WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluating low-level exposure

  1. Conceptual basis for evaluating risk from low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Serious or lethal injuries that may result from the exposure of animals or human beings to ionizing radiations can be divided into two distinctly different categories, on the basis of whether the injury results only from failure of an entire vital organ, or stems from impairment of the function of a single cell. These two categories of injury are termed here organ effects, normally induced by non-stochastic processes, and single cell effects, normally induced by stochastic processes. This presentation is limited to low-level radiation exposure (LLR) since: (1) only with single hit kinetics does the average number of cell doses per cell in the exposed population essentially equal the number of cells dosed; (2) in excluding multihit all-or-none effects, the functions developed are essentially independent of the time rate at which the (instantaneously deposited) cell doses are laid down, and of considerations of repair of sub-effect injury; and (3) it makes little or no difference with LLR if the incidence of single cell effects is expressed in terms of exposed or surviving cells

  2. Evaluation of Radiation Exposure during Construction and Operation of Concrete Bridge Reinforced with Very Low Level Radioactive Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, M.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    A lot of nuclear power plants are approaching the end of their lifetime and they will be phased out. Decommissioning of these nuclear power plants involve complete dismantling of technologies and demolition of buildings. During this process it is produced plenty of waste material of different categories. Significant portion of decommissioning materials comprise radionuclides what is caused by contamination and activation processes mostly from the operational period of nuclear power plant. Attention in this paper is paid to waste steel from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants with the specific activity just slightly exceeding legislation limits for the unconditional release into the environment. From the traditional point of view this material should be treated, conditioned and disposed on the radioactive waste repository. Second possibility is to release this material conditionally and reuse it in chosen industrial application. Very low level radioactive steel scrap should be melted and melting products should be processed into products that can be applied in industry. First option requires considerable financial investment, human resources and repository capacity. Second option saves some financial funds and it enables to reuse and save potentially valuable material for the future. Paper comprises evaluation of external and internal exposure during construction and operation of concrete bridges that utilize very low level radioactive steel as part of their reinforcement. Two models of representative concrete bridges were created. External gamma exposure and exposure from inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides were calculated using suitable computational tools. VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool was chosen for the calculation of external gamma exposure. Software GOLDSIM enables to calculate transport of radionuclides initially contained in conditionally released reinforcement steel through subsoil and sequential exposure of people caused by inhalation of

  3. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  4. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-01-01

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  5. Metabonomics evaluation of urine from rats administered with phorate under long-term and low-level exposure by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Guo, Lin; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxic effect of long-term and low-level exposure to phorate using a metabonomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Male Wistar rats were given phorate daily in drinking water at low doses of 0.05, 0.15 or 0.45 mg kg⁻¹ body weight (BW) for 24 weeks consecutively. Rats in the control group were given an equivalent volume of drinking water. Compared with the control group, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR) were increased in the middle- and high-dose groups whereas albumin (ALB) and cholinesterase (CHE) were decreased. Urine metabonomics profiles were analyzed by UPLC-MS. Compared with the control group, 12 metabolites were significantly changed in phorate-treated groups. In the negative mode, metabolite intensities of uric acid, suberic acid and citric acid were significantly decreased in the middle- and high-dose groups, whereas indoxyl sulfic acid (indican) and cholic acid were increased. In the positive mode, uric acid, creatinine, kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid were significantly decreased in the middle- and high-dose groups, but 7-methylguanine (N⁷G) was increased. In both negative and positive modes, diethylthiophosphate (DETP) was significantly increased, which was considered as a biomarker of exposure to phorate. In conclusion, long-term and low-level exposure to phorate can cause disturbances in energy-related metabolism, liver and kidney function, the antioxidant system, and DNA damage. Moreover, more information can be provided on the evaluation of toxicity of phorate using metabonomics combined with clinical chemistry. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  7. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  8. Mind-sets, low-level exposures, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Much of our environmental policy is based on the notion that carcinogenic agents are harmful at even minuscule doses. From where does this thinking come? What is the scientific evidence that supports such policy? Moreover, why is the public willing to buy into this? Or is it the other way around: Has the scientific community bought into a paradigm that has its origins in public imagery? Or, most likely, are there interactions between the two? It is essential that we find out whether or not there are risks associated with low-level exposures to radiation. The author can see three obvious areas where the future depends on better information: The increasing radiation exposures resulting from the use of medical diagnostic and therapeutic practices need to be properly evaluated for safety; Environmental policies, which direct enormous resources to the reduction of small radiation exposures, needs to be put on a firmer scientific basis; The future of nuclear energy, dependent as it is on public acceptance, may well rely upon a better understanding of low-dose effects. Nuclear energy could provide an important solution of global warming and other possible environmental hazards, but will probably not be implemented as long as fear of low-dose radiation persists. Although an established paradigm has great resilience, it cannot resist the onslaught of inconsistent scientific observations or of the social value system that supports it. Only new research will enable us to determine if a paradigm shift is in order here

  9. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase ... cancer, aging and a diversity of diseases [5]. Superoxide .... responsible for the long biological half-life of cadmium [12]. ... indicator of the balance between the damaging effects and the ... Scand J Work Environ.

  10. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  11. Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosio, C.; Birindelli, S.; Corsini, E.; Galli, C.L.; Maroni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies

  12. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration

  13. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood cancer after low-level intrauterine exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: R.Wakeford@bnfl.com; Little, Mark P. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    Case-control studies of childhood cancer and foetal exposure to diagnostic x-rays suggest that doses as small as 10 mSv increase the risk of cancer to a detectable extent. A comparison of the risk coefficient derived from the largest such study with that obtained from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero (average dose, {approx}300 mGy) shows that, once all sources of uncertainty are taken into account, these risk estimates are not incompatible. The absence of a discernible variation in the risk per unit dose over this dose range is consistent with a linear dose-response. However, uncertainties are such that definitive conclusions on the shape of the dose-response at low doses cannot be drawn from this epidemiological evidence alone. Nonetheless, the evidence does suggest that the risk is not zero at doses of the order of 10 mSv. (author)

  15. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susko, Michele L.; Bloom, Michael S.; Neamtiu, Iulia A.; Appleton, Allison A.; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Anastasiu, Doru

    2017-01-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiá¹£ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5–20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1 µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. - Highlights: • We assessed low level drinking water arsenic as a predictor of fecundability. • Arsenic did

  16. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susko, Michele L. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Bloom, Michael S., E-mail: mbloom@albany.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Neamtiu, Iulia A. [Health Department, Environmental Health Center, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); IMOGEN Research Institute, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Appleton, Allison A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Surdu, Simona [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Pop, Cristian [Physico-chemical and Biotoxicological Analysis Laboratory, Environmental Health Center, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cluj School of Public Health - College of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Fitzgerald, Edward F. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York (United States); Anastasiu, Doru [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeș”, Timișoara (Romania); Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Emergency County Hospital, Timișoara (Romania); and others

    2017-04-15

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiá¹£ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5–20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1 µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. - Highlights: • We assessed low level drinking water arsenic as a predictor of fecundability. • Arsenic did

  17. The effects of repeated low-level blast exposure on hearing in marines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina R Kubli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study evaluates a group of Military Service Members specialized in blast explosive training called “Breachers” who are routinely exposed to multiple low-level blasts while teaching breaching at the U.S. Marine Corps in Quantico Virginia. The objective of this study was to determine if there are any acute or long-term auditory changes due to repeated low-level blast exposures used in training. The performance of the instructor group “Breachers” was compared to a control group, “Engineers”. Methods: A total of 11 Breachers and four engineers were evaluated in the study. The participants received comprehensive auditory tests, including pure-tone testing, speech-in-noise (SIN measures, and central auditory behavioral and objective tests using early and late (P300 auditory evoked potentials over a period of 17 months. They also received shorter assessments immediately following the blast-exposure onsite at Quantico. Results: No acute or longitudinal effects were identified. However, there were some interesting baseline effects found in both groups. Contrary to the expected, the onsite hearing thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were slightly better at a few frequencies immediately after blast-exposure than measurements obtained with the same equipment weeks to months after each blast-exposure. Conclusions: To date, the current study is the most comprehensive study that evaluates the long-term effects of blast-exposure on hearing. Despite extensive testing to assess changes, the findings of this study suggest that the levels of current exposures used in this military training environment do not seem to have an obvious deleterious effect on hearing.

  18. Low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides leads to restrictive lung dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini Janet; Ruberu, Dawala Kusuma; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; van-der-Hoek, Wim

    2005-10-01

    Apart from symptomology, there are very few reports on lung function following exposure to low levels of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in man. Twenty-five occupationally exposed farmers and 22 environmentally exposed freshwater fishermen were evaluated between and during OP spray seasons. Forty marine fishermen living away from agricultural areas were recruited as a control group. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) were measured by spirometry. Haemoglobin corrected erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels were measured during and between (baseline estimation) spray seasons using a portable WHO-approved Test-mate system (EQM Research, Ohio). FVC ratio was lower in the farmers as compared to the controls (P<0.001) between exposure seasons. In the farmers, FVC ratio decreased further during the exposure season (P=0.023). FEV(1) was lower in the farmers as compared to the controls in both periods (P<0.05). In the fishermen, the decrease in ratios of FVC and FEV(1) following exposure to pesticides was not significant. FEV(1)/FVC ratios were similar in the three groups between (P=0.988) and during (P=0.159) exposure periods. Following exposure to OPs, AChE levels dropped 12.75% in the farmers (P<0.001) and 5.62% in the freshwater fishermen (P=0.001). Occupational exposure to OP results in restrictive lung dysfunction, a phenomenon not observed following environmental exposure.

  19. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  20. Risk evaluation - conventional and low level effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Any discussion of the risk of exposure to potentially-hazardous agents in the environment inevitably involves the question of whether the dose effect curve is of the threshold or linear, non-threshold type. A principal objective of this presentation is to show that the function is actually two separate relationships, each representing distinctly different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different disciplines (i.e., the threshold function, of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine [PTM]; the linear, non-threshold function, of Public Health including safety and accident statistics [PHS]). It is shown that low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation falls clearly in the PHS category. A function for cell dose vs. the fraction of single cell quantal responses is characterized, which reflects the absolute and relative sensitivities of cells. Acceptance of this function would obviate any requirement for the use in Radiation Protection of the concepts of a standard radiation, Q, dose equivalent and rem. 9 references, 4 figures

  1. Overview of the hazards of low-level exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritenour, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter the authors are concerned with low-level radiation, doses of ionizing radiations that are ten to thousands of times smaller than those required to contract ARS. Low-level radiation may be defined as an absorbed dose of 10 rem or less delivered over a short period of time. A larger dose delivered over a long period of time, for instance, 50 rem in 10 years, may also be considered low level. The definition is purposely loose so as to cover a wide variety of sources of radiation exposure, such as natural background (100 mrem/year) occupational exposures (<5 rem/year), and medical applications, such as diagnostic radiography (<1 rem). Low-level radiation exposure does not produce ARS. The health effects that may be of concern in regard to low-level radiation are its long-term sequelae. Studies of survivors of high-level radiation exposure (both human and laboratory animals) have indicated that there are three health effects that should be examined at low levels of exposure: induction of cancer, birth abnormalities (from irradiation in utero), and genetic effects. No other long-term effects of low-level exposure have been conclusively demonstrated in animals or humans

  2. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, biokinetics, and toxicology of 210Po and identified the need for future research. Methods: Potential linkages between environmental exposure to 210Po and human health effects were identified in a literature review. Discussion: 210Po accumulates in the ovaries where it kills primary oocytes at low doses. Because of its radiosensitivity and tendency to concentrate 210Po, the ovary may be the critical organ in determining the lowest injurious dose for 210Po. 210Po also accumulates in the yolk sac of the embryo and in the fetal and placental tissues. Low-level exposure to 210Po may have subtle, long-term biological effects because of its tropism towards reproductive and embryonic and fetal tissues where exposure to a single alpha particle may kill or damage critical cells. 210Po is present in cigarettes and maternal smoking has several effects that appear consistent with the toxicology of 210Po. Conclusions: Much of the important biological and toxicological research on 210Po is more than four decades old. New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to 210Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary. PMID:22538346

  3. Metabonomics of Pig Blood Plasma Following Whole Body Exposure to Low Levels of Gb Vapor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bevilacqua, Vicky L; D'Onofrio, Terreiice G; Jakubowski, K. M; Hulet, Stanley W; Maguire, Kelly J; Edwards, Jennifer L; Laramee, James A; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    ...), for which complex data must be analyzed. Therefore, we have begun an exploration of the use of chemometrics for the correlation of metabolic change with low-level CWA exposure in animal models...

  4. CHEMICAL WEAPONS: DoD Does Not Have a Strategy to Address Low-Level Exposures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The possible exposure of U.S. troops to low levels of chemical warfare agents in Iraq in the weeks after the Gulf War ceasefire, along with chemical warfare prophylaxis, vaccines, oil well fire emissions, and other battlefield...

  5. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Azadèh; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2018-02-08

    Elevated endotoxin levels have been measured in ambient air around livestock farms, which is a cause of concern for neighbouring residents. There is clear evidence that occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne endotoxin causes respiratory inflammation, respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. However, health effects of exposure to low levels of endotoxin are less well described. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize published associations between exposure to relatively low levels of airborne endotoxin and respiratory health endpoints. Studies investigating respiratory effects of measured or modelled exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (average effects of exposure to low levels of endotoxin on respiratory symptoms and lung function. However, considerable heterogeneity existed in the outcomes of the included studies and no overall estimate could be provided by meta-analysis to quantify the possible relationship. Instead, a best evidence synthesis was performed among studies examining the exposure-response relationship between endotoxin and respiratory outcomes. Significant exposure-response relationships between endotoxin and symptoms and FEV 1 were shown in several studies, with no conflicting findings in the studies included in the best evidence synthesis. Significantly different effects of endotoxin exposure were also seen in vulnerable subgroups (atopics and patients with broncho-obstructive disease) and smokers. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (health effects, especially in vulnerable subgroups of the population.

  6. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals

  7. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  8. What happens at very low levels of radiation exposure ? Are the low dose exposures beneficial ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Dalji

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation is naturally present in our environment and has been since the birth of this planet. The human population is constantly exposed to low levels of natural background radiation, primarily from environmental sources, and to higher levels from occupational sources, medical therapy, and other human-mediated events. Radiation is one of the best-investigated hazardous agents. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection consideration are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain t hreshold a n appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Sendromes, ARS) occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels. Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. For this reason, a stochastic effect is called a Linear or Zero-Threshold (LNT) Dose-Response Effect. There is a stochastic correlation between the number of cases of cancers or genetic defects developed inside a population and the dose received by the population at relatively large levels of radiation. These changes in gene activation seem to be able to modify the response of cells to subsequent radiation exposure, termed the a daptive response

  9. Low-level lead exposure effects on spatial reference memory and working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Yang; Ping Zhou; Yonghui Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that lead exposure can result in cognitive dysfunction and behavior disorders. However, lead exposure impairments vary under different experimental conditions.OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in spatial learning and memory following low-level lead exposure in rats, in Morris water maze test under the same experimental condition used to analyze lead exposure effects on various memory types and learning processes.DESIGN AND SETTING: The experiment was conducted at the Animal Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science between February 2005 and March 2006. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and behavioral observations were performed.MATERIALS: Sixteen male, healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into normal control and lead exposure groups (n = 8).METHODS: Rats in the normal control group were fed distilled water, and those in the lead exposure group were fed 250 mL of 0.05% lead acetate once per day. At day 28, all rats performed the Morris water maze test, consisting of four phases: space navigation, probe test, working memory test, and visual cue test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Place navigation in the Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, probe trials for spatial reference memory, working memory test for spatial working memory, and visual cue test for non-spatial cognitive function. Perkin-Elmer Model 300 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was utilized to determine blood lead levels in rats.RESULTS: (1) In the working memory test, the time to reach the platform remained unchanged between the control and lead exposure groups (F(1,1) = 0.007, P = 0.935). A visible decrease in escape latencies was observed in each group (P = 0.028). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (F(1,1) = 1.869, P = 0.193). The working memory probe test demonstrated no change between the two groups in the time spent in the target quadrant during the working memory probe test

  10. Long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and diabetes incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the present epidemic. High-level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk, but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to low......-level arsenic in drinking water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential...... exposure and diabetes incidence, separately for two definitions of diabetes: all cases and a more strict definition in which cases of diabetes based solely on blood glucose results were excluded. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years for 52,931 eligible participants, there were a total of 4...

  11. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures/ Gezondheidseffecten van lage blootstellingniveaus [International workshop: Influence of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation on human and ecological health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-11-26

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of

  12. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  13. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11–17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 μg/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 μg/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  14. Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Elder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.

  15. Perspectives on repeated low-level blast and the measurement of neurotrauma in humans as an occupational exposure risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W.; Dell, K. C.; Yanagi, M. A.; Hassan, D. M.; LoPresti, M. L.

    2017-11-01

    A pressing question in military medical research is the nature and degree of effects on the human brain from occupational repeated exposure to low-level explosive blast, but reliable and effective means to objectively measure such effects remain elusive. In survey results, headache, difficulty sleeping, irritability, cognitive impairment, and a variety of other symptoms consistent with post-concussive syndrome have been reported by those exposed to blast and there was positive correlation between degree of blast exposure and degree of symptomology, but an important goal is to obtain more objective evidence of an effect than self-report alone. This review reflects recent efforts to measure and evaluate such hypothesized effects and current recommendations for ongoing study. Optimal measures are likely those with sensitivity and specificity to systemic effects in mild neurotrauma, that have minimal to no volitional component, and that can be sampled relatively quickly with minimal intrusion in prospective, observational field studies during routine training with explosives. An understanding of an association between parameters of exposure to repeated low-level blast and negative neurologic effects would support the evaluation of clinical implications and development of protective equipment and surveillance protocols where warranted. At present, low-level blast exposure surveillance measurements do not exist as a systematic record for any professional community.

  16. Considerations for evaluating proposed low-level radioactive waste compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Thirty-nine States have enacted legislation related to this Act, and five compacts have been submitted to Congress for consent. Other compacts are being negotiated, one in the West and several in the Midwest and Northeast. The Department of Energy has identified a number of items, which if included in the congressional review of each compact, would be likely to increase the possibility that new disposal sites will be developed and properly supported. The Department is providing additional perspectives that have not been previously included in testimony or reports. By suggesting examination of several general elements of a compact proposal, the Department hopes to provide a common focus that may be useful to the Congress in integrating all available information. The Department believes that the Congress should consider the following key items when reviewing the compacts: Commitments that assure the provision of new disposal capacity in the form of a host-State and site selection process with schedules and a target date for new sites to be opened; Commitments that provide short-term measures for storage, treatment, or disposal during an interim period when such new capacity may not be available; Consistency of definitions with 10 CFR Part 61 to assure the compact plan presents a total solution for all low-level waste generated within the region; Periodic review of the compacts by the Congress to examine concerns that are more easily assessed after a compact becomes operational, e.g., economic viability and long-term institutional control; and Economic viability of a compact, when reviewed in the future, in terms of the benefits and the costs specific to that region

  17. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, bioki...

