues that are controversial today. Despite this, Locke's medical ethics has yet to be studied. An analysis of Locke's education and his teachers and colleagues in the medical profession, of the 17th century Hippocratic Oath, and of the reaction to the last recorded outbreak of the bubonic plague in London, shines some light on the subject of Locke's medical ethics. The study of Locke's medical ethics confirms that he was a deontologist who opposed all suicide and abortion through much of pregnancy.

  13. Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure Behind Retaining Wall (United States)

    Maskar, A. D.; Madhekar, S. N.; Phatak, D. R.


    The knowledge of seismic active earth pressure behind the rigid retaining wall is very essential in the design of retaining wall in earthquake prone regions. Commonly used Mononobe-Okabe (MO) method considers pseudo-static approach. Recently there are many pseudo-dynamic methods used to evaluate the seismic earth pressure. However, available pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods do not incorporate the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure distribution. Dubrova (Interaction between soils and structures, Rechnoi Transport, Moscow, 1963) was the first, who considered such effect and till date, it is used for cohesionless soil, without considering the effect of seismicity. In this paper, Dubrova's model based on redistribution principle, considering the seismic effect has been developed. It is further used to compute the distribution of seismic active earth pressure, in a more realistic manner, by considering the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure, as it is displacement based method. The effects of a wide range of parameters like soil friction angle (ϕ), wall friction angle (δ), horizontal and vertical seismic acceleration coefficients (kh and kv); on seismic active earth pressure (Kae) have been studied. Results are presented for comparison of pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods, to highlight the realistic, non-linearity of seismic active earth pressure distribution. The current study results in the variation of Kae with kh in the same manner as that of MO method and Choudhury and Nimbalkar (Geotech Geol Eng 24(5):1103-1113, 2006) study. To increase in ϕ, there is a reduction in static as well as seismic earth pressure. Also, by keeping constant ϕ value, as kh increases from 0 to 0.3, earth pressure increases; whereas as δ increases, active earth pressure decreases. The seismic active earth pressure coefficient (Kae) obtained from the present study is approximately same as that obtained by previous researchers. Though seismic earth

  14. Evaluation of Viking Lander barometric pressure sensor. [performance related to Viking mission environments (United States)

    Mitchell, M.


    Variable reluctance type pressure sensors were evaluated to determine their performance characteristics related to Viking Mission environment levels. Static calibrations were performed throughout the evaluation over the full range of the sensors using two point contact manometer standards. From the beginning of the evaluation to the end of the evaluation, the zero shift in the two sensors was within 0.5 percent, and the sensitivity shift was 0.05 percent. The maximum thermal zero coefficient exhibited by the sensors was 0.032 percent over the temperature range of -28.89 C to 71.11 C. The evaluation results indicated that the sensors are capable of making high accuracy pressure measurements while being exposed to the conditions mentioned.

  15. Clamp Restrains Pressure Line (United States)

    Aliberti, J. A.


    Safety restraint protects people and property if a high-pressure fitting fails. As long as pressure line remains attached at the fitting, clamp exerts essentially no force on hose. If fitting fails, force of fluid leaving free end of hose causes the cam on the clamp to compress hose with a positive locking action.

  16. A mathematical model approach quantifying patients' response to changes in mechanical ventilation: Evaluation in pressure support. (United States)

    Larraza, S; Dey, N; Karbing, D S; Jensen, J B; Nygaard, M; Winding, R; Rees, S E


    This article evaluates how mathematical models of gas exchange, blood acid-base status, chemical respiratory drive, and muscle function can describe the respiratory response of spontaneously breathing patients to different levels of pressure support. The models were evaluated with data from 12 patients ventilated in pressure support ventilation. Models were tuned with clinical data (arterial blood gas measurement, ventilation, and respiratory gas fractions of O2 and CO2) to describe each patient at the clinical level of pressure support. Patients were ventilated up to 5 different pressure support levels, for 15 minutes at each level to achieve steady-state conditions. Model-simulated values of respiratory frequency (fR), arterial pH (pHa), and end-tidal CO2 (FeCO2) were compared to measured values at each pressure support level. Model simulations compared well to measured data with Bland-Altman bias and limits of agreement of fR of 0.7 ± 2.2 per minute, pHa of -0.0007 ± 0.019, and FeCO2 of -0.001 ± 0.003. The models describe patients' fR, pHa, and FeCO2 response to changes in pressure support with low bias and narrow limits of agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Flexible Force Sensors for Pressure Monitoring in Treatment of Chronic Venous Disorders. (United States)

    Parmar, Suresh; Khodasevych, Iryna; Troynikov, Olga


    The recent use of graduated compression therapy for treatment of chronic venous disorders such as leg ulcers and oedema has led to considerable research interest in flexible and low-cost force sensors. Properly applied low pressure during compression therapy can substantially improve the treatment of chronic venous disorders. However, achievement of the recommended low pressure levels and its accurate determination in real-life conditions is still a challenge. Several thin and flexible force sensors, which can also function as pressure sensors, are commercially available, but their real-life sensing performance has not been evaluated. Moreover, no researchers have reported information on sensor performance during static and dynamic loading within the realistic test conditions required for compression therapy. This research investigated the sensing performance of five low-cost commercial pressure sensors on a human-leg-like test apparatus and presents quantitative results on the accuracy and drift behaviour of these sensors in both static and dynamic conditions required for compression therapy. Extensive experimental work on this new human-leg-like test setup demonstrated its utility for evaluating the sensors. Results showed variation in static and dynamic sensing performance, including accuracy and drift characteristics. Only one commercially available pressure sensor was found to reliably deliver accuracy of 95% and above for all three test pressure points of 30, 50 and 70 mmHg.

  18. Evaluation of four non-invasive methods for examination and characterization of pressure ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Karlsmark, T.


    , we here report on usability of four non-invasive techniques for evaluation of pressure ulcers. Methods: Fifteen pressure ulcers in stage 0-IV were examined using four different non-invasive techniques [redness index, skin temperature, skin elasticity (i.e. retraction time), and ultrasound scanning......Background: Pressure ulcers are globally of major concern and there is need for research in the pathogenesis for early intervention. Early studies have suggested existence of a hypo-echogenic subepidermal layer at the location of pressure ulcers, visualized by ultrasound scans. As a continuation......]. Measurements were made at the ulcer, 5 cm from the ulcer, and at a reference skin location without ulcers. Results: The redness index was, in all cases, higher at the ulcers than at the reference skin. Temperature measurements were rather scattered. Ultrasound scans showed a hypo-echogenic subepidermal layer...

  19. Coupled optical resonance laser locking. (United States)

    Burd, S C; du Toit, P J W; Uys, H


    We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to coupled transitions of ions in the same spectroscopic sample, by detecting only the absorption of the UV laser. Separate signals for locking the different lasers are obtained by modulating each laser at a different frequency and using lock-in detection of a single photodiode signal. Experimentally, we simultaneously lock a 369 nm and a 935 nm laser to the (2)S(1/2) → (2)(P(1/2) and (2)D(3/2) → (3)D([3/2]1/2) transitions, respectively, of Yb(+) ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Stabilized lasers at these frequencies are required for cooling and trapping Yb(+) ions, used in quantum information and in high precision metrology experiments. This technique should be readily applicable to other ion and neutral atom systems requiring multiple stabilized lasers.

  20. Design of a lock-amplifier circuit (United States)

    Liu, H.; Huang, W. J.; Song, X.; Zhang, W. Y.; Sa, L. B.


    The lock-in amplifier is recovered by phase sensitive detection technique for the weak signal submerged in the noise background. This design is based on the TI ultra low power LM358, INA129, OPA227, OP07 and other chips as the core design and production of the lock-in amplifier. Signal generator by 10m ohms /1K ohm resistance points pressure network 10 mu V 1mV adjustable sine wave signal s (T). The concomitant interference signal together through the AC amplifier and band-pass filter signal x (T), on the other hand reference signal R (T) driven by square wave phase shift etc. steps to get the signal R (T), two signals and by phase sensitive detector are a DC full wave, again through its low pass filter and a DC amplifier to be measured signal more accurate detection, the final circuit through the AD conversion and the use of single-chip will display the output.

  1. Reconfigurable Braille display with phase change locking (United States)

    Soule, Cody W.; Lazarus, Nathan


    Automatically updated signs and displays for sighted people are common in today’s world. However, there is no cheap, low power equivalent available for the blind. This work demonstrates a reconfigurable Braille cell using the solid-to-liquid phase change of a low melting point alloy as a zero holding power locking mechanism. The device is actuated with the alloy in the liquid state, and is then allowed to solidify to lock the Braille dot in the actuated position. A low-cost manufacturing process is developed that includes molding of a rigid silicone to create pneumatic channels, and bonding of a thin membrane of a softer silicone on the surface for actuation. A plug of Field’s metal (melting point 62 °C) is placed in the pneumatic channels below each Braille dot to create the final device. The device is well suited for low duty cycle operation in applications such as signs, and is able to maintain its state indefinitely without additional power input. The display requires a pneumatic pressure of only 24 kPa for actuation, and reconfiguration has been demonstrated in less than a minute and a half.

  2. Evaluation of healing of pressure ulcers through thermography: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Abreu Chaves

    Full Text Available Introduction Thermography is a surface thermal radiation measurement technique whose application has been expanding in the healthcare field. The unhealed wound is a serious public health problem because it intervenes in the quality of life of patients and may cause emotional and psychological losses. The wound temperature can provide quantitative data that allow for the healing process to be monitored. The aim of this study was to verify whether thermography can be used as a method to evaluate the healing of pressure ulcers. Methods Eight participants with sacral pressure ulcers were recruited and randomly divided into two groups: A (control and B (experimental. Both groups received standard treatment for a period of four weeks, which consisted of a daily cleaning of the pressure ulcers with physiological saline (sodium chloride 0.9% followed by an alginate hydrogel dressing. The group B received light-emitting diode (LED phototherapy in addition to standard treatment, three times a week, yielding a total of 12 sessions. Photographs and thermograms of each pressure ulcer were obtained in all sessions in both groups. Results Pressure ulcers treated with LED phototherapy were healed. The pressure ulcer area of group B decreased over the 12 treatment sessions, whereas the pressure ulcer area of group A increased. The ulcer temperature of group B was higher than that of group A during the treatment (temperature difference up to 7.6%. Discussion The present study suggests a relationship between the temperature and area of pressure ulcers and proposes thermography as an adjunctive method for the evaluation of healing processes.

  3. Evaluation of a formal care worker educational intervention on pressure ulceration in the community. (United States)

    Cross, Carol; Hindley, Jenny; Carey, Nicola


    To develop and evaluate an educational intervention for formal care workers on pressure ulceration in the community. Pressure ulcers are a major burden to health care and with an ageing population likely to increase. Formal care workers are ideally placed to identify high risk but lack standardised educational provision. An insider approach to action research in one provider organisation, November 2014-May 2015. Number and categorisation of pressure ulcers, within three community nursing teams before and four months after intervention was delivered to a purposive sample (n = 250) of formal care workers, were assessed and the taught element evaluated using a questionnaire and verbal feedback. Total number of pressure ulcers reduced from 28-20, category II, 19-11, III unchanged at 6 and IV from 2-0 following the educational intervention. Key risk factors included impaired mobility (71%), urinary incontinence (61%) and previous pressure damage (25%), and 71% had formal care worker input. The intervention was highly rated 4·95/5 by 215 (86%) formal care workers in the evaluation questionnaire. Formal care workers receive little, if any, education on pressure ulceration. An educational intervention can have a positive effect within community care, with the potential to reduce direct costs of care. However, a standardised approach to education is required; an urgent review of the education provision to formal care workers, in the UK and around the world, is therefore essential if the potential that formal care workers offer is to be realised. Formal care workers are ideally placed to help identify and alert healthcare professionals about patients at high risk of developing pressure ulcers. If this potential is to be realised, a standardised approach to education is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Line locking and SS 433 (United States)

    Pekarevich, M.; Piran, T.; Shaham, J.


    The general problem of acceleration by line locking in an optically thin medium is considered. Analytic solutions to the coupled equations of radiation transfer and matter motion are presented. Using these solutions, restrictions on the physical conditions of the accelerated matter are derived. By applying these conditions to SS 433, it is found that if the absorbing ion is light (hydrogen or helium), the matter must be highly clumped, and the acceleration has to begin at approximately 10 to the 12th cm. Line-locking acceleration with a hydrogen-like heavy ion such as iron demands higher than solar ion abundance.

  5. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces (United States)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.


    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  6. Development and field evaluation of a pipe renewal system for high pressure gas mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckendorf, P. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Driver, F.T. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States); Lawrence, S. [Pacific Gas & Electric, San Ramon, CA (United States)


    This paper describes a cured-in-place pipe renewal product, the high pressure liner, for use in natural gas pipelines at up to 450 psig. The liner development, testing of liner strength and durability, state approval, and field evaluation results are summarized. Problems encountered during field testing included: (1) modifications required for end seals, including methods for installation and seal integrity pressure testing; (2) gas leakage betweem the liner and the pipe; (3) liner wrinkling at a 20 degree miter joint. These problems are being addressed by redesign and/or further study; overall, the initial field evaluation successfully advanced the development of a high pressure liner as a significantly lower cost alternative for pipeline renewal.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of atmospheric pressure in different seasons on blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamiński, Marek; Cieślik-Guerra, Urszula I; Kotas, Rafał; Mazur, Piotr; Marańda, Witold; Piotrowicz, Maciej; Sakowicz, Bartosz; Napieralski, Andrzej; Trzos, Ewa; Uznańska-Loch, Barbara; Rechciński, Tomasz; Kurpesa, Małgorzata


    .... The main objective of our research was to assess the relationship between atmospheric pressure recorded with a frequency of 1 measurement per minute and the results of 24-h blood pressure monitoring...

  8. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.


    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  9. Pressure-Relief Features of Fixed and Autotitrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Impair Their Efficacy: Evaluation with a Respiratory Bench Model (United States)

    Zhu, Kaixian; Aouf, Sami; Roisman, Gabriel; Escourrou, Pierre


    , Roisman G, Escourrou P. Pressure-relief features of fixed and autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure may impair their efficacy: evaluation with a respiratory bench model. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):385–392. PMID:26564383

  10. Development of strength evaluation method for high-pressure ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegami, Hiroaki, E-mail:; Terada, Atsuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki


    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is conducting R and D on nuclear hydrogen production by the Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. Since highly corrosive materials such as sulfuric and hydriodic acids are used in the IS process, it is very important to develop components made of corrosion resistant materials. Therefore, we have been developing a sulfuric acid decomposer made of a ceramic material, that is, silicon carbide (SiC), which shows excellent corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid. One of the key technological challenges for the practical use of a ceramic sulfuric acid decomposer made of SiC is to be licensed in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act for high-pressure operations of the IS process. Since the strength of a ceramic material depends on its geometric form, etc., the strength evaluation method required for a pressure design is not established. Therefore, we propose a novel strength evaluation method for SiC structures based on the effective volume theory in order to extend the range of application of the effective volume. We also developed a design method for ceramic apparatus with the strength evaluation method in order to obtain a license in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act. In this paper, the minimum strength of SiC components was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the minimum strength evaluation method of SiC components was developed by using the results of simulation. The method was confirmed by fracture test of tube model and reference data.

  11. Evaluating piezo-electric transducer response to thermal shock from in-cylinder pressure data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, E.; Sierens, R.; Baert, R.S.G.


    One of the major effects limiting the accuracy of piezo-electric transducers for performing in-cyclinder pressure measurements is their sensitivity to the cyclic thermal loading effects of the intermittent combustion process. This paper compares 5 different methods for evaluating the effect of this

  12. Comparative assessment of PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques applied to a transonic base flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinde, P; Michaelis, D; van Oudheusden, B.W.; Weiss, P.E.; de Kat, R.; Laskari, A.; Jeon, Y.J.; David, L; Schanz, D; Huhn, F.; Gesemann, S; Novara, M.; McPhaden, C.; Neeteson, N.; Rival, D.; Schneiders, J.F.G.; Schrijer, F.F.J.


    A test case for PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques has been developed by constructing a simulated experiment from a ZDES simulation for an axisymmetric base flow at Mach 0.7. The test case comprises sequences of four subsequent particle images (representing multi-pulse data) as well as

  13. Applying of modern approach to evaluation of initial hydrocarbon reserves at the edge of saturation pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Ігорович Коваль


    Full Text Available The article deals the features for evaluation of initial saturated hydrocarbon reserves, which developed as the depletion of reservoir energy and the maintenance of reservoir pressure. A new method of material balance is used with accounting of the gravity distribution of reservoir system components, extraction of each component of reservoir fluids, change of their physical properties in the development of deposits

  14. Salinity-gradient power: Evaluation of pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jan W.; Veerman, J.A.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Euverink, Gerrit J.W.; Metz, S.J.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Buisman, Cees J.N.


    A huge potential to obtain clean energy exists from mixing water streams with different salt concentrations. Two membrane-based energy conversion techniques are evaluated: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. From the literature, a comparison is not possible since the reported

  15. Salinity-gradient power : Evaluation of pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jan W.; Veerman, Joost; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Euverink, Gerrit J.W.; Metz, Sybrand J.; Nymeijer, Kitty; Buisman, Cees J.N.


    A huge potential to obtain clean energy exists from mixing water streams with different salt concentrations. Two membrane-based energy conversion techniques are evaluated: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. From the literature, a comparison is not possible since the reported

  16. 77 FR 69541 - Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in... (United States)


    ..., Mathematical Statistician, Mathematical Analysis Division, NVS-421, National Center for Statistics and Analysis... report is an analysis of the data collected through the Tire Pressure Monitoring System-Special Study as... Regulatory Analysis and Evaluation. BILLING CODE 4910-59-P ...

  17. Phase locking of a mode-locked titanium-sapphire laser-based optical frequency comb to a reference laser using a fast piezoelectric actuator. (United States)

    Hatanaka, Shuhei; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Mitaki, Masatoshi; Misono, Masatoshi; Slyusarev, Sergey N; Kitano, Masao


    We phase lock an octave-spanning optical frequency comb, generated using a mode-locked titanium-sapphire laser and a photonic-crystal fiber, to a continuous-wave laser line-narrowed to a reference cavity. To phase lock the pulse-repetition frequency, the cavity length of the mode-locked laser is controlled by using a fast piezoelectric-actuated mirror of a servo bandwidth up to 80 kHz. The residual phase noise is 0.35 rad, and 89% of the power is concentrated to the carrier. To apply the system to optical frequency-ratio measurements and to evaluate the phase locking, a simultaneous frequency measurement of the beat between the other mode of the comb and another laser line-narrowed to a different resonance of the common reference cavity is demonstrated.

  18. Wheel slip control of ABS using ER valve pressure modulator (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.


    This paper presents a wheel slip control via sliding mode controller for a new anti-lock brake system (ABS) of a passenger vehicle using electrorheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. The principal design parameters of the ER valves and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering braking pressure variation during ABS operation. An electrically controllable pressure modulator using the ER valves is then constructed and its governing equations are derived. Subsequently, the pressure control performance of the new pressure modulator is experimentally evaluated. The governing equations of motion for a quarter car wheel model are derived and the sliding mode controller is formulated for wheel slip control. Hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) for braking performance evaluation is undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ABS associated with the ER valve pressure modulator.

  19. Pressure slip casting and cold isostatic pressing of aluminum titanate green ceramics: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Papitha


    Full Text Available Aluminum titanate (Al2TiO5 green bodies were prepared from mixture of titania and alumina powders with different particle sizes by conventional slip casting (CSC, pressure slip casting (PSC and cold isostatic pressing (CIP. Precursor-powder mixtures were evaluated with respect to the powder properties, flow behaviours and shaping parameters. Green densities were measured and correlated with the fractographs. A substantial increase in green densities up to 60 %TD (theoretical density of 4.02 g/cm3, calculated based on rule of mixtures is observed with the application of 2–3 MPa pressure with PSC. While particle size distribution and solid loading are the most influential parameters in the case of CSC, with PSC pressure also plays a key role in achieving the higher green densities. Being a dry process, high pressure of > 100 MPa for CIP is essential to achieve densities in the range of 60–65 %TD. Slip pressurization under PSC conditions facilitate the rearrangement of particles through rolling, twisting and interlocking unlike CIP processing where pressure is needed to overcome the inter-particle friction.

  20. Blood pressure reduction, persistence and costs in the evaluation of antihypertensive drug treatment – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Joerg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure lowering drugs are usually evaluated in short term trials determining the absolute blood pressure reduction during trough and the duration of the antihypertensive effect after single or multiple dosing. A lack of persistence with treatment has however been shown to be linked to a worse cardiovascular prognosis. This review explores the blood pressure reduction and persistence with treatment of antihypertensive drugs and the cost consequences of poor persistence with pharmaceutical interventions in arterial hypertension. Methods We have searched the literature for data on blood pressure lowering effects of different antihypertensive drug classes and agents, on persistence with treatment, and on related costs. Persistence was measured as patients' medication possession rate. Results are presented in the form of a systematic review. Results Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs have a competitive blood pressure lowering efficacy compared with ACE-inhibitors (ACEi and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, beta-blockers (BBs and diuretics. 8 studies describing the persistence with treatment were identified. Patients were more persistent on ARBs than on ACEi and CCBs, BBs and diuretics. Thus the product of blood pressure lowering and persistence was higher on ARBs than on any other drug class. Although the price per tablet of more recently developed drugs (ACEi, ARBs is higher than that of older ones (diuretics and BBs, the newer drugs result in a more favourable cost to effect ratio when direct drug costs and indirect costs are also considered. Conclusion To evaluate drugs for the treatment of hypertension several key variables including the blood pressure lowering effect, side effects, compliance/persistence with treatment, as well as drug costs and direct and indirect costs of medical care have to be considered. ARBs, while nominally more expensive when drug costs are considered only, provide substantial cost savings

  1. Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.


    In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

  2. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined time...

  3. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except forced...

  4. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means of...

  5. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid or...

  6. Bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Willems; Braakman, R. (Reinder); B. van Linge (Bert)


    textabstractTwo cases of traumatic bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine are reported. Both patients had only minor neurological signs. They both made a full neurological recovery after surgical reduction of the locked facets. Bilateral locked facets are very uncommon in the thoracic spine.

  7. 46 CFR 108.157 - Locked doors. (United States)


    ... may be designed to lock except— (a) A crash door or a door that has a locking device that can be... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... has control of the key to the door's lock. ...

  8. Locked jaw in polymyalgia rheumatica. (United States)

    Lim, S H; McLeay, G


    Polymyalgia rheumatica is a common disease affecting the elderly population. Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific, including pain and stiffness in the proximal muscles, anorexia, fatigue, depression, weight loss, fever and temporal headaches. We would like to report a case of polymyalgia rheumatica with locked jaw, a feature yet unrecorded.

  9. Advances phase-lock techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, James A


    From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

  10. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  11. Tidal locking of habitable exoplanets (United States)

    Barnes, Rory


    Potentially habitable planets can orbit close enough to their host star that the differential gravity across their diameters can produce an elongated shape. Frictional forces inside the planet prevent the bulges from aligning perfectly with the host star and result in torques that alter the planet's rotational angular momentum. Eventually the tidal torques fix the rotation rate at a specific frequency, a process called tidal locking. Tidally locked planets on circular orbits will rotate synchronously, but those on eccentric orbits will either librate or rotate super-synchronously. Although these features of tidal theory are well known, a systematic survey of the rotational evolution of potentially habitable exoplanets using classic equilibrium tide theories has not been undertaken. I calculate how habitable planets evolve under two commonly used models and find, for example, that one model predicts that the Earth's rotation rate would have synchronized after 4.5 Gyr if its initial rotation period was 3 days, it had no satellites, and it always maintained the modern Earth's tidal properties. Lower mass stellar hosts will induce stronger tidal effects on potentially habitable planets, and tidal locking is possible for most planets in the habitable zones of GKM dwarf stars. For fast-rotating planets, both models predict eccentricity growth and that circularization can only occur once the rotational frequency is similar to the orbital frequency. The orbits of potentially habitable planets of very late M dwarfs ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) are very likely to be circularized within 1 Gyr, and hence, those planets will be synchronous rotators. Proxima b is almost assuredly tidally locked, but its orbit may not have circularized yet, so the planet could be rotating super-synchronously today. The evolution of the isolated and potentially habitable Kepler planet candidates is computed and about half could be tidally locked. Finally, projected TESS planets

  12. Tidal locking of habitable exoplanets (United States)

    Barnes, Rory


    Potentially habitable planets can orbit close enough to their host star that the differential gravity across their diameters can produce an elongated shape. Frictional forces inside the planet prevent the bulges from aligning perfectly with the host star and result in torques that alter the planet's rotational angular momentum. Eventually the tidal torques fix the rotation rate at a specific frequency, a process called tidal locking. Tidally locked planets on circular orbits will rotate synchronously, but those on eccentric orbits will either librate or rotate super-synchronously. Although these features of tidal theory are well known, a systematic survey of the rotational evolution of potentially habitable exoplanets using classic equilibrium tide theories has not been undertaken. I calculate how habitable planets evolve under two commonly used models and find, for example, that one model predicts that the Earth's rotation rate would have synchronized after 4.5 Gyr if its initial rotation period was 3 days, it had no satellites, and it always maintained the modern Earth's tidal properties. Lower mass stellar hosts will induce stronger tidal effects on potentially habitable planets, and tidal locking is possible for most planets in the habitable zones of GKM dwarf stars. For fast-rotating planets, both models predict eccentricity growth and that circularization can only occur once the rotational frequency is similar to the orbital frequency. The orbits of potentially habitable planets of very late M dwarfs ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) are very likely to be circularized within 1 Gyr, and hence, those planets will be synchronous rotators. Proxima b is almost assuredly tidally locked, but its orbit may not have circularized yet, so the planet could be rotating super-synchronously today. The evolution of the isolated and potentially habitable Kepler planet candidates is computed and about half could be tidally locked. Finally, projected TESS planets

  13. Development of Evaluation Technology of the Integrity of HWR Pressure Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Im, K. S.; Kim, K. S.; Ahn, S. B


    Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes are one of the most critical structural components governing the lifetime of the heavy water reactors to carry fuel bundles and heavy coolant water inside. Since they are being degraded during their operation in reactors due to dimensional changes caused by creep and irradiation growth, neutron irradiation and delayed hydride cracking, it is required to evaluate their degradation by conducting material testing and examinations on the highly irradiated pressure tubes in hot cells and to keep tracking of their degradation behavior with operation time, which are the aim of this project.

  14. Intra-operative augmented reality in distal locking. (United States)

    Londei, Roberto; Esposito, Marco; Diotte, Benoit; Weidert, Simon; Euler, Ekkehard; Thaller, Peter; Navab, Nassir; Fallavollita, Pascal


    To design an augmented reality solution that assists surgeons during the distal locking of intramedullary nailing procedures. Traditionally, the procedure is performed under X-ray guidance and requires a significant amount of time and radiation exposure. To absolve these complications, we propose video guidance that allows surgeons to achieve both the down-the-beam position of the intramedullary nail and its subsequent locking. For the down-the-beam position, the IM nail pose in X-ray is calculated using a 2D/3D registration scheme and later related to the patient leg pose which is calculated using video-tracked AR markers. For the distal locking, surgeons use an augmented radiolucent drill in which its tip position is detected and tracked in real-time under video guidance. To evaluate the feasibility of our solution, we performed a preclinical study on dry bone phantom with the participation of four clinicians. Participants achieved 100 % success rate in the down-the beam positioning and 93 % success rate in distal locking using only two X-ray images in 100 s. We confirmed that intra-operative navigation using augmented reality provides an alternative way to perform distal locking in a safe and timely manner.

  15. Marmet Locks and Dam, Kanawha River, West Virginia (United States)


    lapse video systems and an underwater remotely operated vehicle . The purpose of this monitoring study was to determine if the project is...longitudinal culvert system, and Stoney gate valves. The lock was monitored using time-lapse video systems and an underwater remotely operated vehicle . The...culvert system experienced peak average velocities of 18 feet per second, although no adverse pressures were found. A remotely operated vehicle

  16. Experimental evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopes at high chamber pressure. (United States)

    Fitzek, H; Schroettner, H; Wagner, J; Hofer, F; Rattenberger, J


    In environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) high pressure applications have become increasingly important. Wet or biological samples can be investigated without time-consuming sample preparation and potential artefacts from this preparation can be neglected. Unfortunately, the signal-to-noise ratio strongly decreases with increasing chamber pressure. To evaluate the high pressure performance of ESEM and to compare different electron microscopes, information about spatial resolution and detector type is not enough. On the one hand, the scattering of the primary electron beam increases, which vanishes the contrast in images; and on the other hand, the secondary electrons (SE) signal amplification decreases. The stagnation gas thickness (effective distance the beam has to travel through the imaging gas) as well as the SE detection system depend on the microscope and for a complete and serious evaluation of an ESEM or low vacuum SEM it is necessary to specify these two parameters. A method is presented to determine the fraction of scattered and unscattered electrons and to calculate the stagnation gas thickness (θ). To evaluate the high pressure performance of the SE detection system, a method is presented that allows for an analysis of a single image and the calculation of the signal-to-noise ratio of this image. All investigations are performed on an FEI ESEM Quanta 600 (field emission gun) and an FEI ESEM Quanta 200 (thermionic gun). These methods and measurements should represent opportunities for evaluating the high pressure performance of an ESEM. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Evaluation of dynamic fracture toughness for Yong Gwang unit 5 reactor pressure vessel materials (Baseline Tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi Se Hwan; Kim, Joo Hag; Hong, Jun Hwa; Kwon, Sun Chil; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    The dynamic fracture toughness (K{sub d}) of intermediate shell and its weld in SA 508 CI. 3 Yong Gwang 5 reactor pressure vessel was determined and evaluated. Precracked thirty six Charpy specimens were tested by using an instrumented impact tester. The purpose of present work is to evaluate and confirm the un-irradiated dynamic fracture toughness and to provide pre-irradiation baseline data for future evaluation on dynamic fracture toughness change during operation. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. An evaluation of the pressure proof test concept for 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet (United States)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Newman, J. C.; Harris, C. E.


    The concept of pressure proof testing of fuselage structures with fatigue cracks to insure structural integrity was evaluated from a fracture mechanics viewpoint. A generic analytical and experimental investigation was conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with crack configurations and stress levels typical of longitudinal lap splice joints in commercial transport aircraft fuselages. The results revealed that the remaining fatigue life after a proof cycle was longer than that without the proof cycle because of crack growth retardation due to increased crack closure. However, based on a crack length that is slightly less than the critical value at the maximum proof stress, the minimum assured life or proof test interval must be no more than 550 pressure cycles for a 1.33 proof factor and 1530 pressure cycles for a 1.5 proof factor to prevent in-flight failures.

  19. Evaluation of continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring for assessment of prostaglandin-induced pressure reduction in glaucoma. (United States)

    Holló, Gábor; Kóthy, Péter; Vargha, Péter


    To evaluate 24-hour continuous intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring with a telemetric contact lens sensor (CLS) to detect prostaglandin-induced IOP reduction. In this prospective interventional study 9 ocular hypertensive and primary open-angle glaucoma patients were washed out from IOP-lowering medication for 6 weeks. One study eye per patient underwent 3 baseline 24-hour measurement curves 4 days apart: 2 curves with Sensimed Triggerfish CLS and 1 curve with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Then the patients received travoprost monotherapy for 3 months. The 24-hour CLS and GAT curves were repeated on the study eyes under treatment at the end of the third month. The 24-hour GAT IOP (mean±SD) decreased from 22.91±5.11 to 18.24±2.49 mm Hg (P0.05). Our results suggest that the current CLS technique cannot be clinically used to monitor IOP decrease induced by topical medication in glaucoma, and has limited value in identification of transient IOP elevation periods.

  20. Effectiveness of an e-learning tool for education on pressure ulcer evaluation. (United States)

    Morente, Laura; Morales-Asencio, José M; Veredas, Francisco J


    To evaluate the effectiveness of information and communication technologies in the undergraduate students' pressure ulcer training as a learning tool, compared with traditional teaching methods. Pressure ulcers constitute one of the great challenges faced by nursing professionals. Currently, pressure ulcer training is based on traditional on-campus teaching, involving lecture-style classes with frequent use of photographs of the wounds. This traditional training has some important weaknesses that can put the efficacy of the training at risk. A randomised controlled trial was developed including undergraduate nursing students. The intervention group used an adaptive self-learning e-learning tool developed by the research team (ePULab) for pressure ulcer assessment and treatment. The control group received a traditional on-campus class on the same topic. Pretest and post-test questionnaires were designed to assess the students' ability in pressure ulcer diagnosis and treatment. The educational intervention based on the use of the ePULab tool produced significantly better learning acquisition results than those obtained by traditional lecture-style classes: the total score improved in the control group from 8·23 (SD 1·23)-11·6 (SD 2·52) after the lecture, whereas in the intervention group, the knowledge score changed from 8·27 (SD 1·39)-15·83 (SD 2·52) (p = 0·01) with the use of ePULab. The results show a higher effectiveness of the devised e-learning approach for education on management of pressure ulcers. Our results reveal the suitability of the ePULab e-learning tool as an effective instrument for training on assessment of and treatment for pressure ulcers and its potential impact on clinical decision-making. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial on Physical Therapy for TMJ Closed Lock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craane, B.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Stappaerts, K.; De Laat, A.

    This study evaluated the one-year effect of physical therapy on pain and mandibular dysfunction associated with anterior disc displacement without reduction of the temporomandibular joint (closed lock). Forty-nine individuals were randomly assigned to either a physical therapy group [n = 23, mean

  2. Reduction of peak plantar pressure in people with diabetes-related peripheral neuropathy: an evaluation of the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspovic Anita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offloading plantar pressure is a key strategy for the prevention or healing of neuropathic plantar ulcers in diabetes. Non-removable walking casts, such as total contact casts, are currently considered the gold-standard for offloading this type of wound. However, alternative methods for offloading that are more cost effective and easier to use are continually being sought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ to offload high pressure areas under the neuropathic foot in diabetes. Methods A within-subjects, repeated measures design was used. Sixteen participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were recruited and three footwear conditions were evaluated in a randomised order: a canvas shoe (the control, the participants’ own standard shoe, and the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™. The primary outcome was peak plantar pressure, measured using the pedar-X® mobile in-shoe system between the three conditions. Results Data analysis was conducted on 14 out of the 16 participants because two participants could not complete data collection. The mean peak pressure values in kPa (±SD for each condition were: control shoe 315.9 (±140.7, participants’ standard shoe 273.0 (±127.1 and DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ 155.4 (±89.9. There was a statistically significant difference in peak plantar pressure between the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ compared to both the control shoe (p = 0.002 and participants’ standard shoe (p = 0.001. The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ decreased plantar pressures by 51% compared to the control shoe and by 43% compared to participants’ standard shoe. Importantly, for a couple of study participants, the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ appeared unsuitable for day-to-day wearing. Conclusions The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ reduced plantar pressures more than the other two shoe conditions. The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ may be a useful alternative to current offloading

  3. Evaluation of the pressure ulcers risk scales with critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Tomazini Borghardt


    Full Text Available AIMS: to evaluate the accuracy of the Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales in critically ill inpatients.METHOD: this prospective cohort study, with 55 patients in intensive care units, was performed through evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical variables, through the application of the scales (Braden and Waterlow upon admission and every 48 hours; and through the evaluation and classification of the ulcers into categories.RESULTS: the pressure ulcer incidence was 30.9%, with the Braden and Waterlow scales presenting high sensitivity (41% and 71% and low specificity (21% and 47% respectively in the three evaluations. The cut off scores found in the first, second and third evaluations were 12, 12 and 11 in the Braden scale, and 16, 15 and 14 in the Waterlow scale.CONCLUSION: the Braden scale was shown to be a good screening instrument, and the Waterlow scale proved to have better predictive power.