  18. Tritium: a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The somatic, cytogenetic and genetic effects of single and chronic tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice was investigated. This study serves not only as an evaluation of tritium toxicity (TRITOX) but due to its design involving long-term low concentration ingestion of HTO may serve as a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure in general. Long-term studies involved animals maintained on HTO at concentrations of 0.3 μCi/ml, 1.0 μCi/ml, 3.0 μCi/ml or depth dose equivalent chronic external exposures to 137 Cs gamma rays. Maintenance on 3.0 μCi/ml resulted in no effect on growth, life-time shortening or bone marrow cellularity, but did result in a reduction of bone marrow stem cells, an increase in DLM's in second generation animals maintained on this regimen and cytogenetic effects as indicated by increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells, increased chromosome aberrations in the regenerating liver and an increase in micronuclei in red blood cells. Biochemical and microdosimetry studies showed that animals placed on the HTO regimen reached tritium equilibrium in the body water in approximately 17 to 21 days with a more gradual increase in bound tritium. When animals maintained for 180 days on 3.0 μCi/ml HTO were placed on a tap water regimen, the tritium level in tissue dropped from the equilibrium value of 2.02 μCi/ml before withdrawal to 0.001 μCi/ml at 28 days. 18 references

  19. Development of a multimedia radionuclide exposure model for low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Whelan, G.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    A method is being developed for assessing exposures of the air, water, and plants to low-level waste (LLW) as a part of an overall development effort of a LLW site evaluation methodology. The assessment methodology will predict LLW exposure levels in the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of LLW migration and fate. The methodology consists of a series of physics-based models with proven histories of success; the models interact with each other to simulate LLW transport in the ecosystem. A scaled-down version of the methodology was developed first by combining the terrestrial ecological model, BIOTRAN; the overland transport model, ARM; the instream hydrodynamic model, DKWAV; and the instream sediment-contaminant transport model, TODAM (a one-dimensional version of SERATRA). The methodology was used to simulate the migration of 239 Pu from a shallow-land disposal site (known as Area C) located near the head of South Mortandad Canyon on the LANL site in New Mexico. The scenario assumed that 239 Pu would be deposited on the land surface through the natural processes of plant growth, LLW uptake, dryfall, and litter decomposition. Runoff events would then transport 239 Pu to and in the canyon. The model provided sets of simulated LLW levels in soil, water and terrestrial plants in the region surrounding the site under a specified land-use and a waste management option. Over a 100-yr simulation period, only an extremely small quantity (6 x 10 -9 times the original concentration) of buried 239 Pu was taken up by plants and deposited on the land surface. Only a small fraction (approximately 1%) of that contamination was further removed by soil erosion from the site and carried to the canyon, where it remained. Hence, the study reveals that the environment around Area C has integrity high enough to curtail LLW migration under recreational land use

  20. Legal recourse for damages suffered from low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesto-Edwards, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the past few years several events involving toxic substances have received widespread coverage by the media, thereby altering an already aware population to the hazards of exposure to toxic agents. Incidents such as Three Mile Islane, Love Canal, and Hemlock, Michigan, the exposure plight of veterans to radiation at the Nevada Test Site and to Agent Orange in Vietnam, and to the exposure of factory workers to asbestos, have been highly publicized. In part because of this publicity, the emphasis of the 1970's on controlling water and air pollution has been shifting slowly during the 1980s to the of control of hazardous waste pollution. Despite this shifting emphasis, legislative and judicial systems have been slow to respond. Few remedies are available to real and imagined victims of toxic substances. From a legal point of view, there is little difference between exposure to low levels of radiation and low levels of toxic chemicals. Both instances fall under the broader domain of environmental law. Depending on the circumstances, one instance might provide legal precedent for the other. This chapter presents examples drawn from both areas in order to illustrate current issues. The discussion is divided into four parts: (1) the common law tort theories that may be asserted when a plaintiff has suffered injury resulting from exposure to low-level radiation or other toxic substances; (2) the difficulties posed by the relief mechanisms rooted in traditional common law; (3) current federal legislation, along with its merits and shortcomings; and (4) solutions to the obstacles now faced by plaintiffs in attempting to recover their damages. Also discussed are suggested judicial and legislative solutions designed to remedy the damages caused to persons exposed to toxic wastes

  1. TP53 and ATM mRNA expression in skin and skeletal muscle after low-level laser exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes de Almeida, Luciana; Sergio, Luiz Philippe da Silva; de Paoli, Flavia; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Low-level lasers are widespread in regenerative medicine, but the molecular mechanisms involved in their biological effects are not fully understood, particularly those on DNA stability. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate mRNA expression of genes related to DNA genomic stability in skin and skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. For this, TP53 (Tumor Protein 53) and ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated gene) mRNA expressions were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) technique 24 hours after low-level red and infrared laser exposure. Our data showed that relative TP53 mRNA expression was not significantly altered in both tissues exposed to lasers. For ATM, relative mRNA expression in skin tissue was not significantly altered, but in muscle tissue, laser exposure increased relative ATM mRNA expression. Low-level red and infrared laser radiations alter ATM mRNA expression related to DNA stability in skeletal muscle tissue.

  2. Practical evaluations of low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1989-01-01

    In general, there have been about four main tools that have been used to assist in selecting a disposal technology and in evaluating that technology: Legislative direction; Operator selection; Multiattribute utility estimation; and Risk assessment and cost benefit evaluation. The first technique, legislative direction, is an important factor in determining the range of disposal technologies that may be considered. Some host state entities have chosen not to participate in the disposal technology selection, but will let the facility operator propose and defend his preferred facility concept in the license application. Multiattribute utility estimation is a widely used tool for evaluating technologies, particularly in the preliminary stages of selecting a disposal technology when significant technical and institutional information is missing. Many factors, including a range of technical, safety, environmental, societal, political, and economic concerns must be considered in the selection process. Many of these are hard to quantify and not all are of equal importance. Multiattrubute utility estimation allows for these factors to be considered in selecting a technology with incomplete information. This chapter provides description of two analysis techniques: multiattribute utility estimation and cost benefit evaluation. Both can be used to help profile disposal alternatives in relation to specific factors or criteria

  3. Modeling the transmitted and stored energy in multilayer protective clothing under low-level radiant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; He, Jiazhen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model from heating source to skin tissues through multilayer fabric system is developed. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • The model is used to investigate the relationship between the transmitted and stored energy and the influencing factors. - Abstract: A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn.

  4. Low level prenatal exposure to methylmercury disrupts neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bao-Qiang; Yan, Chong-Huai; Cai, Shi-Zhong; Yuan, Xiao-Bing; Shen, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Low level MeHg exposure causes migratory defect of rat cerebrocortical neurons. ► The migration defect is due to the impact of MeHg on the neuronal migration itself. ► Rho GTPases seem to be involved in MeHg-induced disruption of neuronal migration. -- Abstract: We determined the effects of low-level prenatal MeHg exposure on neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex using in utero electroporation. We used offspring rats born to dams that had been exposed to saline or various doses of MeHg (0.01 mg/kg/day, 0.1 mg/kg/day, and 1 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 11–21. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains of the offspring was conducted on postnatal day (PND) 0, PND3, and PND7. Our results showed that prenatal exposure to low levels of MeHg (0.1 mg/kg/day or 1 mg/kg/day) during the critical stage in neuronal migration resulted in migration defects of the cerebrocortical neurons in offspring rats. Importantly, our data revealed that the abnormal neuronal distribution induced by MeHg was not caused by altered proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), induction of apoptosis of NPCs and/or newborn neurons, abnormal differentiation of NPCs, and the morphological changes of radial glial scaffold, indicating that the defective neuronal positioning triggered by exposure to low-dose of MeHg is due to the impacts of MeHg on the process of neuronal migration itself. Moreover, we demonstrated that in utero exposure to low-level MeHg suppresses the expression of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, which play key roles in the migration of cerebrocortical neurons during the early stage of brain development, suggesting that the MeHg-induced migratory disturbance of cerebrocortical neurons is likely associated with the Rho GTPases signal pathway. In conclusion, our results provide a novel perspective on clarifying the mechanisms underlying the impairment of neuronal migration induced by MeHg

  5. [Assessment for effect of low level lead-exposure on neurobehavior in workers of printing house].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Q; Dai, F; Chen, Y

    1998-11-30

    WHO Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB) was conducted among 28 lead-exposed workers (mean age 24.84, SD2.85) in printing house and 46 controls (mean age 22.78, SD1.45), in order to assess whether low level lead exposure may be related to neurobehavioral dysfunction. The items of test were: 1. Profile of mood state(POMS), (2) Simple reaction time, (3) Digit span, (4) Santa Anna manual dexterity, (5) Digit simbol, (6) Benton visual retention; and Prusuit aiming test. In all the NCTB test values, there was no significant difference between two groups. Multiple stepwise regression analysis shows that exposure duration is related to neurobehavior scores. Mild lead exposure may affect neurobehavior in some degree but not significant.

  6. Silica exposure to excavation workers during the excavation of a low level radiological waste pit and tritium disposal shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the task-length average (TLA) respirable dust and respirable silica airborne concentrations to which construction workers excavating volcanic tuff at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were exposed. These workers were excavating a low level radiological waste disposal pit of final dimensions 720 feet long, 132 feet wide and 60 feet deep. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) evaluate exposures; (2) determine if the type of machinery used affects the respirable dust concentration in the breathing zone of the worker; (3) evaluate the efficacy of wetting the pit to reduce the respirable dust exposure; and (4) determine if exposure increases with increasing depth of pit due to the walls of the pit blocking the cross wind ventilation

  7. Epidemiological methods of assessing risks from low level occupational exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissland, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The resolution of radiation-attributable malignancies from the background of malignancies which are responsible for about 20% of all deaths in the Western world, presents a formidable challenge to epidemiological methods. Some of the major difficulties facing those with the task of estimating the risks associated with exposure to low level ionising radiation are discussed, particularly in the context of radiological protection. Some of the studies currently in progress are summarised and suggestions are made for other work which may help to contribute to a better understanding of the quantitative aspects of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  8. Limitations and problems in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the problems in determining the cancer risk of low-level radiation from studies of exposed groups are reviewed and applied to the study of Hanford workers by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale. Problems considered are statistical limitations, variation of cancer rates with geography and race, the ''healthy worker effect,'' calendar year and age variation of cancer mortality, choosing from long lists, use of proportional mortality rates, cigarette smoking-cancer correlations, use of averages to represent data distributions, ignoring other data, and correlations between radiation exposure and other factors that may cause cancer. The current status of studies of the Hanford workers is reviewed

  9. Evaluating biological transport of radionuclides at low-level waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to develop and demonstrate methods for evaluating the long-term impact of biological processes at low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. As part of this effort, we developed order-of-magnitude estimates of dose-to-man resulting from animal burrowing activity and plant translocation of radionuclides. Reference low-level waste sites in both arid and humid areas of the United States were examined. The results of our evaluation for generalized arid LLW burial site are presented here. Dose-to-man estimates resulting from biotic transport are compared with doses calculated from human intrusion exposure scenarios. Dose-to-man estimates, as a result of biotic transport, are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from a more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at LLW sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by our findings. These results indicate that biotic transport has the long-term potential to mobilize radionuclides. Therefore, biotic transport should be carefully evaluated during burial site assessment

  10. Early renal effects of occupational exposure to low-level hexavalent chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, Teruo (Dept. of Public Health, Gifu Univ. School of Medicine, Tsukasa-machi (Japan)); Ishikawa, Noriko (Occupational Hygiene Center, Gifu Labour Standards Association, Hikie (Japan)); Hata, Hideo (Occupational Hygiene Center, Gifu Labour Standards Association, Hikie (Japan)); Takahashi, Akemi (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan)); Yoshida, Izumi (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan)); Okamoto, Yoshinari (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    To detect early renal effects of occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr), urinary total proteins (U-TP), urinary albumin (U-Alb) and urinary retinol-binding protein (U-RBP) were determined in 166 male Cr platers and 106 male controls. The mean employment time in Cr plating for the platers was 12.6 years. Urinary Cr (U-Cr), which was determined as an index of Cr exposure, ranged from ''not detected'' to 19.91 [mu]g/g creatinine in the platers. The U-Cr level was lower than those in other previous studies. Age-adjusted U-TP, U-Alb or U-RBP levels were not different between the platers and the controls. In the platers, a significant positive correlation was found between age-adjusted U-TP and U-Cr, but U-Cr had no significant relation to age-adjusted U-Alb or U-RBP level. Employment time had no effect on any age-adjusted urinary proteins. The Cr exposure may have been too low to induce definite renal dysfunction. Early renal effects of low-level Cr exposure may be mild, and may not be specific to renal function. (orig.)

  11. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossouw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  12. Effects of low-level sarin and cyclosarin exposure on hippocampal subfields in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Kriger, Stephen; Buckley, Shannon; Ng, Peter; Mueller, Susanne G

    2014-09-01

    More than 100,000 US troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when an ammunition dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the 1991 Gulf War (GW). We previously reported reduced hippocampal volume in GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure relative to matched, unexposed GW veterans estimated from 1.5T magnetic resonance images (MRI). Here we investigate, in a different cohort of GW veterans, whether low-level GB/GF exposure is associated with structural alterations in specific hippocampal subfields, estimated from 4T MRI. The Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS) technique was used to quantify CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (SUB) subfields volumes from high-resolution T2-weighted images acquired on a 4T MR scanner in 56 GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure and 56 "matched" unexposed GW veterans (mean age 49±7 years). GB/GF exposed veterans had smaller CA2 (p=0.003) and CA3/DG (p=0.01) subfield volumes compared to matched, unexposed GW veterans. There were no group difference in total hippocampal volume, quantified with FreeSurfer, and no dose-response relationship between estimated levels of GB/GF exposure and total hippocampal or subfield volume. These findings extend our previous report of structural alterations in the hippocampi of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure to volume changes in the CA2, CA3, and DG hippocampal subfields in a different cohort of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of low-level sarin and cyclosarin exposure on hippocampal microstructure in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Zhang, Yu

    2018-05-04

    In early March 1991, shortly after the end of the Gulf War (GW), a munitions dump was destroyed at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. We previously reported evidence of smaller hippocampal volumes in GW veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume compared to unexposed GW veterans. To investigate whether these macroscopic hippocampal volume changes are accompanied by microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, the current study acquired diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), T1-, and T2-weighted images from 170 GW veterans (mean age: 53 ± 7 years), 81 of whom had predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume according to Department of Defense (DOD) plume modeling. We examined fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and grey matter (GM) density from a hippocampal region of interest (ROI). Results indicate that, even after accounting for total hippocampal GM density (or hippocampal volume), age, sex, apolipoprotein ε4 genotype, and potential confounding OP pesticide exposures, hippocampal MD significantly predicted Khamisiyah exposure status (model p = 0.005, R 2  = 0.215, standardized coefficient β = 0.26, t = 2.85). Hippocampal MD was also inversely correlated with verbal memory learning performance in the entire study sample (p = 0.001). There were no differences in hippocampal FA or GM density; however, veterans with predicted Khamisiyah exposure had smaller hippocampal volumes compared to unexposed veterans. Because MD is sensitive to general microstructural disruptions that lead to increased extracellular spaces due to neuronal death, inflammation and gliosis, and/or to axonal loss or demyelination, these findings suggest that low-level exposure to the Khamisiyah plume has a detrimental, lasting effects on both macro- and micro-structure of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

  15. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power... Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors. DATES: Please submit... Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial...

  16. Monitoring of low level environmental gamma exposure by the centralized radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Obata, Kazuichi; Kokubu, Morinobu; Itoh, Naoji

    1981-07-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a centralized automatic radiation monitoring system developed 20 years ago has recently been improved to monitor low level gamma radiation more accurately in normal operation of the nuclear facilities and to detect abnormal radioactive releases more effectively. The present state of the system is described. This system puts together environmental monitoring data such as gamma exposure rate (20 points), radioactive concentration in the air (4 points) and in water (2 drains), and meteorological items (14 including wind directions, wind speeds, solar radiation and air temperatures at a observation tower of 40 m height). Environmental monitoring around the JAERI site is carried out effectively using the system. Data processing system consists of a central processing unit, a magnetic disk, a magnetic tape, a line printer and a console typewriter. The data at respective monitoring points are transmitted to the central monitoring room by wireless or telephone line. All data are printed out and field in magnetic disk and magnetic tape every 10 minutes. When the emergency levels are exceeded, however, the data are automatically output on a line printer every 2 minute. This system can distinguish very low gamma exposure due to gaseous effluents, about 1 mR/y, from the background. Even in monthly exposures, calculated values based on the data of release amount and meteorology are in good agreement with the measured ones. (author)

  17. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  18. Occurrence of ²¹⁰Po and biological effects of low-level exposure: the need for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2012-09-01

    Polonium-210 (²¹⁰Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of ²¹⁰Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of ²¹⁰Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. We summarized information on the environmental behavior, biokinetics, and toxicology of ²¹⁰Po and identified the need for future research. Potential linkages between environmental exposure to ²¹⁰Po and human health effects were identified in a literature review. ²¹⁰Po accumulates in the ovaries where it kills primary oocytes at low doses. Because of its radiosensitivity and tendency to concentrate ²¹⁰Po, the ovary may be the critical organ in determining the lowest injurious dose for ²¹⁰Po. ²¹⁰Po also accumulates in the yolk sac of the embryo and in the fetal and placental tissues. Low-level exposure to ²¹⁰Po may have subtle, long-term biological effects because of its tropism towards reproductive and embryonic and fetal tissues where exposure to a single alpha particle may kill or damage critical cells. ²¹⁰Po is present in cigarettes and maternal smoking has several effects that appear consistent with the toxicology of ²¹⁰Po. Much of the important biological and toxicological research on ²¹⁰Po is more than four decades old. New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to ²¹⁰Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary.

  19. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 x 10 -4 events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual's lifetime radiation dose

  20. Family environmental and dietary implications for low-level prenatal lead exposure in Wujiang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Gao, Zhenyan; Wang, Ju; Ma, Wenjuan; Ying, Xiaolan; Zhou, Cancan; Yan, Chonghuai

    2018-05-01

    To explore the potential environmental and dietary factors during pregnancy affecting low-level prenatal lead exposure, we conducted a longitudinal study in Wujiang City, China. A total of 1976 mother-infant pairs were included from 2009 to 2010. An interviewed questionnaire was conducted and cord blood samples were collected. The geometric means of cord blood lead level was 30.3 μg/L (95% CI, 29.8-30.8) with 99.24% below 100 μg/L. Maternal age, passive smoking, and living in the countryside were significantly associated with cord blood lead concentrations. Multiple logistic models showed that some family environmental factors including using firewood and electricity as kitchen fuel were positively correlated with increased cord blood lead levels. Among dietary sources recorded in this study, meat consumption (> 3 times/week), fish consumption (1-3 times/week), vegetables consumption (> 1 times/day), and fruit intake (> 1 times/day) had inverse relationship with cord blood lead levels. In general, our findings may have important implications for family environmental and dietary direction during pregnancy to decrease prenatal lead exposure.

  1. DOE's performance evaluation project for mixed low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Gruebel, M.M.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A performance evaluation (PE) is an analysis that estimates radionuclide concentration limits for 16 potential Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (ULLW) disposal sites based on the analysis of two environmental exposure pathways (air and water) to an off-site individual and an inadvertent-intruder exposure pathway. Sites are analyzed for their ability to attenuate concentrations of specific radionuclides that could be released from wastes in a hypothetical ULLW disposal facility. Site-specific data and knowledge are used within a generic framework that is consistent across all sites being evaluated. After estimates of waste concentrations for the three pathways are calculated, the minimum of the waste concentration values is selected as the permissible waste concentration for each radionuclide. The PE results will be used as input to the process for DOE's ULLW disposal configuration. Preliminary comparisons of results from the PE and site-specific performance assessments indicate that the simple PE results generally agree with results of the performance assessments, even when site conditions are complex. This agreement with performance-assessment results increases confidence that similar results can be obtained at other sites that have good characterization data. In addition, the simple analyses contained in the PE illustrate a potential method to satisfy the needs of many regulators and the general public for a simple, conservative, defensible, and easily understandable analysis that provides results similar to those of more complex analyses

  2. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population

  3. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Gordon, E-mail: gordon.gong@ttuhsc.edu [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basom, Janet [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Mattevada, Sravan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Onger, Frederick [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  4. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA, an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1% or vehicle (distillated water during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant.

  5. Radiation and man - evaluation of biological and environmental low level radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklis, E.

    1977-01-01

    The harmful effects of acute radiation cannot be resolved by statistical means and require clearer knowledge of mechanisms of action and much wider collection of human experience before any definite sound stand can be taken. Much information has accumulated from animal experiments, and still the interpretations are not always clearcut, but for human experience it is only the occasional accident which can give a direct answer. Some of the phenomena attributed to low dose radiation are summarized. There are regions of radiation exposure about which we have only limited positive knowledge, an all low-dose risk estimates have been based on effects observed at relatively high doses. Much information has been gathered which does not support the severity of former basic principles, especially our knowledge of mechanisms of repair existing in most cells as natural defence against the damages caused by radiation as well as by many chemicals which act as mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. Understanding these mechanism, their scope of action and their availability to a damaged cell and organism will lead towards modification of the acceptable permissible exposures, in some cases towards severity, but in most cases towards leniency and higher values. For the evaluation of the effects of low level low dose-rate radiations, whether external, or from internal deposition of isotopes, only late somatic and genetic effects should be considered. (B.G.)

  6. Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and lung cancer risk in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockwell, H.G.; Lyman, G.H.; Waltz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphate deposits of central Florida contain levels of uranium and its daughter products 30-60 times greater than average soils. A case-control study was conducted to assess the risk of lung cancer associated with living on these phosphateic soils. Using the records of the state-wide Florida Cancer Data System to address this issue, all cases of lung cancer among Florida residents in 1981 were identified (n = 7049). Information was obtained regarding residence, age, sex, race, and smoking habits. Controls consisted of 6643 individuals with cancers of the colon or rectum. Residents of the central Florida phosphate region experienced a significant increase in lung cancer risk compared to other Florida residents (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Excess risks appeared concentrated among squamous cell cancer (OR = 1.6) and small cell cancer (OR = 1.6). When smoking habits as well as residential area was considered, no significant excess risk, associated with residence, was observed among nonsmokers or light smokers. Area residents smoking a pack or more per day experienced a 70% increase in lung cancer risk compared to individuals smoking a similar amount but living elsewhere. Highest risks were observed among persons with squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.1) and small cell cancer (OR = 2.5) who smoked more than 40 cigarettes a day. Results suggest exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation increases the lung cancer risk of residents of this area

  7. Assessment of exposure pathways connected with construction and operation of concrete bridge reinforced with very low level radioactive steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, M.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Large amount of low level radioactive material arises during decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Material mostly comprises metal scrap and concrete ruble. Paper deals with recycling and reuse of metal scrap and its utilization as part of reinforcement of concrete bridges under the conditional release concept. Radiation exposure originating in very low level reinforcement steel consists of several exposure pathways. Short-term radiation impact is represented mostly by external exposure pathway and it is relevant to the construction workers and users of the bridge. Long-term radiation impacts on inhabitants living near finished bridge and it is divided into inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides-internal exposure pathways. Radiation impact caused by utilization of very low level radioactive waste was calculated using simulation software VISIPLAN 3D ALARA and GOLDSIM. Results of calculations provide fair summary of possibilities of utilization of conditionally released steel as reinforcement of concrete bridges. (Authors)

  8. Methodology of safety evaluation about land disposal of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the progress of the construction project of low level radioactive waste storage facilities in Aomori Prefecture, the full scale land disposal of low level radioactive wastes shows its symptom also in Japan. In this report, the scientific methodology to explain the safety about the land disposal of low level radioactive wastes is discussed. The land disposal of general wastes by shallow burying has already had sufficient results. In the case of low level radioactive wastes, also the land disposal by shallow burying is considered. Low level radioactive wastes can be regarded as one form of industrial wastes, as there are many common parts in the scientific and theoretical base of the safety. Attention is paid most to the contamination of ground water. Low level radioactive wastes are solid wastes, accordingly the degree of contamination should be less. The space in which ground water existes, the phenomena of ground water movement, the phenomena of ground water dispersion and Fick's law, the adsorption effect of strata, and the evaluation of source term are explained. These are the method to analyze the degree of contamination from safety evaluation viewpoint. (Kako, I.)

  9. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  10. Evaluation of very low-level waste disposal based on fuzzed method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Ni Shijun; Duo Tianhui; Huang Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the geology conditions at a very low-level waste disposal site in southwest China, including geology, hydrogeology, and geologic hazards. On the basis of investigation this waste disposal site is evaluated using fuzzed method. Evaluation results prove that site A is better than site B. (authors)

  11. Dermal damage promoted by repeated low-level UV-A1 exposure despite tanning response in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frank; Smith, Noah R; Tran, Bao Anh Patrick; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2014-04-01

    Solar UV irradiation causes photoaging, characterized by fragmentation and reduced production of type I collagen fibrils that provide strength to skin. Exposure to UV-B irradiation (280-320 nm) causes these changes by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 1 and suppressing type I collagen synthesis. The role of UV-A irradiation (320-400 nm) in promoting similar molecular alterations is less clear yet important to consider because it is 10 to 100 times more abundant in natural sunlight than UV-B irradiation and penetrates deeper into the dermis than UV-B irradiation. Most (approximately 75%) of solar UV-A irradiation is composed of UV-A1 irradiation (340-400 nm), which is also the primary component of tanning beds. To evaluate the effects of low levels of UV-A1 irradiation, as might be encountered in daily life, on expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and type I procollagen (the precursor of type I collagen). In vivo biochemical analyses were conducted after UV-A1 irradiation of normal human skin at an academic referral center. Participants included 22 healthy individuals without skin disease. Skin pigmentation was measured by a color meter (chromometer) under the L* variable (luminescence), which ranges from 0 (black) to 100 (white). Gene expression in skin samples was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Lightly pigmented human skin (L* >65) was exposed up to 4 times (1 exposure/d) to UV-A1 irradiation at a low dose (20 J/cm2), mimicking UV-A levels from strong sun exposure lasting approximately 2 hours. A single exposure to low-dose UV-A1 irradiation darkened skin slightly and did not alter matrix metalloproteinase 1 or type I procollagen gene expression. With repeated low-dose UV-A1 irradiation, skin darkened incrementally with each exposure. Despite this darkening, 2 or more exposures to low-dose UV-A1 irradiation significantly induced matrix metalloproteinase 1 gene expression, which increased progressively with successive exposures. Repeated UV-A1

  12. A trial epidemiological study on health effects of long term and low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Kazuho

    1980-01-01

    As a trial evaluation of applicability of multivariate model in an analysis of health effects of radiation workers, the multiple logistic function method was applied to the data of occupational exposure record and long term absence record obtained from 593 employees of two institutions both of which practice R and D relating nuclear power. In order to estimate parameters of multiple logistic function by maximum likelihood method, followings were defined as variables: age, length of employment and cumulative exposure dose of radiation as independent variables, and the fact that whether the individual worker had the experience of absence lasting more than a week or not as a dependent variable. As the results, due to shortage of amount of data, only the age of workers shows a significant relationship with the absence data, the other variables do not have any significant results in the association with absence. In this preliminary trial, the applicability of multiple logistic function model in risk estimation of long term occupational exposure was not clearly demonstrated because of data shortage. To testify the applicability, further investigations will be needed, accumulating plenty of data concerning exposure and health effects. (author)

  13. Impact of exposure to low levels of mercury on the health of dental workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Freitas Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the impact of exposure to mercury on the health of workers comparing dentists and dental assistants exposed to mercury by handling amalgam in a public dental clinic with a reference group which, in private offices, did not make use of the metal in their professional routine. Data collection included mercury levels in urine and air samples determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, questionnaires and direct observation. The difference between urine and air samples in both groups was statistically significant while mercury levels in air and urine showed positive associations. Mercury concentration in urine correlated with gender, practice time, and age of workers. Half of those exposed had complaints compatible with mercury contamination. Among the exposed, the most common complaints were cognitive and neurocognitive symptoms. Correlations between symptoms and exposure time and also number of amalgam fillings placed per week were positive. Amalgam handling resulted in environmental and biological contamination by mercury.

  14. Assessment of hemato-biochemical parameters on exposure to low level of deltamethrin in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Tewari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, sub-acute toxicity of deltamethrin on hematological and biochemical blood parameters of male albino Swiss mice was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Generally, the maximum permissible residue level (MRL of deltamethrin for food products lies between 0.01 to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. So the mice were exposed orally with two doses of pesticide i.e. 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The doses were given on a daily basis for a period of 15 days and 30 days respectively. Ground nut oil was used as control treatment. Samples of blood were collected at the end of the treatment. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by quantitative analysis of the serum enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP, total bilirubin (TBIL and serum urea. Alterations of hematological parameters were analysed by total leukocyte, differential leukocyte count and hemoglobin levels. Results: Significant increase in the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, ALKP were observed for both doses, but no considerable differences were found by histological analysis. The hematological parameters showed significant alterations for 0.5 mg/kg body weight dose which is indicated by leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and neutropenia in long duration study. Conclusions: The results indicated that even very low dose of deltamethrin can promote hematological and hepatic alterations. Thus it is imperative to do further studies on the detrimental effect of the low levels of pyrethroid commonly present in our food, which further necessitate the reduction of maximum permissible levels of residual synthetic pyrethroid levels in foods and feed.

  15. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  16. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry

  17. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  18. A sensitivity study of an evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesener, W.S.; Smith, T.H.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents insights gained from an informal sensitivity study of an evaluation of disposal alternatives for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level waste and low-level mixed waste. The insights relate to the sensitivity of the alternative rankings to changes in assumptions identified as open-quotes key uncertaintiesclose quotes. The result of the sensitivity study is that significant changes occur in the rankings when selected open-quotes key uncertaintiesclose quotes are varied over reasonable ranges. Three alternatives involving the use of (a) shallow land burial and boreholes or (b) greater-depth burial and boreholes rank high for all cases investigated. The other alternatives rank low in some or all cases

  19. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  20. Low-level lead exposure and autistic behaviors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The association between lead exposure and autism spectrum disorder is inconclusive. We hypothesized an association between higher blood lead concentrations and more autistic behaviors, including impaired social interactions and communication, stereotypical behaviors, and restricted interests, among school-age children. Data from 2473 Korean children aged 7-8years who had no prior history of developmental disorders were analyzed. Two follow-up surveys were conducted biennially until the children reached 11-12years of age. Blood lead concentrations were measured at every survey, and autistic behaviors were evaluated at 11-12years of age using the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The associations of blood lead concentration with ASSQ and SRS scores were analyzed using negative binomial, logistic, and linear regression models. Blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age (geometric mean: 1.64μg/dL), but not at 9-10 and 11-12years of age, were associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, according to the ASSQ (β=0.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.061, 0.242) and SRS (β=2.489; 95% CI: 1.378, 3.600). SRS subscale analysis also revealed associations between blood lead concentrations and social awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. Even low blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age are associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, underscoring the need for continued efforts to reduce lead exposure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide : symptoms, sensory function, and cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, N.; Kipen, H.; Lioy, P.; Zhang, J.; Weisel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Petroleum refineries, kraft paper mills, and coke ovens are some of the sources of hydrogen sulfide exposure. In 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended an ambient exposure standard of .003 ppm for odor and .01 ppm for eye irritation. In communities with high exposure levels, health effects have been documented as being headaches, eye and nasal symptoms, coughs, breathlessness and decreased psychomotor performance. Refinery workers in some jurisdictions around the world have been subjected to higher exposure levels. This report presents results of clinical studies on the neurobehavioral effects in rats. The tasks of memory and learning in rats parallels those in humans. A pilot exposure study examined the health effects of controlled exposures to 3 concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (.05, .50, and 5 ppm). It was concluded that changes in neurobehavioral measurements can be directly associated with exposure and dose-response. 25 figs

  2. How to evaluate PCR assays for the detection of low-level DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banch-Clausen, Frederik; Urhammer, Emil; Rieneck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    distribution describing parameters for singleplex real-time PCR-based detection of low-level DNA. The model was tested against experimental data of diluted cell-free foetal DNA. Also, the model was compared with a simplified formula to enable easy predictions. The model predicted outcomes that were...... not significantly different from experimental data generated by testing of cell-free foetal DNA. Also, the simplified formula was applicable for fast and accurate assay evaluation. In conclusion, the model can be applied for evaluation of sensitivity of real-time PCR-based detection of low-level DNA, and may also......High sensitivity of PCR-based detection of very low copy number DNA targets is crucial. Much focus has been on design of PCR primers and optimization of the amplification conditions. Very important are also the criteria used for determining the outcome of a PCR assay, e.g. how many replicates...

  3. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

  4. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation

  5. Environmental safety evaluation in test sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The study results on the environmental safety in the test sea disposal of low-level wastes by Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Safety Technology in Nuclear Safety Commission are given in connection with the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea reported by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Subcommittee concludes that the effect of the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea on the environment is extremely small. The contents are as follows. The full text of the report; attached data, (1) prediction of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in sea, (2) calculation of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in marine life with biological paths, and (3) estimation of exposure dose in general people; references (1) radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in sea disposal, (2) the effect of a sea disaster during ocean transport. (J.P.N.)

  6. Acute myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and exposure to low-level benzene among petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Glass, D C

    2014-01-01

    Background: High benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three petroleum case–control studies identified 60 cases (241 matched controls) for AML and 80 cases (345 matched controls) for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Methods: Cases were classified and scored regarding uncertainty by two haematologists using available diagnostic information. Blinded quantitative benzene exposure assessment used work histories and exposure measurements adjusted for era-specific circumstances. Statistical analyses included conditional logistic regression and penalised smoothing splines. Results: Benzene exposures were much lower than previous studies. Categorical analyses showed increased ORs for AML with several exposure metrics, although patterns were unclear; neither continuous exposure metrics nor spline analyses gave increased risks. ORs were highest in terminal workers, particularly for Tanker Drivers. No relationship was found between benzene exposure and risk of CLL, although the Australian study showed increased risks in refinery workers. Conclusion: Overall, this study does not persuasively demonstrate a risk between benzene and AML. A previously reported strong relationship between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (potentially previously reported as AML) at our study's low benzene levels suggests that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposure. Higher CLL risks in refinery workers may be due to more diverse exposures than benzene alone. PMID:24357793

  7. Low-level maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and potential implications for offspring health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway for MeHg (MeHg) exposure; however, MeHg exposure also occurs through rice ingestion. Rice is grown in an aquatic environment and although documented MeHg concentrations in rice are lower compared to fish tissue, human exposures exceed international guidelines in some regions where rice is a staple food and rice MeHg levels are elevated. Studies concerning human health exposure to MeHg should also include populations where maternal MeHg exposure occurs through ingestion of rice. Rice does not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with confounding developmental outcomes in offspring. Rice is also a staple food for more than half the world's population; therefore, it is critical to investigate the potential health risks of maternal ingestion of rice to the developing fetus, the most susceptible population to the deleterious effects of MeHg. Data concerning MeHg in rice are reviewed and micronutrients in rice are discussed. - Research highlights: > Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice may be important. > Rice does not contain the same micronutrients as fish, but may contain methylmercury. > Effects to offspring from methylmercury without beneficial micronutrients are unknown. - Studies concerning maternal methylmercury exposure and cognitive outcomes for offspring should include populations where rice ingestion is the primary methylmercury exposure pathway.

  8. Low-level maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and potential implications for offspring health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Feng Xinbin; Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway for MeHg (MeHg) exposure; however, MeHg exposure also occurs through rice ingestion. Rice is grown in an aquatic environment and although documented MeHg concentrations in rice are lower compared to fish tissue, human exposures exceed international guidelines in some regions where rice is a staple food and rice MeHg levels are elevated. Studies concerning human health exposure to MeHg should also include populations where maternal MeHg exposure occurs through ingestion of rice. Rice does not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with confounding developmental outcomes in offspring. Rice is also a staple food for more than half the world's population; therefore, it is critical to investigate the potential health risks of maternal ingestion of rice to the developing fetus, the most susceptible population to the deleterious effects of MeHg. Data concerning MeHg in rice are reviewed and micronutrients in rice are discussed. - Research highlights: → Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice may be important. → Rice does not contain the same micronutrients as fish, but may contain methylmercury. → Effects to offspring from methylmercury without beneficial micronutrients are unknown. - Studies concerning maternal methylmercury exposure and cognitive outcomes for offspring should include populations where rice ingestion is the primary methylmercury exposure pathway.

  9. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of 14 C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of 3 H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, 14 C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for 3 H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities

  10. Plant response to chronic exposure of low levels of oxidant type air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, W.A.

    1970-01-01

    Cultivars of geranium and carnation exhibit a reduction of side branching, a retardation of floral initiation, and a decrease in floral productivity when exposed daily for 5-7 hr to 0.1 ppm ozone for 1-3 months. These plants also exhibit a reduction in leaf size, an increase in internode length, a progressive destruction of leaf tissue and eventual defoliation in the case of geranium. Cultivars of petunia exposed to chronic low levels of oxidant are slower to flower and bear fewer flowers than those same cultivars grown in charcoal-filtered air from the same source. These plant effects are of special interest because they occur in the presence of pollutant levels encountered daily in areas surrounding US metropolitan centres. 6 references, 3 figures.

  11. Plant response to chronic exposure to low levels of oxidant-type pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, W.A.

    1970-01-01

    Cultivars of geranium and carnation exhibit a reduction of side branching, a retardation of floral initiation, and a decrease in floral productivity when exposed daily for 5-7 h to 0.1 ppm ozone for 1-3 months. These plants also exhibit a reduction in leaf size, an increase in internode length, a progressive destruction of leaf tissue and eventual defoliation in the case of geranium. Cultivars of petunia exposed to chronic low levels of oxidant are slower to flower and bear fewer flowers than those same cultivars grown in charcoal-filtered air from the same source. These plant effects are of special interest because they occur in the presence of pollutant levels encountered daily in areas surrounding US metropolitan centers.

  12. The risk of childhood leukaemia from low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.; Binks, K.; Slovak, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is an established cause of leukemia in childhood ( -5 excess childhood leukemia cases per mSv for fetal exposure, around 1.5 x 10 -5 excess childhood leukemia cases per mSv for irradiation in early infancy, this latter risk coefficient reducing with advancing age at exposure . The closeness of the risk coefficients for exposure just before and after birth (derived from different sources of information) is reassuring. It is these coefficients that are used in assessing the risk of childhood leukemia due to, say, the operation of a nuclear facility, and such assessments have demonstrated that the risk due to normal operations will produce a very small number of extra cases, a 'signal' that will not be detectable above the unavoidable 'noise' of statistical fluctuations in background incidence rates . However, reports of childhood leukemia 'clusters' near certain nuclear installations in Britain have led to the accuracy of these assessments being challenged. (author)

  13. Low-Level Effects of VX Vapor Exposure on Pupil Diameter and Cholinesterase Levels in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, B. J; Crosier, R. B; Sommerville, D. R; Jakubowski, E. M., Jr; Anthony, J. S., Jr; Scotto, J; Hulet, S. W; Whalley, C. E; Crouse, C. L; Matson, K. L; Miller, D. B

    2004-01-01

    .... Results show that the median effective dosages (ECt sub 50) for miosis are approximately an order of magnitude lower than the calculated ECt sub 50 values for both GB and GF at each of the 3 exposure durations...