  4. Meta-analysis of 24-hour intraocular pressure studies evaluating the efficacy of glaucoma medicines. (United States)

    Stewart, William C; Konstas, Anastasios G P; Nelson, Lindsay A; Kruft, Bonnie


    To evaluate efficacy and safety data of currently available ocular hypotensive medicines derived from 24-hour studies, of similar design, in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), exfoliative glaucoma, or ocular hypertension (OH). Meta-analysis of published articles evaluating patients with POAG, exfoliative glaucoma, or OH. We included articles that were randomized, prospective, single- or double-masked, comparative studies of ocular hypotensive therapies over 24 hours. Each article selected contained an untreated baseline, >or=4-week treatment period, >/=20 patients per treatment arm, and >or=6 time points not spaced >5 hours apart and used Goldmann applanation or Tonopen tonometry (supine measurements) to measure intraocular pressure (IOP). Twenty-four-hour IOP efficacy. This analysis included 864 separate 24-hour treatment curves from 386 patients in 28 treatment arms from 11 studies. A statistical difference in the mean diurnal pressure decrease existed between monotherapy treatments for POAG/OH patients, with bimatoprost (29%) and travoprost (27%) showing the greatest 24-hour reduction (P = 0.026). Timolol 0.5% was less effective than latanoprost (24% vs. 19% reduction) but decreased the pressure at each night time point (P = 0.0003). Dorzolamide showed a 19% 24-hour pressure reduction and brimonidine 0.2% a 14% one. In exfoliative glaucoma patients, latanoprost and travoprost showed higher baseline and treatment pressures, although the pressure reductions (29% and 31%, respectively) were greater generally than observed with POAG/OH. An evening-dosed latanoprost/timolol fixed combination reduced the pressure 33%, and the dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC), 26%. However, the power to detect a difference for this specific comparison was probably low, due to the limited number of patients (n = 20) in the DTFC group. A statistical difference between evening-dosed (24%) and morning-dosed (18%) latanoprost (Pmorning (26%) travoprost (P = 0

  5. Estimation of Pressure Index and Temperature Sensitivity Coefficient of Solid Rocket Propellants by Static Evaluation


    Himanshu Shekhar


    Burning rate of a solid rocket propellant depends on pressure and temperature. Conventional strand burner and Crawford bomb test on propellant strands was conducted to assess these dependent parameters. However, behaviour of propellant in rocket motor is different from its behaviour in strand form. To overcome this anomaly, data from static evaluation of rocket motor was directly used for assessment of these burningrate controlling parameters. The conventional empirical power law (r=aoexp[p{T...

  6. A multicenter evaluation of oral pressure therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea


    Colrain, IM; Black, J.; Siegel, LC; Bogan, RK; Becker, PM; Farid-Moayer, M; Goldberg, R.; Lankford, DA; Goldberg, AN; Malhotra, A


    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of a novel noninvasive oral pressure therapy (OPT) (Winx®, ApniCure) system on polysomnographic measures of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep architecture, and sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Subjects and methods: A 4-week, multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized, crossover, first-night order of control vs treatment, single-arm trial was conducted in five American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) - accredited sleep clinics ...

  7. Jaw locking after maxillofacial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja


    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present two cases of jaw locking with two different etiologies. In case #1, jaw locking occured 5.5 months after a surgical reduction and internal fixation on the fractured maxilla and mandible. Some plain radiographic x-ray were made but failed to give adequate information in establishing the cause of trismus. The three dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT was finally made and able to help guide the pre-operative diagnosis and treatment. Two-steps gap arthroplasty were done comprising a gap arthroplasty leading to acceptable outcome. An adult patient in case #2 with a history of trauma at his childhood and bird-like face apprearance clinically, was unable to open the mouth since the time of accident. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral ankylosis of temporomandibular joints. One side (right gap arthroplasty was done and resulted in normal mouth opening.

  8. Locking devise for oil platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.-A.; Naudin, J.-C.


    A self-raising oil well platform comprises a shell mounted to be movable along legs by means of raising mechanisms comprising output gear pinions cooperative with racks mounted on at least a part of the length of the legs. The locking device for such a platform comprises a toothed member forming a counter-rack mounted on the shell of the platform, means for shifting the toothed member transversely of the direction of the rack with which the device is associated for engaging or disengaging the teeth of the toothed member in the teeth of the rack, clamping plates connected to the toothed member and clamping counter-plates connected to the platform, and means for clamping the plates and counter-plates together so as to lock the toothed member in position in the rack. 4 figs.

  9. Evaluation and Optimization of Therapeutic Footwear for Neuropathic Diabetic Foot Patients Using In-Shoe Plantar Pressure Analysis (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A.; Haspels, Rob; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E.


    OBJECTIVE Therapeutic footwear for diabetic foot patients aims to reduce the risk of ulceration by relieving mechanical pressure on the foot. However, footwear efficacy is generally not assessed in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of in-shoe plantar pressure analysis to evaluate and optimize the pressure-reducing effects of diabetic therapeutic footwear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Dynamic in-shoe plantar pressure distribution was measured in 23 neuropathic diabetic foot patients wearing fully customized footwear. Regions of interest (with peak pressure >200 kPa) were selected and targeted for pressure optimization by modifying the shoe or insole. After each of a maximum of three rounds of modifications, the effect on in-shoe plantar pressure was measured. Successful optimization was achieved with a peak pressure reduction of >25% (criterion A) or below an absolute level of 200 kPa (criterion B). RESULTS In 35 defined regions, mean peak pressure was significantly reduced from 303 (SD 77) to 208 (46) kPa after an average 1.6 rounds of footwear modifications (P Footwear optimization lasted on average 53 min. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that in-shoe plantar pressure analysis is an effective and efficient tool to evaluate and guide footwear modifications that significantly reduce pressure in the neuropathic diabetic foot. This result provides an objective approach to instantly improve footwear quality, which should reduce the risk for pressure-related plantar foot ulcers. PMID:21610125

  10. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. The applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous`s empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  11. Interpretation and evaluation of monitoring results for main pipelines hydraulic pressure testing under non-isothermal conditions (United States)

    Kraus, Ju. A.; Ivanov, R. N.; Grinevich, V. A.; Pakhotin, A. N.


    The paper examines hydraulic pressure testing of main oil pipelines. The research objective is to identify and describe the characteristic features of pressure changes in pressure testing of the main pipeline, caused by temperature changes. The notions on the interpretation and evaluation of the results for pipeline pressure testing under non-isothermal conditions are given, the number of pressure sampling points and temperature information being limited; and considering the elevation difference along the length of the test section (where applicable). A formula for calculating the fresh water volumetric expansion coefficient correlation with temperature and pressure is proposed. A method for interpreting the hydraulic pressure testing results is developed, considering the parameters spread effect on the coefficients of the volumetric expansion and the modulus of elasticity for the test fluid, as well as the coefficients of linear expansion and Young's modulus for pipe steel. The application of the method allows to monitor the hydraulic pressure testing for main oil pipelines.

  12. Physics and Control of Locked Modes in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Francesco [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics


    This Final Technical Report summarizes an investigation, carried out under the auspices of the DOE Early Career Award, of the physics and control of non-rotating magnetic islands (“locked modes”) in tokamak plasmas. Locked modes are one of the main causes of disruptions in present tokamaks, and could be an even bigger concern in ITER, due to its relatively high beta (favoring the formation of Neoclassical Tearing Mode islands) and low rotation (favoring locking). For these reasons, this research had the goal of studying and learning how to control locked modes in the DIII-D National Fusion Facility under ITER-relevant conditions of high pressure and low rotation. Major results included: the first full suppression of locked modes and avoidance of the associated disruptions; the demonstration of error field detection from the interaction between locked modes, applied rotating fields and intrinsic errors; the analysis of a vast database of disruptive locked modes, which led to criteria for disruption prediction and avoidance.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Manga, Michael [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    Feedbacks that can destabilize the climates of synchronously rotating rocky planets may arise on planets with strong day-night surface temperature contrasts. Earth-like habitable planets maintain stable surface liquid water over geologic time. This requires equilibrium between the temperature-dependent rate of greenhouse-gas consumption by weathering, and greenhouse-gas resupply by other processes. Detected small-radius exoplanets, and anticipated M-dwarf habitable-zone rocky planets, are expected to be in synchronous rotation (tidally locked). In this paper, we investigate two hypothetical feedbacks that can destabilize climate on planets in synchronous rotation. (1) If small changes in pressure alter the temperature distribution across a planet's surface such that the weathering rate goes up when the pressure goes down, a runaway positive feedback occurs involving increasing weathering rate near the substellar point, decreasing pressure, and increasing substellar surface temperature. We call this feedback enhanced substellar weathering instability (ESWI). (2) When decreases in pressure increase the fraction of surface area above the melting point (through reduced advective cooling of the substellar point), and the corresponding increase in volume of liquid causes net dissolution of the atmosphere, a further decrease in pressure will occur. This substellar dissolution feedback can also cause a runaway climate shift. We use an idealized energy balance model to map out the conditions under which these instabilities may occur. In this simplified model, the weathering runaway can shrink the habitable zone and cause geologically rapid 10{sup 3}-fold atmospheric pressure shifts within the habitable zone. Mars may have undergone a weathering runaway in the past. Substellar dissolution is usually a negative feedback or weak positive feedback on changes in atmospheric pressure. It can only cause runaway changes for small, deep oceans and highly soluble atmospheric

  14. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates. (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S


    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  15. Evaluation of the Operator Protection Factors Offered by Positive Pressure Air Suits against Airborne Microbiological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A. Steward


    Full Text Available Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

  16. Report From BPTCS Project Team On Evaluation Of Additive Manufacturing For Pressure Retaining Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)


    ASME is evaluating the use of additive manufacturing (AM) for the construction of pressure equipment. The information in this report assesses available AM technologies for direct metal fabrication of pressure equipment. Background information is included in the report to provide context for those not experienced in AM technology. Only commercially available technologies for direct metal fabrication are addressed in the report because these AM methods are the only viable approaches for the construction of pressure equipment. Metal AM technologies can produce near-net shape parts by using multiple layers of material from a three dimensional (3D) design model of the geometry. Additive manufacturing of metal components was developed from polymer based rapid prototyping or 3D printing. At the current maturity level, AM application for pressure equipment has the potential to reduce delivery times and costs for complex shapes. AM will also lead to a reduction in the use of high cost materials, since parts can be created with corrosion resistant layers of high alloy material and structural layers of lower cost materials.

  17. Taurolidine lock is superior to heparin lock in the prevention of catheter related bloodstream infections and occlusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn D Olthof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN are at risk for catheter-related complications; mainly infections and occlusions. We have previously shown in HPN patients presenting with catheter sepsis that catheter locking with taurolidine dramatically reduced re-infections when compared with heparin. Our HPN population therefore switched from heparin to taurolidine in 2008. The aim of the present study was to compare long-term effects of this catheter lock strategy on the occurrence of catheter-related bloodstream infections and occlusions in HPN patients. METHODS: Data of catheter-related complications were retrospectively collected from 212 patients who received HPN between January 2000 and November 2011, comprising 545 and 200 catheters during catheter lock therapy with heparin and taurolidine, respectively. We evaluated catheter-related bloodstream infection and occlusion incidence rates using Poisson-normal regression analysis. Incidence rate ratios were calculated by dividing incidence rates of heparin by those of taurolidine, adjusting for underlying disease, use of anticoagulants or immune suppressives, frequency of HPN/fluid administration, composition of infusion fluids, and duration of HPN/fluid use before catheter creation. RESULTS: Bloodstream infection incidence rates were 1.1/year for heparin and 0.2/year for taurolidine locked catheters. Occlusion incidence rates were 0.2/year for heparin and 0.1/year for taurolidine locked catheters. Adjusted incidence ratios of heparin compared to taurolidine were 5.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.9-8.7 for bloodstream infections and 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.1 for occlusions. CONCLUSIONS: Given that no other procedural changes than the catheter lock strategy were implemented during the observation period, these data strongly suggest that taurolidine decreases catheter-related bloodstream infections and occlusions in HPN patients compared with heparin.

  18. Regarding the evaluation of the solid rocket propellant response function to pressure coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ION


    Full Text Available High frequency combustion instabilities imply a major risk for the solid rocket motor stableworking and they are directly linked to the propellant response to chamber pressure coupling. Thisarticle discusses a laboratory testing method for the measurement and evaluation of the pressurecoupled response for non-metalized propellants in a first stage. Experimental researches were donewith an adequate setup, built and improved in our lab, able to evaluate the propellant response byinterpreting the pressure oscillations damping in terms of propellant response. Our paper aims atdefining a linearized one-dimensional flow study model to analyze the disturbed operation of the solidpropellant rocket motors. Based on the applied model we can assert that the real part of propellantresponse is a function of the oscillations damping, acoustic energy in the motor chamber and variouslosses in the burning chamber. The imaginary part of propellant response mainly depends on thenormalized pulsation, on the burning chamber gas column and on the pressure oscillations frequency.Our research purpose was obviously to minimize the risk of the combustion instabilities effects on therocket motors working, by experimental investigations using jet modulating techniques and sustainedby an interesting study model based on the perturbation method.

  19. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.


    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  20. Phase Locking of CO(2) Lasers. (United States)

    Weingartner, W; Schröder, K; Schuöcker, D


    A method of phase locking two CO(2) lasers by radiation exchange is presented. This phase-locking was achieved by use of a copper prism as a beam folding device in the resonators and extraction of the output radiation by a common output coupler. Energy exchange led to a phase-locked state if several locking conditions were fulfilled. The amount of radiation injected from one resonator to the second cavity could be adjusted by movement of the prism. The influence of the strength of coupling on the locking range was studied. The beat signal between the two unlocked lasers could be measured, whereas in the case of phase-locked operation twice the intensity was detected. Despite the inclusion of several assumptions, a simplified mathematical model delivered good agreement between calculated and experimental results.

  1. [Modification of the test pressure-flow for evaluation of detrusor contractility in absence of urination]. (United States)

    Arustamov, D L; Akilov, F A; Rakhimov, N M; Khodzhimetov, T A


    The aim of the study was design and validation of the test for examination of detrusor contractility in the absence of urination. The method consists in registration of detrusor pressure in maximal speed of urinary flow in the course of artificial urination using Foley's catheter. Urethral resistance was modeled by raising drainage up to 40 cm above the level of the symphysis which was adjusted and found optimal in 48 of 179 examinees. The method allowed to select patients with infravesical obstruction (IVO) and normal detrusor contractility (n = 36) as well as patients with hypocontractility without IVO (n = 12). The test "pressure-flow" in artificial urination evaluates detrusor contractility in patients unable to urinate. The test distinquishes patients with normal detrusor contractility and those with different degree of its impairment. This is important in assessment and prognosis of deficient urination.

  2. Evaluation of an indirect oscillometric blood pressure monitor in anaesthetised dogs at three different anatomical locations. (United States)

    Fujiyama, M; Sano, H; Chambers, J P; Gieseg, M


    To evaluate the agreement between invasive and non-invasive measurements of blood pressure (BP) using an oscillometer (PetTrust) at three different anatomical locations in anaesthetised dogs under different haemodynamic conditions. Eight adult Greyhounds weighing 23.5-36.5 kg were anaesthetised with isoflurane and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured invasively via a dorsal pedal artery and non-invasively using the oscillometer with cuffs placed above the carpus, above the tarsus and around the tail base. Phenylephrine was administered to induce vasoconstriction, dobutamine was used to increase cardiac output and increased end-tidal concentrations of isoflurane were used to induce vasodilation. Correlation between measurements was analysed by linear regression and agreement was analysed using Bland-Altman plots. Seventy two representative measurements were obtained. Mean differences (bias) between invasive and non-invasive measurements were 0.9 except for SAP on the pelvic limb and DAP on the tail. More than 50 and 80% of values measured using oscillometry lay within 10 and 20 mmHg, respectively, of values measured invasively except for SAP on the tail. SAP tended to be overestimated when measured non-invasively at low BP, and be underestimated at high BP. DAP was underestimated during low BP and overestimated during high BP. Hypotension (MAP invasive measurement of MAP at all locations. MAP is the driving pressure for tissue perfusion, thus MAP measurement is clinically essential. This oscillometric device yields reliable MAP measurements at three anatomical locations over a wide range of BP and can identify hypotension with high sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Upper airway collapsibility evaluated by a negative expiratory pressure test in severe obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Romano


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the usefulness of measuring upper airway collapsibility with a negative expiratory pressure application as a screening test for severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. INTRODUCTION: OSA is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and it may have serious consequences. Its recognition may have important implications during the perioperative period. Increased upper airway collapsibility is one of the main determinants of OSA, and its evaluation could be useful for identifying this condition. METHODS: Severe OSA and normal subjects (24 in each group were matched by body mass index and referred to our sleep laboratory. The subjects were enrolled in an overnight sleep study, and a diurnal negative expiratory pressure test was performed. Flow drop (DV and expiratory volume were measured in the first 0.2 s (V02 of the negative expiratory pressure test. RESULTS: DV (% and V02 (% values were statistically different between normal and OSA subjects. OSA patients showed a greater decrease in flow than normal subjects. In addition, severely OSA patients exhaled during the first 0.2 s of the negative expiratory pressure application was an average of only 11.2% of the inspired volume compared to 34.2% for the normal subjects. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristics showed that V02 (% and DV (% could accurately identify severe OSA in subjects with sensitivities of 95.8% and 91.7%, respectively, and specificities of 95.8% and 91.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: V02 (% and DV (% are highly accurate parameters for detecting severe OSA. The pharyngeal collapsibility measurement, which uses negative expiratory pressure during wakefulness, is predictive of collapsibility during sleep.

  4. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: an Indian experience with locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Sameer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly, remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome of locking plate used for fixation of these fractures after open reduction. We also attempted to evaluate the complications and predictors of loss of fixation for such an implant. Methods Over two and a half years, 56 patients with an acute proximal humerus fracture were managed with locking plate osteosynthesis. 47 of these patients who completed a minimum follow up of 1 year were evaluated using Constant score calculation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16 and a p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The average follow up period was around 21.5 months. Outcomes were excellent in 17%, good in 38.5%, moderate in 34% while poor in 10.5%. The Constant score was poorer for AO-OTA type 3 fractures as compared to other types. The scores were also inferior for older patients (> 65 years old. Complications included screw perforation of head, AVN, subacromial impingement, loss of fixation, axillary nerve palsy and infection. A varus malalignment was found to be a strong predictor of loss of fixation. Conclusion Locking plate osteosynthesis leads to satisfactory functional outcomes in all the patients. Results are better than non locking plates in osteoporotic fractures of the elderly. However the surgery has steep learning curve and various complications could be associated with its use. Nevertheless we believe that a strict adherence to the principles of locking plate use can ensure good result in such challenging fractures.

  5. Phase-locked Josephson soliton oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Grønbech-Jensen, N.


    Detailed experimental characterization of the phase-locking at both DC and at microwave frequencies is presented for two closely spaced Josephson soliton (fluxon) oscillators. In the phase-locked state, the radiated microwave power exhibited an effective gain. With one common bias source......, a frequency tunability of the phase-locked oscillators up to 7% at 10 GHz was observed. The interacting soliton oscillators were modeled by two inductively coupled nonlinear transmission lines...

  6. Comparing two levels of closed system suction pressure in ICU patients: Evaluating the relative safety of higher values of suction pressure (United States)

    Yazdannik, Ahmad R.; Haghighat, Somayeh; Saghaei, Mahmoud; Eghbali, Maryam


    Background: Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU). ETS may be associated with complications including hypoxia and tachycardia. Closed system suctioning (CSS) decreases the rate of cardiorespiratory complication mainly due to continuation of ventilatory support and oxygenation during procedure. CSS has questionable efficacy, therefore higher values of negative pressure has been recommended to enhance the efficacy of CSS. This study was designed to evaluate the effects on gas exchange of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure compared with 100 mmHg in CSS. Materials and Methods: Fifty mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients were selected for the study. Two consecutive ten seconds CSS using suction pressures of 100 and 200 mmHg, in random order applied in each subject with the two hours wash out period. Effects of two levels of suction pressure on gas exchange were measured by recording the SPo2 values at 4 times. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance didn't show any significant difference between two levels of pressure (P = 0.315), but within each groups (100 and 200 mmHg) SPO2 changes was significant (P = 0.000). There was a mild but significant and transient increase in heart rate following both suction pressures, but no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: The results show that CSS with suction pressure 200 mmHg has no detrimental effect on cardiorespiratory function of MV ICU patients. Since the safety of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure was approved, using 200 mmHg suction pressures is recommended for ETS of MV patients. PMID:23983740

  7. An array of highly flexible electrodes with a tailored configuration locked by gelatin during implantation – initial evaluation in cortex cerebri of awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eAgorelius


    Full Text Available A major challenge in the field of neural interfaces is to overcome the problem of poor stability of neuronal recordings, which impedes long-term studies of individual neurons in the brain. Conceivably, unstable recordings reflect relative movements between electrode and tissue. To address this challenge, we have developed a new ultra-flexible electrode array and evaluated its performance in awake non-restrained animals.MethodsAn array of eight separated gold leads (4 x10 μm, individually flexible in 3D, were cut from a gold sheet using laser milling and insulated with Parylene C. To provide structural support during implantation into rat cortex, the electrode array was embedded in a hard gelatin based material, which dissolves after implantation. Recordings were made during 3 weeks. At termination, the animals were perfused with fixative and frozen to prevent dislocation of the implanted electrodes. A thick slice of brain tissue, with the electrode array still in situ, was made transparent using methyl salicylate to evaluate the conformation of the implanted electrode array.ResultsMedian noise levels and signal/noise remained relatively stable during the 3 week observation period; 4.3 μV to 5.9 μV and 2.8 to 4.2, respectively. The spike amplitudes were often quite stable within recording sessions and for 15% of recordings where single-units were identified, the highest-SNR unit had an amplitude higher than 150 V. In addition, high correlations (>0.96 between unit waveforms recorded at different time points were obtained for 58% of the electrode sites. The structure of the electrode array was well preserved 3 weeks after implantation.Conclusions A new implantable multichannel neural interface, comprising electrodes individually flexible in 3D that retain its architecture and functionality after implantation has been developed. Since the new neural interface design is adaptable, it offers a versatile tool to explore the function of various

  8. Phase locking between Josephson soliton oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Grønbech-Jensen, N.


    We report observations of phase-locking phenomena between two Josephson soliton (fluxon) oscillators biased in self-resonant modes. The locking strength was measured as a function of bias conditions. A frequency tunability of the phase-locked oscillators up to 7% at 10 GHz was observed. Two coupled...... perturbed sine-Gordon equations were derived from an equivalent circuit consisting of inductively coupled, nonlinear, lossy transmission lines. These equations were solved numerically to find the locking regions. Good qualitative agreement was found between the experimental results and the calculations...

  9. Microcontroller-based locking in optics experiments. (United States)

    Huang, K; Le Jeannic, H; Ruaudel, J; Morin, O; Laurat, J


    Optics experiments critically require the stable and accurate locking of relative phases between light beams or the stabilization of Fabry-Perot cavity lengths. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive technique based on a stand-alone microcontroller unit to perform such tasks. Easily programmed in C language, this reconfigurable digital locking system also enables automatic relocking and sequential functioning. Different algorithms are detailed and applied to fringe locking and to low- and high-finesse optical cavity stabilization, without the need of external modulations or error signals. This technique can readily replace a number of analog locking systems advantageously in a variety of optical experiments.

  10. Field Experience with Lock Culvert Valves (United States)


    interesting accounts regarding their lock culvert valves. ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY Eisenhower and Snell Locks. The valves on the Eisenhower and Snell Locks...Tainter Valve Design Lift, ft Eisenhower St. Lawrence Seaway 80 x 860 12 x 14 21.0 DSP 43 Snell St. Lawrence Seaway 80 x 860 12 x 14 21.0 3 DSP, 1 VF 49...vertical-frame valves were furnished to the SLSDC in January 2011, and one was installed in the south filling-valve location at Snell Lock. An option

  11. Evaluation of Critical Care Nurses’ Knowledge and Ability to Utilize Information Related to Pulmonary Artery Pressure Measurement (United States)


    28-34. Lee, F.A. (1988). Treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Cardiology Clinics , 6(l), 63-79. Lemen, R., Jones, J.G., & Cowan, G. (1975). A...characteristics Four pressure waveforms are evaluated clinically to differentiate varying disease pathologies. Accurate interpretation of each waveform is...due to valvular or ischemic heart disease , found a significant correlation (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) between PA wedge pressure and LA pressure regardless

  12. A Type System for Unstructured Locking that Guarantees Deadlock Freedom without Imposing a Lock Ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodromos Gerakios


    Full Text Available Deadlocks occur in concurrent programs as a consequence of cyclic resource acquisition between threads. In this paper we present a novel type system that guarantees deadlock freedom for a language with references, unstructured locking primitives, and locks which are implicitly associated with references. The proposed type system does not impose a strict lock acquisition order and thus increases programming language expressiveness.

  13. «Réception de Locke au Danemark: Holberg, lecteur de Locke»

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Jørn

    Der gives en analyse af Holbergs læsning af Locke i Moralske Tanker og Epistler. Der fokuseres på hans holdning til Locke's Essay, hvor han synes fascineret af 'hypotesen om den tænkende materie' og problemet om de 'medfødte ideer'. Han tilslutter sig Locke's empirisme, men forsvarer dog en medfødt...

  14. Evaluation of post operative shoulder tip pain in low pressure versus standard pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (United States)

    Yasir, Mir; Mehta, Kuldeep Singh; Banday, Viqar Hussain; Aiman, Aiffa; Masood, Imran; Iqbal, Banyameen


    Insufflation of carbon dioxide during laparoscopic cholecystectomy leads to postoperative shoulder tip pain. The origin of shoulder pain is commonly assumed to be due to overstretching of the diaphragmatic muscle fibres owing to a high carbon dioxide pressure. To study the frequency and intensity of post operative shoulder tip pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and compare low and standard pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy with respect to post operative shoulder tip pain. Patients admitted in the department of surgery for elective cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups (group A and group B). In group A (n = 50), low pressure pneumoperitoneum (8 mm Hg) and in group B (n = 50), standard pressure pneumoperitoneum (14 mm Hg) was generated during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Postoperative shoulder tip pain was assessed at 4, 8 and 24 h after operation by the Visual Analogue Scale of Pain. 14 patients (28%) in group B complained of post operative shoulder tip pain as compared to only 5 patients (10%) in group A. The mean intensity of post operative shoulder tip pain assessed by visual analogue scoring scale at 4, 8 and 24 h was less in group A as compared to group B, although statistical significance was seen only at 4 h. Analgesic requirements and the mean length of post operative stay in the hospital were also less in group A as compared to group B. Low pressure laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LPLC) significantly decreases the frequency and intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain. LPLC decreases the demand for postoperative analgesics, decreases postoperative hospital stay and hence improves the quality of life in the early stage of postoperative rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking


    Huri, Gazi; Bi?er, Omer Sunkar


    We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization) in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popli...

  16. Coupled optical resonance laser locking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burd, CC


    Full Text Available . The coupled resonance technique discussed here overcomes this obstacle, and works as follows. If the 2S1/2 → 2P1/2 transition is driven at resonance, there will be a net increase of ions in the 2D3/2 state and a decrease in the population of ions in the ground... stream_source_info Burd_2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31258 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Burd_2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Coupled optical resonance laser locking S...

  17. Development and mechanical properties of a locking T-plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane R. Mesquita

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop a locking T-plate and to evaluate its mechanical properties in synthetic models. A titanium 2.7mm T-plate was designed with a shaft containing three locked screw holes and one dynamic compression hole, and a head with two locked screw holes. Forty T-shaped polyurethane blocks, and 20 T-plates were used for mechanical testing. Six bone-plate constructs were tested to failure, three in axial compression and three in cantilever bending. Fourteen bone-plate constructs were tested for failure in fatigue, seven in axial compression and seven in cantilever bending. In static testing higher values of axial compression test than cantilever bending test were observed for all variables. In axial compression fatigue testing all bone-plate constructs withstood 1,000,000 cycles. Four bone-plate constructs failure occurred before 1,000,000 cycles in cantilever bending fatigue testing. In conclusion, the locking T-plate tested has mechanical properties that offer greatest resistance to fracture under axial loading than bending forces.

  18. Performance Characterization of Loctite (Registered Trademark) 242 and 271 Liquid Locking Compounds (LLCs) as a Secondary Locking Feature for International Space Station (ISS) Fasteners (United States)

    Dube, Michael J.; Gamwell, Wayne R.


    Several International Space Station (ISS) hardware components use Loctite (and other polymer based liquid locking compounds (LLCs)) as a means of meeting the secondary (redundant) locking feature requirement for fasteners. The primary locking method is the fastener preload, with the application of the Loctite compound which when cured is intended to resist preload reduction. The reliability of these compounds has been questioned due to a number of failures during ground testing. The ISS Program Manager requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to characterize and quantify sensitivities of Loctite being used as a secondary locking feature. The findings and recommendations provided in this investigation apply to the anaerobic LLCs Loctite 242 and 271. No other anaerobic LLCs were evaluated for this investigation. This document contains the findings and recommendations of the NESC investigation

  19. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.


    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different

  20. Evaluation of low degree polynomial kernel support vector machines for modelling Pore-water pressure responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babangida Nuraddeen Muhammad


    Full Text Available Pore-water pressure (PWP is influenced by climatic changes, especially rainfall. These changes may affect the stability of, particularly unsaturated slopes. Thus monitoring the changes in PWP resulting from climatic factors has become an important part of effective slope management. However, this monitoring requires field instrumentation program, which is resource and labour expensive. Recently, soft computing modelling has become an alternative. Low degree polynomial kernel support vector machine (SVM was evaluated in modelling the PWP changes. The developed model used pore-water pressure and rainfall data collected from an instrumented slope. Wrapper technique was used to select input features and k-fold cross validation was used to calibrate the model parameters. The developed model showed great promise in modelling the pore-water pressure changes. High correlation, with coefficient of determination of 0.9694 between the predicted and observed changes was obtained. The one degree polynomial SVM model yielded competitive result, and can be used to provide lead time records of PWP which can aid in better slope management.

  1. [Evaluation of the protective performance of a positive pressure bio-protective clothing against viral aerosol]. (United States)

    Li, Na; Wen, Zhan-bo; Yang, Wen-hui; Wang, Jie; Li, Jin-song; Hu, Ling-fei; Dong, Xiao-kai; Liu, Ke-yang; Cao, Jie


    To evaluate the protective performance of a positive pressure bio-protective clothing against viral aerosol. The suspension of indicating virus phage Phi-X174 was made for viral aerosol generating in a hermetic cabin. The diameter of viral aerosol particles were measured with a aerodynamics size analyzer. By adjusting the inner humidity of the cabin, the protective efficiency of the positive pressure bio-protective clothing against viral aerosol in high and low windshield conditions was determined with Andersen six-stage air sampler sampling and plage forming unit (PFU) counting, respectively. The mass median diameter of Phage Phi-X174 aerosol particles was about 0.922 µm and the background concentration is beyond 2 × 10⁴ particles/m³. The protective efficiency of the clothing against phage Phi-X174 aerosol particles was above 99.9% under different test conditions with the range of viral aerosol concentration between 0 - 23 PFU/m³. Airflow (P = 0.84), environment humidity conditions (P = 0.33) and sampling time (P = 0.07) did not affect the protective efficiency statistically. The positive pressure bio-protective clothing provided a relatively high efficiency against phage Phi-X174 aerosol regardless of airflow rate, environment humidity and sampling time.

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Kaur Chugh


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti

  3. Prospective evaluation of the self-pressurized air-Q intubating laryngeal airway in children. (United States)

    Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Sohn, Lisa E; Mankoo, Ravinder; Langen, Kenneth E; Roth, Andrew G; Hall, Steven C


    To assess the clinical efficacy of the self-pressurized air-Q ILA™ (ILA-SP).   The purpose of this prospective audit was to evaluate the feasibility of the ILA-SP in clinical practice and generate data for future comparison trials. The ILA-SP is a new first-generation supraglottic airway for children with a self-adjusting cuff and lack of a pilot balloon. Over a 4-month period, 352 children with an ASA physical status of I-III, newborn to 18 years of age, undergoing various procedures were studied. Data points assessed included insertion success rates, airway leak pressures, quality of ventilation, and perioperative complications associated with the use of this device. In 349 of the 352 patients in this study, the ILA-SP was used successfully as a primary supraglottic airway device in a variety of patients. Three patients required conversion to a standard laryngeal mask airway or a tracheal tube. The mean initial airway leak pressure for all patients was 17.8 ± 5.4 cm H(2)O, and 20.4 ± 5.5 cm H(2)O when re-checked at 10 min, which was statistically significant (P device (n = 1). There were no episodes of regurgitation, aspiration, or hoarseness. Acceptable clinical performance was demonstrated with the ILA-SP for a variety of procedures in infants and children with spontaneous and positive pressure ventilation. Future studies comparing this device to other supraglottic airways may provide useful information regarding the safety of the ILA-SP in pediatric clinical practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Control Performance of Vehicle Abs Featuring ER Valve Pressure Modulator (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Choi, S. B.; Wereley, N. M.

    In this work, an electrically controllable anti-lock brake system (ABS) for passenger vehicle is developed by utilizing electrorheological (ER) fluid. A pressure modulator which consists of a cylindrical ER valve and the hydraulic booster is constructed in order to achieve sufficient brake pressure variation during ABS operation. The principal design parameters of the modulator are determined by considering ER properties as well as required braking pressure. After investigating pressure controllability of the modulator, a vehicle model which is integrated with the proposed pressure modulator is formulated to design yaw rate controller. A sliding mode controller is designed to obtain desired yaw rate, and the friction forces between roads and wheels are estimated via the estimator. Braking performances of the proposed ABS under various roads are evaluated through the hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) and the steering stability during braking operation is demonstrated by undertaking split-μ test.

  5. Evaluation of pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements intraoperatively and by sonographically guided fine-needle puncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J


    pressure measurements by direct puncture of pancreatic tissue and duct. In patients with chronic pancreatitis we found small week-to-week variations in sonographically guided percutaneous pressure measurements and good agreement between preoperative percutaneous pressure measurements and intraoperative...

  6. Evaluation and performance enhancement of a pressure transducer under flows, waves, and a combination of flows and waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, J.A.E.; Foden, P.; Taylor, K.; McKeown, J.; Desa, E.

    The performance of a pressure transducer, with its inlet attached to differing hydromechanical front ends, has been evaluated in flow flume and wave flume experiments in which laminar and turbulent flows, and regular progressive gravity waves...

  7. A Study on Application of Fatigue Correction Factor for Environmental Fatigue Evaluation of Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun Seog; Park, Chi Yong [, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seon Ye [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Nuclear power plants applying for the continued operation over design life are required to address the effects of reactor water environment in fatigue design requirement of the ASME Code. Reactor water environmental effects are generally evaluated by calculating fatigue correction factors on fatigue usage. This paper describes the application for pressurizer surge line of environmental fatigue correction factors and the strain rate impact in the application. From this paper, the environmental fatigue correction factors resulted from the assumption of a step change in temperature are especially compared with those calculated from the data measured during plant startup. As a conclusion of this paper, the design transient conditions applied to the fatigue design may be conservative in case of the environmental fatigue evaluation.

  8. Beyond EICA: understanding post-establishment evolution requires a broader evaluation of potential selection pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Atwood


    Full Text Available Research on post-establishment evolution in nonnative plant populations has focused almost exclusively on testing the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA hypothesis, which posits that the lack of specialized herbivores in the invaded range drives evolution in nonnative plant populations. Fifteen years of conflicting EICA test results suggest that selection pressures other than specialized herbivory are important in driving post-establishment evolution in invasive species. Alternative hypotheses, such as the Evolution of Reduced Competitive Ability (ERCA hypothesis, have been proposed but have received little attention or testing. We argue that the lack of consensus across studies that test EICA may be due in part to the lack of consistent definitions and varying experimental design parameters, and that future research in this field would benefit from new methodological considerations. We examined previous work evaluating post-establishment evolution and evaluated the range of study systems and design parameters used in testing the EICA hypothesis. Our goal was to identify where different uses of ecological terms and different study parameters have hindered consensus and to suggest a path forward to move beyond EICA in post-establishment evolution studies. We incorporated these methods into a design framework that will increase data harmony across future studies and will facilitate examinations of any potential selection pressure driving evolution in the invaded range.