  14. Evaluating public involvement in the national low-level radioactive-waste-management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An extensive public involvement approach has been developed to obtain the views and assistance of state and local governments, citizen groups, industry, professional societies and other organizations in the preparation and review of a national strategy document on low-level radioactive wastes. Six evaluators who have a wide diversity of backgrounds were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. This final report presents findings discussed under the headings: Introduction to the Recent History of Low-level Waste Policy Development (LLWMP) and the Role of Public Participation; Public Participation Mechanisms Employed in Preparing the National Strategy Document; the Keystone's Evaluation Process; and Findings. The overall evaluation of the process was very positive. It was clear that the LLWMP staff was seriously committed to building a credible public participation process. The evaluation team was provided rough cost figures for the various components of the LLWMP effort and concluded that, in its opinion, the public participation process provided benefits to the federal government that exceeded its costs. Moreover, the costs of the individual components were not out of line with each one's usefulness and contribution to the overall effort

  15. No effect of low-level chronic neonicotinoid exposure on bumblebee learning and fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija Piiroinen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many pollinators have declined in abundance and diversity worldwide, presenting a potential threat to agricultural productivity, biodiversity and the functioning of natural ecosystems. One of the most debated factors proposed to be contributing to pollinator declines is exposure to pesticides, particularly neonicotinoids, a widely used class of systemic insecticide. Also, newly emerging parasites and diseases, thought to be spread via contact with managed honeybees, may pose threats to other pollinators such as bumblebees. Compared to honeybees, bumblebees could be particularly vulnerable to the effects of stressors due to their smaller and more short-lived colonies. Here, we studied the effect of field-realistic, chronic clothianidin exposure and inoculation with the parasite Nosema ceranae on survival, fecundity, sugar water collection and learning using queenless Bombus terrestris audax microcolonies in the laboratory. Chronic exposure to 1 ppb clothianidin had no significant effects on the traits studied. Interestingly, pesticide exposure in combination with additional stress caused by harnessing bees for Proboscis Extension Response (PER learning assays, led to an increase in mortality. In contrast to previous findings, the bees did not become infected by N. ceranae after experimental inoculation with the parasite spores, suggesting variability in host resistance or parasite virulence. However, this treatment induced a slight, short-term reduction in sugar water collection, potentially through stimulation of the immune system of the bees. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to 1 ppb clothianidin does not have adverse effects on bumblebee fecundity or learning ability.

  16. Mapping very low level occupational exposure in medical imaging: A useful tool in risk communication and decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covens, P., E-mail: pcovens@vub.ac.be [Health Physics Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Beeldvorming en Fysische Wetenschappen (BEFY), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Berus, D., E-mail: dberus@vub.ac.be [Health Physics Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Mey, J. de, E-mail: Johan.DeMey@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Beeldvorming en Fysische Wetenschappen (BEFY), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Buls, N., E-mail: Nico.Buls@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Beeldvorming en Fysische Wetenschappen (BEFY), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    Objectives: The use of ionising radiation in medical imaging is accompanied with occupational exposure which should be limited by optimised room design and safety instructions. These measures can however not prevent that workers are exposed to instantaneous dose rates, e.g. the residual exposure through shielding or the exposure of discharged nuclear medicine patients. The latter elements are often questioned by workers and detailed assessment should give more information about the impact on the individual radiation dose. Methods: Cumulated radiation exposure was measured in a university hospital during a period of 6 months by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters. Radiation exposure was measured at background locations and at locations where enhanced exposure levels are expected but where the impact on the individual exposure is unclear. Results: The results show a normal distribution of the cumulated background radiation level. No enhanced cumulated radiation exposure which significantly differs from this background level could be found during the operation of intra-oral apparatus, during ultrasonography procedures among nuclear medicine patients and at operator consoles of most CT-rooms. Conclusions: This 6 months survey offers useful information about occupational low level exposure in medical imaging and the findings can be useful in both risk communication and decision making.

  17. Mapping very low level occupational exposure in medical imaging: A useful tool in risk communication and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covens, P.; Berus, D.; Mey, J. de; Buls, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The use of ionising radiation in medical imaging is accompanied with occupational exposure which should be limited by optimised room design and safety instructions. These measures can however not prevent that workers are exposed to instantaneous dose rates, e.g. the residual exposure through shielding or the exposure of discharged nuclear medicine patients. The latter elements are often questioned by workers and detailed assessment should give more information about the impact on the individual radiation dose. Methods: Cumulated radiation exposure was measured in a university hospital during a period of 6 months by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters. Radiation exposure was measured at background locations and at locations where enhanced exposure levels are expected but where the impact on the individual exposure is unclear. Results: The results show a normal distribution of the cumulated background radiation level. No enhanced cumulated radiation exposure which significantly differs from this background level could be found during the operation of intra-oral apparatus, during ultrasonography procedures among nuclear medicine patients and at operator consoles of most CT-rooms. Conclusions: This 6 months survey offers useful information about occupational low level exposure in medical imaging and the findings can be useful in both risk communication and decision making

  18. SRXRF study of trace elements in hippocampus of pup rats after prenatal and postnatal exposure to low-level mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang; Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang; Wang Meng; Shi Junwen; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    Since the pollution of mercury in the environment still keeps high, more and more concerns over mercury toxicity are focused on the potential risk associated with relatively low-dose and long-term mercury exposure in the environment. It is well known that fetus and developing children are the susceptive victims of mercury damage. Therefore, high attention is focused on whether the prenatal and postnatal exposure to relatively low level of mercury will be harmful to children development. Some epidemiological studies reported that the methylmercury-related neuropsychological deficits were mainly found in the domains of cognitional parts, such as language, attention, memory, and so forth, Our previous study found out that high level of mercury was accumulated in the pup hippocampus after their prenatal and postnatal exposure to low dose of inorganic mercury. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF) is characterized of its simultaneous determination of multi-elements, high sensitivity, small sampling amount and microanalysis. SRXRF does not cause the damage of irradiated samples. Thus, it makes possible to measure the distributions of trace elements in a selected area. In this study, in order to study the effects of low-level mercury exposure to pup rat brain, some oxidation-related elements, e.g. Cu, Fe and Mn in pup hippocampus after in utero and weaning exposure to low-level inorganic mercury were determined by SRXRF. The experiment was performed at a synchrotron radiation facility at Institute of High Energy Physics. And the spot size of the beam irradiating on the sample was adjusted to about 100 x 200 μm 2 , Each spot was irradiated for about 100 s. The spectra were analyzed by the AXIL program. Additionally, the activities of some important antioxidant enzymes, such as GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, were also measured together with the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that mercury exposure could lead to significant increase of both

  19. Radiation hormesis: an outcome of exposure to low level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a benign environmental agent at background levels. Human population is always exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources. Important sources are cosmic rays which come from outer space and from the surface of the sun, terrestrial radionuclides which occur in the earths crust in various geological formations in soils, rocks, building materials, plants, water, food, air and in the human body itself. With the increasing use of radiation in health facilities, scientific research, industry and agriculture, the study of impact of low-level ionizing radiation on environment and possible health effects on future generations has been a cause of concern in recent years. As regards the effects, it is established fact that high doses of ionizing radiation are harmful to health, there exists, however, a substantial controversy regarding the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (LLIR). In the present paper, brief review of the available literature, data and reports on stimulation by low-dose irradiation and recent data supporting radiation hormesis. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis, besides the comparison of the dose rates arising from natural and manmade sources to the Indian population. This overview summarizes various reports

  20. Metabolic response to low-level toxicant exposure in a novel renal tubule epithelial cell system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, James Keith; Athersuch, Toby James; Cavill, Rachel; Radford, Robert; Slattery, Craig; Jennings, Paul; McMorrow, Tara; Ryan, Michael P; Ebbels, Timothy Mark David; Keun, Hector Charles

    Toxicity testing is vital to protect human health from exposure to toxic chemicals in the environment. Furthermore, combining novel cellular models with molecular profiling technologies, such as metabolomics can add new insight into the molecular basis of toxicity and provide a rich source of

  1. Effects of low-level exposure to xenobiotics present in paints on oxidative stress in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele; Brucker, Natália; Bulcão, Rachel; Freitas, Fernando; Guerreiro, Gilian; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Waechter, Fernanda; Hirakata, Vânia; Linden, Rafael; Thiesen, Flávia V; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2010-09-15

    Paints are composed of an extensive variety of hazardous substances, such as organic solvents and heavy metals. Biomonitoring is an essential tool for assessing the risk to occupational health. Thus, this study analyzed the levels of biomarkers of exposure for toluene, xylene, styrene, ethylbenzene, and lead, as well as the oxidative stress biomarker alterations in painters of an industry. Lipid peroxidation biomarker (MDA), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), nonprotein thyol groups, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) were analyzed in exposed and nonexposed subjects. We estimated which of the paint constituents have the greatest influence on the changes in the biomarkers of oxidative stress in this case of co-exposure. The results demonstrated that despite the fact that all the biomarkers of exposure were below the biological exposure limits, the MDA levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, while nonprotein thyol groups and ALA-D levels were decreased in painters when compared with nonexposed subjects. After statistic test, toluene could be suggested as the principal factor responsible for increased lipid peroxidation and inhibition of ALA-D enzyme; however, further studies on the inhibition of ALA-D enzyme by toluene are necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of cytogenetic damage in nuclear medicine personnel occupationally exposed to low-level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Poropat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite intensive research over the last few decades, there still remains considerable uncertainty as to the genetic impact of ionising radiation on human populations, particularly at low levels. The aim of this study was to provide data on genetic hazards associated with occupational exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in nuclear medicine departments. The assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of medical staff was performed using the chromosome aberration (CA) test. Exposed subjects showed significantly higher frequencies of CA than controls. There were significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage within the exposed population, indicating differences in genome sensitivity. Age and gender were not confounding factors, while smoking enhanced the levels of DNA damage only in control subjects. The present study suggests that chronic exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in nuclear medicine departments causes genotoxic damage. Therefore, to avoid potential genotoxic effects, the exposed medical personnel should minimise radiation exposure wherever possible. Our results also point to the significance of biological indicators providing information about the actual risk to the radiation exposed individuals.(author)

  3. Evaluation of low-level waste analysis using the MADAM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Measurement and Accountability

    1994-08-01

    Previously, the important hardware features and capabilities for the Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system were reported. MADAM is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrated commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability together with multienergy X-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporated a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and high resolution gamma-ray isotopics analysis proficiency. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of its low-level waste measurement performance has been conducted using a set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards. The evaluation studied existing analysis algorithms, matrix and attenuation effects, source position as a function of detector response, instrument stability, and sensitivity. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software. This report discusses the results of the evaluation program and the software modifications that have been developed.

  4. Evaluation of low-level waste analysis using the MADAM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, the important hardware features and capabilities for the Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system were reported. MADAM is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrated commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability together with multienergy X-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporated a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and high resolution gamma-ray isotopics analysis proficiency. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of its low-level waste measurement performance has been conducted using a set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards. The evaluation studied existing analysis algorithms, matrix and attenuation effects, source position as a function of detector response, instrument stability, and sensitivity. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software. This report discusses the results of the evaluation program and the software modifications that have been developed

  5. Understanding and characterisation of the risks to human health from exposure to low levels of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation can lead to a wide variety of health effects. Cancer is judged to be the main risk from radiation at low doses and low dose rates, and controlling this risk has been the main factor in developing radiation protection practice. Conventional paradigms of radiobiology and radiation carcinogenesis have served to guide extrapolations of epidemiological data on exposed human populations, so as to estimate risks at low doses and low dose rates, to other types of ionising radiation and to non-uniform exposures. These paradigms are founded on a century of experimental and theoretical studies, but nevertheless there remain many uncertainties. Major assumptions and simplifications have been introduced to achieve a practical system of additive doses (and implied risks) for radiation protection. Advancing epidemiological studies and experimental research continue to reduce uncertainties in some areas while, in others, they raise new challenges to the generality and applicability of the conventional paradigms. (authors)

  6. Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnone, F.; Perbellini, L.; Romeo, L.; Cerpelloni, M.; Bianchin, M.; Tonello, A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, University of Verona, Policlinico Borgo Roma, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    1999-09-01

    The occupational airborne exposure to benzene of 150 workers employed in petrol stations and a refinery plant was assessed using personal sampling pumps. All workers provided blood samples after the end of work and on the following morning before resuming work. Benzene concentrations in the blood of 243 non-occupationally-exposed subjects were also measured. The median occupational benzene exposure for all 150 workers studied was 80 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Overall median blood benzene of all workers was 251 ng/l at the end of the shift, and 174 ng/l the following morning. The benzene concentrations measured in blood collected the following morning proved to be significantly lower than those measured at the end of the shift. Median blood benzene for the 243 'normal' subjects was 128 ng/l, which was significantly lower than that measured in the workers before a new work shift. The median blood benzene concentration was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, both in the general population (210 ng/l vs. 110 ng/l) and in the exposed workers at the end of the shift (476 ng/l vs. 132 ng/l) and the following morning (360 ng/l vs. 99 ng/l). End-of-shift blood benzene correlated significantly with environmental exposure; this correlation was better in the 83 non-smokers than in the 67 smokers. In non-smokers with the median benzene occupational exposure of 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, no difference was found in blood benzene concentration in exposed and non-exposed subjects.

  7. A biological basis for the linear non-threshold dose-response relationship for low-level carcinogen exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines low-level dose-response relationships in terms of the two-stage mouse tumorigenesis model. Analyzes the feasibility of the linear non-threshold dose-response model which was first adopted for use in the assessment of cancer risks from ionizing radiation and more recently from chemical carcinogens. Finds that both the interaction of B(a)P with epidermal DNA of the mouse skin and the dose-response relationship for the initiation stage of mouse skin tumorigenesis showed a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. Concludes that low level exposure to environmental carcinogens has a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship with the carcinogen acting as an initiator and the promoting action being supplied by the factors that are responsible for the background cancer rate in the target tissue

  8. Radiation and health: low-level-ionizing radiation exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, brief review of the available literature, data and reports of various radiation exposure and protection studies is presented. An in-depth analysis of reports available suggests that the possible beneficial outcomes of exposure to LLIR are: increased Growth rate, Development, Neurogenesis, Memory, Fecundity (Fertility), Immunity (Resistance to diseases due to large doses of radiation) and Lifespan (Longevity) Decreased Cancer deaths, Cardiovascular deaths, Respiratory deaths, Neonatal deaths, Sterility, Infection, Premature deaths. The findings also suggest that the LNT theory is overly stated for assessing carcinogenic risks at low doses. It is not scientifically justified and should be banned as it creates radio phobia thereby blocking the efforts to supply reliable, environmentally friendly nuclear energy and important medical therapies. There is no need for anyone to live in fear of serious health consequences from the radioactivity that comes out from nuclear installations and exposures in the range of background radiation. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis, besides the comparison of the dose rates arising from natural and manmade sources to Indian population

  9. Reaction of the immune system to low-level RF/MW exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation have been used in the modern world for many years. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones in recent years has seen increased interest in relation to the possible health effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation. In 2011 a group of international experts organized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. The incomplete knowledge of RF/MW-related cancer risks has initiated searches for biological indicators sensitive enough to measure the “weak biological influence” of RF/MWs. One of the main candidates is the immune system, which is able to react in a measurable way to discrete environmental stimuli. In this review, the impacts of weak RF/MW fields, including cell phone radiation, on various immune functions, both in vitro and in vivo, are discussed. The bulk of available evidence clearly indicates that various shifts in the number and/or activity of immunocompetent cells are possible, however the results are inconsistent. For example, a number of lymphocyte functions have been found to be enhanced and weakened within single experiments based on exposure to similar intensities of MW radiation. Certain premises exist which indicate that, in general, short-term exposure to weak MW radiation may temporarily stimulate certain humoral or cellular immune functions, while prolonged irradiation inhibits the same functions

  10. Reaction of the immune system to low-level RF/MW exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw, E-mail: szmigielski@wihe.waw.pl

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation have been used in the modern world for many years. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones in recent years has seen increased interest in relation to the possible health effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation. In 2011 a group of international experts organized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. The incomplete knowledge of RF/MW-related cancer risks has initiated searches for biological indicators sensitive enough to measure the “weak biological influence” of RF/MWs. One of the main candidates is the immune system, which is able to react in a measurable way to discrete environmental stimuli. In this review, the impacts of weak RF/MW fields, including cell phone radiation, on various immune functions, both in vitro and in vivo, are discussed. The bulk of available evidence clearly indicates that various shifts in the number and/or activity of immunocompetent cells are possible, however the results are inconsistent. For example, a number of lymphocyte functions have been found to be enhanced and weakened within single experiments based on exposure to similar intensities of MW radiation. Certain premises exist which indicate that, in general, short-term exposure to weak MW radiation may temporarily stimulate certain humoral or cellular immune functions, while prolonged irradiation inhibits the same functions.

  11. Environmental-pathways analysis for evaluation of a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Hill, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of a site for the shallow land burial of low-level waste is evaluated by an environmental-pathways analysis. The environmental-pathways analysis considers the probable paths for the transport of contamination to man and models the long-term transport of contamination to determine the resulting dose-to-man. The model of the long-term transport of contamination is developed for a proposed site using data obtained from a comprehensive laboratory and field investigation. The proposed site is located at the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Reservation, Piketon, Ohio and is planned to accept low-level radioactive waste generated by the enrichment of uranium. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the waste and determine the wastes' leaching and retardation characteristics with site soils and groundwater. Comprehensive drilling, sampling and laboratory investigations were performed to provide the necessary information for interpreting the site's geology and hydrology. Field tests were performed to further quantify the site's hydrology. The pathway of greatest concern is the migration of contaminated groundwater and subsequent consumption by man. This pathway was modeled using a numerical simulation of the long-term transport of contamination. Conservative scenarios were developed for leachate generation and migration through the geohydrologic system. The dose-to-man determined from the pathways analysis formed the basis for evaluating site acceptability and providing recommendations for site design and development

  12. Environmental pathways analysis for evaluation of a low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.; Hill, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a site for the shallow land burial of low-level waste is evaluated by an environmental pathways analysis. The environmental pathways analysis considers the probable paths for the transport of contamination to man and models the long-term transport of contamination to determine the resulting dose to man. The model of the long-term transport of contamination is developed for a proposed site using data obtained from a comprehensive laboratory and field investigation. The proposed site is located at the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Reservation, Piketon, Ohio, and is planned to accept low-level radioactive waste generated by the enrichment of uranium. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the waste and determine the wastes' leaching and retardation characteristics with site soils and groundwater. Comprehensive drilling, sampling and laboratory investigations were performed to provide the necessary information for interpreting the site's geology and hydrology. Field tests were performed to further quantify the site's hydrology. The pathway of greatest concern is the migration of contaminated groundwater and subsequent consumption by man. This pathway was modelled using a numerical simulation of the long-term transport of contamination. Conservative scenarios were developed for leachate generation and migration through the geohydrologic system. The dose to man determined from the pathways analysis formed the basis for evaluating site acceptability and providing recommendations for site design and development. (author)

  13. Progressive behavioral changes in rats after exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.; Mullenix, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on the developing brain may be not only prolonged but progressive. Fetuses were exposed to 0.75 Gy of ionizing radiation on gestational day 15 through whole body exposure of the pregnant rat. Three behavioral tests (gait analysis, continuous corridor activity and photographic analysis of sequences of behavioral acts) were performed at 1 and 3 months, postnatally. Body weight and thickness of the cerebral cortex of irradiated rats were 10-15 percent below controls throughout the period of study. Behavior in all tests was more affected at 3 months than at 1 month of age. Gait of control rats, as measured by the angle of advanced of hind feet, widened about 20 percent for males and 40 percent for females from 1 to 3 months, as expected, while, in irradiated rats, the angle widened only about 10 percent. Continuous corridor activity increased less than 10 percent in controls and about 35 percent in irradiated rats over the same period. In photographic analysis of behavior, controls increased their time spent standing by about 50 percent in males and 20 percent in females from 1 to 3 months of age. Irradiated males increased time standing only about 10 percent and irradiated females decreased about 30 percent over the same period. The data obtained in these experiments support other evidence that some behavioral alterations from perinatal exposure to radiation become more marked with maturation

  14. Low Level Exposure to GB Vapor in Air: Diagnosis/Dosimetry, Lowest Observable Effect Levels, Performance-Incapacitation, and Possible Delayed Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...: (I) A glass exposure chamber for whole-body exposure of unanesthetized guinea pigs and marmosets to low levels of OB vapor in air has been designed and constructed, and is in the implementation stage...