  9. [Psychological anxiety evaluation and analysis of graduates at a medical university under employment pressure]. (United States)

    Liu, Ke-rong; Hu, Gui-fang; Zhang, Mao-yun; Yan, Yu-xia; Nie, Jun


    To evaluate the psychological anxiety of graduates at a medical university under the ever-increasing employment pressure, so as to provide ground work for psychological intervention on college students. Subjects were randomly drawn from the students who majored in clinical medicine, biomedical engineering, nursing and integrated Chinese and western medicine and graduated in the year of 2008 and 2009, with 25 subjects from each major each year, totaling up to 200. In March of their graduation year, they were evaluated by Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). A general analysis into their anxiety was first made and then the comparative analysis of anxiety on the basis of gender, year group and major of the subjects. Female students showed a significantly higher anxiety than male students. Graduates in 2009 showed a significantly higher anxiety than those in 2008. In terms of the major difference, the anxiety was in a falling curve from integrated Chinese and western medicine, clinical medicine, biomedical engineering and nursing. There was no major difference in the students majoring integrated Chinese and western medicine, clinical medicine and biomedical engineering, but nursing students showed significantly low anxiety. The increasing employment pressure has caused the significant increase in the anxiety of college students. The employment rate in different majors may play a positive role in anxiety. Generally, female students showed a higher degree of anxiety than male students.

  10. Express consent and full membership in Locke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartogh, G.A.


    It seems mysterious why Locke required express consent as a condition of full membership of civil society. It is suggested this requirement be interpreted as a political programme. In a draft of a pamphlet of 1690 Locke criticizes the oath of allegiance required after the Glorious Revolution for not

  11. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.


    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  12. Pressure distribution evaluation of different filling methods for deposition of powders in dies: Measurement and modeling (United States)

    Sayyar Roudsari, Saed

    The aim of this research was to measure, analyze, and model the pressure distribution characteristics of powder deposition into rectangular and circular shallow dies using four filling methods. The feed shoe, the rotational rainy, the point feed, and the pneumatic filling methods were used to investigate the deposition characteristics into shallow dies. In order to evaluate the pressure distribution during filling of shallow dies, factors influencing powder deposition were studied. The factors included particle size and shape, particle size distribution, feed shoe speed, and tube cross-section (in case of feed shoe filling) and deposition rates (in case of rotational rainy, point feed, and pneumatic filling). A battery powder mixture (BPM) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102) with median size of 84 and 600mum, respectively, were used to fill a shallow rectangular die 32x30 mm and 6.5 mm deep and a shallow circular die 35 mm in diameter and 6.5 mm deep. The second generation of pressure deposition tester (PDT-II) with circular and square feed shoe tube cross-sections was used to measure the two powders' pressure distribution characteristics. An innovative rotational rainy filling device was designed and fabricated. This versatile device can be used to measure filling characteristics at different rotational speeds (1-10 rpm) for various powders. The point feed (funnel fill) method with a funnel of 30 mm inlet diameter and 4.2 mm outlet diameter opening was used to fill the rectangular and circular shallow dies. The pneumatic filling method was designed and fabricated to fill the die using air as the conveying medium in a rectangular cross-section tube. The pneumatic filling device was limited to using only the BPM powder, since the Avicel powder generated substantial quantity of airborne dust during the test. Symmetry analysis, variance metrics, and uniformity analysis were used to quantify the deposition characteristics. The results showed that: (1) filled

  13. Evaluation of the accuracy of non-invasive automatic blood pressure monitors.


    Kawahara, M.


    Non-invasive automatic blood pressure monitors (BP-103N, DINAMAP 845XT, Finapres 2300) were compared with the auscultatory method. The blood pressure readings given by the oscillometric method (BP-103N, DINAMAP 845XT) were accurate and reproducible. Agreement with the auscultatory method was especially good for systolic pressure. For diastolic pressure readings, there was less agreement with the results of the auscultatory method. The finger arterial pressure method (Finapres 2300) occasional...

  14. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Huri


    Full Text Available We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon and synovitis. The ruptured part of the tendon was debrided, and the inflammatory tissue around the tendon, which may lead to pseudolocking, was gently removed with a shaver in order to regain the normal ROM. The patient was discharged with full ROM and weight bearing first day after the surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon causing pseudolocking of the knee.

  15. Construct Choice for the Treatment of Displaced, Comminuted Olecranon Fractures: are Locked Plates Cost Effective? (United States)

    DelSole, Edward M; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C


    Cost effective implant selection in orthopedic trauma is essential in the current era of managed healthcare delivery. Both locking and non-locking plates have been utilized in the treatment of displaced fractures of the olecranon. However, locking plates are often more costly and may not provide superior clinical outcomes. The primary aim of the present study is to assess the clinical and functional outcomes of olecranon fractures treated with locked and non-locking plate and screw constructs while providing insight into the cost of various implants. We performed a retrospective chart review of a single institution database identifying Mayo IIB type olecranon fractures treated surgically from 2003 to 2012. All fractures were treated with either a locked plate or a one-third tubular hook plate construct. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. Minimum 6-month follow-up was required. Outcomes were compared between fixation constructs, including rate of union, early failure, postoperative range of motion, and complication rates. Statistical analysis included Pearson's Chi-squared and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, and the Student's ttest for continuous variables. The one-third tubular construct was equivalent to locking plate constructs with respect to union, post-operative range of motion, and rates of complications. There were no early or late failures. Locking plates were associated with a relative cost increase of $1,263.50 compared to the one-third tubular hook plate per case. Surgeons should consider the cost of implants when treating Mayo IIB olecranon fracture. In this cohort, one-third tubular plates provided equivalent outcomes to locked plates with a notable decrease in cost.

  16. A Proposed New Index for Clinical Evaluation of Interproximal Soft Tissues: The Interdental Pressure Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checchi Luigi


    Full Text Available The interdental pressure index (IPI is introduced to specifically evaluate clinical interproximal-tissue conditions and assess the effect of interproximal hygiene stimulation. This index scores clinical responses of periodontal tissues to the apical pressure of a horizontally placed periodontal probe. It is negative when gingival tissues are firm, bleeding-free, and slightly ischemic by the stimulation; otherwise it is positive. The clinical validation showed high intraoperator agreement (0.92; 95% CI: 0.82–0.96; P=0.0001 and excellent interoperator agreement (0.76; 95% CI: 0.14–1.38; P=0.02. High internal consistency with bleeding on probing (κ=0.88 and gingival index (Cronbach’s α=0.81 was obtained. Histological validation obtained high sensitivity (100% and specificity (80% for IPI+ toward inflammatory active form. The same results were recorded for IPI− toward chronic inactive form. IPI results as a simple and noninvasive method with low error probability and good reflection of histological condition that can be applied for oral hygiene motivation. Patient compliance to oral hygiene instructions is essential in periodontal therapy and IPI index can be a practical and intuitive tool to check and reinforce this important aspect.

  17. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study


    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Michihiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka


    Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP) is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement) for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study). We found poor control of...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.


    A set of circumferentially oriented thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) were implanted into three cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) pressurizer (PZR) surge-line specimens (pipe-to-elbow welds) that were fabricated using vintage CASS materials formed in the 1970s, and flaw responses from these cracks were used to evaluate detection and sizing performance of the phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods applied. Four different custom-made PA probes were employed in this study, operating nominally at 800 kHz, 1.0 MHz, 1.5 MHz, and 2.0 MHz center frequencies. The CASS PZR surge-line specimens were polished and chemically etched to bring out the microstructures of both pipe and elbow segments. Additional studies were conducted and documented to address baseline CASS material noise and observe possible ultrasonic beam redirection phenomena.

  19. The curvilinear relationship between work pressure and momentary task performance: the role of state and trait core self-evaluations (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri; Debusscher, Jonas; Dóci, Edina; Spanouli, Andromachi; De Fruyt, Filip


    Whereas several studies have demonstrated that core self-evaluations (CSE)–or one’s appraisals about one’s own self-worth, capabilities, and competences–relate to job outcomes, less is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. In the present study, we address this issue by examining the role of within- and between-person variation in CSE in the relationship between work pressure and task performance. We hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates to task performance in a curvilinear way, (b) state CSE mediates the curvilinear relationship between work pressure and task performance, and (c) the relationship between work pressure and state CSE is moderated by trait CSE. Our hypotheses were tested via a 10-day daily diary study with 55 employees in which trait CSE was measured at baseline, while work pressure, task performance, and state CSE were assessed on a daily basis. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that work pressure affects task performance via state CSE, with state CSE increasing as long as the employee feels that (s)he is able to handle the work pressure, while it decreases when the level of work pressure exceeds the employees’ coping abilities. Moreover, we found that for people low on trait CSE, the depleting effect of work pressure via state CSE happens for low levels of work pressure, while for people high in trait CSE the depleting effect is located at high levels of work pressure. Together, our findings suggest that the impact of work pressure on task performance is driven by a complex interplay of between- and within-person differences in CSE. PMID:26579053

  20. The curvilinear relationship between work pressure and momentary task performance: the role of state and trait core self-evaluations. (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri; Debusscher, Jonas; Dóci, Edina; Spanouli, Andromachi; De Fruyt, Filip


    Whereas several studies have demonstrated that core self-evaluations (CSE)-or one's appraisals about one's own self-worth, capabilities, and competences-relate to job outcomes, less is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. In the present study, we address this issue by examining the role of within- and between-person variation in CSE in the relationship between work pressure and task performance. We hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates to task performance in a curvilinear way, (b) state CSE mediates the curvilinear relationship between work pressure and task performance, and (c) the relationship between work pressure and state CSE is moderated by trait CSE. Our hypotheses were tested via a 10-day daily diary study with 55 employees in which trait CSE was measured at baseline, while work pressure, task performance, and state CSE were assessed on a daily basis. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that work pressure affects task performance via state CSE, with state CSE increasing as long as the employee feels that (s)he is able to handle the work pressure, while it decreases when the level of work pressure exceeds the employees' coping abilities. Moreover, we found that for people low on trait CSE, the depleting effect of work pressure via state CSE happens for low levels of work pressure, while for people high in trait CSE the depleting effect is located at high levels of work pressure. Together, our findings suggest that the impact of work pressure on task performance is driven by a complex interplay of between- and within-person differences in CSE.

  1. No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets (United States)

    Checlair, Jade; Menou, Kristen; Abbot, Dorian S.


    The TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, and LHS 1140 systems are the most exciting prospects for future follow-up observations of potentially inhabited planets. All of the planets orbit nearby M-stars and are likely tidally locked in 1:1 spin-orbit states, which motivates the consideration of the effects that tidal locking might have on planetary habitability. On Earth, periods of global glaciation (snowballs) may have been essential for habitability and remote signs of life (biosignatures) because they are correlated with increases in the complexity of life and in the atmospheric oxygen concentration. In this paper, we investigate the snowball bifurcation (sudden onset of global glaciation) on tidally locked planets using both an energy balance model and an intermediate-complexity global climate model. We show that tidally locked planets are unlikely to exhibit a snowball bifurcation as a direct result of the spatial pattern of insolation they receive. Instead, they will smoothly transition from partial to complete ice coverage and back. A major implication of this work is that tidally locked planets with an active carbon cycle should not be found in a snowball state. Moreover, this work implies that tidally locked planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone with low CO2 outgassing fluxes will equilibrate with a small unglaciated substellar region rather than cycling between warm and snowball states. More work is needed to determine how the lack of a snowball bifurcation might affect the development of life on a tidally locked planet.

  2. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  3. Evaluation of a new rebound tonometer for self-measurement of intraocular pressure. (United States)

    Dabasia, Priya L; Lawrenson, John G; Murdoch, Ian E


    To compare the accuracy of self-obtained, partner-obtained and trainer-obtained measurements using the handheld Icare Home rebound tonometer with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), and to evaluate the acceptability to subjects of Icare Home measurement. 76 subjects were trained to use Icare Home for self-measurement using a standardised protocol. A prespecified checklist was used to assess the ability of a subject to perform self-tonometry. Accuracy of Icare Home self-measurement was compared with GAT using one eye per subject, randomly selected. Bland-Altman difference analysis was used to compare Icare Home and GAT intraocular pressure (IOP) estimates. Acceptability of self-tonometry was evaluated using a questionnaire. 56 subjects (74%, 95% CI 64 to 84) were able to correctly perform self-tonometry. Mean bias (95% limits of agreement) was 0.3 mm Hg (-4.6 to 5.2), 1.1 mm Hg (-3.2 to 5.3) and 1.2 mm Hg (-3.9 to 6.3) for self-assessment, partner-assessment and trainer-assessment, respectively, suggesting underestimation of IOP by Icare Home tonometry. Differences between GAT and Icare Home IOP were greater for central corneal thickness below 500 µm and above 600 µm than data points within this range. Acceptability questionnaire responses showed high agreement that the self-pressure device was easy to use (84%), the reading was quick to obtain (88%) and the measurement was comfortable (95%). Icare Home tonometry can be used for self-measurement by a majority of trained subjects. IOP measurements obtained using Icare Home tonometry by self-assessment and third party-assessment showed slight underestimation compared with GAT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  4. Ergonomic evaluation of pressurized irrigation equipment factotry operators using an easy posture assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Deyhim


    Full Text Available introduction: One of the most common causes of occupational injuries in industrialized and developing countries is musculoskeletal disorders Determining the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders can be helpful choosing the right method for interventions and detailed studies. This study aimed to evaluate the ergonomic risk factors in operators of pressurized irrigation equipment factory. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a pressurized irrigation equipment manufacturing company. In this study, a new method based on observation was used to evaluate the ergonomic aspects of operator's activity. In order to assign tasks and sub-tasks, direct observation and video recording equipment were used. Ergonomic assessment was carried out on all sub-tasks identified. then, the criticality of the task determined. Results: Among the tasks identified 53 very critical posture 61 critical and 82 low critical posture was determined. Ergonomic point in the ball valve production line was 0.6 and 0.68 respectively for tow operator. For drop valve and automatic valve production line's ergonomic point was 0.52 and 0.67 respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, posture analysis method used in this study is easy and accurate. The advantage of this method is 14 ergonomic domaines that covered whole body and time fragment of each task. Findings of previous studies showed good correlation between results from this method and OCRA method. In this study, The most critical posture was related to operator's wrist, so it is recommended that control measures on wrist posture correction should be considered.

  5. SFR Site Investigation. Evaluation of selected interference tests and pressure responses during drilling at SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walger, Ellen; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Gentzschein, Bengt (Geosigma AB (Sweden))


    In this activity, evaluation of selected hydraulic interference tests and drilling activities within the SFR area performed during 2008-2010 has been made. During the selected interference tests, pumping (or injection) was carried out in boreholes KFR105, HFR101 (both pumping and injection) and HFR102 during the time period from May, 2008 to March, 2010. Groundwater head measurements were performed in all existing SFR-boreholes at the time of testing during the entire test periods as well as during different drilling periods of boreholes HFR102, KFR27, KFR102A, KFR105, HFR106 and KFR106. The activity involves identification and evaluation of potential pressure responses in all instrumented SFR-boreholes from three interference tests and drilling of six boreholes. A fourth interference test (in HFR102), for which no responses were detected by the preliminary analysis, was also included for more detailed evaluation. For the four interference test, quantitative evaluation of hydraulic parameters and response indices of the responding observation sections was made when possible. Finally, a resulting response matrix was prepared for the interference tests. The drilling responses were classified by diagnostic analysis and response index 1, which is based on the response time lag. The hydraulic diffusivity T/S of the responding observation sections was estimated from the response time lags during drilling. For the drilling responses, a response matrix based on the diagnostic analysis and probable depth of response was prepared as well as a resulting response matrix based on response index 1. The pressure responses in the observation boreholes during the interference tests in KFR105 and HFR101 were generally rather slow and weak and in many cases significantly delayed, both at start and stop of pumping/injection respectively. According to the response analysis, the most distinct and fastest responses were found in borehole sections KFR104:1-2 during the interference

  6. A new scoring system for evaluating coronary artery disease by using blood pressure variability. (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Qiu, Jian; Ma, Liheng; Lei, Hongqiang; Cai, Zekun; Zhao, Hui; Deng, Yu; Ma, Jun; Xu, Lin


    The aim of this study was to develop a new scoring system using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to assist in the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred twenty-five subjects (53.1 ± 9.6 years of age) were included. Pearson's tests were first performed to identify the parameters that correlated with Duke Treadmill Score (DTS). Blood test parameters and blood pressure variability (BPV) measures that were extracted from the ABPM were included. Next, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed to train a new scoring system in the 84 patients from the 125 patients. Then, a correlation analysis was conducted to validate the correlation between the new scoring system and DTS in the remaining 41 subjects. A further correlation analysis was used to verify the clinical value of the new scoring system using ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Our new scoring system, which had a 24.096 - 0.083 × residual standard deviation of night systolic blood pressure (SBP) - 0.130 × age - 0.206 × average real variability of night SBP, was correlated with DTS (r = 0.312, P = 0.047). Moreover, our new scoring system was also correlated with various markers of cardiac function (r = -0.290, P = 0.001; r = -0.262, P = 0.004; r = -0.303, P = 0.001; r = -0.306, P = 0.001, respectively) measured by UCG and with baPWV (r = 0.529, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the r-values for the BPV Score versus the markers were closer to -1 than the corresponding r-values for the Duke Score vs the same parameters. And the differences in r-values between Duke Score and BPV Score were statistically significant (P = 0.022). In conclusion, the new scoring system based on ABPM has potential as a non-invasive tool for evaluating CAD.

  7. Optimal database locks for efficient integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide


    In concurrent database systems, correctness of update transactions refers to the equivalent effects of the execution schedule and some serial schedule over the same set of transactions. Integrity constraints add further semantic requirements to the correctness of the database states reached upon...... the execution of update transactions. Several methods for efficient integrity checking and enforcing exist. We show in this paper how to apply one such method to automatically extend update transactions with locks and simplified consistency tests on the locked entities. All schedules produced in this way...... are conflict serializable and preserve consistency. For certain classes of databases we also guarantee that the amount of locked database entities is minimal....

  8. Correlations between locked modes and impurity influxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishpool, G.M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Lawson, K.D. [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)


    An analysis of pulses that were disturbed by medium Z impurity influxes (Cl, Cr, Fe and Ni) recorded during the 91/92 JET operations, has demonstrated that such influxes can result in MHD modes which subsequently ``lock``. A correlation is found between the power radiated by the influx and the time difference between the start of the influx and the beginning of the locked mode. The growth in the amplitude of the locked mode itself can lead to further impurity influxes. A correlation is noted between intense influxes (superior to 10 MW) and the mode ``unlocking``. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Extending the Touchscreen Pattern Lock Mechanism with Duplicated and Temporal Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Colley


    Full Text Available We investigate improvements to authentication on mobile touchscreen phones and present a novel extension to the widely used touchscreen pattern lock mechanism. Our solution allows including nodes in the grid multiple times, which enhances the resilience to smudge and other forms of attack. For example, for a smudge pattern covering 7 nodes, our approach increases the amount of possible lock patterns by a factor of 15 times. Our concept was implemented and evaluated in a laboratory user test (n=36. The test participants found the usability of the proposed concept to be equal to that of the baseline pattern lock mechanism but considered it more secure. Our solution is fully backwards-compatible with the current baseline pattern lock mechanism, hence enabling easy adoption whilst providing higher security at a comparable level of usability.

  10. Assessing the present state and potential of Medicaid controlled substance lock-in programs. (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew W; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell


    Nonmedical use of prescription medications--particularly controlled substances--has risen dramatically in recent decades, resulting in alarming increases in overdose-related health care utilization, costs, and mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 80% of abused and misused controlled substances originate as legal prescriptions. As such, policymakers and payers have the opportunity to combat nonmedical use by regulating controlled substance accessibility within legal prescribing and dispensing processes. One common policy strategy is found in Medicaid controlled substance lock-in programs. Lock-in programs identify Medicaid beneficiaries exhibiting high-risk controlled substance seeking behavior and "lock in" these patients to, typically, a single prescriber and pharmacy from which they may obtain Medicaid-covered controlled substance prescriptions. Lock-in restrictions are intended to improve care coordination between providers, reduce nonmedical use behaviors, and limit Medicaid costs stemming from nonmedical use and diversion. Peer-reviewed and gray literature have been examined to assess the current prevalence and design of Medicaid lock-in programs, as well as the current evidence base for informing appropriate program design and understanding program effectiveness. Forty-six state Medicaid agencies currently operate lock-in programs. Program design varies widely between states in terms of defining high-risk controlled substance use, the scope of actual lock-in restrictions, and length of program enrollment. Additionally, there is a remarkable dearth of peer-reviewed literature evaluating the design and effectiveness of Medicaid lock-in programs. Nearly all outcomes evidence stemmed from publicly accessible internal Medicaid program evaluations, which largely investigated cost savings to the state. Lock-in programs are highly prevalent and poised to play a meaningful role in curbing the prescription drug abuse epidemic. However

  11. Target Blood Pressure Level in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Evaluation of the Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Sirenko


    Full Text Available The review of the scientific evidence on the control of blood pressure (BP in patients with diabetes mellitus is given. Their analysis suggests that the optimal level of blood pressure to prevent the development of cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus is systolic blood pressure 130–135 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure — < 80 mmHg, and not < 140 mmHg, as it’s indicated in 2012 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention.

  12. 27 CFR 19.282 - Breaking Government locks. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breaking Government locks... Breaking Government locks. Where affixed, Government locks shall not be removed without the authorization... obtain authorization from an appropriate TTB officer, Government locks may be removed, by the proprietor...

  13. PP069. Hypertension evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements in previously preeclamptic women one year postpartum. (United States)

    Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; van der Wilk, Eline C; Lugthart, Jorgo; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Duvekot, Johannes J


    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement is considered to be the gold-standard for diagnosing hypertension. Data on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement in women with a history of preeclampsia are scarce. To evaluate hypertension in previously severe preeclamptic women, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements were performed one year after delivery as part of our cardiovascular risk follow-up program. Since 2011 213 women were included in this program. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement was performed in 90 out of 121 women (74%) who completed follow-up one year after delivery. Systolic blood pressure was 121 mm Hg (median; range 96-157) and diastolic blood pressure 78mm Hg (median; range 62-114). Twenty-three women (26.0%) used antihypertensive medication one year postpartum. Blood pressure levels were not significantly different between women with and without medication. Five women (5/67, 7.5%) of those not using antihypertensives, were diagnosed as having hypertension by this measurement. These data show that 30% of these previously severe preeclamptic women have persisting hypertension one year postpartum. These data stress the importance of close monitoring of blood pressure in these women. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A quantitative evaluation of the Hewlett-Packard 78354A noninvasive blood pressure meter. (United States)

    Whalen, P; Ream, A K


    Oscillometrically determined brachial artery pressures were compared with simultaneous contralateral radial intraarterial pressures in 19 anesthetized adult cardiac surgical patients throughout their surgical procedures, interrupted only by nonpulsatile, low-pressure, low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. Radial intraarterial pressure values ranged widely for systolic (55 to 207 torr), mean (43 to 141 torr), and diastolic (26 to 106 torr). Both error specification methods proposed by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation were used and compared. As expected, error method 1 gave consistently lower mean errors, smaller error standard deviations, and higher correlation coefficients than did error method 2. The errors during time periods immediately before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were compared with those from more quiescent times. Higher mean errors, larger error standard deviations, and lower correlation and regression coefficients were found during those time periods surrounding cardiopulmonary bypass. In general, mean errors were lowest for systolic pressure, followed by mean and diastolic pressures in that order, whereas error standard deviations were smallest for mean pressure, followed by systolic and diastolic pressures. Correlation and regression coefficients were highest for systolic pressure, followed by mean and diastolic pressures. In summary, the oscillometric method provides convenient and reproducible estimates of radial intraarterial pressure during most clinical situations, typically with better accuracy than the auscultatory Korotkoff method. The accuracy and reproducibility are diminished during those periods immediately surrounding cardiopulmonary bypass, perhaps due to direct surgical manipulation of the heart with its attendant rapid changes in cardiac output and blood pressure.

  15. Comparing the Overhead of Lock-based and Lock-free Implementations of Priority Queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passas, Stavros; Karlsson, Sven


    With the advent of multi-core processors, concurrent data structures have received a renewed interest. While concurrent data structures where previously used mainly in high-performance computing, now they are found in all types of computer systems. A major challenge when designing such data...... instructions as the lock-based implementation. However, the lock-free implementation outperforms the lock-based when multiple cores are used and the data structure is contended....

  16. Evaluation of batch and semicontinuous application of high hydrostatic pressure on foodborne pathogens in salsa. (United States)

    Raghubeer, E V; Dunne, C P; Farkas, D F; Ting, E Y


    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HPP; 545 MPa) on strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, and nonpathogenic microorganisms were studied in tomato-based salsa. Products were evaluated for the survival of the inoculated pathogens following HPP treatment and after storage at 4 degrees C and 21 to 23 degrees C for up to 2 months. Inoculated samples without HPP treatment, stored under the same conditions, were also evaluated to determine the effects of the acid environment of salsa on the survival of inoculated strains. None of the inoculated pathogens were detected in the HPP-treated samples for all treatments throughout the storage period. Inoculated pathogens were detected in the non-HPP-treated samples stored at 4 degrees C after 1 month, with L. monocytogenes showing the highest level of survivors. In the non-HPP-treated samples stored at 21 to 23 degrees C, E. coli and S. aureus were not detected after 1 week, but L. monocytogenes was detected in low levels. Studies with nonpathogenic strains of the pathogens were conducted at Oregon State University using HPP treatments in a semicontinuous production system. The nonpathogenic microorganisms (E. coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri, and nonenterotoxigenic S. aureus) were inoculated together into a feeder tank containing 100 liters of salsa. Microbiological results of samples collected before HPP treatment and from the aseptic filler were similar to those obtained for the pathogenic strains. No survivors were detected in any of the HPP-treated samples.

  17. La filosofia del lenguaje de Locke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arango, Alejandro Patino


    ... en la Filosofia Analitica del siglo XX. Esta influencia se presenta a traves del analisis que realiza Locke sobre el papel que cumple el lenguaje en el problema del conocimiento, lo cual lo conduce a criticar la metafisica, concebir...

  18. QPSK regeneration without active phase-locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Niels-Kristian; Da Ros, Francesco; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard


    QPSK regeneration without active phase stabilization is investigated in numerical simulations. We propose an improved scheme for phase-locking free QPSK regeneration showing significant improvements in the error vector magnitude of the signal....

  19. Universal Spin-Momentum Locked Optical Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Kalhor, Farid; Jacob, Zubin


    Evanescent electromagnetic waves possess spin-momentum locking, where the direction of propagation (momentum) is locked to the inherent polarization of the wave (transverse spin). We study the optical forces arising from this universal phenomenon and show that the fundamental origin of recently reported non-trivial optical chiral forces is spin-momentum locking. For evanescent waves, we show that the direction of energy flow, direction of decay, and direction of spin follow a right hand rule for three different cases of total internal reflection, surface plasmon polaritons, and $HE_{11}$ mode of an optical fiber. Furthermore, we explain how the recently reported phenomena of lateral optical force on chiral and achiral particles is caused by the transverse spin of the evanescent field and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon. Finally, we propose an experiment to identify the unique lateral forces arising from the transverse spin in the optical fiber and point to fundamental differences of the spin density from...

  20. Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brian R. Koch; Alexander W. Fang; Oded Cohen; John E. Bowers


    .... The mode locked lasers generate 4 ps pulses with low jitter and extinction ratios above 18 dB, making them suitable for data and telecommunication transmitters and for clock generation and distribution...

  1. Retrospective evaluation of nicardipine versus labetalol for blood pressure control in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (United States)

    Woloszyn, Amanda V; McAllen, Karen J; Figueroa, Bryan E; DeShane, Robert S; Barletta, Jeffrey F


    American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) recommend blood pressure (BP) control, utilizing labetalol or nicardipine, but do not differentiate efficacy between the two agents. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare BP control between labetalol and nicardipine in patients following aSAH. Consecutive adult patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of SAH treated with labetalol or nicardipine were retrospectively identified. Patients were included if they received more than one bolus dose of labetalol or a nicardipine infusion for greater than 3 h. Patients were excluded if they were labetalol vs. nicardipine) and data was collected for 72 h. The outcomes compared were time within goal mean arterial pressure (MAP), average MAP/patient, MAP variability, initial response to therapy, and treatment failure. Goal MAP was defined as 70-110 mmHg. There were 103 patients evaluated (labetalol n = 43; nicardipine n = 60). Demographics and baseline MAP were similar between the two groups. Nicardipine was associated with a longer time within goal MAP (78 ± 24 vs. 58 ± 36 %, p = 0.001) and lower average MAP/patient (93 ± 11 vs. 106 ± 12 mmHg, p labetalol groups (13 ± 5 mmHg vs. 11 ± 4 mmHg; p = 0.137). Nicardipine led to a more rapid response to therapy (F = 8.1; p = 0.005) and fewer treatment failures (0 vs. 28 %, p labetalol in aSAH.

  2. A comparison of evaluation, time pressure, and multitasking as stressors of psychomotor operative performance. (United States)

    Poolton, Jamie M; Wilson, Mark R; Malhotra, Neha; Ngo, Karen; Masters, Rich S W


    There is gathering interest in determining the typical sources of stress for an operating surgeon and the effect that stressors might have on operative performance. Much of the research in this field, however, has failed to measure stress levels and performance concurrently or has not acknowledged the differential impact of potential stressors. Our aim was to examine empirically the influence of different sources of stress on trained laparoscopic performance. A total of 30 medical students were trained to proficiency on the validated Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery peg transfer task, and then were tested under 4 counterbalanced test conditions: control, evaluation threat, multitasking, and time pressure. Performance was assessed via completion time and a process measure reflecting the efficiency of movement (ie, path length). Stress levels in each test condition were measured using a multidimensional approach that included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the subject's heart rate while performing a task. The time pressure condition caused the only significant increase in stress levels but did not influence completion time or the path length of movement. Only the multitasking condition significantly increased completion time and path length, despite there being no significant increase in stress levels. Overall, the STAI and heart rate measures were not correlated strongly. Recommended measures of stress levels do not necessarily reflect the demands of an operative task, highlighting the need to understand better the mechanisms that influence performance in surgery. This understanding will help inform the development of training programs that encourage the complete transfer of skills from simulators to the operating room. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Data-Logging Transducer to Passively Collect Pressure Vessel p/T History (United States)

    Wnuk, Stephen P.; Le, Son; Loew, Raymond A.


    Pressure vessels owned and operated by NASA are required to be regularly certified per agency policy. Certification requires an assessment of damage mechanisms and an estimation of vessel remaining life. Since detail service histories are not typically available for most pressure vessels, a conservative estimate of vessel pressure/temperature excursions is typically used in assessing fatigue life. This paper details trial use of a data-logging transducer to passively obtain actual pressure and temperature service histories of pressure vessels. The approach was found to have some potential for cost savings and other benefits in certain cases.

  4. Evaluation of pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain in chronic pancreatitis. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J


    follow-up study the pressure was increased in the patients with recurrent pain, and there was a significant relation between pressure and pain (R = 0.85, p less than 0.02). Furthermore, patients with an intraoperative pressure decrease greater than 10 mm Hg had a pain-free postoperative period....... The duration of the pain-free period was significantly related to the size of the intraoperative pressure decrease (R = 0.79, p less than 0.03). These results further suggest that there is a causal relationship between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain in chronic pancreatitis and that the success...

  5. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs. (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M


    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-mode-locking semiconductor disk laser. (United States)

    Gaafar, Mahmoud; Richter, Philipp; Keskin, Hakan; Möller, Christoph; Wichmann, Matthias; Stolz, Wolfgang; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Koch, Martin


    The development of mode-locked semiconductor disk lasers received striking attention in the last 14 years and there is still a vast potential of such pulsed lasers to be explored and exploited. While for more than one decade pulsed operation was strongly linked to the employment of a saturable absorber, self-mode-locking emerged recently as an effective and novel technique in this field - giving prospect to a reduced complexity and improved cost-efficiency of such lasers. In this work, we highlight recent achievements regarding self-mode-locked semiconductor devices. It is worth to note, that although nonlinear effects in the active medium are expected to give rise to self-mode-locking, this has to be investigated with care in future experiments. However, there is a controversy whether results presented with respect to self-mode-locking truly show mode-locking. Such concerns are addressed in this work and we provide a clear evidence of mode-locking in a saturable-absorber-free device. By using a BBO crystal outside the cavity, green light originating from second-harmonic generation using the out-coupled laser beam is demonstrated. In addition, long-time-span pulse trains as well as radiofrequency-spectra measurements are presented for our sub-ps pulses at 500 MHz repetition rate which indicate the stable pulse operation of our device. Furthermore, a long-time-span autocorrelation trace is introduced which clearly shows absence of a pedestal or double pulses. Eventually, a beam-profile measurement reveals the excellent beam quality of our device with an M-square factor of less than 1.1 for both axes, showing that self-mode-locking can be achieved for the fundamental transverse mode.

  7. Transverse mode-locking in microcavity lasers (United States)

    Gordon, R.; Heberle, A. P.; Cleaver, J. R. A.


    We experimentally demonstrate mode-locking between the transverse modes of a laser. A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with evenly-spaced transverse modes is shown to emit a train of 2.1±0.1 ps pulses with an 11 ps repetition rate and a timing jitter of 235±30 fs. Transverse mode-locking in microcavity lasers has potential to improve the compactness, stability, integrability, repetition rate tunability, and efficiency of ultrafast optical communication sources.

  8. Free fructose is conformationally locked. (United States)

    Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Écija, Patricia; Cimas, Álvaro; Davis, Benjamin G; Basterretxea, Francisco J; Fernández, José A; Castaño, Fernando


    Fructose has been examined under isolation conditions using a combination of UV ultrafast laser vaporization and Fourier-transform microwave (FT-MW) spectroscopy. The rotational spectra for the parent, all (six) monosubstituted (13)C species, and two single D species reveal unambiguously that the free hexoketose is conformationally locked in a single dominant β-pyranose structure. This six-membered-chair skeleton adopts a (2)C(5) configuration (equivalent to (1)C(4) in aldoses). The free-molecule structure sharply contrasts with the furanose form observed in biochemically relevant polysaccharides, like sucrose. The structure of free fructose has been determined experimentally using substitution and effective structures. The enhanced stability of the observed conformation is primarily attributed to a cooperative network of five intramolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds and stabilization of both endo and exo anomeric effects. Breaking a single intramolecular hydrogen bond destabilizes the free molecule by more than 10 kJ mol(-1). The structural results are compared to ribose, recently examined with rotational resolution, where six different conformations coexist with similar conformational energies. In addition, several DFT and ab initio methods and basis sets are benchmarked with the experimental data.