  15. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  16. Cytogenetic damage at low doses and the problem of bioindication of chronic low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Nesterov, E.B.; Vasiliev, D.V.; Dikareva, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis undertaken by us of the experimentally observed cellular responses to low dose irradiation has shown that the relationship between the yield of induced cytogenetic damage and radiation dose within low dose range is non-linear and universal in character. Because of the relationship between the yield of cytogenetic damage and dose within low dose range is non-linear, the aberration frequency cannot be used in biological dosimetry in the most important in terms of practical application case. The cytogenetic damage frequency cannot be used in biological dosimetry also because of the probability of synergistic and antagonistic interaction effects of the different nature factors simultaneously acting on test-object in real conditions is high within low dose (concentration) range. In our experimental study of the regularities in the yield of structural mutations in conditions of combined influence of ionizing radiation, heavy metals and pesticides it was found that synergistic and antagonistic effects are mainly induced in conditions of combined action of low exposure injuring agents. Experiments on agricultural plants were carried out in 1986-1989 at the 30-km zone around Chernobyl NPP. It was shown that chronic low dose exposure could cause an inheritable destabilization of genetic structures expressing in increase of cytogenetic damage and yield karyotypic variability in offspring's of irradiated organisms. Obviously exactly this circumstance is the reason of the phenomenon found in our researches of significant time delay of cytogenetic damage reduction rate from radioactive pollution reduction rate from time past from the accident moment. Research of cytogenetic damage of reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) plant organs of the Pinus sylvestris tree micropopulations growing in contrast by radioactive pollution level sites of the 30-km ChNPP zone and also in the vicinity of the industrial plant > for processing and temporary storage of

  17. Dose-to-risk conversion factors for low-level tritium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, a large number of radiobiological studies have become available for tritium-many of them focusing on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta rays. These and previous studies indicate that tritium in body water produces the same spectrum of radiogenic effects, e.g., cancer, genetic effects, developmental abnormalities, and reproductive effects, observed following whole-body exposure to penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and x rays. The only significant difference in biological response between tritium beta-rays and the other common low linear-energy transfer (LET) radiations, such as gamma rays and x rays, appears to be the greater biological effectiveness of tritium beta rays. For example, tritium in the oxide form (HTO) is about 2 to 3 times more effective at low doses or low dose rates than gamma rays from 137 Cs or 60 CO (Straume, 1991). When tritium is bound to organic molecules, RBE values may be somewhat larger than those for HTO. It is now clear from the wealth of tritium data available that RBEs for tritium beta rays are higher than the quality factor of unity generally used in radiation protection

  18. Long-term effects of low-level radiation exposure, experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1978-05-01

    Important considerations in the quantitative estimate of risk of carcinogenesis in the human being are the related factors of the shape of the dose-effect curve, the risk per rad at very low doses (about 10 rad or less) vs. higher doses, and the effect per rad of higher doses delivered at very low dose rates. Data on the human being, though extensive and adequate for quantitative risk estimation at high doses and dose rates, do not allow definitive conclusions on these factors. Data on eukaryotic cells are represented well and in detail by a modified quadratic relationship with a definite linear term, and indicate that both the simple linear and the pure quadratic relationships are rare or essentially nonexistent. A dose rate effect is ubiquitous, but the extent varies widely among different tumors and species. Extensive data on carcinogenesis in mammals are in general represented well by the linear-quadratic model, although simple linearity and the pure quadratic (or threshold) models cannot be excluded in a few tumor systems. Considerations and uncertainties in addition to curve shape and dose rate may tend to offset any credit that might be afforded by dose rate. Hence, while it is almost certain that dose rate does at least to some degree affect (reduce) the current risk estimated based on linearity, it also seems clear that, at least for some time, current carcinogenesis risk estimates based on linearity probably will continue to be used as an approximation of the degree of risk associated with radiation exposure at very low doses and dose rates

  19. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuck, D.L.; Wade, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics' perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM'93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams

  20. Evaluation of dynamic compaction of low level waste burial trenches containing B-25 boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, owned by the US Department of Energy, is preparing to close an additional 13.8 ha of burial grounds under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. In preparation for this closure, the dynamic compaction facility was designed and constructed to address unresolved design issues. Among these issues is the evaluation of the ability for dynamic compaction to consolidate buried low level waste containers. A model burial trench containing simulated clean wastes was dynamically compacted, after which the materials were excavated and compaction quantified. The test determined that under existing success criteria, the bottom tier of stacked B-25 boxes were not being consolidated. A quasi-structural layer was formed midway through the stacked boxes, which absorbed the compactive energy. Resulting from these observations and the data collected, a new success criterion is recommended which depends on the relative displacement per drop. The test successfully demonstrated that dynamic compaction will consolidate buried metal boxes

  1. Assessment of Relevant Exposure Pathways in Scenario of Reuse of Very Low Level Radioactive Steel in Tunnel Constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning process and related management of generated radioactive materials during this process became important topics during last several years because of continuously increasing number of nuclear power plant approaching the end of their lifetime. The very low level radioactive waste category includes considerable amount of materials arising from decommissioning. In line with international incentives of optimization of the waste management process, alternative concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are considered. One of these concepts of such optimization is the conditional release of materials with their subsequent recycling and reuse in industrial or nuclear sector. This paper is devoted to an option of recycling and reuse of conditionally released steel in industrial sector, specifically in motorway tunnel constructions. It is assumed that very low level radioactive steel would be released and reused in form of steel reinforcing components, such as steel nets and bars, assembled in primary and secondary lining of motorway tunnel. Assessment of exposure pathways relevant for construction, operation and post-operation period was performed. The computational tool VISIPLAN 3D ALARA was used for calculation of external individual effective dose for personnel constructing the tunnel and for members of the public driving through already built motorway tunnel. The simulation software GOLDSIM was used for the assessment of internal exposure pathways. GOLDSIM environment enables modelling of degradation processes and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated zone of subsoil. There are international recommendations available for the concept of release of radioactive materials into the environment derived from the principles that the individual effective dose received by critical individual must not exceed some tens of microSv/yr. Dose limits 10 microSv/yr or 50 microSv/yr considering specific conditions are stated in Slovak legislation

  2. Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity of Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Low Levels of BTEX in Gas Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX can lead to multiple health injuries. However, what remains uncertain is the effect of long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX. Thus, we determined the BTEX levels in the air from the refueling and office areas in gas stations. Then we collected workers’ (200 refueling vs. 52 office workers peripheral blood samples to analyze the serum total-superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels. DNA damage was analyzed by the comet assay and micronucleus test in buccal epithelial cells. We found that the levels of BTEX in refueling areas were significantly higher than those in office areas (p < 0.001. The serum T-SOD and GSH of refueling workers were significantly lower than those in office workers (p < 0.001. By contrast, the serum MDA and 8-OHdG of refueling workers were significantly higher than those of office workers (p < 0.001, MDA; p = 0.025, 8-OHdG. Furthermore, tail and Olive tail moments in refueling workers were longer (p = 0.004, tail moment; p = 0.001, Olive tail moment, and the micronucleus rate was higher (p < 0.001 than those in office workers. Taken together, long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX may reduce the antioxidant ability and increase the risk of DNA damage in refueling workers of gas stations.

  3. Sub-acute occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to low-level exposure to diisocyanates in a secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J; Knolle, J; Sennekamp, J; Schulz, K T; Hahn, J U; Hering, K G; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Merget, R

    2008-09-01

    There is virtually no information in the literature about the exposure levels needed to induce hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) by diisocyanates. The present study reports a case of occupational HP due to diisocyanates after low-level exposure. A 53-yr-old female never-smoker developed progressive shortness of breath on exertion, cough, fatigue and flu-like symptoms shortly after she began work as a secretary of a car body repair shop. A diagnosis of HP was made 2 yrs later, based on a restrictive ventilatory defect, a reticulonodular and discrete ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage and specific immunoglobulin G antibodies to diisocyanate human serum albumin conjugates in the patient's serum. The diagnosis was confirmed by recovery after exposure cessation and deterioration after re-exposure. Ambient monitoring revealed air concentrations of different diisocyanate monomers below the detection limit in both the patient's work station and in front of the paint spray booths, with the exception of one measurement that showed 4,4-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate concentrations of 3 microg x m(-3) in front of one booth (corresponding to a total reactive isocyanate group concentration of 1 microg x m(-3)). The present authors conclude that concentrations of diisocyanates far below current exposure limits may induce hypersensitivity pneumonitis in susceptible subjects.

  4. Comparative stochastic effects from low level exposure of mice to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewissen, D.J.; Ugarte, A.S.; Rust, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1,133 C57 Black/6M mick of both sexes were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups. In the first group, mice received a single injection of tritiated water (HTO) at weaning time. In the second group, weaned mice were exposed to tritated drinking water for the entire lifespan. In the third group the female parent received one single injection of HTO following delivery. In the fourth group, the female parent and her progeny were exposed to tritiated drinking water for the entire lifespan. In the fifth group, dams were exposed to tritiated drinking water from the beginning of pregnancy for the entire lifespan. (Drinking HTO 1 μCi/ml; single dose of HTO 1 μCi). Data from experimental groups were statistically evaluated vis a vis extensive control groups (+- 1,000 control mice of either sex). All mice were autopsied as moribund or soon after death and tissues were microscopically examined. A significantly increased incidence of reticulum cell sarcomas was observed in female offspring from dams in the third and fifth groups. A significantly increased incidence of hepatic tumors was observed in male offspring in the fourth group. Mean survival times did not significantly differ within experimental groups but were significantly different from controls

  5. Radiation in complex exposure situations. Assessing health risks at low levels from concomitant exposures to radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.; Burkart, W.

    2000-01-01

    Health effects from exposures to ionizing radiation are in general the result of complex multi-step reaction chains involving changes and responses on the level of molecules, cells, tissues and organisms. In environmental low dose exposure situations ionizing radiation only contributes a small fraction to the life-long attack on DNA by other exogenous and endogenous genotoxins. Nevertheless, efforts to assess and quantify deleterious effects at low exposure levels are directed mainly towards radiation as a single isolated agent, and rarely towards the concomitant presence of other natural and anthropogenic toxicants. Only these combined exposures may lead to observable health risk effects. In addition they might differ from those expected from simple addition of the individual risks due to interaction. The existing data base on combined effects is rudimentary, mainly descriptive and rarely covers exposure ranges large enough to make direct inferences to present day low dose exposure situations. Therefore, any risk assessment will have to consider the question whether combined effects, i.e. interaction between two or more agents will influence the health outcome from specific exposure situations in such a way that predictions derived from simple standard exposure situations would have to be revised. In view of the multitude of possible interactions between the large number of potentially harmful agents in the human environment, descriptive approaches will have to be supplemented by the use of mechanistic models for critical health endpoints such as cancer. Agents will have to be grouped depending on their physical or chemical mode of action at the molecular and cellular level, to generalize and predict the outcome of combined exposures at low exposure levels and the possibility of interactions. (author)

  6. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.; Wehmann, G.; Thamer, B.J.; Card, D.H.

    1979-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the most viable alternatives for disposal of solid low-level radioactive wastes is presented to aid in evaluating national waste management options. Four basic alternative methods are analyzed and compared to the present practice of shallow land burial. These include deeper burial, disposal in mined cavities, disposal in engineered structures, and disposal in the oceans. Some variations in the basic methods are also presented. Technical, socio-political, and economic factors are assigened relative importances (weights) and evaluated for the various alternatives. Based on disposal of a constant volume of waste with given nuclear characteristics, the most desirable alternatives to shallow land burial in descending order of desirability appear to be: improving present practices, deeper burial, use of acceptable abandoned mines, new mines, ocean dumping, and structural disposal concepts. It must be emphasized that the evaluations reported here are generic, and use of other weights or different values for specific sites could change the conclusions and ordering of alternatives determined in this study. Impacts and costs associated with transportation over long distances predominate over differences among alternatives, indicating the desireability of establishing regional waste disposal locations. The impacts presented are for generic comparisons among alternatives, and are not intended to be predictive of the performance of any actual waste disposal facility

  7. Evaluating Options for Disposal of Low-Level Waste at LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, K.M.; French, S.B.; Boyance, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates a wide range of waste types, including solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW), in conducting its national security mission and other science and technology activities. Although most of LANL's LLW has been disposed on-site, limitations on expansion, stakeholder concerns, and the potential for significant volumes from environmental remediation and decontamination and demolition (D and D) have led LANL to evaluate the feasibility of increasing off-site disposal. It appears that most of the LLW generated at LANL would meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Nevada Test Site or available commercial LLW disposal sites. Some waste is considered to be problematic to transport to off-site disposal even though it could meet the off-site Waste Acceptance Criteria. Cost estimates for off-site disposal are being evaluated for comparison to estimated costs under the current plans for continued on-site disposal. An evaluation of risks associated with both on-site and off-site disposal will also be conducted. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of masticatory muscles spasticity in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Gouw-Soares, Sheila Cynthia; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Frigo, Lucio; Baeder, Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently present in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the spasticity of the masseter and anterior temporal muscle fibers in children with CP over three weeks of intermittent laser exposures. The bite force (BF) of the masticatory muscles and the amplitude of mouth opening were evaluated before and after laser irradiation in 30 children with CP. Both sides of the masseter and temporalis muscles were irradiated with low-intensity diode laser pulses of 808-nm wavelength six times over three consecutive weeks. During the subsequent three weeks of postlaser exposures, although no laser treatment was applied, the evaluation parameters were measured and recorded. A significant improvement in the amplitude of mouth opening and a decrease in the BF were observed in the weeks following LLLT (Peffective short-term therapeutic tool. This method increased the amplitude of mouth opening and decreased the muscle tonus of children with spastic CP over a time course of three weeks of intermittent laser applications.

  9. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level

  10. Kinetics of granulocytic and erythroid progenitor cells are affected differently by short-term, low-level benzene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempster, A.M.; Snyder, C.A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States). Inst. of Environmental Medicine)

    1991-09-01

    Mice were exposed to either air or 10 ppm benzene for 6 h/d X 5 d. Immediately after the last exposure, mice were injected, i.v., with either saline or hydroxyurea (HU). The dose of HU was sufficient to kill hematopoietic cells in or near S-phase of the cell cycle and sufficient to synchronize the surviving populations of hematopoietic cells. Three days after benzene exposure, CFU-E numbers had declined to 50% of control values while CFU-GM numbers were equal to control values at this time. The benzene exposures were sufficient to double the percentage of CFU-E in S-phase but produced no such increase among CFU-Gm. During 3 days of recovery from benzene exposure and HU treatment, the CFU-E population expanded 30-fold while the CFU-GM population expanded less than 3-fold. Following benzene exposure and HU treatment, both progenitor cells produced elevated numbers of their respective progeny. When CFU-E from benzene-exposed mice were cultured with varying concentrations of erythropoietin (EPO), the response at maximal EPO concentration was 66% of the response by control CFU-E. This strongly suggests that the CFU-E populations from benzene-exposed mice had been depleted of cells in or near S-phase. The results indicate that CFU-GM respond to low-level benzene exposure by increasing their rate of differentiation but not their rate of proliferation, while CFU-E respond by increasing both their rates of differentiation and proliferation. We speculate that it is the increase in CFU-E proliferation that renders these cells more susceptible to benzene than their granulocytic counterparts, especially those CFU-E at or near the S-phase of the cell cycle. (orig.).

  11. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  12. Radioactivity evaluation method for pre-packed concrete packages of low-level dry active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Funahashi, Tetsuo; Watabe, Kiyomi; Ozawa, Yukitoshi; Kashiwagi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Low-level dry active wastes of nuclear power plants are grouted with cement mortal in a container and planned to disposed into the shallow land disposal site. The characteristics of radionuclides contained in dry active wastes are same as homogeneous solidified wastes. In the previous report, we reported the applicability of the radioactivity evaluation methods established for homogeneous solidified wastes to pre-packed concrete packages. This report outlines the developed radioactivity evaluation methods for pre-packed concrete packages based upon recent data. Since the characteristics of dry active wastes depend upon the plant system in which dry active wastes originate and the types of contamination, sampling of wastes and activity measurement were executed to derive scaling factors. The radioactivity measurement methods were also verified. The applicability of non-destructive methods to measure radioactivity concentration of pre-packed concrete packages was examined by computer simulation. It is concluded that those methods are accurate enough to measure actual waste packages. (author)

  13. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors' offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ''performance evaluations'' for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE's MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues

  14. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Randomized Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneet Guram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment is time-consuming procedure. Pain is usually associated with orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM duration and pain perception. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind splint-mouth controlled clinical study includes 20 (8 males and 12 females orthodontic patients requiring bilateral canine retraction. Time taken for canine retraction with LLLT (Group A over control (Group B quadrant on the same patient was assessed along with pain experience using facial pain scale. The data were tabulated and statistically evaluated using SPSS 20 for windows (Microsoft, Chicago, IL, USA and t-test with P 0.05. There was statistically significant decrease in rate of canine retraction in Group A compared to Group B. There was statistically significant difference for maxillary and mandibular arches in Group A whereas it was not significant in Group B. Pain experience was statistically significant till 2nd day, and after 3rd day, it was not significant between the groups. Conclusion: LLLT can reduce the fixed OTM timing and pain experience.

  15. Effects of low-level sarin and cyclosarin exposure on white matter integrity in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Zhang, Yu; Buckley, Shannon

    2015-05-01

    We previously found evidence of reduced gray and white matter volume in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted low-level exposure to sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF). Because loss of white matter tissue integrity has been linked to both gray and white matter atrophy, the current study sought to test the hypothesis that GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure have evidence of disrupted white matter microstructural integrity. Measures of fractional anisotropy and directional (i.e., axial and radial) diffusivity were assessed from the 4T diffusion tensor images (DTI) of 59 GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure and 59 "matched" unexposed GW veterans (mean age: 48 ± 7 years). The DTI data were analyzed using regions of interest (ROI) analyses that accounted for age, sex, total brain gray and white matter volume, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, current major depression, and chronic multisymptom illness status. There were no significant group differences in fractional anisotropy or radial diffusivity. However, there was increased axial diffusivity in GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure compared to matched, unexposed veterans throughout the brain, including the temporal stem, corona radiata, superior and inferior (hippocampal) cingulum, inferior and superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, internal and external capsule, and superficial cortical white matter blades. Post hoc analysis revealed significant correlations between higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity with better neurobehavioral performance in unexposed GW veterans. In contrast, only increased axial diffusivity in posterior limb of the internal capsule was associated with better psychomotor function in GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure. The finding that increased axial diffusivity in a region of the brain that contains descending corticospinal fibers was associated with better psychomotor function and the lack of significant neurobehavioral deficits in veterans

  16. Neurophysiologic and Neuropathologic Effects in Monkeys of Low Level Exposures to Sarin, Pyridostigmine, Pesticides and Botulinum Toxoid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Carl

    1998-01-01

    .... Pilot studies are being performed to select doses of pyridostigmine bromide (PB), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and sarin (GE) to be used in two-week exposures with a 9-month post-dosing evaluation period...

  17. Tests for evaluating sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutton, R.J.; Butler, D.K.; Meade, R.B.; Patrick, D.M.; Strong, A.B.; Taylor, H.M. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    This report, the second of a series, identifies the tests and other means of evaluating or documenting the important characteristics of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The specific parameters were identified and explained in regard to their importance in characterizing disposal facilities in the previous report. More than half of the tests and procedures are standard methods recognized and used nationwide, most conspicuously the numerous chemical tests. Other tests are commonly used methods recognized widely as state of the art, e.g., geological and geophysical methods. The basis for choosing these state-of-the-art methods is discussed, and the concepts and procedures themselves are reviewed in the absence of standards for ready reference. Besides standards and state-of-the-art practices a third category of methods involves the use of existing data sources or recognized correlations in place of new testing or documentation. It is particularly important that mapping, logging, sampling, testing, interpretation, and analysis be conducted by technically qualified and professionally motivated personnel using appropriate equipment and facilities, and general guidance is provided in this direction. There will be cases where site-specific testing and measurement are indicated to be unnecessary on a technical basis. This report calls attention to the usual subordinate role of such parameters and their only infrequent need for testing

  18. Survey and evaluation of handling and disposing of solid low-level nuclear fuel cycle wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullarkey, T.B.; Jentz, T.L.; Connelly, J.M.; Kane, J.P.