  9. [The evaluation of the end-ejection pressure-length relation as an index of regional contractility]. (United States)

    Perlini, S; Meyer, T E; Bernardi, L; Soldà, P L; Calciati, A; Finardi, G; Foëx, P


    Although end-systolic pressure-length relationship (ESPLR) is now widely used as a regional substitute for the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, there are some reservations about its use as an index of systolic performance. This study aimed at assessing whether by using end-ejection (zero aortic flow) as a definition of end-systole, ESPLR can be used to characterize myocardial performance independent of load, and if the choice of the region where to implant the sonomicrometers is critical. Ten anaesthetized dogs (16 +/- 2 kg) were instrumented with a left ventricular (LV) pressure micromanometer and an aortic flow probe. Sonomicrometers were implanted in the apical (L1) and the mid-ventricular (L2) regions of the anterior LV wall, and in the basal region of the lateral wall (L3). End-systolic pressure-length relationships were obtained during acute preload reduction induced by the inflation of a vena caval balloon. This evaluation was repeated after increasing end-diastolic pressure to 14-18 mmHg (delta PL), after increasing systolic pressure by 15 (delta P-I) and 25 mmHg (delta P-II) with graded descending aorta occlusion, and during dobutamine infusions at 2.5 (Db 2.5) and 5 micrograms/kg/min (Db5). End-systolic pressure-length relationships (r > 0.97; pressure range: 70-100 mmHg) were characterized by their slopes (Ees), the extrapolated intercept at zero pressure (L0) and the values of segment length at a pressure of 75 (L75) and 100 mmHg (L100). In all the myocardial regions studied by sonomicrometry, the increments in preload and afterload did not significantly shift ESPLR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Evaluation of the Heading Confinement Pressure Effect on Ground Settlement for EPBTBM Using Full 3D Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Haghi


    Full Text Available Ground settlement is often the most serious concern when tunneling under an old city with numerous historic monuments. A successful engineering design under these conditions would require getting the most out of the ground strength parameters and avoiding any weakening maneuver throughout the operation. Knowing that surface settlement is highly affected by tunneling parameters in EPB shield tunneling lead us to estimate the optimum values for the machine heading pressure with the lower amount of the ground settlement in fragile structure of the old city for the Esfahan Subway Project. Tunnels were dug underneath some of the most prominent historical sites along the path of the project. To improve precision and efficiency in tunneling operation, at the first step, tunnel heading confinement pressure is calculated by using an advanced 3D mathematical approach based on the limit equilibrium theory. Then, a promoted 3D finite element model is developed, taking into account the tunneling procedures and the designed heading confinement pressure from the first step. Settlements were pre-calculated and the surface displacement was checked at all sensitive locations. At the third step, settlement is estimated by exerting executed face supporting pressure to the tunnel face and the concluded amounts for displacement are compared with the outputs of extensometers. This comparison leads us to check the reliability of calculated settlements and the accuracy of the designed tunnel heading confinement pressure. Furthermore, evaluating the relation between extensometer outputs and executed tunnel face pressure at the points of extensometers stations validates the assumption that the safe face supporting pressure causes least surface displacement. Although the minimum pressure occurred in short term fluctuations, this approach confirms the sensibility of settlement with the least executed face supporting pressure.. It is also found that higher executed face

  11. A multicenter evaluation of oral pressure therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Black, Jed; Siegel, Lawrence C; Bogan, Richard K; Becker, Philip M; Farid-Moayer, Mehran; Goldberg, Rochelle; Lankford, D Alan; Goldberg, Andrew N; Malhotra, Atul


    We aimed to evaluate the impact of a novel noninvasive oral pressure therapy (OPT) (Winx®, ApniCure) system on polysomnographic measures of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep architecture, and sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A 4-week, multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized, crossover, first-night order of control vs treatment, single-arm trial was conducted in five American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) - accredited sleep clinics and one research laboratory. Sixty-three subjects (analysis cohort) were studied from a screening cohort of 367 subjects. The analysis cohort was 69.8% men, ages 53.6±8.9 years (mean±SD), body mass index of 32.3±4.5kg/m(2), with mild to severe OSA. At treatment initiation, subjects received random assignment to one night with and one without (control) treatment, and they were assessed again following 28 nights of treatment. Breathing and sleep architecture were assessed each night based on blind scoring by a single centralized scorer using AASM criteria. Average nightly usage across the take-home period was 6.0±1.4h. There were no severe or serious device-related adverse events (AEs). Median apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 27.5 events per hour on the control night, 13.4 events per hour on the first treatment night, and 14.8 events per hour after 28days of treatment. A clinically significant response (treatment AHI ⩽10/h and ⩽50% of control values) was seen in 20 of the 63 subjects evaluated. Rapid eye movement percentage (REM%) was significantly increased, and N1%, stage shifts to N1 sleep, overall stage shifts, total awakenings, and arousals per hour were all significantly reduced at both treatment nights compared to controls. Mean Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was significantly reduced from 12.1 to 8.6 (Cohen d effect size, 0.68) in those untreated for two or more weeks prior to OPT study participation and remained unchanged in subjects who directly switched from continuous positive airway pressure

  12. Clinical evaluation of the Surgivet V60046, a non invasive blood pressure monitor in anaesthetized dogs. (United States)

    Deflandre, Catherine J A; Hellebrekers, Ludo J


    To compare the performance of the Surgivet Non-Invasive Blood Pressure (NIBP) monitor V60046 with an invasive blood pressure (IBP) technique in anaesthetized dogs. A prospective study. Thirty-four dogs, anaesthetized for a variety of procedures. Various anaesthetic protocols were used. Invasive blood pressure measurement was made using a catheter in the femoral or the pedal artery. A cuff was placed on the contralateral limb to allow non invasive measurements. Recordings of arterial blood pressures (ABPs) were taken at simultaneous times for a range of pressures. For analysis, three pressure levels were determined: high [systolic blood pressure (SAP) > 121 mmHg], normal (91 mmHg invasive and non invasive measurements were made using Bland-Altmann analysis. The NIBP monitor consistently underestimated blood pressure at all levels. The lowest biases and greatest precision were obtained at low and normal pressure levels for SAP and mean arterial pressure (MAP). At low blood pressure levels, the biases +/- 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.9 +/- 2.96 mmHg (SAP), 8.3 +/- 2.41 mmHg diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and 3.5 +/- 2.09 mmHg (MAP). At normal blood pressure levels, biases and CI were: 1.2 +/- 2.13 mmHg (SAP), 5.2 +/- 2.32 mmHg (DAP) and 2.1 +/- 1.54 mmHg (MAP). At high blood pressure levels, the biases and CI were 22.7 +/- 5.85 mmHg (SAP), 5.5 +/- 3.13 mmHg (DAP) and 9.4 +/- 3.52 mmHg (MAP). In 90.6% of cases of hypotension (MAP blood pressure was correctly diagnosed by the Surgivet. Measurement of blood pressure with the indirect monitor allowed detection of hypotension using either SAP or MAP. The most accurate readings were determined for MAP at hypotensive and normal levels. The monitor lacked accuracy at high pressures. When severe challenges to the cardiovascular system are anticipated, an invasive method of recording ABP is preferable. For routine usage, the Surgivet monitor provided a reliable and safe method of NIBP monitoring in dogs, thereby

  13. Evaluation of the oscillometric technique for intermittent non-invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in the anaesthetized pig. (United States)

    Ypsilantis, P; Didilis, V; Simopoulos, C


    This study was designed to evaluate the oscillometric technique for intermittent non-invasive measurement of arterial pressure (AP) in the anaesthetized pig. In six pigs under sevoflurane anaesthesia, intermittent (every 2 minutes) oscillometric measurements of AP made at a forelimb (FL), a hindlimb (HL) and the tail base were compared with simultaneous direct AP measurements made at the aortic arch (AA) over a wide pressure range (30-140 mmHg of mean AP). All oscillometric measurements strongly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient >0.837, P oscillometric and AA pressure readings at graded pressure levels, measurements made at the tail base provided reliable prediction of systolic AP, at the FL of diastolic AP and at both the tail base and the FL of mean AP. In conclusion, oscillometric measurements at the FL and the tail base offer reliable prediction of AP in the anaesthetized pig.

  14. Performance Evaluation Tests of Insulated Pressure Vessels for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinoza-Loza, F


    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen. This flexibility results in multiple advantages with respect to compressed hydrogen tanks or low-pressure liquid hydrogen tanks. Our work is directed at verifying that commercially available aluminum-lined, fiber-wrapped pressure vessels can be safely used to store liquid hydrogen. A series of tests have been conducted, and the results indicate that no significant vessel damage has resulted from cryogenic operation. Future activities include a demonstration project in which the insulated pressure vessels will be installed and tested on two vehicles. A draft standard will also be generated for certification of insulated pressure vessels.

  15. Evaluation of pathogen inactivation on sliced cheese induced by encapsulated atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma. (United States)

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Alahakoon, Amali U; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun


    Pathogen inactivation induced by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) (250 W, 15 kHz, air discharge) produced in a rectangular plastic container and the effect of post-treatment storage time on inactivation were evaluated using agar plates and cheese slices. When agar plates were treated with plasma, populations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes showed 3.57, 6.69, and 6.53 decimal reductions at 60 s, 45 s, and 7 min, respectively. When the pathogens tested were inoculated on cheese slices, 2.67, 3.10, and 1.65 decimal reductions were achieved at the same respective treatment times. The post-treatment storage duration following plasma treatment potently affected further reduction in pathogen populations. Therefore, the newly developed encapsulated DBD-plasma system for use in a container can be applied to improve the safety of sliced cheese, and increasing post-treatment storage time can greatly enhance the system's pathogen-inactivation efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inspiratory pressure evaluation by means of the entropy of respiratory mechanomyographic signals. (United States)

    Torres, Abel; Fiz, José A; Galdiz, Juan B; Gea, Joaquim; Morera, Josep; Jané, Raimon


    The study of the mechanomyographic (MMG) signal of respiratory muscles is a promising technique in order to evaluate the respiratory muscles effort. The relationship between amplitude and power parameters of this signal with the respiratory effort performed during respiration is of great interest for researchers and physicians due to its diagnostic potentials. In this study, it was analyzed the MMG signal of the diaphragm muscle acquired by means of a capacitive accelerometer applied on the costal wall. The new methodology investigated was based in the calculation of the Shannon entropy of the MMG signal during the diaphragm muscle voluntary contraction. The method was tested in an animal model, with two incremental respiratory protocols performed by two non anesthetized mongrel dogs. The results obtained in the respiratory tests analyzed indicate that the Shannon entropy was superior to other amplitude parameter methods, obtaining higher correlation coefficients (with p-values lower than 0.001) with the mean and maximum inspiratory pressures. Furthermore in this study we have proposed a moving mode high pass filter in order to eliminate the very low frequency component recorded by the sensor and due to movement artifacts and the gross movement of the thorax during respiration. With this non linear filtering method we have obtained higher correlation coefficients (with both entropy and amplitude parameters) than with the Wavelet multiresolution technique proposed in a previous work.


    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Peterson, Edward L; Schmitt, Todd; Aquino, Susette


    Ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and 90 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) at eight North American zoos and aquaria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using rebound tonometry while penguins were held in two different body positions. Correlations between IOP and factors including age, body position, eye pathology, and housing parameters were evaluated. Normal macaroni penguins had a mean IOP of 42.0 ± 9.7 mm Hg. Normal rockhopper penguins had a mean IOP of 32.9 ± 6.2 mm Hg. Neither species had significantly different IOP between sexes or between left and right eyes of the same penguin. In both species, there was a negative linear correlation between age and IOP. In the macaroni population, IOP was significantly higher when IOP measurement was performed before ophthalmic exam; this was not true in rockhoppers. In both species, IOP measured in a horizontal body position was significantly higher than IOP measured in a vertical body position. In both species, eyes with corneal lesions had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In the macaroni penguin, eyes with rubeosis iridis had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In macaroni penguins, eyes with cataracts had significantly lower mean IOP than normal eyes; this was not true for rockhoppers.

  18. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast. (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald


    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A modified Hopkinson pressure bar experiment to evaluate a damped piezoresistive MEMS accelerometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Danny Joe; Duong, Henry


    We conducted a series of modified Hopkinson pressure bar (HPB) experiments to evaluate a new, damped, high-shock accelerometer that has recently been developed by PCB Piezotronics Inc. Pulse shapers were used to create a long duration, non-dispersive stress pulse in an aluminum bar that interacted with a tungsten disk at the end of the incident bar. We measured stress at the aluminum bar-disk interface with a quartz gage and measured acceleration at the free-end of the disk with an Endevco brand 7270A and the new PCB 3991 accelerometers. The rise-time of the incident stress pulse in the aluminum bar was long enough and the disk length short enough so that the response of the disk can be approximated closely as rigid-body motion; an experimentally verified analytical model has been shown previously to support this assumption. Since the cross-sectional area and mass of the disk were known, we calculated acceleration of the rigid-disk from the quartz-gage force measurement and Newton's Second Law of Motion. Comparisons of accelerations calculated from the quartz-gage data and measured acceleration data show excellent agreement for acceleration pulses with the PCB accelerometer for peak amplitudes between 4,000 and 40,000 Gs , rise times as short as 40 microsec, and pulse durations between 150 and 320 microsec.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Rock Dynamic Test with Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Peng


    Full Text Available Feasibility of rock dynamic properties by split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB was experimentally and numerically evaluated with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The effects of different diameters, different loading rates, and different propagation distances on wave dispersion of input bars in SHPB with rectangle and half-sine wave loadings were analyzed. The results show that the dispersion effect on the diameter of input bar, loading rate, and propagation distance under half-sine waveform loading is ignorable compared with the rectangle wave loading. Moreover, the degrees of stress uniformity under rectangle and half-sine input wave loadings are compared in SHPB tests, and the time required for stress uniformity is calculated under different above-mentioned loadings. It is confirmed that the stress uniformity can be realized more easily using the half-sine pulse loading compared to the rectangle pulse loading, and this has significant advantages in the dynamic test of rock-like materials. Finally, the Holmquist-Johnson-Concrete constitutive model is introduced to simulate the failure mechanism and failure and fragmentation characteristics of rock under different strain rates. And the numerical results agree with that obtained from the experiment, which confirms the effectiveness of the model and the method.

  1. Characterization and Stability Evaluation of Thymoquinone Nanoemulsions Prepared by High-Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Tubesha


    Full Text Available Despite the pharmacological properties of thymoquinone (TQ, its administration in vivo remains problematic partly due to its poor water solubility, leading to low absorptivity and bioavailability. Hence, the objective of this study is to prepare, characterize, and evaluate the stability of TQ nanoemulsion (TQNE. Conventional emulsion from TQ (TQCE and empty nano- and conventional emulsions from Triolein (TRNE and TRCE are also produced for comparison purposes. The oil-in-water nanoemulsions of TQ and Triolein were produced by high-pressure homogenization. Emulsions were characterized physically by droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and refractive index. The changes of these parameters in TQNE samples stored for 6 months at 4 and 25°C were not statistically significant (P<0.05. In addition, the initial particle sizes of TQNE and TRNE were 119.6 and 119.5 nm, respectively. Stability studies were also performed for the period of 6 months. At the end of the experiment, the percent of remaining TQ in TQNE at 4, 25, and 40°C was 90.6, 89.1, and 87.4 % respectively. Slower degradation of TQ indicated the chemical stability of TQ in TQNE samples. These results indicated that TQNE is stable over a period of 6 months.

  2. A prospective evaluation of labetalol versus nicardipine for blood pressure management in patients with acute stroke. (United States)

    Liu-DeRyke, Xi; Levy, Phillip D; Parker, Dennis; Coplin, William; Rhoney, Denise H


    Acute hypertension is common following stroke and contributes to poor outcomes. Labetalol and nicardipine are often used for acute hypertension but there are little data comparing the two. This study is to evaluate the therapeutic response and tolerability of these two agents following acute stroke. This is a prospective, pseudo-randomized study comparing labetalol and nicardipine for blood pressure (BP) management in acute stroke patients. Patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with confirmed hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke received either labetalol or nicardipine for 24 h from ED admission. Therapeutic response was assessed by achievement of goal BP, time spent within goal, and variability in BP. Clinical outcomes including length of stay, clinical status at discharge, and in-hospital mortality were recorded. 54 patients were enrolled (labetalol = 28; nicardipine = 26) with 25 ± 6 BP measurements per patient. Majority of patients had a hemorrhagic stroke and baseline characteristics were similar between groups. All patients who received nicardipine achieved goal BP compared to 17 (61 %) in the labetalol group (p labetalol group (p labetalol group (p labetalol group (p labetalol. Despite this, there was no demonstrable difference in clinical outcomes.

  3. Evaluating the Hemodynamic Basis of Age-Related Central Blood Pressure Change Using Aortic Flow Triangulation. (United States)

    Namasivayam, Mayooran; Adji, Audrey; O'Rourke, Michael F


    Pulsatile blood pressure rises with age, especially in the aorta. The comparative role of forward and reflected pressure waves (FW and RW, respectively), determined by aortic flow triangulation has not previously been explored in a large clinical cohort. This study aimed to identify the role of FW and RW in the rise in aortic pulse pressure with age. For 879 outpatients, aortic pressure waveforms were generated using a validated generalized transfer function applied to radial pressure waves recorded using applanation tonometry. FW and RW were subsequently determined using aortic flow triangulation. Contributions of FW and RW to rise in aortic pulse pressure with age were determined using multivariate linear regression and product of coefficient mediation analysis, with adjustment for height, weight, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure. Comparisons were made by gender and before and after age 60. In subjects aged 60 and below, RW was an important contributor to pulsatile pressure elevation with age, but FW was non-contributory in either gender after multivariate correction. In subjects aged above 60, both FW and RW were significant and equal contributors in both genders. In a clinical setting, both FW and RW are important to pulsatile aortic blood pressure across the lifespan, but RW appears to have a more pronounced effect across all ages, whereas FW has less effect in younger persons. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. Effect of a locking triple pelvic osteotomy plate on screw loosening in 26 dogs. (United States)

    Rose, Scott A; Peck, Jeffrey N; Tano, Cheryl A; Uddin, Nizam; de Haan, Jacek J


    To evaluate the complication rate of the double (DPO) and triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) procedure (unilateral and bilateral) with a locking purpose-specific plate. Retrospective case series Dogs (n = 26; 38 hips) Medical records (January 2007-January 2011) of dogs that had unilateral or bilateral DPO or TPO were evaluated. Signalment, age, body weight, estimated preoperative subluxation and reduction angles, lameness, and complications were evaluated. Follow-up radiographs were evaluated for implant loosening or failure, femoral head coverage (FCH), pelvic dimensions, and radiographic evidence of healing. Screw loosening occurred in 1 of 266 (0.4%) screws placed and in 1 of 38 hips (2.6%). The rate of screw loosening was significantly lower than previously reported. Only 1 hip (2.6%) developed a major complication. Minor complications involving implants occurred in 2 hips (5.3%). Three to 5 locking screws were used per plate. There was a significant increase in FCH and Norberg angle (NA) compared with preoperative values. No clinically significant change in pelvic canal dimensions measured at 3 locations was identified. Locking 7-hole TPO plates with 3-5 locking screws resulted in a lower rate of major and minor implant associated complications than the reported complication rate for conventional 6-hole plates. En bloc pullout of the caudal aspect of the plate is an infrequent but repeatable complication associated with the locking TPO implant. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound: Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Plavnik


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 ± 0.13 and 0.62 ± 0.16 vs 0.54 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001. In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39 in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40. In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37, while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10. There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC.

  6. Potential application of in vivo imaging of impaired lymphatic duct to evaluate the severity of pressure ulcer in mouse model (United States)

    Kasuya, Akira; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Tokura, Yoshiki


    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a cause of pressure ulcer. However, a mechanism underlying the IR injury-induced lymphatic vessel damage remains unclear. We investigated the alterations of structure and function of lymphatic ducts in a mouse cutaneous IR model. And we suggested a new method for evaluating the severity of pressure ulcer. Immunohistochemistry showed that lymphatic ducts were totally vanished by IR injury, while blood vessels were relatively preserved. The production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in injured tissue. In vitro study showed a high vulnerability of lymphatic endothelial cells to ROS. Then we evaluated the impaired lymphatic drainage using an in vivo imaging system for intradermally injected indocyanine green (ICG). The dysfunction of ICG drainage positively correlated with the severity of subsequent cutaneous changes. Quantification of the lymphatic duct dysfunction by this imaging system could be a useful strategy to estimate the severity of pressure ulcer.

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-created murine model with normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jen Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually occurs late in adult life. Clinically, the cardinal features include gait disturbances, urinary incontinence, and cognitive decline. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we report the characterization of a novel mouse model of NPH (designated p23-ST1, created by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-induced mutagenesis. The ventricular size in the brain was measured by 3-dimensional micro-magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI and was found to be enlarged. Intracranial pressure was measured and was found to fall within a normal range. A histological assessment and tracer flow study revealed that the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF pathway of p23-ST1 mice was normal without obstruction. Motor functions were assessed using a rotarod apparatus and a CatWalk gait automatic analyzer. Mutant mice showed poor rotarod performance and gait disturbances. Cognitive function was evaluated using auditory fear-conditioned responses with the mutant displaying both short- and long-term memory deficits. With an increase in urination frequency and volume, the mutant showed features of incontinence. Nissl substance staining and cell-type-specific markers were used to examine the brain pathology. These studies revealed concurrent glial activation and neuronal loss in the periventricular regions of mutant animals. In particular, chronically activated microglia were found in septal areas at a relatively young age, implying that microglial activation might contribute to the pathogenesis of NPH. These defects were transmitted in an autosomal dominant mode with reduced penetrance. Using a whole-genome scan employing 287 single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers and further refinement using six additional SNP markers and four microsatellite markers, the causative mutation was mapped to a 5.3-cM region on chromosome 4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results collectively demonstrate that the p23-ST1

  8. Evaluation of the effect of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure on cognitive function: the Women's Health and Aging Study II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Yasar

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP and pulse pressure (PP in midlife is associated with increased risk for cognitive impairment later in life. There is mixed evidence regarding the effects of late life elevated SBP or PP on cognitive function, and limited information on the role of female gender.Effects of SBPand PPon cognitive abilities at baseline and over a 9-year period were evaluated in 337 non-demented community-dwelling female participants over age 70 in the Women's Health and Aging Study II using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Participants aged 76-80 years with SBP≥160 mmHg or PP≥84 mmHg showed increased incidence of impairment on Trail Making Test-Part B (TMT, Part B, a measure of executive function, over time when compared to the control group that included participants with normal and pre-hypertensive SBP (<120 and 120-139 mmHg or participants with low PP (<68 mmHg (HR = 5.05 [95%CI = 1.42, 18.04], [HR = 5.12 [95%CI = 1.11; 23.62], respectively. Participants aged 70-75 years with PP≥71 mmHg had at least a two-fold higher incidence of impairment on HVLT-I, a measure of verbal learning, over time when compared to participants with low PP (<68 mmHg (HR = 2.44 [95%CI = 1.11, 5.39].Our data suggest that elevated SBP or PP in older non-demented women increases risk for late-life cognitive impairment and that PP could be used when assessing the risk for impairment in cognitive abilities. These results warrant further, larger studies to evaluate possible effects of elevated blood pressure in normal cognitive aging.

  9. An evaluation of the accuracy of modeled and computed streamflow time-series data for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and at a location upstream from Sardis, Ohio (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.


    Between July 2013 and June 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made 10 streamflow measurements on the Ohio River about 1.5 miles (mi) downstream from the Hannibal Lock and Dam (near Hannibal, Ohio) and 11 streamflow measurements near the USGS Sardis gage (station number 03114306) located approximately 2.4 mi upstream from Sardis, Ohio. The measurement results were used to assess the accuracy of modeled or computed instantaneous streamflow time series created and supplied by the USGS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and National Weather Service (NWS) for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and (or) at the USGS streamgage. Hydraulic or hydrologic models were used to create the modeled time series; index-velocity methods or gate-opening ratings coupled with hydropower operation data were used to create the computed time series. The time step of the various instantaneous streamflow time series ranged from 15 minutes to 24 hours (once-daily values at 12:00 Coordinated Universal Time [UTC]). The 15-minute time-series data, computed by the USGS for the Sardis gage, also were downsampled to 1-hour and 24-hour time steps to permit more direct comparisons with other streamflow time series.

  10. Do pressure ulcers influence length of hospital stay in surgical cardiothoracic patients? A prospective evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, J.P.; Schoonhoven, L.J.; Keller, B.P.; Ramshorst, B. van


    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of pressure ulcers following cardiothoracic surgery increases the length of hospitalisation. BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that a pressure ulcer extends the length of hospital stay. The impact of

  11. Evaluation of Low-Pressure Cold Plasma for Disinfection of ISS Grown Produce and Metal Instruments (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary E.; Hintze, Paul E.; Maloney, Philip R.; Spencer, Lashelle E.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Franco, Carolina


    Low pressure cold plasma, using breathing air as the plasma gas, has been shown to be effective at precision cleaning aerospace hardware at Kennedy Space Center.Both atmospheric and low pressure plasmas are relatively new technologies being investigated for disinfecting agricultural commodities and medical instruments.

  12. DC torque motor actuated anti-lock brake controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, P.D.; Kade, A.


    A wheel lock control system is described for limiting the brake pressure applied to the brake of a vehicle wheel traveling over a road surface, the system comprising: an actuator for controlling the brake pressure to the brake of the wheel, the actuator including a torque motor for generating a motor torque in response to motor current to control the applied brake pressure in accordance with the value of the motor torque, the motor torque having a value proportional to the value of the motor current; means for determining the tire torque tending to accelerate the wheel during the application of brake pressure; means for storing the value of motor current corresponding to the maximum determined value of tire torque; means for detecting an incipient wheel lockup condition; and means for establishing the motor current following a detected incipient wheel lockup condition at a value having a predetermined relationship to the stored value of motor current to control the brake pressure at a predetermined braking condition.

  13. Efficacy evaluation of cerebral perfusion pressure in complex treatment of eclamptic coma

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    Podolsky Yu.S.


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study influence of cerebral perfusion pressure on the effectiveness of treatment of maternity patient in eclamptic coma. Fluctuation of average arterial pressure defines dynamics of the cerebral perfusion pressure. Active hypotensive therapy leads to reduction of cerebral blood flow, breaking perfusion balance of brain. The principal objective of treatment in eclamptic coma is to restore volemic indices by using stabizol, decrease of average arterial pressure (10-15% from the initial one, which is provided by magnesium sulfate and nimodipine. Providing the cerebral perfusion pressure above the level of 75 mm for maternity patient in eclamptic coma allowed to reduce lethality from 15,7 to 4,8%

  14. Are Some Countries More Prone to Pressure Evaluators than Others? Comparing Findings from the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Switzerland (United States)

    Pleger, Lyn; Sager, Fritz; Morris, Michael; Meyer, Wolfgang; Stockmann, Reinhard


    Pressure on evaluators has been investigated recently by surveys in the USA, the UK, Germany, and Switzerland. This study compares the results of those studies regarding pressure on evaluators in different countries. The findings suggest that independence of evaluations does not exist for many respondents. Moreover, the person who commissioned the…

  15. Reliability of cranial CT versus intracerebral pressure measurement for the evaluation of generalised cerebral oedema in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, W.; Beck, R.; Behrmann, C.; Spielmann, R.P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Halle-Wittenberg, 06 097 Halle (Germany); Schobess, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Halle-Wittenberg, 06097 Halle (Germany)


    Objective. To examine the extent to which intracranial pressure (ICP) in children after severe brain trauma can be determined by cranial CT. Materials and methods. Two experienced paediatric radiologists, without any knowledge of the clinical symptoms, evaluated 124 CT scans from 65 children (average age 5.4 years) who underwent intracranial measurement of their cerebral pressure. Results. CT had high sensitivity (99.1%) for 'high cerebral pressure' but a much lower specificity (78.1%). The examiners tended to estimate ICP as 'high' even when actual ICP was low. Since therapy for lowering cerebral pressure involves potential risks, actual cerebral pressure measurement, particularly in children, should be considered before intervention (e. g. hyperventilation or trepanation). We report the change in different intracerebral fluid compartments with varying cerebral pressure and modifications of the density of the brain tissue in an inter- and intraobserver comparison. Conclusion. The radiologist cannot differentiate, for methodological reasons, between a change in the intracranial fluid compartments not associated with a change in ICP and one in which it is critically elevated. Before any interventional treatments such as decompression-trepanation or hyperventilation are instituted, measurement of ICP should be considered, especially in children. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of liver parenchymal pressure and portal endothelium damage during radio frequency ablation in an in vivo porcine model. (United States)

    Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Morizono, Shusuke; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Enjoji, Munechika; Sakai, Hironori; Nakamuta, Makoto


    We previously developed a multi-step, incremental expansion method (multi-step method) for radio frequency ablation (RFA) in vitro, which prevented increases in pressure and reduced the ablation time as compared with other methods. In this study, we evaluated liver parenchymal pressure and portal endothelium damage during RFA with different devices and protocols in an in vivo porcine model. Nine healthy female pigs were anaesthetized. RFA was performed with two different devices and protocols; one involved the use of a LeVeen needle with a single-step full expansion method or a multi-step method, and the other used a cool-tip needle with 40 or 60 W power. We measured the pressure in the liver parenchyma and the gallbladder during RFA. We also evaluated portal endothelium damage by NADH staining. The multi-step method with the LeVeen electrode resulted in the lowest parenchymal and intra-gallbladder pressures (multi-step methodendothelium damage after ablation with the cool-tip needle, but only slight damage with the LeVeen needle. Ablation with the LeVeen needle, especially when used with a multi-step protocol, produced less of an increase in liver parenchymal and intra-gallbladder pressures and less damage to portal endothelial cells than did the cool-tip electrode.

  17. Evaluation of a teaching tool to increase the accuracy of pilot balloon palpation for measuring tracheostomy tube cuff pressure. (United States)

    Jiang, Nancy; Del Signore, Anthony G; Iloreta, Alfred M; Malkin, Benjamin D


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel teaching tool to improve health care providers' ability to inflate tracheostomy tube cuffs to the appropriate pressure. Single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects were randomized to a control and study group. The control group viewed a video about inflating tracheostomy tube cuffs to safe pressure levels. The study group viewed the same video and also got to palpate the pilot balloons of tracheostomy tube cuffs inflated to three different pressures. All subjects inflated tracheostomy tube cuffs to pressures they believed to be appropriate based on palpation of the pilot balloon preintervention, and immediately, 2 weeks, and 3 months postintervention. Forty-nine health care providers participated in the study. There was no significant difference in the mean preintervention cuff inflation pressures between the two groups (36 cm H2 O vs. 38 cm H2 O, P = 0.4888), with both initially overinflating. Postintervention, the study group inflated the cuffs to significantly lower pressures than the control group, closer to the ideal of 25 cm H2 O (26 cm H2 O vs. 35 cm H2 O, P = 0.0001). This difference was also observed 2 weeks (28 cm H2 O vs. 37 cm H2 O P <0.0001) and 3 months (28 cm H2 O vs. 36 cm H2 O, P = 0.0002) postintervention. The novel teaching tool evaluated in this study is simple, easily reproducible, and low-cost. Its use leads to long-lasting improvement in health care providers' ability to more accurately inflate tracheostomy tube cuffs to safe pressures. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of High Pressure on Naringin Hydrolysis in Grapefruit Juice with Naringinase Immobilised in Calcium Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ferreira


    Full Text Available The reduction of bitterness in citrus juices would increase their acceptance by the consumer. This reduction in grapefruit juices can be achieved as a result of an enzymatic process, with improved commercial value and maintenance of health properties. The use of a cheap, simple and effective immobilisation method combined with high pressure can be a key asset in the debittering of citrus juices. The aim of this study is the debittering of grapefruit juice under high pressure, with naringinase immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Naringinase, an α-rhamnopyranosidase, hydrolyzes naringin (a flavanone glycoside and primary bitter component in grapefruit juice to naringenin, which is tasteless. High pressure can activate or inhibit enzymatic activities depending on the proteins and conditions. The hydrolysis of naringin was first evaluated in model solution (acetate buffer 0.02 M, pH=4.0 and then in grapefruit juice. In model solution, at 160 MPa and 37 °C, a 50 % increase in the concentration of reducing sugars was obtained when compared to the reaction at atmospheric pressure. The higher naringenin concentration (33 mg/L was obtained at 54 °C under high pressure of 200 MPa, which corresponds to a naringin reduction of 72 % in model solution, while at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa, the naringin reduction was only 35 %. The decrease in naringin content can be directly correlated with the reduction in bitterness. From the concentration of residual naringin, the percentage of reduction in bitterness was evaluated. In grapefruit juice, a debittering of 75 % occurred with a pressure of 160 MPa at 37 °C for 20 minutes.

  19. The non-Boussinesq lock exchange problem (United States)

    Linden, Paul; Lowe, Ryan; Rottman, James


    The results of an experimental study of the non-Boussinesq lock exchange problem are described. The experiments were performed in a rectangular channel using water and a Sodium Iodide solution as the two fluids, which gave a maximum density difference of about 60experiments is to resolve some recent controversy about how gravity currents evolve from a flow at rest to the well-known steady-state gravity current made famous by Benjamin (1968). It has been argued, based on two-dimensional shallow-water theory, that Benjamin’s steady-state energy-conserving gravity current cannot evolve from the lock-exchange (or any physically reasonable) initial conditions. The experiments show that this is not true. A theory for the non-Boussinesq problem is derived that is valid for the lock-exchange problem for large times after the flow is initiated. This theory requires the formulation of a two-layer theory for hydraulic jumps in non-Boussinesq fluids. The results of the model are compared with our lock-exchange experiments and with two previous non-Boussinesq sets of lock exchange experiments, both of which use a combination of exotic gases or gases and liquids as the working fluids, with good qualitative agreement.

  20. Renal evaluation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokine D. Anna


    Full Text Available Background: HbA1c is correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Our main objective was to evaluate the trend of biochemical and clinical variables, in relation to the eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methods: This was a retrospective, longitudinal, and descriptive study, including patients with T2DM, who were cared for from January 2014 until December 2014, at the Clínica de Diabetes, Hospital Regional “Gral. Ignacio Zaragoza", ISSSTE, Mexico City, Mexico. eGFR was calculated using three formulas: the chronic kidney disease – epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI, Cockcroft-Gault, and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD, during two periods of observation, 3 and 6 months. The results were compared by Student t tests or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test depending on the variable distribution. Pearson correlation was employed to determine the relation between the eGFR determined with each formula and the analyzed variables.Results: The mean age was 56.5±11.3 years in the group of 3 months’ follow-up (n=110 and 57.1±13.8 years in the group of 6 months’ follow-up (n=47. In both groups, the formula with the lowest percentages of cases of CKD was CKD-EPI and the difference of this formula had a basal and final significant positive correlation with the DBP.Conclusion: The CKD-EPI formula showed the lowest percentages of cases of CKD in a short follow-up period, and its difference is consistently associated with the DBP, confirming the importance of controlling the later to mitigate the evolution to CKD.

  1. Evaluating effects of tannins on extent and rate of in vitro gas and CH4, production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.; Stringano, E.; Leenaars, J.; Bongers, L.J.G.M.; Laar-van Schuppen, van S.; Plant, J.; Mueller-Harvey, I.


    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate effects of tannins on extent and rate of gas and CH4 production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES). In this study three condensed tannins (CT; quebracho, grape seed, green tea tannins) and four hydrolysable tannins (HT; tara, valonea,


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Most of these fractures except intra-articular fractures are treated with interlocking nail. 1,2 These nails are a boon for these fractures. But as the fracture nears to the joint stability the fracture fixation will be compromised due to malreduction and alignment, it leads to increased chances of delayed and nonunion. 3 Locking anatomical plates are evaluated for anatomical and relative stability fixation. Since then most intra and near intra-articular fractures are fixed with these plates with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis method, these plates have given excellent result 4 . But again these plates have some disadvantages 5 . This study is done to see the outcome of locking plates in distal tibia fracture. METHODS This study is done in the Department of Orthopaedics, Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore. This study is done from 2013 to 2015. 30 patients who came to outpatient department were treated with locking plates. All patients above 16 years having distal third tibia fracture are included. All open fractures except type 1 and elderly above 60 years and pathological fractures are excluded in our study. All patients were followed up for initial 5 months, thereafter, once in 3 months, for clinical and radiological evaluation of union status, knee range of motion, ankle range of motion and other complications. Assessment of the patient with functional recovery was done with American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgery(AOFAS 6 minimum 5 months after injury. RESULTS Majority of the patients are from age group 18-29 years (50%. Average age group was 30 years. Majority of the patients were males 80.6% (25. All fractures were closed fractures except 2 cases which are type 1. There were 12 cases of AO type A, 8 patients were AO type B and 10 patients were type C. Majority of the patients had fracture due to road traffic accidents, 74%. All fractures were united by the end of 20 weeks. There was delayed union in

  3. In-shoe plantar pressure measurements for the evaluation and adaptation of foot orthoses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A proof of concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menno Steenbergen; MSc Elleke Huijbrechts; Leo Roorda; Sicco Bus; Marike van der Leeden; Marloes Tenten-Diepenmaat; Dirkjan van Schaardenburg; Joost Dekker


    Objectives: Improving foot orthoses (FOs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements seems promising. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the outcome on plantar pressure distribution of FOs that were adapted using in-shoe plantar pressure

  4. In-shoe plantar pressure measurements for the evaluation and adaptation of foot orthoses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A proof of concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenten-Diepenmaat, Marloes; Dekker, Joost; Steenbergen, Menno; Huybrechts, Elleke; Roorda, Leo D.; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Leeden, Marike


    Improving foot orthoses (FOs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements seems promising. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the outcome on plantar pressure distribution of FOs that were adapted using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements

  5. Do we need to evaluate diastolic blood pressure in patients with suspected orthostatic hypotension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorowski, A.; Hamrefors, V.; Sutton, R.; Dijk, J.G. van; Freeman, R.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Wieling, W.


    PURPOSE: The contribution of diastolic blood pressure measurement to the diagnosis of classical orthostatic hypotension is not known. We aimed to explore the prevalence of isolated systolic and diastolic orthostatic hypotension components in patients with syncope and orthostatic intolerance.

  6. Evaluation of skills and knowledge on orthostatic blood pressure measurements in elderly patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloet, L.C.M.; Smits, R.; Frederiks, C.M.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.


    OBJECTIVES: orthostatic hypotension is a common and potentially dangerous condition in elderly patients, often accompanied by dizziness and falls. To diagnose orthostatic hypotension, many physicians rely on blood pressure measurements performed by nurses. DESIGN: observational and descriptive

  7. John Locke and the right to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanov Ilija D.


    Full Text Available John Locke was a great thinker and many works have been devoted to clear up his theories. One of the most significant, stated in his principal work, Two Treatises of Government, is the theory of the right to resistance. It was a bit revolutionary then, and to a large extent it is today. Domination of legal positivism is negation of that, by Locke, natural right. However, the fact is that in recent times the resistance to the established power occurs in a number of countries and in different forms, so that the idea of the right to resistance becomes live question again. In this regard it is interesting to consider Locke's viewpoint on this important issue and to determine whether his theory on the resistance is applicable in modern societies.

  8. Locking plate osteosynthesis of clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridberg, Marie; Ban, Ilija; Issa, Zaid


    PURPOSE: Locking plate osteosynthesis has become the preferred method for operative treatment of clavicle fractures. The method offers stable fixation, and would theoretically be associated with a low rate of fracture-related complications and reoperations. However, this remains to be explored...... in a large cohort, and our purpose was to assess the overall rates of complications and reoperations following locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures. METHODS: We identified all locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures operated upon in our department from January...... 2008 to November 2010 (n = 114). Nine patients did not attend the follow-up at our institution. The study group of 105 fractures (104 patients, 86 males) had a median age of 36 years (14-75 years). Follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 years. No patients were allowed to load the upper extremity for six...

  9. Using river locks to teach hydrodynamic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L; Silva, Enisvaldo C; Rios, Márcio L; Silva, Anderson A P


    In this work, the use of a river lock as a non-formal setting for teaching Q2 hydrodynamical concepts is proposed. In particular, we describe the operation of a river lock situated at the Sobradinho dam, on the S\\~ao Francisco River (Brazil). A model to represent and to analyse the dynamics of river lock operation is presented and we derive the dynamical equations for the rising of the water column as an example to understand the Euler equation. Furthermore, with this activity, we enable the integration of content initially introduced in the classroom with practical applications, thereby allowing the association of physical themes to content relevant in disciplines such as history and geography. In addition, experiences of this kind enable teachers to talk about the environmental and social impacts caused by the construction of a dam and, consequently, a crossover of concepts has been made possible, leading to more meaningful learning for the students.

  10. All Digital Phase-Locked Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Jurgo


    Full Text Available The paper reviews working principles of phase-locked loop and drawbacks of classical PLL structure in nanometric technologies. It is proposed to replace the classical structure by all-digital phase-locked loop structure. Authors described the main blocks of all-digital phase-locked loop (time to digital converter and digitally controlled oscillator and overviewed the quantization noise arising in these blocks as well as its minimization strategies. The calculated inverter delay in 65 nm CMOS technology was from 8.64 to 27.71 ps and time to digital converter quantization noise was from −104.33 to −82.17 dBc/Hz, with tres = 8.64–27.71 ps, TSVG = 143–333 ps, FREF = 20–60 MHz.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for extubation failure after cardiac surgery: Pilot safety evaluation. (United States)

    De Santo, Luca S; Bancone, Ciro; Santarpino, Giuseppe; Romano, Gianpaolo; Della Corte, Alessandro; Vicchio, Mariano; De Pietro, Antonio; Galdieri, Nicola; Cotrufo, Maurizio


    Extubation failure is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. The role of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is unknown. This study aimed to assess the safety of implementing noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in this setting and its impact on lung function and operative outcomes. In a 6-month pilot prospective survey, the study population comprised 43 patients (32 were male with a mean age of 65.73 +/- 9 years; 3 heart transplantations, 18 coronary artery bypass grafts, 5 aortic dissections, and 17 valvular procedures; 34 active smokers, 25 with medically treated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 21 emergency/urgency procedures) who required noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure after initial weaning from a respirator. The cause of acute respiratory failure (classified as post-cardiopulmonary bypass lung injury in 48.8% [21 patients], cardiogenic edema in 30.2% [13 patients], and pneumonia in 21% [9 patients]), length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation support, respiratory ratios (arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen assessed immediately before noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, and every 6 hours after institution of pressure ventilation), and need for reintubation along with a set of predefined safety parameters were recorded. The mean length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation support was 33.8 +/- 24.04 hours. Plotting respiratory ratios with length of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation supports a significant improvement was already evident within the first 6-hour frame (133.6 +/- 39.5 vs 205 +/- 65.7; P < .001) for all causes. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation prevented intubation in 74.4% of the patients, with satisfactory recovery for post-cardiopulmonary bypass lung injury and cardiogenic dysfunction (90.5% and 69.2%, respectively) and poor results (55% reintubated) in those

  12. Process evaluation of a cluster-randomised trial testing a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle: a mixed-methods study. (United States)

    Roberts, Shelley; McInnes, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Wallis, Marianne; Banks, Merrilyn; Chaboyer, Wendy


    As pressure ulcers contribute to significant patient burden and increased health care costs, their prevention is a clinical priority. Our team developed and tested a complex intervention, a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle promoting patient participation in care, in a cluster-randomised trial. The UK Medical Research Council recommends process evaluation of complex interventions to provide insight into why they work or fail and how they might be improved. This study aimed to evaluate processes underpinning implementation of the intervention and explore end-users' perceptions of it, in order to give a deeper understanding of its effects. A pre-specified, mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted as an adjunct to the main trial, guided by a framework for process evaluation of cluster-randomised trials. Data was collected across eight Australian hospitals but mainly focused on the four intervention hospitals. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected across the evaluation domains: recruitment, reach, intervention delivery and response to intervention, at both cluster and individual patient level. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. In the context of the main trial, which found a 42% reduction in risk of pressure ulcer with the intervention that was not significant after adjusting for clustering and covariates, this process evaluation provides important insights. Recruitment and reach among clusters and individuals was high, indicating that patients, nurses and hospitals are willing to engage with a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle. Of 799 intervention patients in the trial, 96.7% received the intervention, which took under 10 min to deliver. Patients and nurses accepted the care bundle, recognising benefits to it and describing how it enabled participation in pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) care. This process evaluation found no major failures

  13. Evaluation of High Pressure Components of Fuel Injection Systems Using Speckle Interferometry


    Basara, Adis


    The modern high pressure fuel injection systems installed in engines provide a highly efficient combustion process accompanied by low emissions of exhaust gases and an impressive level of dynamic response. The design and development of mechanical components for such systems pose a great challenge, since they have to operate under extremely high fluctuating pressures (e.g. up to 2000 bar) for a long lifetime (more than 1000 injections per minute). The permanent change between a higher and a lo...

  14. Bedside evaluation of pressure-volume curves in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Blanch, Lluis; López-Aguilar, Josefina; Villagrá, Ana


    To describe the physiologic and diagnostic utility of static pressure-volume curves of the respiratory system at the bedside in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The pressure-volume curve of the respiratory system is a useful tool for the measurement of respiratory system mechanics in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The pressure-volume curve has a sigmoid shape, with lower and upper points on the inspiratory limb and a point of maximum curvature on the expiratory limb. Visual and mathematical pressure-volume curve analysis may be useful for understanding individual lung mechanics and for selecting ventilator settings. Among the different techniques for acquiring pressure-volume curves at the bedside, the constant slow flow method is the simplest to perform, the most clinically reliable and has the fewest limitations. Measurement of pressure-volume curves at the bedside in critically ill patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome should be considered a useful respiratory monitoring tool to assess physiologic lung status and to adjust ventilator settings, when appropriate, to minimize superimposed lung injury associated with mechanical ventilators.

  15. Evaluation of runner cone extension to dampen pressure pulsations in a Francis model turbine (United States)

    Gogstad, Peter Joachim; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar


    Today's energy market has a high demand of flexibility due to introduction of other intermittent renewables as wind and solar. To ensure a steady power supply, hydro turbines are often forced to operate more at part load conditions. Originally, turbines were built for steady operation around the best efficiency point. The demand of flexibility, combined with old designs has showed an increase in turbines having problems with hydrodynamic instabilities such as pressure pulsations. Different methods have been investigated to mitigate pressure pulsations. Air injection shows a significant reduction of pressure pulsation amplitudes. However, installation of air injection requires extra piping and a compressor. Investigation of other methods such as shaft extension shows promising results for some operational points, but may significantly reduce the efficiency of the turbine at other operational points. The installation of an extension of the runner cone has been investigated at NTNU by Vekve in 2004. This has resulted in a cylindrical extension at Litjfossen Power Plant in Norway, where the bolt suffered mechanical failure. This indicates high amplitude pressure pulsations in the draft tube centre. The high pressure pulsation amplitudes are believed to be related to high tangential velocity in the draft tube. The mentioned runner cone extension has further been developed to a freely rotating extension. The objective is to reduce the tangential velocity in the draft tube and thereby the pressure pulsation amplitudes.

  16. Ultra fast all-optical fiber pressure sensor for blast event evaluation (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions or athletes who receive cranial impacts. Protecting people from TBI has recently attracted a significant amount of attention due to recent military operations in the Middle East. Recording pressure transient data in a blast event is very critical to the understanding of the effects of blast events on TBI. However, due to the fast change of the pressure during blast events, very few sensors have the capability to effectively track the dynamic pressure transients. This paper reports an ultra fast, miniature and all-optical fiber pressure sensor which could be mounted at different locations of a helmet to measure the fast changing pressure simultaneously. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. The end face of the fiber is wet etched. A well controlled thickness silicon dioxide diaphragm is thermal bonded on the end face to form an FP cavity. A shock tube test was conducted at Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center, where the sensors were mounted in a shock tube side by side with a reference sensor to measure the rapidly changing pressure. The results of the test demonstrated that the sensor developed had an improved rise time (shorter than 0.4 μs) when compared to a commercially available reference sensor.

  17. Frequency acquisition techniques for phase locked loop

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot, Daniel


    Many good phaselocked loops (PLL) books exist. However, how to acquire the input frequency from an unlocked state is rarely covered. This book explores the methods for achieving this locked state for a variety of conditions. Using a minimum of mathematics, it introduces engineers to performance limitations of phase/frequency detector based PLL, the quadricorrelator method for both continuous and sampled mode, sawtooth ramp-and-sample phase detector, self-sweeping self-extinguishing topology, and sweep methods using quadrature mixer based lock detection. Digital implementations versus analog are also considered.

  18. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio


    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  19. Locke and the education of the adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T. Baciero Ruiz


    Full Text Available John Locke has been considered one of the leading figures in the His- tory of Philosophy, specially for his two famous treatises An Essay concerning Human understanding and Two Treatises on Government. None the less his work in Pedagogy, Some thougths concerning Education, is no less important, and provides the leading strings of that what ought to be the education of the gentleman, whose unavoidable foundation must be a solid education in virtue grounded in the moral principles of Christianity. Key words: Locke, Moral education, Spanish authors of the XVIth century. 

  20. Locke y la adulación


    Tomás Chuaqui H.


    En este artículo se verifica la relevancia de un vicio político específico, la adulación, en las ideas de John Locke. Se muestra que para Locke la adulación proviene de agentes ilustrados que incitan a los aspirantes al poder recurriendo al orgullo que típicamente los caracteriza. Este vicio político, por ende, hace peligrar a los regímenes de poderes limitados y desconcentrados, ya que induce, a través del cultivo del orgullo, un deseo desmedido por el poder y el dominio sobre otros. Así, se...

  1. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek


    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  2. Mode-locking in coupled map lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Carretero-González, R; Vivaldi, F


    We study propagation of pulses along one-way coupled map lattices, which originate from the transition between two superstable states of the local map. The velocity of the pulses exhibits a staircase-like behaviour as the coupling parameter is varied. For a piece-wise linear local map, we prove that the velocity of the wave has a Devil's staircase dependence on the coupling parameter. A wave travelling with rational velocity is found to be stable to parametric perturbations in a manner akin to rational mode-locking for circle maps. We provide evidence that mode-locking is also present for a broader range of maps and couplings.

  3. Design of a knee orthosis locking system


    Ramôa, Pedro Daniel Silva


    Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Mecatrónica The main goal of this work was to design a mechatronic locking system for a Stance Control Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis (SCKAFO). This mechanism should be able to perform two different functions. The first one is to lock the orthosis during the stance phase of human gait, in which contact between the foot and the ground exists. The second function deals with the unlock of the orthosis during the swing phase, in which there is no ...

  4. High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez


    In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...

  5. Ex vivo biomechanical comparison of the 2.4 mm uniLOCK reconstruction plate using 2.4 mm locking versus standard screws for fixation of acetabular osteotomy in dogs. (United States)

    Amato, Nicole S; Richards, Andrew; Knight, Trevor A; Spector, Daniel; Boudrieau, Randy J; Belkoff, Stephen


    To compare the accuracy of reduction and the biomechanical characteristics of canine acetabular osteotomies stabilized with locking versus standard screws in a locking plate. Ex vivo biomechanical study. Cadaveric canine hemipelves and corresponding femurs (n=10 paired). Transverse acetabular osteotomies stabilized with 5-hole 2.4 mm uniLOCK reconstruction plates using either 2.4 mm locking monocortical or standard bicortical screw fixation (Synthes Maxillofacial). Fracture reduction was assessed directly (craniocaudal acetabular width measurements and gross observation) and indirectly (impression casts). All constructs were fatigue-tested, followed by acute destructive testing. All outcome measures (mean+/-SD) were evaluated for significance (Plocking -0.4+/-0.4 mm; standard -0.4+/-0.3 mm; P=.76). Grossly, there was no significant difference in the repairs and impression casts did not reveal a significant (P=.75) difference in congruency between the groups. No significant differences were found in fracture gap between groups either dorsally (locking 0.38+/-0.23 mm versus standard 0.22+/-0.05 mm; P=.30) or ventrally (locking 0.80+/-0.79 mm versus standard 0.35+/-0.13 mm; P=.23), and maximum change in amplitude dorsally (locking 0.96+/-2.15 mm versus standard 0.92+/-0.89 mm; P=.96) or ventrally (locking 2.02+/-2.93 mm versus standard 0.15+/-0.81 mm; P=.25). There were no significant differences in stiffness (locking 241+/-46 N/mm versus standard 283+/-209 N/mm; P=.64) or load to failure (locking 1077+/-950 N versus standard 811+/-248 N; P=.49). No significant differences were found between pelves stabilized with locking monocortical screw fixation or standard bicortical screw fixation with respect to joint congruity, displacement of fracture gap after cyclic loading, construct stiffness, or ultimate load to failure. There is no apparent advantage of locking plate fixation over standard plate fixation of 2-piece ex vivo acetabular fractures using the 2.4 mm uniLOCK

  6. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariyasu Mano


    Full Text Available Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study. We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning–evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study.

  7. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study. (United States)

    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Michihiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka


    Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP) is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement) for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study). We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning-evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study.

  8. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study (United States)

    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Michihiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka


    Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP) is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement) for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study). We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning–evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study. PMID:27713260

  9. Experimental evaluation of the significance of the pressure transport term for the Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budget across contrasting forest architectures (United States)

    Ehrnsperger, Laura; Wunder, Tobias; Thomas, Christoph


    Forests are one of the dominant vegetation types on Earth and are an important sink for carbon on our planet. Forests are special ecosystems due to their great canopy height und complex architecture consisting of a subcanopy and a canopy layer, which changes the mechanisms of turbulent exchange within the plant canopy. To date, the sinks and sources of turbulence in forest canopies are not completely understood, especially the role of the pressure transport remains unclear. The INTRAMIX experiment was conducted in a mountainous Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest at the Fluxnet Waldstein site (DE-Bay) in Bavaria, Germany, for a period of 10 weeks in order to experimentally evaluate the significance of the pressure transport to the TKE budget for the first time. The INTRAMIX data of the dense mountain forest was compared to observations from a sparse Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stand in Oregon, USA, to study the influence of forest architecture. We hypothesized that the pressure transport is more important in dense forest canopies as the crown decouples the subcanopy from the buoyancy- and shear-driven flow above the canopy. It is also investigated how atmospheric stability influences the TKE budget. Based upon model results from literature we expect the pressure transport to act as a source for TKE especially under free convective and unstable dynamic stability. Results to date indicate that pressure transport is most important in the subcanopy with decreasing magnitude with increasing height. Nevertheless, pressure transport is a continuous source of TKE above the canopy, while in the canopy and subcanopy layer pressure transport acts both as a sink and source term for TKE. In the tree crown layer pressure transport is a source in the morning and afternoon hours and acts as a sink during the evening, while in the subcanopy pressure transport is a source around noon and during the night and acts as a sink in the early morning and afternoon hours. This

  10. Identifying barriers and facilitators to participation in pressure ulcer prevention in allied healthcare professionals: a mixed methods evaluation. (United States)

    Worsley, Peter R; Clarkson, Paul; Bader, Dan L; Schoonhoven, Lisette


    To evaluate the barriers and facilitators for allied health professional's participation in pressure ulcer prevention. Mixed method cohort study. Single centre study in an acute university hospital trust. Five physiotherapists and four occupational therapists were recruited from the hospital trust. Therapists had been working in the National Health Service (NHS) for a minimum of one year. Therapist views and experiences were collated using an audio recorded focus group. This recording was analysed using constant comparison analysis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of attitudes and knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention using questionnaires. Key themes surrounding barriers to participation in pressure ulcer prevention included resources (staffing and equipment), education and professional boundaries. Fewer facilitators were described, with new training opportunities and communication being highlighted. Results from the questionnaires showed the therapists had a positive attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention with a median score of 81% (range 50 to 83%). However, there were gaps in knowledge with a median score of 69% (range 50 to 77%). The therapist reported several barriers to pressure ulcer prevention and few facilitators. The primary barriers were resources, equipment and education. Attitudes and knowledge in AHPs were comparable to data previously reported from experienced nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust tilt and lock mechanism for hopping actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salton, Jonathan R.; Buerger, Stephen; Dullea, Kevin J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Salisbury, Curt Michael; Spletzer, Barry Louis


    A tilt and lock apparatus that includes a tilt servomechanism, a spiral torsion spring, a lock wheel, and a lock hook is described herein. The spiral torsion spring is mechanically coupled to the tilt servomechanism and the lock wheel (which includes an opening). When a shaft is positioned through the opening, rotation of the lock wheel is in unison with rotation of the shaft. An external surface of the lock wheel includes one or more grooves. The lock hook includes a head that engages and disengages the grooves. The lock wheel is stationary when the head engages one of the grooves and is rotatable when the head disengages the grooves. The head and the grooves are geometrically aligned when engaged to prevent creation of a force that acts to disengage the head responsive to an applied force acting on the shaft.

  12. "Thoughts Concerning Education": John Locke On Teaching Speech (United States)

    Baird, John E.


    Locke's suggestions for more effective speech instruction have gone largely unnoticed. Consequently, it is the purpose of this article to consider John Locke's criticisms, theory and specific methods of speech education. (Author)

  13. Core damage severity evaluation for pressurized water reactors by artificial intelligence methods (United States)

    Mironidis, Anastasios Pantelis


    During the course of nuclear power evolution, accidents have occurred. However, in the western world, none of them had a severe impact on the public because of the design features of nuclear plants. In nuclear reactors, barriers constitute physical obstacles to uncontrolled fission product releases. These barriers are an important factor in safety analysis. During an accident, reactor safety systems become actuated to prevent the barriers from been breached. In addition, operators are required to take specified actions, meticulously depicted in emergency response procedures. In an accident, on-the-spot knowledge regarding the condition of the core is necessary. In order to make the right decisions toward mitigating the accident severity and its consequences, we need to know the status of the core [1, 3]. However, power plant instrumentation that can provide a direct indication of the status of the core during the time when core damage is a potential outcome, does not exist. Moreover, the information from instruments may have large uncertainty of various types. Thus, a very strong potential for misinterpreting incoming information exists. This research endeavor addresses the problem of evaluating the core damage severity of a Pressurized Water Reactor during a transient or an accident. An expert system has been constructed, that incorporates knowledge and reasoning of human experts. The expert system's inference engine receives incoming plant data that originate in the plethora of core-related instruments. Its knowledge base relies on several massive, multivariate fuzzy logic rule-sets, coupled with several artificial neural networks. These mathematical models have encoded information that defines possible core states, based on correlations of parameter values. The inference process classifies the core as intact, or as experiencing clad damage and/or core melting. If the system detects a form of core damage, a quantification procedure will provide a numerical

  14. Role of locking plates in treatment of difficult ununited fractures: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To present our experience in treatment of difficult ununited long bone fractures with locking plate. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of locking plate fixation in 10 difficult nonunions of long bone fractures was done. Fixation was done with locking plate for femoral shaft fracture (3 patients, supracondylar fracture of femur (gap nonunion, fracture of clavicle, fracture of both forearm bones (radius and ulna fracture of ulna, fracture of shaft of humerus, fracture of tibial diaphysis and supracondylar frac-ture of humerus (one patient each. Five fractures had more than one previous failed internal fixation. One patient had infected nonunion which was managed by debridement with cast immobilization followed by fixation with locking plate at six weeks. Seven fractures were atrophic, two were oligotrophic, and one was hypertrophic. Fibular autograft was used in 2 cases and iliac crest cancellous bone graft used in all the patients. Results: Minimum follow-up was 6 months (range, 6 months to 2.5 years. Average time for union was 3.4 months (range 2.5 to 6 months. None of the patients had plate-related complications or postoperative wound infections. Conclusion: Along with achieving stability with lock-ing compression plate, meticulous soft tissue dissection, acceptable reduction, good fixation technique and bone grafting can help achieve union in difficult nonunion cases. Though locking plate does not by itself ensure bony union, we have found it to be another useful addition to our arma-mentarium for treating difficult fracture nonunions. Key words: Fractures, bone; Fractures, ununited; Bone plates; Orthopedic fixation devices

  15. Evaluation of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor for use in anesthetized sheep. (United States)

    Trim, Cynthia M; Hofmeister, Erik H; Peroni, John F; Thoresen, Merrilee


    To determine the accuracy of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor in anesthetized sheep. Prospective study. Twenty healthy adult sheep, 11 males and nine females, weighing 63.6 ± 8.6 kg. After premedication with buprenorphine or transdermal fentanyl, anesthesia was induced with ketamine-midazolam and maintained with isoflurane and ketamine, 1.2 mg kg(-1) hour(-1), ± lidocaine, 3 mg kg(-1) hour(-1). Invasive blood pressure measurements were obtained from an auricular arterial catheter and noninvasive measurements were from a cuff on the metatarsus or antebrachium. Simultaneous invasive and noninvasive measurements were recorded over a range (55-111 mmHg) of mean arterial pressures (MAP). Isoflurane concentration was increased to decrease MAP and decreasing the isoflurane concentration and infusing dobutamine achieved higher pressures. Invasive and noninvasive measurements were compared. Correlation (R(2)) was good between the two methods of measurement (average of three consecutive readings) for systolic (SAP) (0.87), diastolic (DAP) (0.86), and mean (0.90) arterial pressures (p oscillometric monitor slightly overestimated SAP and underestimated DAP and MAP for both average values and the first reading. This oscillometric model provided MAP measurements that were acceptable by ACVIM standards. MAP measurements with this monitor were lower than those found with the invasive technique so a clinical diagnosis of hypotension may be made in sheep that are not hypotensive. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  16. Comparison of tibial plateau angle changes after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy fixation with conventional or locking screw technology. (United States)

    Conkling, Amanda L; Fagin, Bennett; Daye, R Mark


    To compare the effects of locking and conventional screws on postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), osteotomy healing, and complication rate after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs treated for naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=118) with CCL rupture. Dogs (> or =20 kg) with unilateral CCL rupture and sufficient bone stock for TPLO and use of a 3.5-mm-broad or -narrow TPLO plate were sequentially allocated to have plate fixation with locking or conventional screws. Data analyzed included breed, age, sex, body weight, body condition score, limb operated, implants used, meniscal status, operative time, and days to recheck. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 8-week recheck mediolateral radiographs were reviewed, and TPA, complications, and healing status were evaluated. Stifles in the locking screw group had significantly less change in postoperative TPA than stifles in the conventional screw group. Locking screw fixation also had significantly higher grades of osteotomy healing, assessed on a mediolateral radiographic view. TPLO plates secured with locking screws are acceptable when compared with those secured with conventional screws; osteotomy healing is improved and TPA better conserved when using locking screws. Locking screw fixation serves to increase stabilization of TPA during TPLO healing and provides improved radiographic evidence of osteotomy healing.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of an optical method for pressure estimation in fluid flows (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Acher, Gwenael; Chatellier, Ludovic; David, Laurent


    The analysis of the error propagation from the velocity field to the pressure field using the pressure estimation method proposed by Jeon et al (2015 11th Int. In Symp. Part. Image Velocim. PIV15) is achieved. The accuracy of the method is assessed based on numerical data. The flow around a rigid profile (NACA0015) with a free tip is considered. From the numerical simulation data, tomographic-PIV (TPIV)-like data are generated. Two types of error are used to distort the data: a Gaussian noise and a pixel-locking effect are modelled. Propagation of both types of error during the pressure estimation process and the effect of the TPIV resolution are evaluated. Results highlight the importance of the resolution to accurately estimate the pressure in presence of small structures but also to limit the propagation of error from the velocity to the pressure. The study of the sensitivity of the method for the two models of errors, Gaussian or pixel-locking, shows different trends. This reveals also the importance of the model of errors for the analysis of the uncertainties for PIV-based pressure.

  18. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. METHODS: We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention...... in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected. Clinical examinations included...... pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest...

  19. The influence of local pressure on evaluation parameters of skin blood perfusion and fluorescence (United States)

    Zherebtsov, E. A.; Kandurova, K. Y.; Seryogina, E. S.; Kozlov, I. O.; Dremin, V. V.; Zherebtsova, A. I.; Dunaev, A. V.; Meglinski, I.


    This article presents the results of the study of the pressure applied on optical diagnostic probes as a significant factor affecting the results of measurements. During stepwise increasing and decreasing of local pressure on skin we conducted measurements using the methods of laser Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found out that pressure on optical probe has sufficient impact on skin microcirculation to affect registered fluorescence intensity. Data obtained in this study are of interest for design and development of diagnostic technologies for wearable devices. This data will also inform further investigation into issues of compensation of blood absorption influence on fluorescence spectrum, allowing increased accuracy and reproducibility of measurements by fluorescence spectroscopy methods in optical diagnosis.

  20. Evaluation of gas cooling for pressurized phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Skok, A. J.; Maru, H. C.; Kothmann, R. E.; Harry, R. W.


    Gas cooling is a more reliable, less expensive and a more simple alternative to conventional liquid cooling for heat removal from the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). The feasibility of gas cooling has already been demonstrated in atmospheric pressure stacks. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigation of gas cooling for pressurized PAFC. Two approaches to gas cooling, Distributed Gas Cooling (DIGAS) and Separated Gas Cooling (SGC) were considered, and a theoretical comparison on the basis of cell performance indicated SGC to be superior to DIGAS. The feasibility of SGC was experimentally demonstrated by operating a 45-cell stack for 700 hours at pressure, and determining thermal response and the effect of other related parameters.

  1. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain. (United States)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde


    To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected. Clinical examinations included pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest to the point of pressure algometry using multivariable linear regression. We found significant inverse associations between perceived stress and PPT in both genders in models adjusting for age and body mass index: the higher level of perceived stress, the lower the threshold. For job strain, associations were weaker and only present in men. In men all associations were attenuated when adjusting for reported discomfort in regions close to the site of pressure algometry. The distributions of PPT among stressed and non-stressed persons were strongly overlapping. Despite significant associations between perceived stress and PPT, the discriminative capability of PPT to distinguish individuals with and without stress is low. PPT measured by pressure algometry seems not applicable as a diagnostic tool of a state of mental stress.

  2. Evaluation of Different Dose-Response Models for High Hydrostatic Pressure Inactivation of Microorganisms (United States)


    Modeling of microbial inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) requires a plot of the log microbial count or survival ratio versus time data under a constant pressure and temperature. However, at low pressure and temperature values, very long holding times are needed to obtain measurable inactivation. Since the time has a significant effect on the cost of HHP processing it may be reasonable to fix the time at an appropriate value and quantify the inactivation with respect to pressure. Such a plot is called dose-response curve and it may be more beneficial than the traditional inactivation modeling since short holding times with different pressure values can be selected and used for the modeling of HHP inactivation. For this purpose, 49 dose-response curves (with at least 4 log10 reduction and ≥5 data points including the atmospheric pressure value (P = 0.1 MPa), and with holding time ≤10 min) for HHP inactivation of microorganisms obtained from published studies were fitted with four different models, namely the Discrete model, Shoulder model, Fermi equation, and Weibull model, and the pressure value needed for 5 log10 (P5) inactivation was calculated for all the models above. The Shoulder model and Fermi equation produced exactly the same parameter and P5 values, while the Discrete model produced similar or sometimes the exact same parameter values as the Fermi equation. The Weibull model produced the worst fit (had the lowest adjusted determination coefficient (R2adj) and highest mean square error (MSE) values), while the Fermi equation had the best fit (the highest R2adj and lowest MSE values). Parameters of the models and also P5 values of each model can be useful for the further experimental design of HHP processing and also for the comparison of the pressure resistance of different microorganisms. Further experiments can be done to verify the P5 values at given conditions. The procedure given in this study can also be extended for enzyme

  3. Evaluation of Different Dose-Response Models for High Hydrostatic Pressure Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sencer Buzrul


    Full Text Available Modeling of microbial inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP requires a plot of the log microbial count or survival ratio versus time data under a constant pressure and temperature. However, at low pressure and temperature values, very long holding times are needed to obtain measurable inactivation. Since the time has a significant effect on the cost of HHP processing it may be reasonable to fix the time at an appropriate value and quantify the inactivation with respect to pressure. Such a plot is called dose-response curve and it may be more beneficial than the traditional inactivation modeling since short holding times with different pressure values can be selected and used for the modeling of HHP inactivation. For this purpose, 49 dose-response curves (with at least 4 log10 reduction and ≥5 data points including the atmospheric pressure value (P = 0.1 MPa, and with holding time ≤10 min for HHP inactivation of microorganisms obtained from published studies were fitted with four different models, namely the Discrete model, Shoulder model, Fermi equation, and Weibull model, and the pressure value needed for 5 log10 (P5 inactivation was calculated for all the models above. The Shoulder model and Fermi equation produced exactly the same parameter and P5 values, while the Discrete model produced similar or sometimes the exact same parameter values as the Fermi equation. The Weibull model produced the worst fit (had the lowest adjusted determination coefficient (R2adj and highest mean square error (MSE values, while the Fermi equation had the best fit (the highest R2adj and lowest MSE values. Parameters of the models and also P5 values of each model can be useful for the further experimental design of HHP processing and also for the comparison of the pressure resistance of different microorganisms. Further experiments can be done to verify the P5 values at given conditions. The procedure given in this study can also be extended for

  4. Theory of Passively Mode-Locked Photonic Crystal Semiconductor Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper


    We report the first theoretical investigation of passive mode-locking in photonic crystal mode-locked lasers. Related work has investigated coupled-resonator-optical-waveguide structures in the regime of active mode-locking [Opt. Express 13, 4539-4553 (2005)]. An extensive numerical investigation...

  5. A Wide-Band CMOS Injection Locked Frequency Divider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, M.; Leenaerts, Domine; Nauta, Bram

    In this paper we propose a novel inductorless injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) that can make divisions with ratios 2,4,6 and 8 with wide locking ranges. Fabricated in a digital 0.18 μm CMOS process the divider can operate up to 15 GHz. The measured locking ranges of the divider for division

  6. A formal reduction for lock-free parallel algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Hesselink, W.H.; Alur, R; Peled, DA


    On shared memory multiprocessors, synchronization often turns out to be a performance bottleneck and the source of poor fault-tolerance. Lock-free algorithms can do without locking mechanisms, and are therefore desirable. Lock-free algorithms are hard to design correctly, however, even when

  7. 49 CFR 236.387 - Movable bridge locking. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge locking. 236.387 Section 236.387 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.387 Movable bridge locking. Movable bridge locking shall be tested at least once a...

  8. Locke on Education and the Rights of Parents (United States)

    Tuckness, Alex


    John Locke is often taken to be a staunch defender of parents' rights in the realm of education. In fact, Locke's pedagogical reasons for preferring home education to school education do not necessarily apply to similar choices in modern contexts. Locke's political argument for defining education as a duty of parents rather than the state does not…

  9. Lock-free dynamic hash tables with open addressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Groote, J.F.; Hesselink, W.H.

    We present an efficient lock-free algorithm for parallel accessible hash tables with open addressing, which promises more robust performance and reliability than conventional lock-based implementations. “Lock-free” means that it is guaranteed that always at least one process completes its operation

  10. 49 CFR 236.775 - Movement, switch-and-lock. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, switch-and-lock. 236.775 Section 236.775... Movement, switch-and-lock. A device, the complete operation of which performs the three functions of unlocking, operating and locking a switch, movable-point frog or derail. ...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be kept locked against...

  12. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurement Technique Development for Turbomachinery Application (United States)


    maximum 200 words ) Pressure- sensitive paint measurement on a transonic compressor rotor required the prior development of phase-locked cumulative...reported. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pressure- Sensitive Paint, Phase-Locked Imaging , Transonic Rotor Measurements, CFD Analysis 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 98 16... image was saved in a .TIFF picture format in the hard drive memory of the PC under directory C:/4MIP/ IMAGES /. The turbine was then shut down and

  13. Extended Lock Range Zero-Crossing Digital Phase-Locked Loop with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Qassim


    Full Text Available The input frequency limit of the conventional zero-crossing digital phase-locked loop (ZCDPLL is due to the operating time of the digital circuitry inside the feedback loop. A solution that has been previously suggested is the introduction of a time delay in the feedback path of the loop to allow the digital circuits to complete their sample processing before the next sample is received. However, this added delay will limit the stable operation range and hence lock range of the loop. The objective of this work is to extend the lock range of ZCDPLL with time delay by using a chaos control. The tendency of the loop to diverge is measured and fed back as a form of linear stabilization. The lock range extension has been confirmed through the use of a bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponent.

  14. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks - Functional Diversity of Insect Mechanosensory Hairs. Jürgen Tautz. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 32-38 ...

  15. El derecho de propiedad en John Locke


    Jorge Luis Toyama Miyagusuku


    El tema que abordaremos en esta monografía se contrae en determinar los principales aspectos de la teoría sobre el derecho de propiedad del inglés John Locke (Wrington, 1632-1704), en su obra«Segundo Ensayo sobre el GobiernoCivil».John

  16. Phase locked loops design, simulation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Roland E


    The Definitive Introduction to Phase-Locked Loops, Complete with Software for Designing Wireless Circuits! The Sixth Edition of Roland Best's classic Phase-Locked Loops has been updated to equip you with today's definitive introduction to PLL design, complete with powerful PLL design and simulation software written by the author. Filled with all the latest PLL advances, this celebrated sourcebook now includes new chapters on frequency synthesis…CAD for PLLs…mixed-signal PLLs…all-digital PLLs…and software PLLs_plus a new collection of sample communications applications. An essential tool for achieving cutting-edge PLL design, the Sixth Edition of Phase-Locked Loops features: A wealth of easy-to-use methods for designing phase-locked loops Over 200 detailed illustrations New to this edition: new chapters on frequency synthesis, including fractional-N PLL frequency synthesizers using sigma-delta modulators; CAD for PLLs, mixed-signal PLLs, all-digital PLLs, and software PLLs; new PLL communications ap...

  17. A locked nucleic Acid-based nanocrawler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Pasternak, Karol; Campbell, Meghan A


    Herein we introduce a novel fluorescent LNA/DNA machine, a nanocrawler, which reversibly moves along a directionally polar complementary road controlled by affinity-enhancing locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers and additional regulatory strands. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dyes attached to 2...

  18. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  19. Theory of mode-locked semiconductor lasers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, J.A.