    1976-10-01

    The report identifies the types and quantities of low-level solid radwaste for each portion of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on operating experiences at existing sites and design information for future installations. These facts are used to evaluate reference 1000 MWe reactor plants in terms of solid radwaste generation. The effect of waste volumes on disposal methods and land usage has also been determined, based on projections of nuclear power growth through the year 2000. The relative advantages of volume reduction alternatives are included. Major conclusions are drawn concerning available land burial space, light water reactors and fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Study was conducted under the direction of an industry task force and the National Environmental Studies Project, a technical program of the Atomic Industrial Forum. Data was obtained from questionnaires sent to 8 fuel fabrication facilities, 39 reactor sites and 6 commercial waste disposal sites. Additional data were gathered from interviews with architect engineering firms, site visits, contacts with regulatory agencies and published literature

  19. Evaluation of thermal hydraulics characteristics of natural cooling low level radioactive waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Toshihiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Usui, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Hisao; Masaki, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to design a low level radioactive waste storage system so that the decay heat of radioactive waste does not breach the structural safety limit. Currently, this waste storage system is designed as a natural cooling system, which continuously cools the radioactive waste without an active device. It consists simply of a storage pit for radioactive waste and air inlet and outlet ducts. The radioactive waste is cooled by natural convective air flow, which is generated by the buoyancy of heated air due to the decay heat of radioactive waste. It is important to clarify the flow characteristics in the systems in order to evaluate the cooling performance. The air mass flow rate through the system is determined by the balance between the natural convective flow force and pressure loss within the system. Therefore, the pressure drop and flow pattern in the waste storage pit are important flow characteristics. In this study, the pressure drop and air temperature distribution, greatly influenced by the flow pattern in the pit, were measured using a 1/5 scale model and compared with the results obtained from CFD. Flow network analysis, which is a simple model that simulates the flow by nodes and junctions, was conducted and its validity was confirmed by experimental results and CFD. (author)

  20. Seismic test for safety evaluation of low level radioactive wastes containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, Makoto; Horikiri, Morito

    1998-08-01

    Seismic safety of three-piled container system used in Tokai reprocessing center was confirmed by seismic test and computational analysis. Two types of container were evaluated, for low level noninflammable radioactive solid wastes, and for used filters wrapped by large plastic bags. Seismic integrity of three-piled containers was confirmed by evaluating response characteristics such as acceleration and displacement under the design earthquake condition S1, which is the maximum earthquake expected at the stored site during the storage time. Computational dynamic analysis was also performed, and several conclusions described below were made. (1) Response characteristics of the bottom board and the side board were different. The number of pile did not affect the response characteristics of the bottom board of each container. They behaved as a rigid body. (2) The response of the side board was larger than that of the bottom board. (3) The response depended on the direction in each board, either side or bottom. The response acceleration became larger to the seismic wave perpendicular to the plane which has the entrance for fork lift and the radioactive warning mark. (4) The maximum horizontal response displacement under the S1 seismic wave was approximately 10 mm. It is so small that it does not affect the seismic safety. (5) The stoppers to prevent fall down had no influence to the response acceleration. (6) There was no fall down to the S1 seismic wave and 2 times of S1 seismic wave, which was the maximum input condition of the test. (7) The response of the bottom board of the containers, which are main elements of fall down, had good agreements both in the test and in the computational analysis. (author)

  1. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, A H; Kiziltan, H S; Meral, I; Genc, H; Trabzon, M; Seyithanoglu, H; Yagci, B; Uysal, O

    2015-01-01

    Long term exposure to low level electromagnetic radiation (LLER) by using cellular phones causes serious health problems. Ten male Wistar Albino rats were anesthetized 30 min before the LLER exposure, 0.5 ml blood was taken from the tail vein of rats in order to determine control values. Rats were grouped by three and placed on a plexi-glass flat. A fixed equivalent frequency emitter device was used. A sign to be an electromagnetic field 15.14 V/m (608 mW/m(2)) in strength in the head region with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz was applied to the animals. After calculating the ideal position for the device, electromagnetic LLER energy was applied for 45 minutes from a distance to be equal with energy transmitted by a mobile phone from a 0.5-1 cm distance to their head regions. After 1.5 hours and before the rats awoke, 0.5 ml of blood was taken from the tail veins in order to determine the treatment values. Plasma 5-HT and glutamate levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using commercial kits. It was found that a single 45 min of LLER exposure increased the blood 5-HT level significantly, but did not change the glutamate level of rats. It was concluded that even a single 45 min of LLER exposure may produce an increase in 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 24).

  2. Evaluation of IAEA Clearance Concept for Low-level Radioactive Waste from a Radioisotope Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Kinno, Ikuo; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    The clearance of solid low-level radioactive laboratory waste (LLRW) after decay-in-storage (DIS) obtained from a research institute and thoroughly separated using the separation and classification protocols presented in this study was evaluated. The radioisotope (RI) content of incinerated LLRW from the specified RI research group (group A); the RI content of LLRW obtained in fiscal year 2000, which contained radionuclides with half-lives of less than 164 d (LLRW2); and the RI content of the LLRW reported in group A's disposal records were compared. The LLRW2 and LLRW of group A were incinerated after 2 y of decay-in-storage and immediately after storage, respectively. The highest ratio of the RI of incinerated LLRW to the value in the disposal records was 2.52 for ⁵¹Cr. The radioactivities of radionuclides in both the LLRW2 and LLRW for ³⁵S, ⁴⁵Ca, ⁵¹Cr, ¹²⁵I, ³²P, ³³P, and ⁹⁹mTc and the incinerated ash after 1 y later of decay-in-storage were below the clearance level defined by the RS-G-1.7 of the International Basic Safety Standard without contamination by ³H and ¹⁴C. These remains contained very small amounts of some long-half-life radionuclides of natural origin after 7 y of decay-in-storage. This LLRW separation protocol was effective for the separation of ³H and ¹⁴C. LLRW2 after 2 years of DIS and its incinerated ash after one year later of DIS were below the clearance level for radioactivity and radioactivity concentration.

  3. Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes for treating low-level radioactive contaminated liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W.; Roberts, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed on Waste Disposal Facility (WD) influent using Romicon hollow fiber ultrafiltration modules with molecular weight cutoffs ranging from 2000 to 80,000. The rejection of conductivity was low in most cases. The rejection of radioactivity ranged from 90 to 98%, depending on the membrane type and on the feed concentration. Typical product activity ranged from 7 to 100 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Experiments were also performed on alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater. Results ranged from 98 to >99.8%, depending on the membrane type. This yielded a product concentration of less than 0.1 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Tests on PP-Building decontamination water yielded rejections of 85 to 88% alpha radiation depending on the membrane type. These experiments show that the ability to remove radioactivity by membrane is a function of the contents of the waste stream because the radioactivity in the wastewater is in various forms: ionic, polymeric, colloidal, and absorbed onto suspended solids. Although removal of suspended or colloidal material is very high, removal of ionic material is not as effective. Alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater proved to be the easiest to decontaminate, whereas the low-level PP-Building decontamination water proved to be the most difficult to decontaminate. Decontamination of the WD influent, a combined waste stream, varied considerably from day to day because of its constantly changing makeup. The WD influent was also treated with various substances, such as polyelectrolytes, complexing agents, and coagulants, to determine if these additives would aid in the removal of radioactive material from the various wastewaters by complexing the ionic species. At the present time, none of the additives evaluated has had much effect; but experiments are continuing

  4. Serum metabolome biomarkers associate low-level environmental perfluorinated compound exposure with oxidative /nitrosative stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Liangpo; Zhang, Weibing; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qingyu; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2017-10-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have linked perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure with metabolic interruption, but the inter-species difference and high treatment doses usually make the results difficult to be extrapolated to humans directly. The best strategy for identifying the metabolic interruption may be to establish the direct correlations between monitored PFCs data and metabolic data on human samples. In this study, serum metabolome data and PFC concentrations were acquired for a Chinese adult male cohort. The most abundant PFCs are PFOA and PFOS with concentration medians 7.56 and 12.78 nM, respectively; in together they count around 81.6% of the total PFCs. PFC concentration-related serum metabolic profile changes and the related metabolic biomarkers were explored by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Respectively taking PFOS, PFOA and total PFC as the classifiers, serum metabolome can be differentiated between the lowest dose group (1st quartile PFCs) and the highest PFC dose group (4th quartile PFCs). Ten potential PFC biomarkers were identified, mainly involving in pollutant detoxification, antioxidation and nitric oxide (NO) signal pathways. These suggested that low-level environmental PFC exposure has significantly adverse impacts on glutathione (GSH) cycle, Krebs cycle, nitric oxide (NO) generation and purine oxidation in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the association of environmental PFC exposure with human serum metabolome alteration. Given the important biological functions of the identified biomarkers, we suggest that PFC could increase the metabolism syndromes risk including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of two protocols for low-level laser application in patients submitted to orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marquezan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Different low-level laser (LLL irradiation protocols have been tested to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. Nevertheless, divergent results have been obtained. It was suggested that the stimulatory action of low level laser irradiation occurs during the proliferation and differentiation stages of bone cellular precursors, but not during later stages. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two protocols of LLL irradiation on experimental tooth movement: One with daily irradiations and another with irradiations during the early stages. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were divided into control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3 and irradiated groups (IrG1, IrG2, IrG3 according to the presence of: experimental tooth movement, laser irradiation, type of laser irradiation protocol and date of euthanasia (3th or 8th day of experiment. At the end of experimental periods, a quantitative evaluation of the amount of OTM was made and the reactions of the periodontium were analyzed by describing cellular and tissue reactions and by counting blood vessels. RESULTS: The amount of OTM revealed no significant differences between groups in the same experimental period (p INTRODUÇÃO: diferentes protocolos de irradiação por laser de baixa potência (LBP têm sido testados para potencializar o movimento ortodôntico; entretanto, há resultados divergentes. Foi sugerido que seu efeito bioestimulador ocorre nas fases de proliferação e diferenciação celular, não agindo em estágios tardios. OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito de dois protocolos de irradiação do LBP na movimentação ortodôntica: um com irradiações diárias e outro em que irradiações foram realizadas apenas nos períodos iniciais. MÉTODOS: trinta e seis ratos Wistar foram divididos em grupos controles (GC1, GC2 e GC3 e irradiados (GIr1, GIr2 e GIr3, de acordo com a presença de dispositivo ortodôntico, a presença de irradiação, o tipo de protocolo de irradia

  6. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio, E-mail: ojimenezgarza@ugto.mx [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min [Laboratory of Environmental Epigenetics, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro [Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Laboratory, Nayarit Autonomous University, Av. Ciudad de la Cultura s/n, “Amado Nervo”, Tepic, Nayarit C.P. 63155 (Mexico); Albores, Arnulfo [Department of Toxicology, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1

  7. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Albores, Arnulfo

    2015-01-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m 3 ) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m 3 ) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1 promoter

  8. Methodology for the technical evaluation of disposal systems for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology that will be used for the evaluation of alternative disposal concepts for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The primary focus will be on the technical evaluation of various disposal concepts leading toward the identification of technically feasible disposal systems

  9. Evaluation of the data available for estimating release rates from commercial low-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of our findings concerning the distribution of activity within low-level radioactive wastes will be presented. This will begin in a general fashion and consider the distribution of the total activity by each of the following: waste class, waste stream, wasteform, and waste container. A radionuclide specific breakdown by waste class and wasteform follows. The findings are reviewed in terms of performance assessment modeling needs. Finally, we present our conclusions

  10. Low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapour in air: Lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for miosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.P.M. van; Trap, H.C.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Oostdijk, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to indicate, for low-level exposure of conscious guinea pigs and marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour in air, the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of sarin for miosis. This is the concentration × time (C·t) value (t = 5 h) of exposure at which miosis

  11. Evaluation Of Low Level Laser Therapy On Body Constitution And Leptin Hormone By Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric fat distribution with excessive fat accumulation in particular areas often affects a person's self-image, self esteem, and overall quality of life. Purpose of the study: to investigate the efficacy of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on body constitution and leptin hormone by radioimmunoassay. Methods: Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30- 40 years. They were divided into two groups of equal number. Procedures: -Group A (Overweight group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 25- 29.9-Group B (Obese group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 30.both groups received LLLT, for 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. BMI, WC, HC, WHR, serum Leptin, cholesterol and triglyceride level were measured before and after finishing the study. Results: There was significant improvement in anthropometric measurements( on both abdomen and thigh fats) of both groups treated with low level laser therapy, decrease in serum leptin level in over weight group and increase in triglyceride serum level in both groups within normal level Conclusion: low level laser therapy is effective as a noninvasive and safe method of body contouring .

  12. Prenatal exposure to low-level methylmercury alters the child's fine motor skills at the age of 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpić, Igor; Milardović, Ana; Vlašić-Cicvarić, Inge; Špiric, Zdravko; Radić Nišević, Jelena; Vukelić, Petar; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    To compare motor, cognitive and language characteristics in children aged 18 months who were prenatally exposed to low-level methyl-mercury (MeHg), and to analyze the eventual differences in these characteristics in relation to cord blood THg concentration. The total number of 205 child-mother pairs was included in the study, and total cord blood mercury was measured in 198 of them. Out of the 198 already measured samples, 47 of them have also been tested for methyl-mercury in cord blood. Data regarding the 47 samples of MeHg levels has been used for calculating the correlation between cord blood THg and cord blood MeHg. MeHg and THg showed a significant correlation (r=0.95, pmotor, cognitive and language skills were conducted on 168 children using The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Regarding the cord blood THg concentration, 135 children were divided in 4 quartile groups. Their neurodevelopmental characteristics have been compared. The cord blood THg concentration median and inter-quartile range was 2.98ng/g (1.41-5.61ng/g). There was a negative correlation between cord blood THg concentration and fine motor skills (rho=-0.22, p=0.01). It is evident that children grouped in 2nd ,3rd and 4th quartile had statistically significant lower fine motor skills assessment related to those grouped in 1st quartile (2nd quartile -1.24, p=0.03; 3rd quartile -1.28, p=0.03; 4th quartile -1.45, p=0.01). The differences in fine motor skills assessments between children in 2nd and 3rd and 3rd and 4th quartile were not statistically significant. Intrauterine exposure to low-level THg (MeHg) is associated with alterations in fine motor skills at the age of 18 months. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Development of methodology to evaluate microbially influenced degradation of cement-solidified low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its apparent structural integrity, cement has been widely used in the United States as a binder to solidify Class B and C low-level radioactive waste (LLW). However, the resulting cement preparations are susceptible to failure due to the actions of stress and environment. An environmentally mediated process that could affect cement stability is the action of naturally occurring microorganisms. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), recognizing this eventuality, stated that the effects of microbial action on waste form integrity must be addressed. This paper provides present results from an ongoing program that addresses the effects of microbially influenced degradation (MID) on cement-solidified LLW. Data are provided on the development of an evaluation method using acid-producing bacteria. Results are from work with one type of these bacteria, the sulfur-oxidizing Thiobacillus. This work involved the use of a system in which laboratory- and vendor-manufactured, simulated waste forms were exposed on an intermittent basis to media containing thiobacilli. Testing demonstrated that MID has the potential to severely compromise the structural integrity of ion-exchange resin and evaporator-bottoms waste that is solidified with cement. In addition, it was found that a significant percentage of calcium and other elements were leached from the treated waste forms. Also, the surface pH of the treated specimens decreased to below 2. These conditions apparently contributed to the physical deterioration of simulated waste forms after 60 days of exposure to the thiobacilli

  14. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance

  15. The association betweeen cancers and low level radiation: An evaluation of the epidemiological evidence at the Hanford Nuclear Weapons Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.

    1993-05-01

    Cancer has traditionally been linked to exposure to high doses of radiation, but there is considerable controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of low doses of ionizing radiation in humans. Over the past 30 years there have been 14 studies conducted on employees at the Hanford nuclear weapons facility to investigate the relationship between exposure to low doses of radiation and mortality due to cancer (1-14). Interest in this issue was originally stimulated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) which was trying to determine whether the linear extrapolation of health effects from high to low dose exposure was accurate. If the risk has been underestimated, then the maximum permissible occupational radiation exposure in the United States had been set too high. Because the health risk associated with low level radiation are unclear and controversial it seems appropriate to review the studies relating to Hanford at this time

  16. Evaluation of the performance of solidified commercial low-level wastes in an arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M.J.; Walter, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Shallow land burial is being used as a disposal method for commercial low-level waste at waste disposal sites in arid (Hanford, Washington) and humid (Barnwell, South Carolina) climatic regions. A field lysimeter facility has been established at Hanford in which to conduct waste-form leaching tests. The primary objective of this research is to determine typical source terms generated by commercial solidified low-level wastes. The field lysimeter facility consists of 10, 3 M deep by 1.8 M diameter, closed-bottomed lysimeters around a central 4 M deep by 4 M diameter instrument caisson. Commercial cement and dow polymer waste samples were removed from 210 L drums and placed in the 1.8 M diameter lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility this year. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste forms. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste will be used to periodically collect soil water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, moisture content, and soil temperature are being automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle size distribution, concentrations and distributions of radionuclides in the waste streams, and concentrations of hydrophilic organic species in one of the waste streams

  17. Evaluation of the performance of solidified commercial low-level wastes in an arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M.J.; Walter, M.B.

    1984-09-01

    Shallow land burial is being used as a disposal method for commercial low-level waste at waste disposal sites in arid (Hanford site near Richland, Washington) and humid (Barnwell, South Carolina) climatic regions. A field lysimeter facility has been established at the Hanford site in which to conduct waste-form leaching tests. The primary objective of this research is to determine typical source terms generated by commercial solidified low-level wastes. The field lysimeter facility consists of ten 3-m-deep by 1.8-m-diameter, closed-bottom lysimeters around a central instrument caisson, 4 m in diameter. Commercial cement and vinyl ester-styrene waste samples were removed from 210-L drums and placed in the 1.8-m-diameter lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility in 1984. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste forms. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste will be used to periodically collect soil water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, moisture content, and soil temperature are automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle size distribution, concentrations and distributions of radionuclides in the waste forms, concentrations of radionuclides in the waste streams, and concentrations of hydrophilic organic species in one of the waste steams. 8 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  18. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion of low-level waste site covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.; Karlen, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. This paper reports the preliminary results of a screening study to-determine the effectiveness of four biobarrier materials to stop plant root and animal penetration into simulated low-level wastes. Experiments employed 288 lysimeters consisting of 25-cm-diam PVC pipe, with four factors tested: plant species (alfalfa, barley, and sweet clover); top soil thickness (30 and 60 cm); biobarrier material (crushed tuff, bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel); and biobarrier thickness (clay-15, 30, and 45 cm, others 30, 60, and 90 cm). The crushed tuff, a sandy backfill material, offers little resistance to root and animal intrusion through the cover profile, while bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel combinations do reduce plant root and animal intrusion thorugh cover profiles. However, dessication of the clay barrier by invading plant roots may limit the usefulness of this material as a moisture and/or biological barrier. The cobble-gravel combination appears to be the best candidate for further testing on a larger scale because the gravel helps impede the imgration of soil into the cobble layer - the probable cause of failure of cobble-only biobarriers

  19. Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste treatment technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, T.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    This report was developed to provide the Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program with criteria and a methodology to select candidate treatment technologies for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) destined for dedicated storage and ultimately disposal. The technology selection criteria are provided in a Lotus spreadsheet format to allow the methodology to evolve as the GTCC LLW Program evolves. It is recognized that the final disposal facility is not yet defined; thus, the waste acceptance criteria and other facility-specific features are subject to change. The spreadsheet format will allow for these changes a they occur. As additional treatment information becomes available, it can be factored into the analysis. The technology selection criteria were established from program goals, draft waste acceptance criteria for dedicated storage (including applicable regulations), and accepted remedial investigation methods utilized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Kepner-Tregoe decisionmaking techniques are used to compare and rank technologies against the criteria

  20. Seismic evaluation of existing liquid low level waste system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, C.R.; Holmes, R.M.; Kincaid, J.H.; Singhal, M.K.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The existing liquid low level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to collect, neutralize, concentrate, and store the radioactive and toxic waste from various sources at the Laboratory. The waste solutions are discharged from source facilities to individual collection tanks, transferred by underground piping to an evaporator facility for concentration, and pumped through the underground piping to storage in underground tanks. The existing LLLW system was installed in the 1950s with several system additions up to the present. The worst-case accident postulated is an earthquake of sufficient magnitude to rupture the tanks and/or piping so as to damage the containment integrity to the surrounding soil and environment. The objective of an analysis of the system is to provide a level of confidence in the seismic resistance of the LLLW system to withstand the postulated earthquake

  1. Analytical and empirical evaluation of low-level waste drum response to accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.A.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Baker, W.E.; Hokanson, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on results of tests to date, it was found that the structural response of low-level waste drums to impact environments can be generally predicted, both analytically and with subscale models. As currently represented, only the 1/4 scale models would adequately represent full scale drum deformation; however, additional work has shown that with proper heat treating the strength of the material used in the 1/8 scale containers can be reduced to the correct value. Both analytical models give results that are expected to be within the range of behavior of the full scale drums. Failure of the drum closure can be adequately inferred from the radial deformation results of both subscale tests and computer analyses. 6 figures

  2. Monitoring program for evaluating radionuclide emissions from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmer, S.C.; Solomon, H.F.