    We present a theoretical study of semiconductor mode-locked lasers at a phenomenological level. We use the slow absorber model of New and Haus, but extend the analysis by taking into account the shift in the gain maximum due to the changing number of carriers. In our analysis of the resulting

  20. School Choice Litigation after "Zelman" and "Locke" (United States)

    Liekweg, John A.


    In the past 2 years, the United States Supreme Court has decided two important cases that will bear directly on legislation and litigation involving school choice programs that provide financial aid to parents of children attending religious schools. Those cases are "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" (2002) and "Locke v. Davey" (2004).…

  1. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  2. "Locke, penseur subversif dans les manuscrits clandestins"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Jørn


    Der gives en analyse af John Lockes subversive indflydelse på den franske Oplysning via de hemmeligt cirkulerende manuskripter fra århundredets begyndelse med kredsen omkring grev Boulainvillers ("Coterie Boulainviller") til århundredets slutning med kredsen omkring baron d'Holbach og Naigeon....

  3. Democratising Political Powers through Locke's Doctrine of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their views on political powers, including their 'prerogative powers'; no longer as their individual rights but as the 'federative powers' of the people; aware that after all, legitimate sovereignty belongs to the people. Key Words: Doctrine of Prerogative, Prerogative Powers, John Locke, Political Powers, Despotic Monarchies, ...

  4. Lock-free parallel garbage collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Gao; J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); W.H. Hesselink (Wim)


    htmlabstract This paper presents a lock-free parallel algorithm for mark&sweep garbage collection (GC) in a realistic model using synchronization primitives compare-and-swap (CAS) and load-linked/store-conditional (LL/SC) offered by machine architectures. Mutators and collectors can simultaneously

  5. Lock-free parallel garbage collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Groote, J.F.; Hesselink, W.H.; Pan, Y; Chen, D; Guo, M; Cao, JN; Dongarra, J


    This paper presents a lock-free parallel algorithm for garbage collection in a realistic model using synchronization primitives offered by machine architectures. Mutators and collectors can simultaneously operate on the data structure. In particular no strict alternation between usage and cleaning

  6. Rehabilitation of Navigation Lock Walls: Case Histories (United States)


    CONCRETE CONTAINS CHERT, LIMESTONE RIVER GRAVEL...APPROVED JOINT FILLER RESURFACING CONCRETE Figure 94. Horizontal dummy joint design, Lock No. 1, Mississippi River 141 a. Outside view b. Inside...upper service gate sill. Concrete mixture proportions for a l-eu yd batch were as follows: Type I portland cement, lb Natural sand, lb Limestone

  7. A New Perspective on Job Lock (United States)

    Huysse-Gaytandjieva, Anna; Groot, Wim; Pavlova, Milena


    This paper analyses the situation when employees fail to adapt to overall job dissatisfaction. By combining the existing knowledge in economics on job lock and in psychology on employees' feeling of being "stuck" at work, the paper explains why some employees fail to adapt when dissatisfied with their job. Thus, the paper aims to expand…

  8. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742 Dog...

  9. Evaluation of Characteristic Energy Scales of Pressure Stabilized Oxygen Chain States in YBa2Cu3Ox Films (United States)


    TECHNICAL REPORT 3060 March 2016 Evaluation of Characteristic Energy Scales of Pressure Stabilized Oxygen Chain States in YBa2Cu3O∇x...the superconducting effective mass, m∗, and the superconducting penetration depth, λ, we examine the nature of characteristic energy scales of...quantum-like “states” in that they have near integer ratios of the superconducting to normal state carrier densities and condensation energy densities

  10. Evaluate of Chill Vent Performance for High Pressure Die-Casting Production and Simulation of Motorcycle Fuel Caps


    Meethum Piyanut; Suvanjumrat Chakrit


    Inappropriate air vent design always induced porosities in thin and complex shape of high pressure die-casting (HPDC) products. Chill block installation was preferred to improve permanent molds for reducing porosities. There were not regular to obtain an appropriated chill vent from this method unless an experience of mold makers. This research was performed to investigate and evaluate the chill block performance in the HPDC mold of motorcycle fuel caps. The HPDC mold of the thin and complex ...

  11. Particle Size Distributions of Particulate Emissions from the Ferroalloy Industry Evaluated by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI)


    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K.; Tranell, Gabriella


    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ? 1??m), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume ...

  12. Inspiratory muscle strength in subjects with tetraplegia: viability of evaluation through the measurement of maximal inspiratory pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Aparecida Moreno

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the values of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP and to verify the existence of concordance between the two evaluation methodologies, in subjects with tetraplegia. Materials and methods Cross-sectional study with 17 tetraplegic men, aged 30.42 ± 7.67 years, who underwent MIP and SNIP evaluation using a respiratory pressure meter. Results The MIP and SNIP values obtained showed no difference when compared to each other (88.42 ± 29.39 vs. 86.68 ± 25.40 cmH2O, respectively. They were, however, significantly lower compared to the predicted values (MIP = 128.92 ± 7.18; SNIP = 114.11 ± 3.19 cmH2O, with the MIP values presenting correlation (r2 = 0.94; p < 0.0001 and concordance with those of the SNIP. Conclusions Both the MIP and SNIP values obtained were lower than the predicted values, indicating a reduction in inspiratory muscle strength (IMS. Both techniques showed correlation and concordance, suggesting that MIP can be used as a noninvasive method for IMS evaluation in this population.

  13. Comparative evaluation of naturally ventilated screenhouse and evaporative cooled greenhouse based on optimal vapor pressure deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamshiri, Ramin; Ahmad, Desa; Wan Ismail, Wan Ishak; Man, Hasfalin Che; Zakaria, Abd Jamil; Beveren, Van Peter; Yamin, Muhammad


    The objective of this study was to compare two closed-field plant production environments for tomato cultivation based on optimal vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Experiment was carried out in tropical lowlands of Malaysia by collecting 11 days of sample data during March (2014), from an evaporative

  14. Orthostatic circulatory control in the elderly evaluated by non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Dambrink, J. H.; Karemaker, J. M.; Wieling, W.


    1. Continuous orthostatic responses of blood pressure and heart rate were measured in 40 healthy and active elderly subjects over 70 years of age in order to assess the time course and rapidity of orthostatic cardiovascular adaptation in old age. 2. During the first 30 s (initial phase) the effects

  15. Evaluation of catalytic effects in gasification of biomass at intermediate temperature and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, Pavlina; van Rossum, G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer


    This paper proposes and examines an alternative thermo-chemical process for biomethane production from lignocellulosic biomass, termed self-gasification. Self-gasification of biomass is envisaged to utilize a high-pressure steam gasifier (30−80 bar) at temperatures of 600−900 °C and to use the

  16. An in vitro evaluation of the pressure generated during programmed intermittent epidural bolus injection at varying infusion delivery speeds. (United States)

    Klumpner, Thomas T; Lange, Elizabeth M S; Ahmed, Heena S; Fitzgerald, Paul C; Wong, Cynthia A; Toledo, Paloma


    Programmed intermittent bolus injection of epidural anesthetic solution results in decreased anesthetic consumption and better patient satisfaction compared with continuous infusion, presumably by better spread of the anesthetic solution in the epidural space. It is not known whether the delivery speed of the bolus injection influences analgesia outcomes. The objective of this in vitro study was to determine the pressure generated by a programmed intermittent bolus pump at 4 infusion delivery speeds through open-ended, single-orifice and closed-end, multiorifice epidural catheters. In vitro observational study. Not applicable. Not applicable. A CADD-Solis Pain Management System v3.0 with Programmed Intermittent Bolus Model 2110 was connected via a 3-way adapter to an epidural catheter and a digital pressure transducer. Pressures generated by delivery speeds of 100, 175, 300, and 400 mL/h of saline solution were tested with 4 epidural catheters (2 single orifice and 2 multiorifice). These runs were replicated on 5 pumps. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean peak pressures of each delivery speed within each catheter group (single orifice and multiorifice). Thirty runs at each delivery speed were performed with each type of catheter for a total of 240 experimental runs. Peak pressure increased with increasing delivery speeds in both catheter groups (Pintermittent infusion boluses, the delivery speed of saline solution through epidural catheters was directly related to the peak pressures. Future work should evaluate whether differences in the delivery speed of anesthetic solution into the epidural space correlate with differences in the duration and quality of analgesia during programmed intermittent epidural bolus delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Getting evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention into practice: a process evaluation of a multifaceted intervention in a hospital setting. (United States)

    Sving, Eva; Fredriksson, Lennart; Gunningberg, Lena; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta


    To describe registered nurses', assistant nurses' and first-line managers' experiences and perceptions of a multifaceted hospital setting intervention focused on implementing evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention. Pressure ulcer prevention is deficient. Different models exist to support implementation of evidence-based care. Little is known about implementation processes. A descriptive qualitative approach. Five focus-group nurse interviews and five individual first-line manager interviews were conducted at five Swedish hospital units. Qualitative content analysis was used. The findings support that the intervention and the implementation process changed the understanding and way of working with pressure ulcer prevention: from treating to preventing. This became possible as 'Changed understanding enables changed actions - through one's own performance and reflection on pressure ulcer prevention'. Having a common outlook on pressure ulcer prevention, easy access to pressure-reducing equipment, and external and internal facilitator support were described as important factors for changed practices. Bedside support, feedback and discussions on current results increased the awareness of needed improvements. The multifaceted intervention approach and the participants' positive attitudes seemed to be crucial for changing understanding and working more preventatively. The strategies used and the skills of the facilitators need to be tailored to the problems surrounding the context. Feedback discussions among the staff regarding the results of the care provided also appear to be vital. It is crucial that dedicated facilitators are involved to promote the implementation process. A preventative mindset should be strived for. Creating an implementation plan with an outcome and a process evaluation should be emphasised. It is important to give the staff regular feedback on the quality of care and on those occasions allocate time for discussion and reflection. © 2016 John

  18. In vitro evaluation of bursting pressure and intestinal luminal area of three jejunostomy tube placement techniques in dogs. (United States)

    Risselada, Marije; Ellison, Gary W; Winter, Matthew D; Giglio, Robson F; Shih, Andre; Hernandez, Jorge A; Griffith, Emily


    To compare pursestring, Witzel (seromuscular inversion), and seromuscular incision jejunostomy tube placement techniques in vitro. Jejunal specimens from 10 dogs. Jejunal segments (50 cm) were harvested immediately prior to euthanasia from 10 mixed-breed dogs Specimens were harvested with the orad and aborad ends clamped and stored in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution-soaked towels during instrumentation. Three jejunostomy tubes were placed via 3 techniques (pursestring, Witzel, and seromuscular incision), and 2 double lumen central venous catheters were placed at each intestinal end for luminal filling and leak testing. Intestinal luminal area was measured ultrasonographically with specimens suspended in a warm undyed saline solution bath with the intestinal lumen filled with dyed saline solution (intraluminal pressure, 6 mm Hg). Leak testing was performed by means of infusion of dyed saline solution (4 mL/min) until each jejunostomy site failed. Intestinal luminal area and leakage pressure were compared between the 3 tube placement techniques. The Witzel and seromuscular incision techniques decreased the intestinal luminal area measured at the tube insertion site, albeit nonsignificantly. For the seromuscular incision technique, a significant decrease in intestinal luminal area at the intraluminal site of measurement was found. For 2/30 specimens (1/10 pursestring and 1/10 seromuscular incision), failure occurred at pressures within the range of previously reported peak peristaltic pressure for dogs. Failure occurred at supraphysiologic peristaltic pressures for the remaining 28 specimens, including all 10 specimens for the Witzel technique. In this in vitro study, all specimens for the Witzel technique withstood physiologic peristaltic pressures during leak testing. Both tunneling techniques (Witzel and seromuscular incision) created a decrease in intestinal luminal area. Further investigation, including in vivo testing, is indicated to evaluate the clinical relevance

  19. Development of integrity evaluation technology for pressurized components in nuclear power plant and IT based integrity evaluation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Shim, Do Jun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    The objective of this research is to develop on efficient integrity evaluation technology and to investigate the applicability of the newly-developed technology such as internet-based cyber platform etc. to Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) components. The development of an efficient structural integrity evaluation system is necessary for safe operation of NPP as the increase of operating periods. Moreover, material test data as well as emerging structural integrity assessment technology are also needed for the evaluation of aged components. The following five topics are covered in this project: development of the wall-thinning evaluation program for nuclear piping; development of structural integrity evaluation criteria for steam generator tubes with cracks of various shape; development of fatigue life evaluation system for major components of NPP; ingegration of internet-based cyber platform and integrity evaluation program for primary components of NPP; effects of aging on strength of dissimilar welds.

  20. Comparison of two methods of dental prophylaxis: evaluation of arterial pressure and patient comfort in a clinical randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lopes FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The number of hypertensive patients is increasing and prophylaxis with bicarbonate jet are widely performed in clinical practice using large amounts of this substance in a short period of time, which may lead to increased arterial pressure. In the literature there are several studies that analyze the effect of sodium bicarbonate jet on the biofilm and dental structures, but not report the effect on arterial pressure. Aim Evaluated the change in arterial pressure before and after two procedures of dental prophylaxis, jet baking soda application and conventional prophylaxis, and patient opinion of the comfort of each system was obtained. Material and method We selected 20 patients aged 18 to 30 in need of prophylaxis to remove biofilm. The patients were placed into three different treatment groups: sodium bicarbonate jet (G1, conventional prophylaxis (G2 and control (G3, with a one month interval between treatments. Patients were divided into groups randomly. Measurements were performed immediately before and after the procedure, 15 and 30 minutes after the end of treatment. Patient comfort was measured using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS at the end of each treatment. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Result There was a statistically significant difference in the comfort of the procedures, with G2 and G3 being better than G1. Additionally, an increase in the diastolic blood pressure was observed in sodium bicarbonate jet group evaluated just after the procedure. Conclusion The conventional prophylaxis is more comfortable from the patient stand point and does not alter arterial pressure.

  1. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zeng, Langqing; Liu, Yanjie; Pan, Yao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changqing; Zeng, Bingfang; Chen, Yunfeng


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs) in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (Pproximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207). Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  2. [Unilateral locking of cervical facet joints. Frequency and value of roentgenologic signs]. (United States)

    Sim, E; Schwarz, N


    Unilateral locking of cervical facet joints is often misdiagnosed and inadequately treated, because it is not readily detected on plain radiographs. Primary radiographs of 17 patients were analysed to evaluate radiographical signs with reference to frequency and significance. Direct signs of locking were present in no more than 53% of cases. Of these, an abrupt change in laminar space width, seen in 88.2%, proved to be the most reliable sign. Displacement of the spinous processes above and below the lesion was found in the same percentage of cases, but it carries less diagnostic weight. While present in all cases, anterolisthesis is only diagnostic if additional oblique views show evidence of lateralized cervical anterolisthesis. Clearly less reliable indirect signs included: the bow tie sign (29.4%), dehiscence of the spinous processes (23.5%), differences in the sagittal diameters of the vertebral bodies above and below the lesion (35.2%), double facet contour (47%) and tilting of the cranial segment of the cervical spine away from the locked facets (58.8%). Abnormalities of disc shape were not seen on a.-p. projections. Those detectable in axial views are irrelevant to locking, as are empty facets. If more than one indirect sign is present and if unilateral locking is suspected but cannot be established unequivocally even on additional oblique views, computed tomography is indicated, because reduction continues to be the first step in the management of fresh injuries.

  3. Development of Evaluation Technology of the Integrity of HWR Pressure Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S.; Jeong, Y. M.; Ahn, S. B. (and others)


    Major degradation of the feeder pipe is the thinning due to the flow accelerated corrosion and the cracking in the bent region due to the stress corrosion cracking. The feeder pipe in a PHWR is a pipe to supply the coolant to the pressure tube and the heated coolant to the steam generator for power generation. Approximately 380 pipes are installed on the inlet side and outlet side each with two bent regions in the 600 MW-class PHWR. After a leakage in the bent region of the feeder pipe, it is required to examine all the pipes in order to ensure the integrity of the pressure boundaries. It is not easy, however, to examine all the pipes with the conventional ultrasonic method, because of a high dose of radiation exposure and a limited accessibility to the pipe. In order to get rid of the limited accessibility, the ultrasonic guided wave method are developed for detection and evaluation of the cracks in the feeder pipe. The dispersion mode analysis was performed for the development of long-range guided wave inspection for the feeder pipe. An analytical approach for the straight pipe as well as numerical approach for the bent pipe with 2-D FFT were accomplished. A computer program for the calculation of the dispersion curves and wave structures was developed. Based on the dispersion curves and wave structure of the feeder pipe, candidates for the optimal parameters on the frequencies and vibration modes were selected. A time-frequency analysis methodology was developed for the mode identification of received ultrasonic signal. A high power tone-burst ultrasonic system has been setup for the generation of guided waves. Various artificial notches were fabricated on the bent feeder pipes for the experiment on the flaw detection. Considering the results of dispersion analysis and field condition, the torsional vibration mode, T(0,1) is selected for the first choice. An array of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) was designed and fabricated for the generation of T

  4. Comparative study of locking plates in mandibular reconstruction after ablative tumor surgery: THORP versus UniLOCK system. (United States)

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes; Otero-Cepeda, Xose Luis; Schön, Ralf; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Gutwald, Ralf


    This retrospective study compared 2 types of rigid locking plates (THORP and UniLOCK; Stratec Medical, Oberdorf, Switzerland) in 107 patients undergoing reconstruction for bridging mandibular defects following ablative tumor surgery. From January 1993 to December 2000, 107 patients were reconstructed following ablative tumor surgery with 57 THORP plates and 50 UniLOCK plates. Study follow-up ranged from 18 to 87 months (average, 32 months). Complications were categorized into delayed wound healing, infection, plate exposure, and plate fracture, taking into account the type and timing of reconstruction. Overall type and number of complications show no statistically significant differences between THORP and UniLOCK groups. Infection was the most frequent type of complication (THORP, 30; UniLOCK, 32). Others included delayed wound healing (THORP, 13; UniLOCK, 12), plate exposure (THORP, 8; UniLOCK, 7), and plate fracture (THORP, 5; UniLOCK, 1). Plates were removed in 22 THORP and 11 UniLOCK plates. The most frequent reason for plate removal in both groups was infection. Other reasons for plate removal include tumor recurrence, plate fracture, plate exposure, or a combination of reasons. THORP and UniLOCK plates do not present statistically significant differences in the parameters studied. Nevertheless, the UniLOCK group had slightly better results. Considering that the THORP system is much bulkier and its screws bigger, our results lead to the conclusion that bridging osteosynthesis with a 2.4 UniLOCK system is adequate for plate reconstruction of mandibular defects.

  5. Use of locking plate and screws for triple pelvic osteotomy. (United States)

    Rose, Scott A; Bruecker, Ken A; Petersen, Steve W; Uddin, Nizam


    To evaluate the efficacy and complication rate associated with use of a purpose-specific locking triple pelvic osteotomy (LTPO) plate. Prospective study. Dogs (n = 9; 15 hips). Physical examination, plain film radiography, computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, and coxofemoral arthroscopy were performed before unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) or staged bilateral TPO. Radiographs were taken after each procedure and 3-5, 6-8, and ≥12 weeks postoperatively. Pelvic width was measured at 3 locations to evaluate pelvic canal narrowing. No screw loosening occurred. Complications occurred in only 1 hip (7%) where pullout of the locking plate-screw construct from the caudal iliac segment occurred because of a fracture of the cis-cortex; the dog made a full recovery after a salvage procedure. There was no significant reduction in the cranial pelvic width but a small reduction at the level of the acetabuli and ischiatic tuberosities was noted 3-5 weeks after the 2nd TPO. The LTPO plate was associated with a lower complication rate than previously reported for TPOs using Slocum canine pelvic osteotomy plates (CPOP) and warrants further investigation. Pullout of the caudal plate-screw construct is a complication specific to LTPO implants. Bicortical screw purchase is recommended to prevent fracture of the cis-cortex and implant pullout. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Damage evaluation and analysis of composite pressure vessels using fiber Bragg gratings to determine structural health (United States)

    Ortyl, Nicholas E.


    . Multiaxis fiber optic sensors are able to measure pressure, temperature, axial and transverse strain, chemical properties, corrosion, as well as transverse strain gradients. This technology is easily embedded in between the various layers of the composite structure, during manufacture, without compromising the structural integrity, in order to verify manufacturing parameters during the cure cycle and well as monitor the on-going condition of the composite structure throughout its life time. This paper reviews some of the technical work that has been accomplished during the past two years; specifically the embedding of fiber optic sensors into various composite structures in order to be able to conduct in situ non-destructive evaluation of the curing process and the service life of the component. The fiber optic technology has been developed to the point that it is at a TRL of 6.

  7. Evaluation of central venous pressure monitoring in children undergoing craniofacial reconstruction surgery. (United States)

    Stricker, Paul A; Lin, Elaina E; Fiadjoe, John E; Sussman, Emily M; Pruitt, Eric Y; Zhao, Huaqing; Jobes, David R


    Massive hemorrhage during craniofacial surgery is common and often results in hypovolemia and hypotension. We conducted this study to assess the effect of the addition of routine central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring on the incidence of intraoperative hypotension and to evaluate the relationship between CVP and hypotension in this population. Data from our prospective craniofacial perioperative registry for children 6 to 24 months of age undergoing cranial vault reconstruction with CVP monitoring were compared with data from a historical cohort without CVP monitoring. The incidence and duration of hypotension in the 2 cohorts were compared. In the cohort of subjects with CVP monitoring who experienced hypotension, CVP at the onset of hypotension (T0) was compared with CVP 5 minutes before (T-5) and 5 minutes after (T+5) the onset of hypotension and with the baseline CVP. The amount of time spent at various CVP levels below the baseline, and the associated incidence of hypotension were also determined. Data from 57 registry subjects were compared with data from 115 historical cohort subjects. The median total duration of hypotension in subjects experiencing hypotension was 278 seconds in the CVP cohort versus 165 seconds in the historical cohort; the median difference was 98 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI], -45 to 345 seconds). The incidence of hypotension was 18% in the CVP cohort versus 21% in the historical cohort; the difference in the incidence of hypotension was -3% (95% CI, -10% to 15%). Analysis using a linear mixed effects model showed a significant decrease in CVP from T-5 to T0 (95% CI, -0.9 to -2.2 mm Hg), a significant increase in CVP from T0 to T+5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.4 mm Hg), no significant difference in CVP between T-5 and T+5 (95% CI, -0.9 to 0.9 mm Hg), and a significant decrease in CVP from baseline to T0 (95% CI, -3.4 to -2.1 mm Hg). CVP at T0 was less than the baseline CVP in 97% of hypotensive episodes. When all cases were examined, CVP

  8. Periprosthetic Vancouver type B1 and C fractures treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Troelsen, Anders; Brix, Michael


    Historically, the treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) has been associated with a high frequency of complications and reoperations. The preferred treatment is internal fixation, a revision of the femoral stem, or a combination of both. An improved understanding of plate use during...... internal fixation, and the introduction of locking-plate osteosynthesis may lead to improved outcome. We evaluated the outcome of Vancouver type B1 and C PFFs treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis, by assessing rates of fracture union and reoperations and by analyzing failure cases....

  9. Relationship Between Locked Modes and Disruptions in the DIII-D Tokamak (United States)

    Sweeney, Ryan

    cause a disruption or not, and does so up to hundreds of milliseconds before the disruption. Within 20 ms of the disruption, the shortest distance between the island separatrix and the unperturbed last closed flux surface, referred to as dedge, performs comparably to l i/q95 in its ability to discriminate disruptive locked modes, and it also correlates well with the duration of the locked mode. On average, and within errors, the n=1 perturbed field grows exponentially in the final 50 ms before a disruption, however, the island width cannot discern whether a LM will disrupt or not up to 20 ms before the disruption. A few discharges are selected to analyze the evolution of the electron temperature profile in the presence of multiple coexisting locked modes during partial and full thermal quenches. Partial thermal quenches are often an initial, distinct stage in the full thermal quench caused by radiation, conduction, or convection losses. Here we explore the fundamental mechanism that causes the partial quench. Near the onset of partial thermal quenches, locked islands are observed to align in a unique way, or island widths are observed to grow above a threshold. Energy analysis on one discharge suggests that about half of the energy is lost in the divertor region. In discharges with minimum values of the safety factor above ˜1.2, and with current profiles expected to be classically stable, locked modes are observed to self-stabilize by inducing a full thermal quench, possibly by double tearing modes that remove the pressure gradient across the island, thus removing the neoclassical drive.

  10. Blood pressure and pulse wave velocity as metrics for evaluating pathologic ageing of the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Khalili, Payam; Franklin, Stanley S


    The influence of chronological ageing on the components of the cardiovascular system is of fundamental importance for understanding how hemodynamics change and the cardiovascular risk increases with age, the most important risk marker. An increase in peripheral vascular resistance associated with increased stiffness of central elastic arteries represents hallmarks of this ageing effect on the vasculature, referred to as early vascular ageing (EVA). In clinical practice, it translates into increased brachial and central systolic blood pressure and corresponding pulse pressure in subjects above 50 years of age, as well as increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV)--a marker of arterial stiffness. A c-f PWV value ≥ 10 m/s is threshold for increased risk according. Improved lifestyle and control of risk factors via appropriate drug therapy are of importance in providing vascular protection related to EVA. One target group might be members of risk families including subjects with early onset cardiovascular disease.

  11. Use of Remotely Sensed Data to Evaluate the Relationship between Living Environment and Blood Pressure (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William; Estes, Sue M.; Quattrochi, Dale; Kent, Shia; McClure, Leslie Ain


    Background Urbanization has been correlated with hypertension (HTN) in developing countries undergoing rapid economic and environmental transitions. Objectives We examined the relationships among living environment (urban, suburban, and rural), day/night land surface temperatures (LST), and blood pressure in selected regions from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Also, the linking of data on blood pressure from REGARDS with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) science data is relevant to NASA’s strategic goals and missions, particularly as a primary focus of the agency’s Applied Sciences Program. Methods REGARDS is a national cohort of 30,228 people from the 48 contiguous United States with self-reported and measured blood pressure levels. Four metropolitan regions (Philadelphia, PA; Atlanta, GA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL) with varying geographic and health characteristics were selected for study. Satellite remotely sensed data were used to characterize the LST and land cover/land use (LCLU) environment for each area. We developed a method for characterizing participants as living in urban, suburban, or rural living environments, using the LCLU data. These data were compiled on a 1-km grid for each region and linked with the REGARDS data via an algorithm using geocoding information. Results REGARDS participants in urban areas have higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure than do those in suburban or rural areas, and also a higher incidence of HTN. In univariate models, living environment is associated with HTN, but after adjustment for known HTN risk factors, the relationship was no longer present. Conclusion Further study regarding the relationship between HTN and living environment should focus on additional environmental characteristics, such as air pollution. The living environment classification method using remotely sensed data has the potential to facilitate additional research

  12. The evaluation of pressure effects on the ex-vessel cooling for KNGR with MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha


    In this report, the effect of external vessel cooling on debris coolability and vessel integrity for the KNGR were examined from the two typical pressure range of high(170 bar) and low(5 bar)case using the lower plenum model in MELCOR1.8.4. As the conditions of these calculations, 80 ton of debris was relocated simultaneously into the lower vessel head and the debris relocation temperature from the core region was 2700 K. The decay heat has been assumed to be that of one hour after reactor shutdown. The creep failure of the vessel wall was simulated with 1-D model, which can consider the rapid temperature gradient over the wall thickness during the ex-vessel cooling. From the calculation results, both the coolant temperature and the total amount of coolant mass injected into the cavity are known to be the important factors in determining the time period to keep the external vessel cool. Therefore, a long-term strategy to keep the coolant temperature subcooled throughout the transient is suggested to sustain or prolong the effect of external vessel cooling. Also, it is expected that to keep the primary side at low pressure and to perform the ex-vessel flooding be the essential conditions to sustain the vessel integrity. From MELCOR, the penetration failure always occurs after relocation regardless of the RCS pressure or availability of the external vessel cooling. Therefore, It is expected that the improvement of the model for the penetration tube failure will be necessary.

  13. Force Sensing Resistor and Evaluation of Technology for Wearable Body Pressure Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Giovanelli


    Full Text Available Wearable technologies are gaining momentum and widespread diffusion. Thanks to devices such as activity trackers, in form of bracelets, watches, or anklets, the end-users are becoming more and more aware of their daily activity routine, posture, and training and can modify their motor-behavior. Activity trackers are prevalently based on inertial sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. Loads we bear with us and the interface pressure they put on our body also affect posture. A contact interface pressure sensing wearable would be beneficial to complement inertial activity trackers. What is precluding force sensing resistors (FSR to be the next best seller wearable? In this paper, we provide elements to answer this question. We build an FSR based on resistive material (Velostat and printed conductive ink electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate; we test its response to pressure in the range 0–2.7 kPa. We present a state-of-the-art review, filtered by the need to identify technologies adequate for wearables. We conclude that the repeatability is the major issue yet unsolved.

  14. Evaluation of Carbon Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels Fabricated Using Ionic Liquid Epoxies Project (United States)

    Grugel, Richard


    The intent of the work proposed here is to ascertain the viability of ionic liquid (IL) epoxy based carbon fiber composites for use as storage tanks at cryogenic temperatures. This IL epoxy has been specifically developed to address composite cryogenic tank challenges associated with achieving NASA's in-space propulsion and exploration goals. Our initial work showed that an unadulterated ionic liquid (IL) carbon-fiber composite exhibited improved properties over an optimized commercial product at cryogenic temperatures. Subsequent investigative work has significantly improved the IL epoxy and our first carbon-fiber Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessel (COPV) was successfully fabricated. Here additional COPVs, using a further improved IL epoxy, will be fabricated and pressure tested at cryogenic temperatures with the results rigorously analyzed. Investigation of the IL composite for lower pressure liner-less cryogenic tank applications will also be initiated. It is expected that the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) will be raised from about TRL 3 to TRL 5 where unambiguous predictions for subsequent development/testing can be made.

  15. Treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia with an antibiotic lock protocol: effect of bacterial pathogen. (United States)

    Poole, Christopher V; Carlton, Donna; Bimbo, Lisa; Allon, Michael


    The standard therapy of dialysis catheter-related bacteraemia involves both systemic antibiotics and catheter replacement. We reported recently that instillation of an antibiotic lock (highly concentrated antibiotic solution) into the catheter lumen after dialysis sessions, in conjunction with systemic antibiotics, can successfully treat many episodes of catheter-related bacteraemia without requiring catheter removal. The present study evaluated whether the likelihood of achieving a cure with this protocol depends on the type of pathogen. This was a historically controlled interventional study of an antibiotic lock protocol for the treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia. We analysed prospectively the likelihood of clinical cure (fever resolution and negative surveillance cultures) with an antibiotic lock protocol among patients with dialysis catheter-related bacteraemia. In addition, infection-free catheter survival was evaluated for up to 150 days, and compared with that observed among patients managed with routine catheter replacement. Overall, the antibiotic lock protocol was successful in 33 of 47 infected patients (70%) with catheter-related bacteraemia. The likelihood of a clinical cure was 87% for Gram-negative infections, 75% for Staphylococcus epidermidis infections, and only 40% for Staphylococcus aureus infections (P = 0.04). The median infection-free catheter survival with the antibiotic lock protocol was longer than that observed among patients with routine catheter replacement (154 vs 71 days, P = 0.02). The clinical success of an antibiotic lock protocol in eradicating catheter-related bacteraemia while salvaging the catheter is highly dependent on the bacterial pathogen. Thus, the overall success rate in an individual dialysis programme will depend on the relative frequencies of different bacterial pathogens.

  16. On the Performance of Distributed Lock-Based Synchronization (United States)

    Lubowich, Yuval; Taubenfeld, Gadi

    We study the relation between two classical types of distributed locking mechanisms, called token-based locking and permission-based locking, and several distributed data structures which use locking for synchronization. We have proposed, implemented and tested several lock-based distributed data structures, namely, two different types of counters called find&increment and increment&publish, a queue, a stack and a linked list. For each one of them we have determined what is the preferred type of lock to be used as the underling locking mechanism. Furthermore, we have determined which one of the two proposed counters is better to be used either as a stand-alone data structure or when used as a building block for implementing other high level data structures.

  17. Dynamic Self-Locking of an OEO Containing a VCSEL (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute


    A method of dynamic self-locking has been demonstrated to be effective as a means of stabilizing the wavelength of light emitted by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) that is an active element in the frequency-control loop of an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) designed to implement an atomic clock based on an electromagnetically- induced-transparency (EIT) resonance. This scheme can be considered an alternative to the one described in Optical Injection Locking of a VCSEL in an OEO (NPO-43454), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 7 (July 2009), page 33. Both schemes are expected to enable the development of small, low-power, high-stability atomic clocks that would be suitable for use in applications involving precise navigation and/or communication. To recapitulate from the cited prior article: In one essential aspect of operation of an OEO of the type described above, a microwave modulation signal is coupled into the VCSEL. Heretofore, it has been well known that the wavelength of light emitted by a VCSEL depends on its temperature and drive current, necessitating thorough stabilization of these operational parameters. Recently, it was discovered that the wavelength also depends on the microwave power coupled into the VCSEL. This concludes the background information. From the perspective that led to the conception of the optical injection-locking scheme described in the cited prior article, the variation of the VCSEL wavelength with the microwave power circulating in the frequency-control loop is regarded as a disadvantage and optical injection locking is a solution of the problem of stabilizing the wavelength in the presence of uncontrolled fluctuations in the microwave power. The present scheme for dynamic self-locking emerges from a different perspective, in which the dependence of VCSEL wavelength on microwave power is regarded as an advantageous phenomenon that can be exploited as a means of controlling the wavelength. The figure schematically depicts

  18. Prospective evaluation of systolic arterial pressure control with a phenylephrine infusion regimen during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. (United States)

    Cooper, D; Schofield, L; Hynd, R; Selvan, D; Lloyd, A; Meek, T; Winnard, J


    Hypotension and nausea occur frequently during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. The aim of this evaluation was to assess systolic arterial pressure control with our routine prophylactic intravenous phenylephrine infusion regimen. We audited a local standard for an incidence of hypotension of ≤ 25% during the first 15 min of anaesthesia. One hundred healthy women undergoing elective caesarean section were assessed. Following intravenous preload with 10 mL/kg Hartmann's solution, 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.8 mL combined with diamorphine 400 μg was given intrathecally in the sitting position. Intravenous phenylephrine was then started at 67 μg/min (the maximum rate). Systolic arterial pressure was recorded every 2 min. The infusion was titrated, according to local guidelines, to maintain systolic arterial pressure close to baseline. The median dose of phenylephrine given by infusion was 1000 [interquartile range 670-1000]μg, with 51 patients not requiring any change to the infusion rate. Eleven patients (11%, 95% CI 6-19) developed hypotension, defined as a systolic arterial pressure <80% of baseline. A further four patients were given a bolus of phenylephrine for suspected hypotension. The incidence of hypotension or suspected hypotension was therefore 15% (95% CI 9-24). Thirteen patients (13%, 95% CI 7-21) developed nausea. No patient vomited. Our routine phenylephrine infusion regimen was effective at minimizing hypotension and nausea during relatively high-dose spinal anaesthesia. This was achieved with a low intervention rate, in conjunction with a 2-min rather than a 1-min non-invasive blood pressure cycle time and a relatively low volume of intravenous fluid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Recombinant Human Thyrotropin Administration on 24-Hour Arterial Pressure in Female Undergoing Evaluation for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Rentziou


    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH receptors are expressed in endothelial cells. We investigated whether elevated TSH levels after acute recombinant TSH (rhTSH administration may result in alterations in blood pressure (BP in premenopausal women with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. Designs. Thirty euthyroid DTC female patients were evaluated by rhTSH stimulation test (mean age 40.4±8.6 years. A 24 h ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP monitoring (24 hr ABPM was performed on days 2-3(D2-3. TSH was measured on day 1(D1, day 3(D3, and day 5(D5. Central blood pressure was evaluated on D3. Twenty-three patients were studied 1–4 weeks earlier (basal measurements. Results. TSH levels were D1: median 0.2 mU/L, D3: median 115.0 mU/L, and D5: median 14.6 mU/L. There were no significant associations between TSH on D1 and D3 and any BP measurements. Median D5 office-SBP and 24 h SBP, DBP, and central SBP were correlated with D5-TSH (P<0.04. In those where a basal 24 h ABPM had been performed median pulse pressure was higher after rhTSH-test (P=0.02. Conclusions. TSH, when acutely elevated, may slightly increase SBP, DBP, and central SBP. This agrees with previous reports showing positive associations of BP with TSH.