    1984-01-01

    The implementation of an incineration program for low-level radioactive waste is a complex task, especially in the area of obtaining environmental permits. To provide assurance to the appropriate regulatory agencies involved with environmental permitting and others that an incineration program is properly conducted, emissions monitoring to identify radionuclides and their fate may be needed. An electronic spreadsheet software program Lotus 1-2-3 (Lotus Development Corporation) on an IBM Personal Computer has been used to perform data reduction for test results from such a monitoring program and to present them graphically to facilitate interpretation. The sampling technique includes: (1) the use of an EPA Method 5 stack sampling train modified to exclude the dry-catch filtration assembly with ethanolamine used to scrub incinerator gas at depressed temperatures and (2) a continuous composite liquid sampler for incinerator wet scrubber discharge to the sanitary sewer. Radionuclides in the samples are assayed using scintillation spectrometry

  3. Application of an infiltration evaluation methodology to a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    This report provides an analysis of infiltration and percolation at a hypothetical low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility was carried out. The analysis was intended to illustrate general issues of concern in assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. Among the processes considered in the analysis were precipitation, runoff, information, evaporation, transpiration, and redistribution. The hypothetical facility was located in a humid environment characterized by frequent and often intense precipitation events. The facility consisted of a series of concrete vaults topped by a multilayer cover. Cover features included a sloping soil surface to promote runoff, plant growth to minimize erosion and promote transportation, a sloping clay layer, and a sloping capillary barrier. The analysis within the root zone was carried out using a one-dimensional, transient simulation of water flow. Below the root zone, the analysis was primarily two-dimensional and steady-state

  4. Evaluation of the properties of cemented low level radioactive wastes through an extensive characterization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; De Angelis, G.

    1990-01-01

    The immobilized radioactive wastes have to fulfill the demands for packing, interim storage, trasportation and final disposal. For this purpose the possession of various properties, more or less relevant, are required by authorized agencies. In addition to transport regulations the attention is generally focused on physico-chemical and mechanical properties, thermal, radiation and water stability, as well as confinement ability. The assessment of such requirements needs the set up of experimental procedured. With this in mind an extensive programme for the characterization of cemented low level wastes has been undertaken at ENEA Casaccia in the frame of the Third (1985-1989) Europen Communities Programme on Radioactive Waste Management (Contract No. FI1W-0101-I(A)). Three types of waste streams of general interest have been taken into account: bead ion-exchange resins, BWR evaporator concentrates (Sulphates) and filter sludges. Both labo. and full scale experiments have been carried out

  5. Performance evaluation of air cleaning devices of an operating low level radioactive solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Surya Narayana, D.S.; Sundararajan, A.R.; Satyasai, P.M.; Ahmed, Jaleel

    1997-01-01

    Particle removal efficiencies of a cyclone separator, baghouse filters and a high efficiency particulate activity (HEPA) filter bank of an incinerator have been determined during the incineration of combustible low level solid radioactive wastes with surface dose of 20 - 50 gy/h. Experimental runs have been carried out to collect the particulates in various aerodynamic size ranges using an eight stage Andersen sampler and a low pressure impactor (LPI) while the incinerator is in operation. The collection efficiencies of the cyclone, baghouse and HEPA filters have been found to be 100 per cent for particles of size greater than 4.7, 2.1 and 1.1 μm respectively. The results of our investigations indicate that the air cleaning devices of the incinerator are working according to their design criteria. The data will be useful in the design and operation of air cleaning devices for toxic gaseous effluents. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Field lysimeter facility for evaluating the performance of commercial solidified low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Graham, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Analyzing the potential migration of radionuclides from sites containing solid low-level wastes requires knowledge of contaminant concentrations in the soil solution surrounding the waste. This soil solution concentration is generally referred to as the source term and is determined by such factors as the concentration of radionuclides in the solid waste, the rate of leachate formation, the concentration of dissolved species in the leachate, any solubility reactions occurring when the leachate contacts the soil, and the rate of water flow in the soil surrounding the waste. A field lysimeter facility established at the Hanford site is being used to determine typical source terms in arid climates for commercial low-level wastes solidifed with cement, Dow polymer (vinyl ester-styrene), and bitumen. The field lysimeter facility consists of 10, 3-m-deep by 1.8-m-dia closed-bottom lysimeters situated around a 4-m-deep by 4-m-dia central instrument caisson. Commercial cement and Dow polymer waste samples were removed from 210-L drums and placed in 8 of the lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility's remaining 2 lysimeters during 1984. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste forms will be used to periodically collect soil-water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, soil moisture content, and soil temperature are automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle-size distribution, and distributions and concentrations of radionuclides in the waste forms. 11 references, 12 figures, 5 tables

  7. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  8. ASSESSING EXPOSURE TO THE PUBLIC FROM LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE (LLW) TRANSPORTATION TO THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.J.; Campbell, S.; Church, B.W.; Shafer, D. S.; Gillespie, D.; Sedano, S.; Cebe, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one of two regional sites where low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from approved DOE and U.S. DOD generators across the United States is disposed. In federal fiscal year (FY) 2002, over 57,000 cubic meters of waste was transported to and disposed at the NTS. DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is perceived risk from members of the public about incremental exposure from LLW trucks, especially when ''Main Street'' and the LLW transportation route are the same. To better quantify the exposure to gamma radiation, a stationary monitoring array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) have been set up in a pullout just before LLW trucks reach the entrance to the NTS. The PICs are positioned at a distance of one meter from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height appropriate for the design of the trucks that will be used in FY2003 to haul LLW to the NTS. The use of four PICs (two on each side of the truck) is to minimize and to correct for non-uniformity where radiation levels from waste packages vary from side to side, and from front to back in the truck trailer. The PIC array is being calibrated by collecting readings from each PIC exposed to a known 137Cs source that was positioned at different locations on a flatbed stationed in the PIC array, along with taking secondary readings from other known sources. Continuous data collection using the PICs, with and without a truck in the array, is being used to develop background readings. In addition, acoustic sensors are positioned on each side of the PIC array to record when a large object (presumably a truck) enters the array. In FY2003, PIC surveys from as many incoming LLW trucks as possible will be made and survey data

  9. Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Hees, M. van

    2004-01-01

    Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238 U kg -1 ) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238 U kg -1 ). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg -1 ) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha -1 , respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production

  10. Risk estimation and decision making: the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Presented is a background for an understanding of the potential health effects in populations exposed to low-level radiation. Discussed is the knowledge about the health effects of low-level radiation. Comments on how the risks of radiation-induced cancer and genetically-related ill-health in man may be estimated, the sources of the scientific and epidemiological data, the dose-response models used, and the uncertainties which limit precise estimates of excess risks from radiation. Also discussed are the implications of numerical risk estimation for radiation protection and decision-making for public health policy

  11. Low Level Exposure to GB Vapor in Air: Diagnosis/Dosimetry, Lowest Observable Effect Levels, Performance-Incapacitation, and Possible Delayed Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helden, Herman

    2002-01-01

    .... 2001 under experimental conditions similar to those in Nov. 2000 when they were first 5 h exposed to air followed by 5 h exposure to low levels of GB vapor in air in a concentration range of 7.5 - 150 micron/m3...

  12. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; José de Macêdo, Dário; Suely Barros Dantas, Fernanda; Dos Santos Menezes, Karla; Filipe Bezerra Silva, Diego; Alves de Melo Junior, William; Fabia Cabral Cavalcanti, Alidianne

    2018-04-24

    Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%). Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%). Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2%) was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9%) and tongue (17.7%) being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%). Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  13. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%. Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%. Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2% was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9% and tongue (17.7% being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%. Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  14. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment ''systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs

  15. Evaluation and design of drained low-level radioactive disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1984-12-01

    Low-level disposal in shallow trenches has been the subject of much critical assessment in recent years. Historically most trenches have been located in fairly permeable settings and any liquid waste stored has migrated at rates limited mainly by hydraulic effects and the ion exchange capacity of underlying soil minerals. Attempts to minimize such seepage by choosing sites in very impermeable settings lead to overflow and surface runoff, whenever the trench cap is breached by subsidence or erosion. The work described in this report was directed to an optimum compromise situation where less reliance is placed on cap permanence, any ground seepage is directed and controlled, and the amount of waste leaching that would occur is minimized by keeping the soil surrounding the waste at only residual moisture levels at all times. Measurements have been conducted to determine these residual levels for some representative soils, to estimate the impact on waste migration of mainly unsaturated flow conditions, and to generate a conceptual design of a disposal facility which would provide adequate drainage to keep the waste from being exposed to continuous leaching by standing water. An attempt has also been made to quantify the reduced source terms under such periodic, unsaturated flow conditions, but those tests have not been conclusive to date. For low-permeability soils the waste should be placed about 1 ft. above the saturated layer formed by suction forces immediately above the gravel layer. Since most disposal sites, even in humid regions of the United States, are exposed only to intermittent rainfall and as most trench designs incorporate some gravel base for drainage, the results of this project have broader applications in assessing actual migration conditions in shallow trench disposal sites. Similar considerations may also apply to disposal of hazardous wastes

  16. Dose-related gene expression changes in forebrain following acute, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Anamika; Liu Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The acute toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and changes in cell signaling pathways 24 h following acute CPF exposure in 7-day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following either one of the four CPF dosages studied (546, 505, 522, and 3,066 genes with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg CPF). Genes were grouped according to dose-related expression patterns using K-means clustering while gene networks and canonical pathways were evaluated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (registered) . Twenty clusters were identified and differential expression of selected genes was verified by RT-PCR. The four largest clusters (each containing from 276 to 905 genes) constituted over 50% of all differentially expressed genes and exhibited up-regulation following exposure to the highest dosage (2 mg/kg CPF). The total number of gene networks affected by CPF also rose sharply with the highest dosage of CPF (18, 16, 18 and 50 with 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg CPF). Forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly reduced (26%) only in the highest dosage group. Based on magnitude of dose-related changes in differentially expressed genes, relative numbers of gene clusters and signaling networks affected, and forebrain ChE inhibition only at 2 mg/kg CPF, we focused subsequent analyses on this treatment group. Six canonical pathways were identified that were significantly affected by 2 mg/kg CPF (MAPK, oxidative stress, NFΚB, mitochondrial dysfunction, arylhydrocarbon receptor and adrenergic receptor signaling). Evaluation of different cellular functions of the differentially expressed genes suggested changes related to olfactory receptors, cell adhesion/migration, synapse

  17. Low-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Chaput, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assignments can be made to given practices involving exposure to radiation, because sufficient data are available for the effects of high-dose, low-LET radiation and because sufficient exists in the methods of extrapolation to low doses and low dose rates. The confidence in the extrapolations is based on the fact that the risk is not expected to be overestimated, using the assumptions made (as opposed to the possibility that the extrapolations represent an accurate estimate of the risk). These risk estimates have been applied to the selection of permissible exposure levels, to show that various amounts of radiation involve no greater risk to the worker than the risk expected in another industry that is generally considered safe. The setting of standards for protection from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is made by expert committees at the national and international levels who weigh social factors as well as scientific factors. Data on low-level effects may be applied when assigning a ''probability of causation'' to a certain exposure of radiation. This has become a prominent method for arriving at an equitable award for damages caused by such exposure. The generation of these tables requires as many (if not more) social and political considerations as does the setting up of protection criteria. It is impossible to extract a purely scientific conclusion solely from the protection standards and other legal decisions. Sufficient information exists on low-LET radiation that safety standards for exposure can be rationally (if not scientifically) agreed upon

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of low-level laser in improving the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Rasti, Maryam

    2015-10-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is common conditions that affects menopause women, patients suffer from sever burning sensation. Up to now there is no definitive treatment for this disease. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser (LLL) in improving the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome. Twenty patients with BMS were enrolled in this study; they were divided in two groups randomly. In the laser group, in each patient, 10 areas on the oral mucosa were selected and underwent LLL irradiation at a wavelength of 630 nm, and a power of 30 mW for 10 seconds twice a week for 4 weeks. In the placebo group, silent/off laser therapy was carried out during the same period in the same areas. Burning sensation and quality of life were evaluated. Burning sensation severity and quality of life in the two groups after intervention were different significant statistically, (p= 0.004, p= 0.01 respectively) .Patients in laser group had better results. It can be concluded that low level laser might decrease the intensity of burning mouth syndrome. Pain, low-level laser, burning mouth syndrome, oral mucosa.

  19. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation areas its potential contribution to evaluating risk of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Nair, R.K.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Mizuno, Shoich

    2008-01-01

    The health effect of low-level ionizing radiation is yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. Its evaluation requires epidemiological studies of scale-large cohorts (ICRP 99, 2005) such of atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation (HBR) areas are also expected to make a significant contribution toward this end. Among several HBR areas in the world, Yangjiang, Guangdong Province in China, Karunagappally in Kerala State of India, Manawalakurichi and Koodankulam in Tamil Nadu of India, and Ramsar in Iran are important areas where epidemiological studies are possible, because of their relatively high background radiation levels and large population sizes. (author)

  20. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content 30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  2. Evaluation factors for verification and validation of low-level waste disposal site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.S.; Mezga, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify general evaluation factors to be used to verify and validate LLW disposal site performance models in order to assess their site-specific applicability and to determine their accuracy and sensitivity. It is intended that the information contained in this paper be employed by model users involved with LLW site performance model verification and validation. It should not be construed as providing protocols, but rather as providing a framework for the preparation of specific protocols or procedures. A brief description of each evaluation factor is provided. The factors have been categorized according to recommended use during either the model verification or the model validation process. The general responsibilities of the developer and user are provided. In many cases it is difficult to separate the responsibilities of the developer and user, but the user is ultimately accountable for both verification and validation processes. 4 refs

  3. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user

  4. Low level radioactive waste disposal: An evaluation of reports comparing ocean and land based disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This document evaluates reports presenting comparative assessments of land and sea disposal options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. It was performed following a request by the LDC to the IAEA. In this evaluation, IAEA Safety Series No. 65 ''Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes'', was used as the main reference in reviewing the comparative assessments made to date. IAEA Safety Series No. 65 gives guidance on the performance of comparative assessments of the different options, and provides a list and scheme of factors to be considered. 5 studies were transmitted by the Contracting Parties and considered in this review. A larger number of reports was not considered in this effort on the basis that the evaluation would be most effective if directed at those studies which specifically compared ocean disposal with land based disposal in a consistent manner. It is not the purpose of this report to state whether one document is better than another or whether one report forms a good blueprint for future assessments. This would require a different type of review and is outside the scope of this document. Indeed since the purposes of the five reports were originally so different it would not be possible to produce such a ranking and any attempts in that direction would be very misleading. 11 refs, 3 tabs

  5. Performance evaluation of Compton suppression gamma spectrometer for low level environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Sudheendran, V.; Rao, D.D.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL), Tarapur has started its environmental monitoring programme way back in 1964. Over the last four decades there was considerable improvement in the monitoring methodology and nuclear instrumentation techniques used in the laboratory. When the discharges from the nuclear facilities have reduced considerably; and global fall out level have became negligibly low, there is a need to upgrade our instrumental technique, to detect incremental changes in the environmental radioactivity however small it may be. As part of fulfilling this objective a Compton Suppression Gamma spectrometry system has been commissioned and the salient features and performance evaluation are discussed in this paper

  6. Source term model evaluations for the low-level waste facility performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S.; Su, S.I. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The estimation of release of radionuclides from various waste forms to the bottom boundary of the waste disposal facility (source term) is one of the most important aspects of LLW facility performance assessment. In this work, several currently used source term models are comparatively evaluated for the release of carbon-14 based on a test case problem. The models compared include PRESTO-EPA-CPG, IMPACTS, DUST and NEFTRAN-II. Major differences in assumptions and approaches between the models are described and key parameters are identified through sensitivity analysis. The source term results from different models are compared and other concerns or suggestions are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of waste treatment technologies by LLWDDD [Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration] Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennerly, J.M.; Williams, L.C.; Dole, L.R.; Genung, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Waste treatments are divided into four categories: (1) volume reduction; (2) conditioning to improve waste form performance; (3) segregation to achieve waste reduction; and (4) separation to remove radioactive (or hazardous) constituents. Two waste treatment demonstrations are described. In the first, volume reduction by mechanical means was achieved during the supercompaction of 300 55-gal drums of solid waste at ORNL. In the second demonstration, conditioning of waste through immobilization and packaging to improve the performance of the waste form is being evaluated. The final section of this paper describes potential scenarios for the management of uranium-contaminated wastes at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge and emphasizes where demonstrations of treatment technology will be needed to implement the scenarios. Separation and thermal treatment are identified as the principal means for treating these wastes. 15 figs

  8. Technical and economic evaluation of controlled disposal options for very low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.J.; Vance, J.N.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest by the nuclear industry in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) explicitly defined an activity level in plant waste materials at which the radiological impacts would be so low as to be considered Below Regulatory Concern (BRC). In January 1989, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) completed an extensive industry research effort to develop the technical bases for establishing criteria for the disposal of very low activity wastes in ordinary disposal facilities. The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), with assistance from the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), drafted a petition titled: ''Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Disposal of Below Regulatory Concern Radioactive Wastes from Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' Subsequent to the industry making a final decision for submittal of the drafted BRC petition, EPRI was requested to evaluate the technical and economic impact of six BRC options. These options are: take no action in pursuing a BRC waste exemption, petition the NRC for authorization to disposal of any BRC waste in any ordinary disposal facility, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site and other utility owned property, petition for a mixed waste exemption, and petition for single waste stream exemptions in sequence (i.e. soil, followed by sewage sludge, etc.). The petition and technical bases were written to support the disposal of any BRC waste type in any ordinary disposal facility. These documents do not provide all of the technical and economic information needed to completely assessment the BRC options. This report provides the technical and economic basis for a range of options concerning disposal of very low activity wastes. 3 figs., 20 tabs

  9. Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Häggström, Jenny; Fowler, Christopher J; Nording, Malin L

    2017-06-01

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  11. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  12. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  13. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Jones, Oliver A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC–MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc–cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size

  14. Evaluation of low-level radioactive waste characterization and classification programs of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taie, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to upgrade their low-level radioactive waste (LLW) characterization and classification program. This thesis describes a survey study of three other DOE sites conducted in support of this effort. The LLW characterization/classification programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were critically evaluated. The evaluation was accomplished through tours of each site facility and personnel interviews. Comparative evaluation of the individual characterization/classification programs suggests the WVDP should purchase a real-time radiography unit and a passive/active neutron detection system, make additional mechanical modifications to the segmented gamma spectroscopy assay system, provide a separate building to house characterization equipment and perform assays away from waste storage, develop and document a new LLW characterization/classification methodology, and make use of the supercompactor owned by WVDP

  15. Application of DOE prescribed guides to the evaluation of Hanford's Mixed Low Level Solid Waste Treatment Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.F.; Nash, C.R.