  20. Magnetic non-destructive evaluation of hardening of cold rolled reactor pressure vessel steel (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiao; Qiang, Wenjiang; Shu, Guogang


    Non-destructive test (NDT) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel is urgently required due to the life extension program of nuclear power plant. Here magnetic NDT of cold rolled RPV steel is studied. The strength, hardness and coercivity increase with the increasing deformation, and a good linear correlation between the increment of coercivity, hardness and yield strength is found, which may be helpful to develop magnetic NDT of degradation of RPV steel. It is also found that besides dislocation density, the distribution of dislocations may affect coercivity as well.

  1. Evaluation of mechanical losses in a linear motor pressure wave generator (United States)

    Jacob, Subhash; Rangasamy, Karunanithi; Jonnalagadda, Kranthi Kumar; Chakkala, Damu; Achanur, Mallappa; Govindswamy, Jagadish; Gour, Abhay Singh


    A moving magnet linear motor compressor or pressure wave generator (PWG) of 2 cc swept volume with dual opposed piston configuration has been developed to operate miniature pulse tube coolers. Prelimnary experiments yielded only a no-load cold end temperature of 180 K. Auxiliary tests and the interpretation of detailed modeling of a PWG suggest that much of the PV power has been lost in the form of blow-by at piston seals due to large and non-optimum clearance seal gap between piston and cylinder. The results of experimental parameters simulated using Sage provide the optimum seal gap value for maximizing the delivered PV power.

  2. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure Estimation Methods for Use in Simulating the Dynamic of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Komkoua Mbienda


    Lee and Kesler (LK, and Ambrose-Walton (AW methods for estimating vapor pressures ( are tested against experimental data for a set of volatile organic compounds (VOC. required to determine gas-particle partitioning of such organic compounds is used as a parameter for simulating the dynamic of atmospheric aerosols. Here, we use the structure-property relationships of VOC to estimate . The accuracy of each of the aforementioned methods is also assessed for each class of compounds (hydrocarbons, monofunctionalized, difunctionalized, and tri- and more functionalized volatile organic species. It is found that the best method for each VOC depends on its functionality.

  3. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability. (United States)

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K


    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.

  4. Organic and Polymeric Semiconductors Enhanced by Noncovalent Conformational Locks. (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Yang, Lei; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J


    Constructing highly planar, extended π-electron systems is an important strategy for achieving high-mobility organic semiconductors. In general, there are two synthetic strategies for achieving π-conjugated systems with high planarity. The conventional strategy connects neighboring aromatic rings through covalent bonds to restrict the rotation about single bonds. However, this usually requires a complex sequence of synthetic steps to achieve this target, which can be costly and labor-intensive. More recently, noncovalent through-space intramolecular interactions, which are defined here as noncovalent conformational locks, have been employed with great success to increase the planarity and rigidity of extended π-electron systems; this has become a well-known and important strategy to design and synthesize highly planar π-conjugated systems for organic electronics. This review offers a comprehensive and general summary of conjugated systems with such noncovalent conformational locks, including O···S, N···S, X···S (where X = Cl, Br, F), and H···S through-space interactions, together with analysis by density functional theory computation, X-ray diffraction, and microstructural characterization, as well as by evaluation of charge transport in organic thin-film transistors and solar cells.

  5. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty


    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  6. Locke and the education of the adolescent


    Francisco T. Baciero Ruiz


    John Locke has been considered one of the leading figures in the His- tory of Philosophy, specially for his two famous treatises An Essay concerning Human understanding and Two Treatises on Government. None the less his work in Pedagogy, Some thougths concerning Education, is no less important, and provides the leading strings of that what ought to be the education of the gentleman, whose unavoidable foundation must be a solid education in virtue grounded in the moral principles of Christiani...

  7. VHDL Model of Electronic-Lock System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noga


    Full Text Available The paper describes the design of an electronic-lock system which wascompleted as part of the Basic VHDL course in the Department of Controland Measurement Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics,Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic in co-operation withthe Department if Electronic Engineering, University of Hull, GreatBritain in the frame of TEMPUS project no. S_JEP/09468-95.

  8. Evaluation of the dissemination and implementation of a nutritional guideline for pressure ulcer care. (United States)

    Meijers, J M M; Schols, J M G A; Jackson, P A; Langer, G; Clark, M; Halfens, R J G


    In 2004 the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel nutritional working group developed a nutritional guideline for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. This study investigated the degree to which the guideline was disseminated and implemented in clinical practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in health-care organisations in The Netherlands, Germany and the UK. A printed, standardised questionnaire which followed Rogers' model of the innovation-decision process was developed, translated and distributed to 1087 health-care organisations. The response rate was 33% (n = 363). Sixty-one per cent of respondents knew of the guideline. Twenty-five per cent had applied it to their clinical practice and used it for nutritional screening. The main barrier to the provision of nutritional support appeared to be lack of knowledge and skills. One year after its dissemination, more than half of respondents knew of the guideline, with one in four applying it to their practice. The guideline was better disseminated and implemented in The Netherlands and UK than in Germany, where only 4% of participants had used it.

  9. Evaluation of the ICare rebound tonometer as a home intraocular pressure monitoring device. (United States)

    Asrani, Sanjay; Chatterjee, Ashmita; Wallace, David K; Santiago-Turla, Cecilia; Stinnett, Sandra


    (a) To investigate whether the ICare rebound tonometer can provide accurate measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) in the hands of an inexperienced user compared with ICare measurements and Goldmann tonometry by a trained technician and (b) to assess the intrauser reproducibility of IOP measurements and the learning curve among patients using the ICare rebound tonometer. A trained technician used the ICare rebound tonometer to measure the IOP of the right eye of 100 glaucoma patients. The technician then instructed each patient on use of the ICare tonometer. Each patient then measured his/her own pressure using the ICare tonometer. Finally, a different technician, who was masked to both of the earlier readings, measured IOP by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Thirty patients repeated the ICare measurement 3 times (once every 5 min) 20 minutes after the initial IOP measurement. Of the 100 patients, 82 of patient ICare and the technician ICare readings were within 3 mm Hg of each other, and 75 of the patient ICare and Goldmann applanation tonometry measurements were within 3 mm Hg of each other. Intraclass correlations between self-administered ICare measurements 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 were 0.69, 0.71 and 0.81, respectively. In this study, the ICare rebound tonometer was accurate and reliable in the hands of patients. Patients can easily learn to self-administer this test, possibly allowing for home monitoring of IOP.

  10. Evaluation of Low-Pressure Cold Plasma for Disinfection of ISS Grown Produce and Metallic Instrumentation (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Franco, Carolina; Hummerick, Mary E.; Maloney, Phil R.; Spencer, Lashelle E.


    Cold plasma (CP) cleaning is a dry, non-thermal process, which can provide broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity yet reportedly causes little to no damage to the object being sanitized. Since cold plasma uses no liquids, it has the distinct advantage when used in microgravity of not having to separate liquids from the item being cleaned. This paper will present results on an effort to use low pressure CP to disinfect or sterilize materials for in space applications. Exposure times from 0 to 60 minutes and pressures ranging from 0.10 to 1.0 mbar were used to optimize plasma parameters. Tests were done on produce and metal coupons to simulate medical equipment. Escherichia coli was used as the challenge organism on produce and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-32 was used on metal surfaces. Produce testing was not successful, with unacceptable kill rates and the produce being negatively impacted by exposure to the plasma. The plasma caused a 5 log reduction in the number of viable bacteria on metal coupon tests, which placed the number of viable bacteria below the detection limit. This is a very promising result showing that sterilization of medical equipment with cold plasma is feasible. Scanning Electron Microscope images were taken before and after exposure. The images after plasma exposure show that the bacteria spores have been physically affected, as their size has gotten smaller and their appearance has changed.

  11. Evaluation of Low-Pressure Cold Plasma for Disinfection for ISS Grown Produce and Metallic Instrumentation (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Franco, Carolina; Hummerick, Mary E.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Spencer, Lashelle E.


    Cold plasma (CP) cleaning is a dry, non-thermal process, which can provide broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity yet reportedly causes little to no damage to the object being sanitized. Since cold plasma uses no liquids, it has the distinct advantage when used in microgravity of not having to separate liquids from the item being cleaned. This paper will present results on an effort to use low pressure CP to disinfect or sterilize materials for in space applications. Exposure times from 0 to 60 minutes and pressures ranging from 10 to 100 Pa were used to optimize plasma parameters to achieve acceptable kill rates for 3 bacteria, Bacillus cereus, E. coli and Bacillus pumulis SAFR-32 and one fungi, Aspergillus niger. These tests were done on produce and metal coupons to simulate medical equipment. Produce testing was not successful, with unacceptable kill rates and the produce being negatively impacted by exposure to the plasma. The plasma caused a 5 log reduction in the number of viable bacteria on metal coupon tests, which placed the number of viable bacteria below the detection limit. This is a very promising result showing that sterilization of medical equipment with cold plasma is feasible. Scanning Electron Microscope images were taken before and after exposure. The images after plasma exposure shows that the bacteria spores have been physically affected, as their size has gotten smaller and the appearance has changed.

  12. Developments of integrity evaluation technology for pressurized components in nuclear power plant and IT based integrity evaluation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Shim, Do Jun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient evaluation technology and to investigate applicability of newly-developed technology, such as internet-based cyber platform, to operating power plants. Development of efficient evaluation systems for Nuclear Power Plant components, based on structural integrity assessment techniques, are increasingly demanded for safe operation with the increasing operating period of Nuclear Power Plants. The following five topics are covered in this project: development of assessment method for wall-thinned nuclear piping based on pipe test; development of structural integrity program for steam generator tubes with cracks of various shape; development of fatigue life evaluation system for mam components of NPP; development of internet-based cyber platform and integrity program for primary components of NPP; effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds.

  13. Laser Metrology Heterodyne Phase-Locked Loop (United States)

    Loya, Frank; Halverson, Peter


    A method reduces sensitivity to noise in a signal from a laser heterodyne interferometer. The phase-locked loop (PLL) removes glitches that occur in a zero-crossing detector s output [that can happen if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the heterodyne signal is low] by the use of an internal oscillator that produces a square-wave signal at a frequency that is inherently close to the heterodyne frequency. It also contains phase-locking circuits that lock the phase of the oscillator to the output of the zero-crossing detector. Because the PLL output is an oscillator signal, it is glitch-free. This enables the ability to make accurate phase measurements in spite of low SNR, creates an immunity to phase error caused by shifts in the heterodyne frequency (i.e. if the target moves causing Doppler shift), and maintains a valid phase even when the signal drops out for brief periods of time, such as when the laser is blocked by a stray object.

  14. [Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate]. (United States)

    Cabrera Méndez, M P; Gamba, C; Hernández, E; Molano, J; Andrade, J C


    To describe the results of tibiotalocalcáneal arthrodesis (TTC) using a humeral locking plate. A retrospective, observational study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2013 in the Hospital Militar Central de Bogotá. The study included patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis diagnosed clinically and radiologically, and who underwent TTC arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate with a minimum follow up of 6 months. The total number patients was 35, of whom 7 (20%) were women and 28 (80%) men, with a mean age 36.3 years (19.77). 74% with post-traumatic arthritis, most of them secondary to gunshot wounds and fragmentation weapons, and neuropathic in 20%. An autogenous graft was used in 13 cases, and 14 cases using both, with a mean consolidation time of 4.37 months. Complications include, delayed union in 3 cases, and surgical site infection in 4. The postoperative functionality (AOFAS) mean was 66.7/100 points, with a score of 2.35 on a visual analogue pain scale. TTC arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate is a suitable option for fixing this type of arthrodesis, with a low rate of complications, and postoperative results that revealed satisfactory improvement in pain and consolidation. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of portal hypertension: a comparison of the use of liver perfusion CT with wedge hepatic venous pressure and hepatic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Jin; Kim, Young Joong; Park, Yong Sung; Lee, Tae Hee [University of Konyang College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soo; Kang, Heung Keun [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    We compared the hepatic perfusion indices obtained using hepatic perfusion CT with the wedge hepatic venous pressure (WHVP) and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) to determine the efficacy of the use of liver perfusion CT for the evaluation of portal hypertension. Thirty-five patients with liver cirrhosis underwent hepatic vein catheterization to measure WHVP and HVPG and underwent a liver perfusion CT examination. Arterial perfusion, portal perfusion, total perfusion and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were calculated by the methods described by Miles and Blomlely. The overall correlation coefficients (r) between the perfusion indices and WHVP and HVPG were calculated. An additional correlation coefficient of 23 alcoholic cirrhosis patients was calculated. Using Blomley's equation, HPI had a positive correlation with WHVP (r = .471; {rho} < .05) and HVPG (r = .482; {rho} < .05). For the alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients, HPI had a higher positive correlation with WHVP (r = .500; {rho} < .05) and HVPG (r = .539; {rho} < .05) than for the non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients. There was no statistical difference between the use of Miles' equation and Blomley's equation for the evaluation of portal hypertension. This preliminary study showed that HPI positively correlated with WHVP and HVPG, especially in alcoholic cirrhosis patients. Liver perfusion CT may be useful in the evaluation of portal hypertension.

  16. Surface detail reproduction under simulated pulpal pressure: a 3-dimensional optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy evaluation. (United States)

    Acar, Ozlem; Erkut, Selim; Lakshmipathy, Manas


    It is not clear whether more hydrophilic impression materials are better able to copy and transfer dentin surface detail than less hydrophilic ones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproduction of dentin surface detail by means of hydrophobic and hydrophilic elastomeric impression materials under simulated pulpal pressure and their ability to transfer surface detail onto casts produced from such impressions. The wettability of the impression materials (n=8) was determined by contact angle measurement with an evolution period of 135 seconds. Dentin moisture was provided by means of pulpal pressure simulation, and objective analyses were performed by measuring the average roughness value (Ra) with a 3-D optical profilometer (n=10). One specimen from each group was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Contact-angle values were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA, and detail reproduction was tested with 3-way ANOVA (α=.05). The Bonferroni correction was used to control Type I error for follow-up analyses. Contact angle measurements revealed significant differences depending on the impression material used and time of the measurement (P.013). The hydrophobic impression material showed similar detail reproduction ability in a dry field, but loss of detail (evaluated subjectively) and increased roughness values (evaluated objectively) were recorded in a moisturized field (P=.004). Polyurethane-based cast material successfully reproduced the surface texture (P≥.006), whereas Type IV gypsum material was unable to reproduce this texture to the same extent. The hydrophilic impression materials tested showed similar ability to reproduce detail under simulated pulpal pressure. Polyurethane-based cast material successfully reproduced the surface texture. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilizing Z-track Air Lock Technique to Reduce Pain in Intramuscular Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Hemme Tambunan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Injection is one of most painful and common medical interventions that more than 12 billion of it are administered annually throughout the world. Pain remains as one of the unresolved health problems. The objective of this research was to investigate the pain severity utilizing the z-track air lock technique during intra muscular injection procedure. Method:This study was conducted as an unblinded cinical trial, where 90 female subjects aged between 18-25 years old were randomly assigned to three groups of 30. Each group received z-track air lock (Group ZTAL, air lock (AL, and z-track (Group ZT techniques. Neurobion 5000 vitamin used as an injection substance.A Verbal Rating Scale (VRS on 0–3 was used to evaluate the severity of pain during procedure. Data were analized using the SPSS version 19. Groups’ age, Body Mass Index (BMI and pain severity were analyzed through descriptive and One Way ANOVA statistics. Results: Results showed that there were no signifi cant differences of pain severity both within and between groups (p > 0.05. Discussion: Both Z-track and air lock method are less pain compared to traditional method according to previous studies. Noncicepti stimulus inhibited nocicepti stimulus in z-track technique while locking effect inhibit leakeage of substance injection to subcutaneous layer of skin which contain of nerve fi bers. However All techniques are recommended to produce less pain therefore it can be considered as a standard procedure for intra muscular injection. Keywords: intramuscular injection, z-track air lock technique, pain

  18. Fuel rod pressure in nuclear power reactors: Statistical evaluation of the fuel rod internal pressure in LWRs with application to lift-off probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, Tomas


    In this thesis, a methodology for quantifying the risk of exceeding the Lift-off limit in nuclear light water power reactors is outlined. Due to fission gas release, the pressure in the gap between the fuel pellets and the cladding increases with burnup of the fuel. An increase in the fuel-clad gap due to clad creep would be expected to result in positive feedback, in the form of higher fuel temperatures, leading to more fission gas release, higher rod pressure, etc, until the cladding breaks. An increase in the fuel-clad gap that leads to this positive feedback is a phenomenon called Lift-off and is a limitation that must be considered in the fuel core management. Lift-off is a consequence of very high internal fuel rod pressure. The internal fuel rod pressure is therefore used as a Lift-off indicator. The internal fuel rod pressure is closely connected to the fission gas release into the fuel rod plenum and is thus used to increase the database. It is concluded that the dominating error source in the prediction of the pressure in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), is the power history. There is a bias in the fuel pressure prediction that is dependent on the fuel rod position in the fuel assembly for BWRs. A methodology to quantify the risk of the fuel rod internal pressure exceeding a certain limit is developed; the risk is dependent of the pressure prediction and the fuel rod position. The methodology is based on statistical treatment of the discrepancies between predicted and measured fuel rod internal pressures. Finally, a methodology to estimate the Lift-off probability of the whole core is outlined.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of peer pressure to change disposition decisions and patient throughput by emergency physician. (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Han; Cheng, Fu-Jen; Li, Chao-Jui; Cheng, Hsien-Hung; Lee, Wen-Huei; Lee, Chi-Wei


    The aim of this study was to develop a strategy for imposing peer pressure on emergency physicians to discharge patients and to evaluate patient throughput before and after intervention. A before-and-after study was conducted in a medical center with more than 120 000 annual emergency department (ED) visits. All nontraumatic adult patients who presented to the ED between 7:30 and 11:30 am Wednesday to Sunday were reviewed. We created a "team norm" imposed peer-pressure effect by announcing the patient discharge rate of each emergency physician through monthly e-mail reminders. Emergency department length of stay (LOS) and 8-hour (the end of shift) and final disposition of patients before (June 1, 2011-September 30, 2011) and after (October 1, 2011-January 30, 2012) intervention were compared. Patients enrolled before and after intervention totaled 3305 and 2945. No differences existed for age, sex, or average number of patient visits per shift. The 8-hour discharge rate increased significantly for all patients (53.5% vs 48.2%, P peer pressure to enhance patient flow and throughput. More patients were discharged at the end of shifts, particularly triage level III patients. The ED LOS for patients whose final disposition was discharge decreased significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of J-groove weld residual stress and crack growth rate of PWSCC in reactor pressure vessel closure head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Hyuk; Ryu, Tae Young; Park, Seung Hyun; Won, Min Gu; Kang, Seok Jun; Kim, Moon Ki; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sung Ho [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Over the last decade, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has been frequently found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications. Especially, PWSCC has occurred in long-term operated PWRs. As this phenomenon leads to serious accidents, we must be beforehand with the anticipated problems. A typical PWR consists of J-groove welded components such as reactor pressure vessel closure head and nozzles. Reactor pressure vessel closure head is made of SA508 and it is covered by cladding. Alloy 600 is used for nozzles. And J-groove weld is conducted with alloy 82/182. Different material properties of these metals lead to residual stress and PWSCC consequentially. In this study, J-groove weld residual stress was investigated by a three-dimensional finite element analysis with an actual asymmetric J-groove weld model and process of construction. Also crack growth rate of PWSCC was evaluated from cracks applied on the penetration nozzles. Based on these two values, one cannot only improve the structural integrity of PWR, but also explain PWSCC behavior such that high residual stress at the J-groove weld area causes crack initiation and propagation through the surface of nozzles. In addition, crack behavior was predicted at the various points around the nozzle.

  1. A randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate blood pressure changes in patients undergoing extraction under local anesthesia with vasopressor use. (United States)

    Uzeda, Marcelo José; Moura, Brenda; Louro, Rafael Seabra; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuana


    The control of hypertensive patients' blood pressure and heart rate using vasoconstrictors during surgical procedures under anesthesia is still a major concern in everyday surgical practice. This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the variation of blood pressure and heart rate in nonhypertensive and controlled hypertensive voluntary subjects undergoing oral surgery under local anesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine at 1:100,000 (Alphacaine; DFL, Brazil), performed in the Oral Surgery Department, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University. In total, 25 voluntary subjects were divided into 2 groups: nonhypertensive (n = 15) and controlled hypertensives (n = 10). Blood pressure and heart rate were measured at 4 different times: T0, in the waiting room; T1, after placement of the surgical drapes; T2, 10 minutes after anesthesia injection; and T3, at the end of the surgical procedure. A statistically significant difference (P 0.05) between the amount administered to nonhypertensive and hypertensive subjects. It was concluded that the local anesthetics studied could safely be used in controlled hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients in compliance with the maximum recommended doses.

  2. Evaluation of the knowledge base of French intensivists and anaesthesiologists as concerns the interpretation of respiratory arterial pulse pressure variation. (United States)

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Dechanet, Fabien; du Cheyron, Damien; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Fellahi, Jean-Luc


    The aims of the study were to assess the knowledge of intensivists and/or anaesthesiologists concerning respiratory arterial pulse pressure variation (PPV) and to define the criteria used to indicate a fluid challenge. A prospective observational study. Intensivists and anaesthesiologists from one region of France were evaluated for their knowledge about the prerequisites (continuous arterial pressure monitoring, regular sinus rhythm, mechanical ventilation without spontaneous breathing) and confounding factors shifting the threshold value of PPV (low tidal volume, decreased pulmonary compliance, low heart rate/respiratory rate ratio, right ventricular dysfunction, and/or intra-abdominal hypertension) using clinical vignettes. Criteria used by physicians to indicate a fluid challenge were also collected. One hundred and forty-five physicians were included in the study. Among them, 87 (60%) knew prerequisites but none of them had full knowledge of all confounding factors. Criteria used to perform a fluid challenge were mainly PPV and the passive leg-raising test for the residents and PPV, blood pressure, oliguria and hydric balance for the qualified physicians. PPV was widely employed to indicate a fluid challenge and 60% of the physicians knew the prerequisites. However, the physicians did not correctly interpret all confounding factors. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cervical and transdiaphragmatic paraxiphoid thoracoscopy in dogs: evaluation of respiratory response and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luizari Guedes


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the cervical and transdiaphragmatic thoracoscopic approaches regarding their implementation, intrathoracic evaluation and application of a chest tube, using the treatment of pneumothorax as an experimental model. After injection of 20ml kg-1 of air per hemithorax, thoracoscopy was made by transdiaphragmatic paraxiphoid or cervical positions. After cavity examination, a thoracic drain was inserted using the surgical site to drain the pneumothorax. The cardiorespiratory function and arterial blood gas were measured during time of evaluation. The cavity examination allowed visualizing the aspect and function of intrathoracic structures. There were no significant differences between the two approaches when comparing the measurements made in each period evaluated. Both enabled intracavitary exploration and application of thoracic drain. Cervical access shows viability, but resulted in the death of two patients, and it not recommended as a substitute for the latter in the insertion of thoracic drains in dogs.

  4. The Cyogenic Evaluation of Irradiated Composite Materials for Use in Composite Pressure Vessels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HyPerComp Engineering, Inc. (HEI) proposes to continue the characterization of the cryogenic evaluation of irradiated composite materials for use in composite...

  5. [Evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure in residents of Milpa Alta, D.F]. (United States)

    Sánchez-Girón, C; Brust-Mascher, E; De Icaza-Herrera, M; Vidrio-Amor, H; Brust-Carmona, H


    Both the altitude of Mexico City (D.F.) and the increase in atmospheric pollutants make it important to establish parameters of comparison for cardiovascular variables, such as heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). The epidemiological transition occurring in Mexico is increasing the need for human and physical resources at the first level of health care in order to perform early diagnoses of cardiovascular disorders among the population. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were recorded under diverse conditions (seated, standing, performing 30 sit-ups, and then standing and seated after the sit-ups) in 235 inhabitants of Milpa Alta (a suburb of Mexico City). The procedures and equipment used were designed and produced at the Center for Development and Technological Applications, Ministry of Health. The following results were found: HR decreases with age and body surface. Likewise, the HR increase due to exercise is lower with increasing age and larger body surface and its return to resting levels is slower. SBP and DBP magnitude is directly related to body surface. In women an increase of body weight was found to be significantly related to a higher SBP. The orthostatic reflex (OR) decreases with age and body surface. The descending slope is higher in women than in men. We propose that the study of OR could provide better information for predicting cardiovascular changes. The described procedures can be performed with the physical and human resources available at the Health Centers. The extension of this type of applied research to first level health care centers would allow the country to respond efficiently to the epidemiological transition.

  6. Evaluation of palpation, pressure algometry, and electromyography for monitoring trigger points in young participants. (United States)

    Wytrążek, Marcin; Huber, Juliusz; Lipiec, Joanna; Kulczyk, Aleksandra


    The aims of this study were to assess trigger points (TrPs), their pain threshold, and the activity of motor units in the neck and shoulder girdle muscles of young volunteers and to assess palpation, algometry, and surface electromyography (EMG) for their detection. Seventy participants aged from 19 to 26 years (20.6 ± 1.4 years [mean ± SD]) were examined to identify TrPs through palpation, an algometer test for pressure pain threshold (PPT), a test for the activity of muscle motor units at rest (rEMG) and at maximal contraction (mcEMG) with surface EMG recordings. Palpation studies revealed numerous symmetrical nonreferring latent TrPs (379/560 performed tests), referring latent TrPs (91/560), and few active TrPs (4/560). Algometry confirmed the lowest PPT in active TrPs and the highest PPT in participants with no TrPs (86/560). Pressure pain thresholds were lower in nonpregnant women than in men, especially in the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles with nonreferring and referring latent TrPs. Trigger points evoked a moderate increase of rEMG amplitude but with no evident changes in mcEMG. This study showed that the preliminary algometry and rEMG recordings monitored a decrease in PPT and an increase in muscle tension in all cases of TrPs in each of the 3 types detected in people younger than 30 years. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Initial Probabilistic Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Fracture with Grizzly and Raven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoffman, William [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Sen, Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dickson, Terry [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bass, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Grizzly code is being developed with the goal of creating a general tool that can be applied to study a variety of degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plant components. The first application of Grizzly has been to study fracture in embrittled reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Grizzly can be used to model the thermal/mechanical response of an RPV under transient conditions that would be observed in a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) scenario. The global response of the vessel provides boundary conditions for local models of the material in the vicinity of a flaw. Fracture domain integrals are computed to obtain stress intensity factors, which can in turn be used to assess whether a fracture would initiate at a pre-existing flaw. These capabilities have been demonstrated previously. A typical RPV is likely to contain a large population of pre-existing flaws introduced during the manufacturing process. This flaw population is characterized stastistically through probability density functions of the flaw distributions. The use of probabilistic techniques is necessary to assess the likelihood of crack initiation during a transient event. This report documents initial work to perform probabilistic analysis of RPV fracture during a PTS event using a combination of the RAVEN risk analysis code and Grizzly. This work is limited in scope, considering only a single flaw with deterministic geometry, but with uncertainty introduced in the parameters that influence fracture toughness. These results are benchmarked against equivalent models run in the FAVOR code. When fully developed, the RAVEN/Grizzly methodology for modeling probabilistic fracture in RPVs will provide a general capability that can be used to consider a wider variety of vessel and flaw conditions that are difficult to consider with current tools. In addition, this will provide access to advanced probabilistic techniques provided by RAVEN, including adaptive sampling and parallelism, which can dramatically

  8. Evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity and socio-economic pressure in typical ecological regions, China (United States)

    Qiusen, Huang; Xinyi, Xu


    Since the reform and opening up, the socio-economic pressures have led to increasingly tight resource constraints and serious environmental pollution problems in China, especially for typical ecological regions. The ecological system is under a severe situation and resource and environmental issues have become the bottleneck of economic development. Taking the Chen Barag Banner which has been considered as typical ecological regions as an example, the evaluation indexes system of resources and environment carrying capacity was divided into three subsystems: natural driving force, socio-economic pressure and ecological health. On the basis of the indexes system and related data of Chen Barag Banner in 2014, the evaluation model of resources and environment carrying capacity based on spring model were proposed to analysis the state of resources and environment carrying, and an assessment of influence of socio-economic pressure on the resources and environment system has been conducted by using the discretization method of socio-economic data. The results showed that:(1) The resources and environment system of Baorixile Town, Huhenuoer Town and Bayankuren Town were overloaded among the ten towns, the values of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity(RECC) / Resources and Environment Carrying State(RECS) were 9.86, 1.37 and 1.22, respectively;(2) The natural driving force index of Xiwuzhuer Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Bayanhada Town were 0.40, 0.42 and 0.43, respectively, which were lower than others and indicated that the natural conditions in these areas were better than others;(3) The situation of ecological environment Ewenke Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Tenihe state-owned farm were the best due to the result that the ecological health index of these three towns were 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26, respectively, which were lower than others;(4) The influence of socio-economic pressure on the system of resources and environment in Baorixile Town, Hadatu state

  9. Evaluation of wind-induced internal pressure in low-rise buildings: A multi scale experimental and numerical approach (United States)

    Tecle, Amanuel Sebhatu

    Hurricane is one of the most destructive and costly natural hazard to the built environment and its impact on low-rise buildings, particularity, is beyond acceptable. The major objective of this research was to perform a parametric evaluation of internal pressure (IP) for wind-resistant design of low-rise buildings and wind-driven natural ventilation applications. For this purpose, a multi-scale experimental, i.e. full-scale at Wall of Wind (WoW) and small-scale at Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (BLWT), and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach was adopted. This provided new capability to assess wind pressures realistically on internal volumes ranging from small spaces formed between roof tiles and its deck to attic to room partitions. Effects of sudden breaching, existing dominant openings on building envelopes as well as compartmentalization of building interior on the IP were systematically investigated. Results of this research indicated: (i) for sudden breaching of dominant openings, the transient overshooting response was lower than the subsequent steady state peak IP and internal volume correction for low-wind-speed testing facilities was necessary. For example a building without volume correction experienced a response four times faster and exhibited 30--40% lower mean and peak IP; (ii) for existing openings, vent openings uniformly distributed along the roof alleviated, whereas one sided openings aggravated the IP; (iii) larger dominant openings exhibited a higher IP on the building envelope, and an off-center opening on the wall exhibited (30--40%) higher IP than center located openings; (iv) compartmentalization amplified the intensity of IP and; (v) significant underneath pressure was measured for field tiles, warranting its consideration during net pressure evaluations. The study aimed at wind driven natural ventilation indicated: (i) the IP due to cross ventilation was 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for Ainlet/Aoutlet>1 compared to cases where Ainlet

  10. Shallow Cavity Flow Tone Experiments: Onset of Locked-On States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rockwell; J.C. Lin; P. Oshkai; M. Reiss; M. Pollack


    Fully turbulent inflow past a shallow cavity is investigated for the configuration of an axisymmetric cavity mounted in a pipe. Emphasis is on conditions giving rise to coherent oscillations, which can lead to locked-on states of flow tones in the pipe-cavity system. Unsteady surface pressure measurements are interpreted using three-dimensional representations of amplitude-frequency-inflow velocity; these representations are constructed for a range of cavity depth. Assessment of these data involves a variety of approaches. Evaluation of pressure gradients on plan views of the three-dimensional representations allows extraction of the frequencies of the instability (Strouhal) modes of the cavity oscillation. These frequency components are correlated with traditional models originally formulated for cavities in a free-stream. In addition, they are normalized using two length scales; inflow boundary-layer thickness and pipe diameter. These scales are consistent with those employed for the hydrodynamic instability of the separated shear layer, and are linked to the large-scale mode of the shear layer oscillation, which occurs at relatively long cavity length. In fact, a simple scaling based on pipe diameter can correlate the frequencies of the dominant peaks over a range of cavity depth. The foregoing considerations provide evidence that pronounced flow tones can be generated from a fully-turbulent inflow at very low Mach number, including the limiting case of fully-developed turbulent flow in a pipe. These tones can arise even for the extreme case of a cavity having a length over an order of magnitude longer than its depth. Suppression of tones is generally achieved if the cavity is sufficiently shallow.

  11. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  12. Carrier tracking algorithm based on joint acquisition of frequency locked loop and phase locked loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kang


    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of frequency step in the frequency lock loop (FLL - phase lock loop (PLL carrier tracking algorithm’s conversion state, presenting an improved algorithm: PLL and FLL joint acquisition to replace the single FLL acquires frequency, and deduce the loop state transition threshold. The simulation results show that the improved algorithm is more stable in the conversion process, and the loop performance is optimized. When the SNR is -10dB, and has the acceleration rate, the tracking loop does not have a frequency step at the time of conversion, achieving the design purpose.

  13. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis. (United States)

    Zhu, S M; Xu, M L; Ramaswamy, H S; Yang, M Y; Yu, Y


    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100-400 MPa; 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese "Junchang" liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  14. The Real Performance Drivers behind XML Lock Protocols (United States)

    Bächle, Sebastian; Härder, Theo

    Fine-grained lock protocols should allow for highly concurrent transaction processing on XML document trees, which is addressed by the taDOM lock protocol family enabling specific lock modes and lock granules adjusted to the various XML processing models. We have already proved its operational flexibility and performance superiority when compared to competitor protocols. Here, we outline our experiences gained during the implementation and optimization of these protocols. We figure out their performance drivers to maximize throughput while keeping the response times at an acceptable level and perfectly exploiting the advantages of our tailor-made lock protocols for XML trees. Because we have implemented all options and alternatives in our prototype system XTC, benchmark runs for all “drivers” allow for comparisons in identical environments and illustrate the benefit of all implementation decisions. Finally, they reveal that careful lock protocol optimization pays off.

  15. Evaluation of a new arterial pressure-based cardiac output device requiring no external calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amann Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques have been discussed as alternatives to the intermittent bolus thermodilution cardiac output (COPAC measurement by the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC. However, these techniques usually require a central venous line, an additional catheter, or a special calibration procedure. A new arterial pressure-based cardiac output (COAP device (FloTrac™, Vigileo™; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA only requires access to the radial or femoral artery using a standard arterial catheter and does not need an external calibration. We validated this technique in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU using COPAC as the method of reference. Methods We studied 20 critically ill patients, aged 16 to 74 years (mean, 55.5 ± 18.8 years, who required both arterial and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring. COPAC measurements were performed at least every 4 hours and calculated as the average of 3 measurements, while COAP values were taken immediately at the end of bolus determinations. Accuracy of measurements was assessed by calculating the bias and limits of agreement using the method described by Bland and Altman. Results A total of 164 coupled measurements were obtained. Absolute values of COPAC ranged from 2.80 to 10.80 l/min (mean 5.93 ± 1.55 l/min. The bias and limits of agreement between COPAC and COAP for unequal numbers of replicates was 0.02 ± 2.92 l/min. The percentage error between COPAC and COAP was 49.3%. The bias between percentage changes in COPAC (ΔCOPAC and percentage changes in COAP (ΔCOAP for consecutive measurements was -0.70% ± 32.28%. COPAC and COAP showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.58 (p PAC and ΔCOAP was 0.46 (p Conclusion Although the COAP algorithm shows a minimal bias with COPAC over a wide range of values in an inhomogeneous group of critically ill patients, the scattering of the data remains relative wide. Therefore, the used algorithm (V 1.03 failed to

  16. Observation of acoustic valley vortex states and valley-chirality locked beam splitting (United States)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin; Lu, Jiuyang; Wen, Xinhua; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ke, Manzhu; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Zhengyou


    We report an experimental observation of the classical version of valley polarized states in a two-dimensional hexagonal sonic crystal. The acoustic valley states, which carry specific linear momenta and orbital angular momenta, were selectively excited by external Gaussian beams and conveniently confirmed by the pressure distribution outside the crystal, according to the criterion of momentum conservation. The vortex nature of such intriguing bulk crystal states was directly characterized by scanning the phase profile inside the crystal. In addition, we observed a peculiar beam-splitting phenomenon, in which the separated beams are constructed by different valleys and locked to the opposite vortex chirality. The exceptional sound transport, encoded with valley-chirality locked information, may serve as the basis of designing conceptually interesting acoustic devices with unconventional functions.

  17. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic methods of indirect blood pressure estimation in conscious dogs (United States)

    Haberman, Christopher E.; Kang, Chang W.; Morgan, Jefferson D.


    Abstract To assess the accuracy and precision of indirect measurements of systemic arterial blood pressure (BP), results obtained with an oscillometric device (BPo) and a Doppler ultrasonic device (BPud) were compared with those obtained by direct radiotelemetry (BPrt) in 12 conscious beagles. The correlation between indirectly obtained and directly measured values for BP parameters ranged widely for the different indirect methods and sites of cuff placement, with R2 between 0.001 and 0.901. Both indirect methods underestimated all BP parameters, the degree of underestimation increasing at higher values for the BP. The highest correlation occurred when estimates were the average of 5 values consecutively obtained with the oscillometric device and cuff placement at the coccygeal artery (R2 = 0.854 for mean BPo, 0.886 for systolic BPo, and 0.901 for diastolic BPo; P < 0.0001 for all parameters) or with the ultrasonic Doppler device at the metatarsal arteries (R2 = 0.810 for systolic BPud; P < 0.0001). Multiple consecutively obtained values are advised, as this approach improves the reliability of indirect BP measurements. The strong correlation between directly measured values and estimates derived as the average of 5 consecutive indirectly obtained values indicates that the latter approach provides a useful estimate of BP in conscious dogs and is likely to be useful in monitoring disease progress and treatment in dogs with abnormal BP. PMID:16850944

  18. Evaluation of the bacterial diversity of Pressure ulcers using bTEFAP pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolcott Randall D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decubitus ulcers, also known as bedsores or pressure ulcers, affect millions of hospitalized patients each year. The microflora of chronic wounds such as ulcers most commonly exist in the biofilm phenotype and have been known to significantly impair normal healing trajectories. Methods Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP, a universal bacterial identification method, was used to identify bacterial populations in 49 decubitus ulcers. Diversity estimators were utilized and wound community compositions analyzed in relation to metadata such as Age, race, gender, and comorbidities. Results Decubitus ulcers are shown to be polymicrobial in nature with no single bacterium exclusively colonizing the wounds. The microbial community among such ulcers is highly variable. While there are between 3 and 10 primary populations in each wound there can be hundreds of different species present many of which are in trace amounts. There is no clearly significant differences in the microbial ecology of decubitus ulcer in relation to metadata except when considering diabetes. The microbial populations and composition in the decubitus ulcers of diabetics may be significantly different from the communities in non-diabetics. Conclusions Based upon the continued elucidation of chronic wound bioburdens as polymicrobial infections, it is recommended that, in addition to traditional biofilm-based wound care strategies, an antimicrobial/antibiofilm treatment program can be tailored to each patient's respective wound microflora.

  19. Evaluation of Pressure Capacitive Sensors for Application in Grasping and Manipulation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pessia


    Full Text Available The analysis of the human grasping and manipulation capabilities is paramount for investigating human sensory-motor control and developing prosthetic and robotic hands resembling the human ones. A viable solution to perform this analysis is to develop instrumented objects measuring the interaction forces with the hand. In this context, the performance of the sensors embedded in the objects is crucial. This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of a class of capacitive pressure sensors suitable for biomechanical analysis. The analysis was performed in three loading conditions (Distributed load, 9 Tips load, and Wave-shaped load, thanks to three different inter-elements via a traction/compression testing machine. Sensor assessment was also carried out under human- like grasping condition by placing a silicon material with the same properties of prosthetic cosmetic gloves in between the sensor and the inter-element in order to simulate the human skin. Data show that the input–output relationship of the analyzed, sensor is strongly influenced by both the loading condition (i.e., type of inter-element and the grasping condition (with or without the silicon material. This needs to be taken into account to avoid significant measurement error. To go over this hurdle, the sensors have to be calibrated under each specific condition in order to apply suitable corrections to the sensor output and significantly improve the measurement accuracy.

  20. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology. (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A


    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  1. Evaluation of Cueing Innovation for Pressure Ulcer Prevention Using Staff Focus Groups. (United States)

    Yap, Tracey L; Kennerly, Susan; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Toles, Mark; Anderson, Ruth A


    The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC) staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention's characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members). One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity) described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled "brainstormed ideas", focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.

  2. Estimation of cerebral vascular tone during exercise; evaluation by critical closing pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Brothers, R Matthew; Jeschke, Monica


    The aim of the present study was to calculate critical closing pressure (CCP) of the cerebral vasculature at rest and during exercise to estimate cerebral vascular tone. Five men and two women were seated upright for 15 min and then performed 15 min of right-legged knee extension exercise at 40, ......, P = 0.564) or adrenaline concentrations (right, P = 0.138; left, P = 0.108). We consider that an exercise-induced increase in cerebral vascular tone serves to protect the blood-brain barrier from the exercise-induced hypertension....... and the left MCA. In both arteries, the CCP increased (right MCA, +6.6 +/- 8.5 mmHg, P = 0.023; left MCA, +7.3 +/- 9.1 mmHg, P = 0.016) during 75% WL(max) without changes in resistance-area product, while femoral vascular resistance of the non-exercising leg decreased (from 0.32 +/- 0.07 to 0.18 +/- 0.05 mm......Hg min ml(1); P right and left MCA (P = 0.31). These findings suggest an increase in cerebral vascular tone in both the right and the left MCA from rest to exercise despite a decrease in vascular resistance of the systemic vasculature...

  3. Chlorogenic acid from coffee beans: evaluating the evidence for a blood pressure-regulating health claim. (United States)

    Loader, Tara B; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Jones, Peter J H


    The consumption of coffee has been associated with a number of health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Coffee may help reduce blood pressure (BP) in humans, which might be attributable to its polyphenolic compound, chlorogenic acid. The high incidence of hypertension among Canadians underscores the need for new and effective strategies to reduce BP. Dietary interventions may constitute such a strategy, but consumers need to be informed about which foods are most effective for regulating BP. To guide healthy eating, Health Canada permits the use of health claims on the labels of foods that confer health benefits. Currently, there is only one health claim for BP regulation. Additional health claims for foods that assist in BP regulation are therefore warranted. This review provides background information on chlorogenic acid and examines the evidence regarding the use of chlorogenic acid for BP regulation in the context of Health Canada's health claims framework. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Evaluation of Pressure Capacitive Sensors for Application in Grasping and Manipulation Analysis. (United States)

    Pessia, Paola; Cordella, Francesca; Schena, Emiliano; Davalli, Angelo; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Zollo, Loredana


    The analysis of the human grasping and manipulation capabilities is paramount for investigating human sensory-motor control and developing prosthetic and robotic hands resembling the human ones. A viable solution to perform this analysis is to develop instrumented objects measuring the interaction forces with the hand. In this context, the performance of the sensors embedded in the objects is crucial. This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of a class of capacitive pressure sensors suitable for biomechanical analysis. The analysis was performed in three loading conditions (Distributed load, 9 Tips load, and Wave-shaped load, thanks to three different inter-elements) via a traction/compression testing machine. Sensor assessment was also carried out under human- like grasping condition by placing a silicon material with the same properties of prosthetic cosmetic gloves in between the sensor and the inter-element in order to simulate the human skin. Data show that the input-output relationship of the analyzed, sensor is strongly influenced by both the loading condition (i.e., type of inter-element) and the grasping condition (with or without the silicon material). This needs to be taken into account to avoid significant measurement error. To go over this hurdle, the sensors have to be calibrated under each specific condition in order to apply suitable corrections to the sensor output and significantly improve the measurement accuracy.

  5. Evaluation of Cueing Innovation for Pressure Ulcer Prevention Using Staff Focus Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L. Yap


    Full Text Available The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention’s characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. Methods: This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members. One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. Results: The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled “brainstormed ideas”, focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Implications: Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.

  6. Stability and Biological Activity Evaluation of Chlorantraniliprole Solid Nanodispersions Prepared by High Pressure Homogenization. (United States)

    Cui, Bo; Feng, Lei; Wang, Chunxin; Yang, Dongsheng; Yu, Manli; Zeng, Zhanghua; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin


    Poorly water-soluble compounds are difficult to develop as pesticide products and face great challenges in water-based and environmentally friendly formulation development. In this study, high pressure homogenization combined with lyophilization was adopted to prepare the solid nanodispersions of chlorantraniliprole with poor solubility and high melting point. The mean particle sizes of the solid nanodispersions with different pesticide contents were all less than 75 nm, even when the content was up to 91.5%. For the 2.5% chlorantraniliprole solid nanodispersion with the mean particle size of 29 nm, the suspensibility and wetting time in water were 97.32% and 13 s, respectively. The re-dispersibility and wettability were superior to those of conventional water dispersible granules. The retention on the rice leaf of 18.7 mg/cm2 was 1.5 and 3 times that of commercial aqueous suspension concentrate and pure water. The bioassay result to diamondback moths indicated that the toxicity of the solid nanodispersion was 3.3 and 2.8 times that of technical and aqueous suspension concentrate, respectively. Moreover, the solid nanodispersion has the advantages of total avoidance of organic solvents, significant reduction of surfactants and feasibility of obtaining high concentration nanoformulations. The solid nanodispersion is an attractive candidate for improving pesticide solubility and efficacy, and its application in crop production will reduce both residues in food and environmental pollution of pesticide.

  7. Locke and the politics and theology of toleration


    Stanton, T


    Locke's theory of toleration has been understood to rest on the claim that persecution was insufficient to instil either (i) true or (ii) sincere belief in people. Although Locke did indeed make both these claims, neither was fundamental to his theory. Locke was principally concerned to deny that persecution was necessary to instil true or sincere belief; its insufficiency to those ends he, and his contemporaries, took for granted. His denial of the necessity of persecution presupposed that h...

  8. Review of Ice-Control Methods at Lock 8, Welland Canal, Port Colborne, Ontario (United States)


    to control ice and to reduce the possibility of ice causing a shipping vessel to get stuck or jammed in the lock chamber. The lock uses several... causing a shipping vessel to get stuck or jammed in the lock chamber. The lock uses several methods, including an air curtain to hold ice above the lock...4 2.2 Northbound traffic

  9. An efficient locking model for concurrency control in OODBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Arumugam


    Full Text Available When several transactions execute concurrently in a database, the isolation property may no longer be preserved. It is necessary for the system to control the interaction among the concurrent transactions. This paper presents a new locking model for concurrency control in object oriented database systems. This model is motivated by a desire to provide high concurrency and low locking overheads in accessing objects. The proposed model consists of a rich set of lock modes, hash table, lock-based signatures and B+ trees. The performance study result shows that the proposed model performs well for all possible operations on objects.

  10. Evaluation of pressure pain threshold after external stabilizer application at masseurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Milańczyk


    Full Text Available Introduction. Physiotherapists are professional group exposed to physical musculo-skeletal overloads and disorders. These disorders reducing their productivity are the most common reason for work disability. The aim of this study was to assess the pressure pain threshold [PPT kPa1] after pneumatic external stabilizer Exonik V.2 application.Material and methods. Ten masseurs of Lower Silesia rehabilitation centers participated in the present study. During examination the PPT of muscles was determined twice: at the end of the 40-hour work week – on Friday, during which the subjects did not use stabilizer Exonic V.2, and after using it within the next 40-hour work week at the end of the last day – on Friday. Results. A statistically significant increase in the average values of the PPT recorded in the reference points located on the same side of the spinous processes of the spine, from the series 2 of measurements, compared with a series 1 (p0.05 was observed. These changes have also been defined as percentage average values, which were higher on the left side than the right side. Comparable percentage changes for the lumbar (L and thoracic (Th were noticed with higher mean values on the right side of the lumbar and on the left side in the thoracic. Conclusions. The obtained results prove the benefits of the application of a stabilizer Exonik V.2 which reduces muscle soreness measured by PPT. This study should be extended to higher number of subjects characterized by same age and work experience.

  11. Evaluation of unipodal stance in knee osteoarthritis patients using knee accelerations and center of pressure. (United States)

    Turcot, K; Hagemeister, N; de Guise, J A; Aissaoui, R


    This study aims to compare knee joint instability and postural impairments during the performance of a unipodal stance task between patients having knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy elderly subjects using knee accelerations and center of pressure (COP) measurements. Twenty patients with medial knee OA and nine healthy individuals participated in this study. Three-dimensional (3D) knee joint accelerations and COP were measured during unipodal stance. The range and the root mean square (RMS) were extracted from medial lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) knee accelerations, whereas sway area, velocity, and ML and AP ranges were measured from the COP. The average parameters of three trials for each subject were compared between groups. Results show that knee OA patients exhibited a significantly higher range of knee acceleration in both ML (0.22±0.08 g vs 0.15±0.05 g) and AP (0.17±0.06 g vs 0.06±0.01 g) directions and a lower COP velocity (136.6±22.3 mm/s vs 157.6±18.4 mm/s) than did the healthy age-matched group. Significant correlations between the COP and knee acceleration parameters were also obtained. This study confirmed that patients with knee OA displayed greater body sway than did able-bodied subjects. Moreover, using an accelerometric-based method, this study highlighted the higher knee joint instability in the frontal and sagittal planes in knee OA patients compared with able-bodied subjects during a unipodal standing task. Copyright © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Could Insoles Offload Pressure? An Evaluation of the Effects of Arch-supported Functional Insoles on Plantar Pressure Distribution during Race Walking. (United States)

    Song, Qipeng; Xu, Kaisheng; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Cui; Sun, Wei; Mao, Dewei


    This study investigated the effectiveness of functional insoles on plantar pressure distribution during race walking so as to reduce the high plantar pressure and force on race walkers, who tend to suffer from overuse injury. A total of 20 male race walkers aged 21.19 ± 3.66 years and with a mean height of 178.85 ± 14.07 cm were recruited as participants. Each participant completed a race walking with functional or normal insoles. Plantar pressure insoles were used to collect vertical plantar pressure data. A two-way analysis of variance with a mixed design was used to determine the difference between the two conditions. Results showed that the use of functional insoles reduces the peak pressure and the impulse in the metatarsophalangeal joints and heels and thus suggest that functional insoles reduce the overuse injury risks of these parts. The first ground reaction force peak also decreased. This result suggested that functional insoles reduce the risks of foot and leg injuries.

  13. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)


    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  14. Pulse growth dynamics in laser mode locking (United States)

    Popov, Mark; Gat, Omri


    We analyze theoretically and numerically the nonlinear process of pulse formation in mode-locked lasers, starting from a perturbation of a continuous wave. Focusing on weak-to-moderate dispersion systems, we show that pulse growth is initially slow, dominated by a cascade of energy from low to high axial modes, followed by fast strongly nonlinear growth, and finally relaxation to the stable pulse wave form. The pulse grows initially by condensing a fixed amount of energy into a decreasing time interval, with peak power growing toward a finite-time singularity that is checked when the gain bandwidth is saturated by the pulse.

  15. Locks Restaurant Group Lunch Menu 2017




    Introducing Locks 1 Windsor Terrace, bringing the best in modern Irish food to a much loved venue in Dublin 8. Our goal here is to warmly welcome our guests into one of Dublin’s best dining rooms with an exciting and constantly evolving menu, extensive wine & bar list, great music and laid-back atmosphere. We want our customers to come back to us time and time again for both the big and small events in their lives. Upstairs we have beautiful private rooms perfect for parties, and our Head Che...

  16. Locks Restaurant Sunday Lunch Menu 2017




    Introducing Locks 1 Windsor Terrace, bringing the best in modern Irish food to a much loved venue in Dublin 8. Our goal here is to warmly welcome our guests into one of Dublin’s best dining rooms with an exciting and constantly evolving menu, extensive wine & bar list, great music and laid-back atmosphere. We want our customers to come back to us time and time again for both the big and small events in their lives. Upstairs we have beautiful private rooms perfect for parties, and our Head Che...

  17. Advanced frequency synthesis by phase lock

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, William F


    "An addendum to the popular Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock, 2nd ed, this book describes sigma-delta, a frequency synthesis technique that has gained prominence in recent years. In addition, Simulink will be employed extensively to guide the reader. Fractional-n, the still-used forerunner to sigma-delta, is also discussed. Sequences of simulated results allow the reader to gain a deeper understanding while detailed appendices provide information from various stages of development. Simulation models discussed in the chapters that are available online."--Provided by publisher.

  18. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna


    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...

  19. A dynamic failure evaluation of a simplified digital control system of a nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.M.O.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e, E-mail: jpinto@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Saldanha, P.L.C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Associacao Brasileira de Ensino Universitario (UNIABEU), Nova Iguacu, RJ (Brazil)


    Given the increasing use of digital systems in nuclear power plants, a specific approach to reliability and risk analysis has been required. The digital system reflects many interactions between hardware, software, process variables, and human actions. At the same time, the software, does not have a reliability approach as well-defined as the one existing for the other physical components of the system. Then, its reliability analysis is still under development due to difficulties arising from the complexity, flexibility and interactions present in such systems.The traditional approach of using fault trees is static and does not approach the dynamic interactions in such systems, such as delays in capture and processing information, memory, logic loops, system states, etc. It is necessary to find a reliability methodology that takes into account these issues without violating the existing requirements concerning safety analysis, such as: ability to distinguish between common-cause failures, availability of relevant information to users, like minimal cut sets, and failure probabilities as long as the possibility of incorporating the results into existing probabilistic safety assessments (PSA).One approach is to trace all the possible errors of the digital system through dynamic methodologies. The DFM (Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology) is one of the methodologies that better meets the requirements for modeling dynamic systems. It discretizes the most relevant variables of the analyzed system in states that reflect their behavior, sets the logic that connects them through decision tables and finally performs a system analysis, aiming, for example, the root causes (prime implicants) of a given top event of failure. Three aspects have been addressed, the modeling of the system itself, the incorporation of results to probabilistic safety analyses and identification of software failures.To illustrate the DFM, a simplified digital control system of a typical PWR pressurizer

  20. Fluoroscopic freehand and electromagnetic-guided targeting system for distal locking screws of humeral intramedullary nail. (United States)

    Persiani, P; Gurzi, M; Moreschini, O; Di Giacomo, G; Villani, C


    The current techniques used to lock distal screws for the nailing of long bone fractures expose the surgeons, radiologists and patients to a hearty dose of ionizing radiation. The Sureshot™ Distal Targeting System is a new technique that, with the same results, allows for shorter surgery times and, consequently, less exposure to radiation. The study was performed on 59 patients (34 males and 25 females) with a simple humerus fracture diagnosis, type 1.2.A according to the AO classification, who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was treated with ante-grade intramedullary nailing with distal locking screws inserted with a freehand technique. Group 2 was treated with the intramedullary nail using the Sureshot™ Distal Targeting System. Two intra-operative time parameters were evaluated in both groups: the time needed for the positioning of the distal locking screws and the time of exposure to ionizing radiations during this procedure. Group 2 showed a lower average distal locking time compared to group 1 (645.48″ vs. 1023.57″) and also a lower average time of exposure to ionizing radiation than in group 1 (4.35″ vs. 28.96″). The Sureshot™ Distal Targeting System has proven to be equally effective when compared to the traditional techniques, with the added benefits of a significant reduction in both surgical time and risk factors related to the exposure to ionizing radiation for all the operating room staff and the patient.

  1. Locking Plate Alone versus in Combination with Two Crossed Kirschner Wires for Fifth Metacarpal Neck Fracture. (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyi; Xu, Zhengyu; Wei, Haifeng; Zheng, Xianyou


    Fracture of fifth metacarpal neck commonly requires open reduction and internal fixation. However, the current methods of internal fixation in fifth metacarpal neck fractures remain unsatisfactory. Patients with fractures of fifth metacarpal neck received open reduction and internal fixation with either locking plate in combination with two crossed Kirschner wires (K-wires) or locking plate alone were evaluated for the clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes included grip strength, Michigan hand outcomes questionnaire (MHQ), final angulation and range of motion (ROM) one year after treatment. The averages of MHQ scores, final angulation and ROM of fifth metacarpophalangeal joint of plate with K-wire group were more superior to those of plate group (MHQ 96.7 versus 86.6, final angulation 11.8 versus 23.6, ROM 83.3 versus 72.2). The grip strength had no significant difference between two groups. Locking plate in combination with two crossed K-wires is a more optimal method of fixation compared with locking plate alone.

  2. Optimal dosage and dwell time of ethanol lock therapy on catheters infected with Candida species. (United States)

    Öncü, Serkan


    Anti-infective lock therapy is a treatment strategy in conjunction with systemic antifungal agents for the treatment of intravascular catheter infections caused by fungi. In this study, the optimal dosage and dwell time of ethanol lock solution (ELS) effective against catheters infected by Candida species were assessed. Biofilm forming isolates of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis was used as the study isolates. Infected catheters were exposed to ELS at 20%, 30%, 40%, 60% and 80% strength for a variety dwell times (15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h). Fungal eradication was evaluated by the quantitative culture techniques. ELS's with 40% and greater strength sterilized the catheters within 30 min. Lower strength of ELS's (20% and 30%) sterilized the catheters in 24 h and 2 h, respectively. According to the study, lock therapy with ≥40% ethanol for 30 min appear to be the optimal schedule in sterilizing Candida infected catheters. Ethanol lock therapy with such concentrations and dwell time may be a useful adjunct to systemic anti-fungal antibiotics in sterilizing (and cleaning) and eradicating fungal catheter related infections in the hope of preserving crucial central venous access. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species. (United States)

    Kirker, G T; Bishell, A B; Lebow, P K


    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat southern pine, Pt, Pinus taeda L. sapwood blocks. Extractive treated blocks were evaluated for decay resistance in standard soil bottle fungal assays challenged with brown and white rot decay fungi. Results showed that extractives did impart some improvement to decay resistance of Pt blocks. BL- and HM-treated Pt blocks were also used in choice and no-choice assays to determine feeding preference and damage by eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Kollar. Minimal feeding on treated blocks was seen in both choice and no-choice assays. In choice assays, there was similar mortality between HM and BL arenas; however, in no-choice assays, complete mortality was recorded for HM-treated Pt and high mortality was seen with BL-treated Pt. Subsequent dose mortality termite assays showed HM to be effective in killing R. flavipes at low concentrations. Both HM and BL show promise as deterrents or termiticidal protectants and will be further evaluated in field studies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. In-shoe plantar pressure measurements for the evaluation and adaptation of foot orthoses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A proof of concept study. (United States)

    Tenten-Diepenmaat, Marloes; Dekker, Joost; Steenbergen, Menno; Huybrechts, Elleke; Roorda, Leo D; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Bus, Sicco A; van der Leeden, Marike


    Improving foot orthoses (FOs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements seems promising. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the outcome on plantar pressure distribution of FOs that were adapted using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements according to a protocol and (2) the protocol feasibility. Forty-five RA patients with foot problems were included in this observational proof-of concept study. FOs were custom-made by a podiatrist according to usual care. Regions of Interest (ROIs) for plantar pressure reduction were selected. According to a protocol, usual care FOs were evaluated using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements and, if necessary, adapted. Plantar pressure-time integrals at the ROIs were compared between the following conditions: (1) no-FO versus usual care FO and (2) usual care FO versus adapted FO. Semi-structured interviews were held with patients and podiatrists to evaluate the feasibility of the protocol. Adapted FOs were developed in 70% of the patients. In these patients, usual care FOs showed a mean 9% reduction in pressure-time integral at forefoot ROIs compared to no-FOs (p=0.01). FO adaptation led to an additional mean 3% reduction in pressure-time integral (p=0.05). The protocol was considered feasible by patients. Podiatrists considered the protocol more useful to achieve individual rather than general treatment goals. A final protocol was proposed. Using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements for adapting foot orthoses for patients with RA leads to a small additional plantar pressure reduction in the forefoot. Further research on the clinical relevance of this outcome is required. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Safety of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma for tooth bleaching evaluated in terms of microhardness and mineral content (United States)

    Nam, S. H.; Hong, J. W.; Lee, H. J.; Jeon, Y. C.; Kim, G. C.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma and 15% hydrogen peroxide (HP) or 15% carbamide peroxide (CP). Sixty human enamel and dentin slabs were randomly assigned to six groups as follows: Group 1 was a control group and did not receive any treatment; Group 2 was exposed only to plasma, as a negative control; Group 3 was treated with 15% HP; Group 4 was treated with 15% HP plus plasma; Group 5 was treated with 15% CP alone; and Group 6 was treated with 15% CP plus plasma during 30 min bleaching treatments. A microhardness measurement was conducted according to a microhardness tester. The amount of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in the enamel and dentin was quantified with an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The data were analyzed by using the Student’s t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), complemented by Tukey’s test. The statistical analysis did not show any significant differences in microhardness values and six mineral contents in all groups (p  >  0.05). Therefore, we believe that the application of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a safe energy source for tooth bleaching.

  6. Performance evaluation of high-pressure MWPC with individual line readout under Cf-252 neutron irradiation (United States)

    Toh, K.; Nakamura, T.; Sakasai, K.; Soyama, K.; Yamagishi, H.


    A multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) neutron detector system was developed for the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Its basic performance was evaluated by an irradiation experiment using a Cf-252 neutron source. A short response time and high spatial resolution can be obtained using an individual line readout method. The detector system exhibited a one-dimensional uniformity of response of 4.8% and 3.8% in the x- and y-directions, respectively. The uniformity of all pixels in the two-dimensional image was 7.9%. The average intrinsic spatial resolution was 1.55 mm full width at half maximum in the sensitive region calculated by taking into account the track lengths of secondary particles. The signal intensity of the system remained constant during the operation for 500 min under Cf-252 neutron irradiation.

  7. Volar locking plate (VLP) versus non-locking plate (NLP) in the treatment of die-punch fractures of the distal radius, an observational study. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong; Hu, Chunhe; Yu, Kunlun; Bai, Jiangbo; Tian, Dehu; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Bing


    This study aims to evaluate whether volar locking plate was superior over non-locking plate in the treatment of die-punch fractures of the distal radius. A total of 57 patients with closed die-punch fractures of the distal radius were included and analyzed. Of them, 32 were treated by non-locking plate (NLP) and the remaining 25 were treated by volar locking plate (VLP). Preoperative radiographs, computer tomographs and three-dimensional reconstruction, radiographs taken at immediate postoperation and at last follow-up were extracted and evaluated. Patients' electronic medical records were inquired and related demographic and medical data were documented. The documented contents were volar tilt, radial inclination, ulnar variance, grip strength, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores and complications. VLP group demonstrated a significantly reduced radial subsidence of 1.5 mm (0.7 versus 2.2 mm), during the interval of bony union (P NLP group. Larger proportion of patients (88% versus 62.5%) in VLP group gained acceptable joint congruity (step-off NLP groups, although the difference did not approach to significance (P = 0.339, 0.372). VLP leaded to significantly better results of reduction maintainance and the final joint congruity than NLP, while reducing overall and major complications. However, the results should be treated in the context of limitations and the clinical significance of the difference required further studies to investigate. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation on the Collection Efficiency and Performance of the Sound Pressure Machine Equipped with a HEPA Filter Eliminating Asbestos Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Wha Me


    Full Text Available When the one-pass collection efficiency of each size of particles of the sound pressure machine equipped with a glass fiber HEPA filter to get rid of friable asbestos at the asbestos elimination field was evaluated, the collection efficiency of those with the size of 0.3um was examined to be 98.91%. That of the particles of 0.5um size was proved to be 99.21% on average, which is a little bit higher than that of 0.3um size. The 1.0um particles showed 100% of efficiency, and the collection efficiency of each size had statistically meaningful differences.

  9. Lei natural e lei civil em Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua


    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo aborda a relação entre lei natural e lei civil na filosofia de John Locke. Embora leituras consagradas tenham afirmado que a relação entre ambas é dedutiva, este artigo tentará apresentar uma interpretação diferente, qual seja, a de que a relação entre lei civil e lei natural é de determinação. Longe de ser mera dedução de uma lei natural imutável, a lei civil possui papel determinante com relação à lei natural. Como mostraremos, esta interpretação realça algo que Locke tinha em alta estima: o caráter deliberativo da lei natural. A deliberação dos cidadãos na legislatura cria, em certa medida, a lei natural. Os cidadãos são livres para determinar a lei, e a participação em tal determinação é crucial para a manutenção de sua liberdade política. Nesse sentido, como veremos, a liberdade política lockiana é tributária do republicanismo.

  10. Goldmann applanation tonometry compared with corneal-compensated intraocular pressure in the evaluation of primary open-angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich Joshua R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the role of corneal properties and intraocular pressure (IOP in the evaluation of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; and to determine the feasibility of identifying glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON using IOP corrected and uncorrected for corneal biomechanics. Methods Records from 1,875 eyes of consecutively evaluated new patients were reviewed. Eyes were excluded if central corneal thickness (CCT or Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA measurements were unavailable. Presence or absence of GON was determined based on morphology of the optic disc, rim and retinal nerve fiber layer at the time of clinical examination, fundus photography and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. Goldmann-applanation tonometry (GAT in the untreated state was recorded and Goldmann-correlated (IOPg and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc were obtained using the ORA. Glaucomatous eyes were classified as normal or high-tension (NTG, HTG using the conventional cutoff of 21 mm Hg. One eligible eye was randomly selected from each patient for inclusion. Results A total of 357 normal, 155 HTG and 102 NTG eyes were included. Among NTG eyes, IOPcc was greater than GAT (19.8 and 14.4 mm Hg; p  Conclusions IOPcc may account for measurement error induced by corneal biomechanics. Compared to GAT, IOPcc may be a superior test in the evaluation of glaucoma but is unlikely to represent an effective diagnostic test.

  11. Excess pressure integral predicts cardiovascular events independent of other risk factors in the conduit artery functional evaluation substudy of Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. (United States)

    Davies, Justin E; Lacy, Peter; Tillin, Therese; Collier, David; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Francis, Darrel P; Malaweera, Anura; Mayet, Jamil; Stanton, Alice; Williams, Bryan; Parker, Kim H; McG Thom, Simon A; Hughes, Alun D


    Excess pressure integral (XSPI), a new index of surplus work performed by the left ventricle, can be calculated from blood pressure waveforms and may indicate circulatory dysfunction. We investigated whether XSPI predicted future cardiovascular events and target organ damage in treated hypertensive individuals. Radial blood pressure waveforms were acquired by tonometry in 2069 individuals (aged, 63±8 years) in the Conduit Artery Functional Evaluation (CAFE) substudy of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT). Measurements of left ventricular mass index (n=862) and common carotid artery intima media thickness (n=923) were also performed. XSPI and the integral of reservoir pressure were lower in people treated with amlodipine±perindopril than in those treated with atenolol±bendroflumethiazide, although brachial systolic blood pressure was similar. A total of 134 cardiovascular events accrued during a median 3.4 years of follow-up; XSPI was a significant predictor of cardiovascular events after adjustment for age and sex, and this relationship was unaffected by adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors or Framingham risk score. XSPI, central systolic blood pressure, central augmentation pressure, central pulse pressure, and integral of reservoir pressure were correlated with left ventricular mass index, but only XSPI, augmentation pressure, and central pulse pressure were associated positively with carotid artery intima media thickness. Associations between left ventricular mass index, XSPI, and integral of reservoir pressure and carotid artery intima media thickness and XSPI were unaffected by multivariable adjustment for other covariates. XSPI is a novel indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction and independently predicts cardiovascular events and targets organ damage in a prospective clinical trial. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Elevated Blood Pressure and Obesity in Childhood: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of 4,609 Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Filla Rosaneli


    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of obesity in children is increasing worldwide, primarily in urbanized, high-income countries, and hypertension development is a detrimental effect of this phenomenon. Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of excess weight and its association with high blood pressure (BP in schoolchildren. Methods: Here 4,609 male and female children, aged 6 to 11 years, from 24 public and private schools in Maringa, Brazil, were evaluated. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI according to cutoff points adjusted for sex and age. Blood pressure (BP levels above 90th percentile for gender, age and height percentile were considered elevated. Results: The prevalence of excess weight among the schoolchildren was 24.5%; 16.9% were overweight, and 7.6% were obese. Sex and socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with elevated BP. In all age groups, systolic and diastolic BP correlated with BMI and waist and hip measurements, but not with waist-hip ratio. The prevalence of elevated BP was 11.2% in eutrophic children, 20.6% in overweight children [odds ratio (OR, 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.61-2.45], and 39.7% in obese children (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.23-6.89. Conclusion: Obese and overweight children had a higher prevalence of elevated BP than normal-weight children. Our data confirm that the growing worldwide epidemic of excess weight and elevated BP in schoolchildren may also be ongoing in Brazil.

  13. Evaluation of recovery in lip closing pressure and occlusal force and contact area after orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Sotobori, Megumi; Ishihara, Yuri; Marukawa, Kohei; Iguchi, Ran; Kosaka, Akihiko; Ikawa, Hiroumi; Nakazawa, Ryuichi; Higuchi, Masatoshi


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lip closing force, occlusal contact area and occlusal force after orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III patients. The subjects consisted of 54 patients (28 female and 26 male) diagnosed with mandibular prognathism who underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy with and without Le Fort I osteotomy. Maximum and minimum lip closing forces, occlusal contact area and occlusal force were measured pre-operatively, 6 months and 1 year post-operative. Maximum and minimum lip closing forces, occlusal contact area and occlusal force increased with time after surgery, however a significant increase was not found in the occlusal contact area in women. In increased ratio (6 months/pre-operative and 1 year/pre-operative), the maximum lip closing force was significantly correlated with the occlusal contact area (P orthognathic surgery could improve the occlusal force, contact area and lip closing force, and an increase ratio in maximum lip closing force was associated with an increased ratio in occlusal contact area. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aktuaalsetest tendentsidest elektroakustilise muusika alal Eestis / Gerhard Lock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lock, Gerhard, 1978-


    Elektroakustilise muusika lähiajaloost, elektroakustilist muusikat viljelevatest Eesti heliloojatest. Age Hirv, Raun Juurikas, Liis Jürgens, Andrus Kallastu, Tatjana Kozlova, Ülo Krigul, Margo Kõlar, Märt-Matis Lill, Gerhard Lock, Hans-Gunter Lock, Malle Maltis, Jüri Reinvere, Mart Siimer, Mirjam Tally, Toomas Trass, Lauri-Dag Tüür oma muusikast

  15. Design and development of a password- based door lock security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a design and development of a micro-controller based, password enabled door lock for home security. The work involved building a working model of a security door lock that is password protected with an AT89C52 microcontroller which operates by sending control signals to a H-bridge that controls the ...

  16. Mode-Locked Laser Arrays for WDM Applications (United States)

    Forouhar, S.


    Colliding pulse mode-locked laser arrays are being developed at 20 GHz for WDM applications. Arrays with 5 wavelengths in the EDFA gain bandwidth have already been demonstrated, with the final goal being a packaged, 10 wavelength mode-locked laser array.

  17. Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Buonomo


    Full Text Available We compare the main analytical results available to estimate the locking range, which is the key figure-of-merit of LC frequency dividers based on the injection locking phenomenon. Starting from the classical result by Adler concerning injection-locked oscillators, we elucidate the merits and the shortcomings of the different approaches to study injection-locked frequency dividers, with particular emphasis on divider-by-2. In particular, we show the potential of a perturbation approach which enables a more complete analysis of frequency dividers, making it possible to calculate not only the amplitude and the phase of the locked oscillation, but also the region where it exists and is stable, which defines the locking region. Finally, we analyze the dynamical behaviour of the dividers in the vicinity of the boundary of the locking region, showing that there exists a border region where the occurrence of the locking or the pulling operation mode is possible, depending on the initial conditions of the system.

  18. Pulse properties of external cavity mode locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Kroh, Marcel; Mørk, Jesper


    The performance of an external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor laser is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The optimization analysis focuses on the regimes of stable mode locking and the generation of sub-picosecond optical pulses. We demonstrate stable output pulses down to one...

  19. Central venous catheters and catheter locks in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik


    To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC).......To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC)....

  20. Locked Twins: A Rarity | Borah | Annals of Medical and Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locked twins is a rare, hazardous obstetric complication. Herein, we report the rare condition of an unbooked case of locked twin that attended our labor room in late stage of labor with arrested after.coming head of the first twin, which was dead. Caesarean section was performed to save the second baby. Antenatal ...