    1994-10-01

    A recent Westinghouse Hanford Company report (WHC-SD-W100-ES-008, February, 1994), compared a Vitrification process to the WRAP-2A Grout/PE process for the treatment of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW). This comparison applied a limited scope numerical evaluation to compare technology complexity of the two processes, but focused primarily on capital and operating costs. The work reported here is supplementary to WHC-SD-Wl00-ES-008. It provides a record of the application of the more formal DOE-prescribed criteria (Treatment Selection Guides for Federal Facility Compliance Act Draft Site Treatment Plans) to the Vitrification and Grout/PE processes previously evaluated. Results of the evaluation favored the Grout/PE process by a weighted score of 83 to 78 over the Plasma arc vitrification process

  16. Study of the health effects of low-level exposure to environmental radiation contamination in Port Hope, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R.; Lees, R.E.M.; Roberts, J.H.

    1984-06-01

    From 1939 to 1948 residues from radium production at Eldorado Nuclear Ltd.'s plant in Port Hope, Ontario were disposed of in and around the town of Port Hope. In 1980 a study was set up to determine the health effects of these residues. This report concerns phase two a case- control study of lung cancer in the exposed population. Doses for the 118 cases and controls were reconstructed to give the final year of exposure, the residences occupied during the period of exposure, and the total estimated exposure for various latency periods. Statistical analysis of the data gathered could not give coherent results or show an identifiable increased risk of lung cancer from elevated alpha radiation levels due to the confounding effect of cigarette smoking. Ninety percent of the cases of lung cancer found were attributable to smoking

  17. Respiratory cancer risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: an integrated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and mechanistic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Oller, Adriana R

    2003-04-01

    Increased lung and nasal cancer risks have been reported in several cohorts of nickel refinery workers, but in more than 90% of the nickel-exposed workers that have been studied there is little, if any evidence of excess risk. This investigation utilizes human exposure measurements, animal data from cancer bioassays of three nickel compounds, and a mechanistic theory of nickel carcinogenesis to reconcile the disparities in lung cancer risk among nickel-exposed workers. Animal data and mechanistic theory suggest that the apparent absence of risk in workers with low nickel exposures is due to threshold-like responses in lung tumor incidence (oxidic nickel), tumor promotion (soluble nickel), and genetic damage (sulfidic nickel). When animal-based lung cancer dose-response functions for these compounds are extrapolated to humans, taking into account interspecies differences in deposition and clearance, differences in particle size distributions, and human work activity patterns, the predicted risks at occupational exposures are remarkably similar to those observed in nickel-exposed workers. This provides support for using the animal-based dose-response functions to estimate occupational exposure limits, which are found to be comparable to those in current use.

  18. Further studies on the genetic damage to bone marrow and other somatic effects following exposure to low level tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Benz, R.D.; Commerford, S.L.; Hughes, W.; Ichimasa, Y.; Ikushima, T.; Tezuka, H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper emphasizes results obtained over the last 3 years, supplementing information presented at the first 3 H workshop. Sister chromtid exchange (SCE) measurements on mice maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of tritiated water (HTO) or receiving an equal depth dose 137 Cs gamma exposure for 52 weeks have been completed. Small but significantly higher numbers of SCEs were found in animals receiving gamma exposures or maintained on HTO than in their controls. In animals removed from the HTO regimen after 27 weeks, the number of SCEs decreases with time, but did not return to control levels within the first 30 weeks. Comparative studies with the 137 Cs exposures indicate an RBE not significantly different than 1.0. Mice were also maintained on 7.5, 15.0 and 30.0 μCi/ml HTO for SCE studies. Results similar to those described for 3.0 μCi/ml were found. Maintaining animals on a 0.15% saccharin solution is the most effective of those tested for increasing the animals' water intake and for enhancing excretion of 3 H. The rate of disappearance of 3 H from animals maintained chronically on HTO indicated a two phase 3 H disappearance curve from hemoglobin. Single injections of HTO showed a brief delay in incorporation of 3 H followed by a disappearance paralleling the slower phase of the chronic exposure curve, and indicating a RBC lifetime of approximately 40 days. 21 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  19. Low levels of vitamin D poorly responsive to daylight exposure in patients with therapy-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, Jan P.A.M.; Bostoen, Tijmen; Broekman, Theo G.

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels are associated with schizophrenia, but the possible association between vitamin D levels and illness severity or duration of exposure to daylight has barely been investigated. To compare vitamin D levels in therapy-refractory severely ill schizophrenia patients and members of staff. To investigate the influence of daylight exposure on vitamin D levels in patients. Vitamin D was measured in patients with therapy-resistant schizophrenia in April, after the winter, and in patients and staff members in June, after an exceptionally sunny spring. Vitamin D levels in April and June were compared in patients, and levels in June were compared in patients and staff. The influence of daylight was taken into account by comparing the time patients spent outdoors during the day with the recommended minimum time for adequate vitamin D synthesis, and by comparing time spent outdoors in patients and staff. Patients had high rates of vitamin D deficiency (79-90%) and lower levels of vitamin D than staff members (p vitamin D levels did not normalize, despite the considerably longer than recommended exposure of the skin to daylight (p vitamin D deficiency of therapy-resistant schizophrenia patients is pronounced and cannot be explained by differences in skin pigmentation or by an inactive, indoor lifestyle on the ward. Even theoretically sufficient exposure of the patients to daylight did not ameliorate the low vitamin D levels. While vitamin D deficiency probably plays a role in somatic health problems, it may also play a role in schizophrenia. Interestingly, exposure to daylight during an unusually sunny spring was not sufficient to correct the vitamin D deficiency seen in the patients. This emphasizes the need to measure and correct vitamin D levels in these patients.

  20. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program

  1. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  2. Assessing Potential Exposure from Truck Transport of Low-level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.; Shafer, D.; Gray, K.; Church, B.; Campbell, S.; Holz, B.

    2005-01-01

    This study has shown that, based upon measurements from industry standard radiation detection instruments, such as the RS model RSS-131 PICs in a controlled configuration, a person may be exposed to gamma radiation above background when in close proximity to some LLW trucks. However, in approximately half (47.7 percent) the population of trucks measured in this study, a person would receive no exposure above background at a distance of 1.0 m (3.3 ft) away from a LLW truck. An additional 206 trucks had net exposures greater than zero, but equal to or less than 1 (micro)R/h. Finally, nearly 80 percent of the population of trucks (802 of 1,012) had net exposures less than or equal to 10 (micro)R/h. Although there are no shipping or exposure standards at 1.0 m (3.3 ft) distance, one relevant point of comparison is the DOT shipping standard of 10 mrem/h at 2.0 m (6.6 ft) distance. Assuming a one-to-one correspondence between Roentgens and Rems, then 903 trucks (89.2 percent of the trucks measured) were no greater than one percent of the DOT standard at 1.0 m (3.3 ft). Had the distance at which the trucks been measured increased to 2.0 m (6.6 ft), the net exposure would be even less because of the increase in distance between the truck and the receptor. However, based on the empirical data from this study, the rate of decrease may be slower than for either a point or line source as was done for previous studies (Gertz, 2001; Davis et al., 2001). The highest net exposure value at 1.0 m (3.3 ft) distance, 11.9 mR/h, came from the only truck with a value greater than 10 mR/h at 1.0 m (3.3 ft) distance

  3. Exposure to low level GSM 935 MHz radiofrequency fields does not induce apoptosis in proliferating or differentiated murine neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moquet, J.; Ainsbury, E.; Bouffler, S.; Lloyd, D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) fields characteristic of mobile phones at non-thermal levels can induce apoptosis in murine neuroblastoma (N2a) cells in both proliferating and differentiated states. Cells were exposed continuously for 24 h to one of the three 935-MHz RF signals: global system for mobile communication (GSM) basic, GSM talk and a continuous wave, unmodulated signal; all at a specific energy absorption rate of 2 W kg -1 . The measured increase in temperature of the cells due to the RF fields was around 0.06 deg. C. At a number of time points between 0 and 48 h post-exposure, the cells were assessed for apoptosis under a fluorescence microscope using three independent assays: Annexin V, caspase activation and in situ end-labelling. No statistically significant differences in apoptosis levels were observed between the exposed and sham-exposed cells using the three assays at any time point post-exposure. These data suggest that RF exposures, characteristic of GSM mobile phones, do not significantly affect the apoptosis levels in proliferating and differentiated murine neuroblastoma cell line N2a. (authors)

  4. Binding of ethylene oxide in spermiogenic germ cell stages of the mouse after low-level inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mice received inhalation exposures of 3 H-labeled ethylene oxide (EtO) gas at levels from 0.65 to 3.2 parts per million-hours (ppm-hr), which are below the exposure limits currently allowed for humans. Subsequently, spermatozoa were recovered from the reproductive tracts of the animals over a two-week period and assayed for the amount of bound EtO. A strong increase in the level of EtO binding occurred in late spermatid stages; these stages are also genetically sensitive to the action of EtO. Alkylation of the DNA within the sperm accounted for a very small fraction of the total sperm head alkylation, averaging about 20 DNA alkylations per sperm per ppm-hr of exposure over the two-week period. However, alkylation of protamine, a protein unique to sperm cells, was found to be correlated with total sperm head alkylation and accounted for nearly all of the EtO binding. Protamine alkylation appears to be a significant cause of EtO-induced genetic damage in spermiogenic cells of the mammal

  5. Exercise Training under Exposure to Low Levels of Fine Particulate Matter: Effects on Heart Oxidative Stress and Extra-to-Intracellular HSP70 Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sfalcin Mai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 promotes heart oxidative stress (OS and evokes anti-inflammatory responses observed by increased intracellular 70 kDa heat shock proteins (iHSP70. Furthermore, PM2.5 increases the levels of these proteins in extracellular fluids (eHSP70, which have proinflammatory roles. We investigated whether moderate and high intensity training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 modifies heart OS and the eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index, a biomarker of inflammatory status. Male mice (n=32, 30 days old, were divided into six groups for 12 weeks: control (CON, moderate (MIT and high intensity training (HIT, exposure to 5 μg of PM2.5 daily (PM2.5, and moderate and high intensity training exposed to PM2.5 (MIT + PM2.5 and HIT + PM2.5 groups. The CON and PM2.5 groups remained sedentary. The MIT + PM2.5 group showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels than the MIT and PM2.5 groups. HIT and HIT + PM2.5 showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels and lower eHSP70 and H-index levels compared to sedentary animals. No alterations were found in heart antioxidant enzyme activity or iHSP70 levels. Moderate exercise training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 induces heart OS but does not modify eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index. High intensity exercise training promotes anti-inflammatory profile despite exposure to low levels of PM2.5.

  6. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure

  7. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of the carcinogenic risk of low-dose, high-LET radiation in the case of exposure to radon daughters and lung-cancer is subject to numerous uncertainties. The greatest of these concerns the parametric values of the dose-response curve. We lack knowledge and an understanding of the dosimetry and the distribution of aggregates of radioactivity that remain localized as hot spots in specific regions of the lungs and the influence on greater or lesser risk of lung cancer per average lung dose than uniformly deposited radiation (NRC76). We have only a limited understanding of the response to exposure to high-LET radiations, such as alpha particles, for which linear risk estimates for low doses are less likely to overestimate the risk, and may, in fact, underestimate the risk (BEIR80). Other uncertainties include the length of the latency period, the RBE for alpha radiation relative to gamma radiation, the period during which the radiation risk is expressed, the risk projection model used - whether absolute or relative - for projecting risk beyond the period of observation, the effect of dose rate and protraction of dose, and the influence of differences in the natural incidence of lung cancer in different populations. In addition, uncertainties are introduced by the biological and life-style risk characteristics of humans, for example, the effect of sex, the effect of age at the time of irradiation and at the time of appearance of the cancer, the influence of length of observation or follow-up of the study populations, and the influence of perhaps the most important confounding bias, cigarette-smoking. The collective influence of these uncertainties is such as to deny great credibility to any estimate of human lung cancer risk and other cancer risk that can be made for low-dose, high-LET radon daughter radiation exposure.

  8. Co-exposure to lead increases the renal response to low levels of cadmium in metallurgy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, R; Lison, D; D'Haese, P C; Weyler, J; De Graef, E; De Schryver, A; Lamberts, L V; van Sprundel, M

    2013-10-24

    Research on the effect of co-exposure to Cd and Pb on the kidney is scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of co-exposure to these metals on biomarkers of early renal effect. Cd in blood (Cd-B), Cd in urine (Cd-U), Pb in blood (Pb-B) and urinary renal biomarkers, i.e., microalbumin (μ-Alb), beta-2-microglobulin (β₂-MG), retinol binding protein (RBP), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) were measured in 122 metallurgic refinery workers examined in a cross-sectional survey. The median Cd-B, Cd-U, Pb-B were: 0.8 μg/l (IQR = 0.5, 1.2), 0.5 μg/g creatinine (IQR = 0.3, 0.8) and 158.5 μg/l (IQR = 111.0, 219.3), respectively. The impact of Cd-B on the urinary excretion of NAG and IAP was only evident among workers with Pb-B concentrations ≥ 75th percentile. The association between Cd-U and the renal markers NAG and RBP was also evidenced when Pb-B ≥ 75th percentile. No statistically significant interaction terms were observed for the associations between Cd-B or Cd-U and the other renal markers under study (i.e., μ-Alb and β2-MG). Our findings indicate that Pb increases the impact of Cd exposure on early renal biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Albores, Arnulfo

    2015-08-01

    CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86+/-7mg/m(3)) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21+/-0.02mg/m(3)) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r=-.36, psmoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  11. Evaluation of uranium and arsenic retention by soil from a low level radioactive waste management site using sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.J.; Dhoum, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) and Chunguo sequential extraction procedures were employed to evaluate the retention of U and As by a soil contaminated with low level radioactive waste. Modifications were made to both procedures to optimize the measurement of soil and extractant samples using epithermal neutron activation analysis. Based on the BCR procedure, approximately 20% of the U appeared to be bound to the carbonate fraction, 10% to the mineral oxide fraction and 20% to the organic fraction. In the case of As, the majority was strongly bound in the residue fraction. The results obtained with the Chunguo procedure supported these conclusions to some extent, in that the majority of the U and As was found to be strongly bound to the soil in a manner consistent with its presence in the residue fraction. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Low-level human equivalent gestational lead exposure produces sex-specific motor and coordination abnormalities and late-onset obesity in year-old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasure, J Leigh; Giddabasappa, Anand; Chaney, Shawntay; Johnson, Jerry E; Pothakos, Konstantinos; Lau, Yuen Sum; Fox, Donald A

    2008-03-01

    Low-level developmental lead exposure is linked to cognitive and neurological disorders in children. However, the long-term effects of gestational lead exposure (GLE) have received little attention. Our goals were to establish a murine model of human equivalent GLE and to determine dose-response effects on body weight, motor functions, and dopamine neurochemistry in year-old offspring. We exposed female C57BL/6 mice to water containing 0, 27 (low), 55 (moderate), or 109 ppm (high) of lead from 2 weeks prior to mating, throughout gestation, and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Maternal and litter measures, blood lead concentrations ([BPb]), and body weights were obtained throughout the experiment. Locomotor behavior in the absence and presence of amphetamine, running wheel activity, rotarod test, and dopamine utilization were examined in year-old mice. Peak [BPb] were obesity. Similarly, we observed male-specific decreased spontaneous motor activity, increased amphetamine-induced motor activity, and decreased rotarod performance in year-old GLE mice. Levels of dopamine and its major metabolite were altered in year-old male mice, although only forebrain utilization increased. GLE-induced alterations were consistently larger in low-dose GLE mice. Our novel results show that GLE produced permanent male-specific deficits. The nonmonotonic dose-dependent responses showed that low-level GLE produced the most adverse effects. These data reinforce the idea that lifetime measures of dose-response toxicant exposure should be a component of the neurotoxic risk assessment process.

  13. Bioeffects and health risks of low-level exposures to radiofrequency and microwave fields-scientific facts and public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2001-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations, parts of the electromagnetic spectrum at wave frequencies of 0.1 - 300 MHz and 300 MHz - 300 GHz, respectively, can penetrate human tissues and exert various bioeffects at relatively low field power densities. Exposure of the general public to RF/MW radiation in the environment is generally below intensities which are considered as responsible for evoking such bioeffects. Use of mobile phones (MP) considerably increased local exposure to 900 or 1800 MHz MWs and raised concerns of the risk of brain tumors and other neoplasms of the head. At present the experimental and epidemiological bulk of evidence is too limited for valid assessment of the risks. Health consequences of long-term use of MPs are not known in detail, but available data indicate that development of non-specific health symptoms is possible, at least in 'MW-hypersensitive' subjects. In contrast to cellular terminals, which emit locally relatively high intensity MW fields, transmitting antennas and base stations contribute to MW environmental contaminations only with a small portion of the energy and do not pose established health risks. Two available epidemiological studies of brain cancer morbidity in MP users did not confirm an increased risk for all types of neoplasms, but unexplained excesses of particular types and/or locations of the tumors has been reported. Experimental investigations revealed the possibility of epigenetic activity of certain MW exposures (frequently limited to particular frequencies and/or modulations of the carrier wave), but there exists no satisfactory support from epidemiological studies for the increased cancer risk in MW-exposed subjects. However, there exist single epidemiological studies which indicate increased mortality of certain types of neoplasms in workers exposed to microwave radiation. As an example, the multiyear study of cancer morbidity in Polish military personnel exposed to 2 - 10 W/m2 will be presented

  14. The effects of low-level ionizing radiation and copper exposure on the incidence of antibiotic resistance in lentic biofilm bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J Vaun; Dicks, Christian A; Bryan, A Lawrence; Tuckfield, R Cary

    2017-09-01

    Environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria are poorly understood. Understanding how the environment selects for resistance traits in the absence of antibiotics is critical in developing strategies to mitigate this growing menace. Indirect or co-selection of resistance by environmental pollution has been shown to increase antibiotic resistance. However no attention has been given to the effects of low-level ionizing radiation or the interactions between radiation and heavy metals on the maintenance or selection for antibiotic resistance (AR) traits. Here we explore the effect of radiation and copper on antibiotic resistance. Bacteria were collected from biofilms in two ponds - one impacted by low-level radiocesium and the other an abandoned farm pond. Through laboratory controlled experiments we examined the effects of increasing concentrations of copper on the incidence of antibiotic resistance. Differences were detected in the resistance profiles of the controls from each pond. Low levels (0.01 mM) of copper sulfate increased resistance but 0.5 mM concentrations of copper sulfate depressed the AR response in both ponds. A similar pattern was observed for levels of multiple antibiotic resistance per isolate. The first principal component response of isolate exposure to multiple antibiotics showed significant differences among the six isolate treatment combinations. These differences were clearly visualized through a discriminant function analysis, which showed distinct antibiotic resistance response patterns based on the six treatment groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables

  16. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables.

  17. Evaluation of low level laser and interferential current in the therapy of complex regional pain syndrome by infrared thermographic camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I is characterized by continuous regional pain, disproportional according to duration and intensity and to the sort of trauma or other lesion it was caused by. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare, by using thermovison, the effects of low level laser therapy and therapy with interferential current in treatment of CRPS I. Methods. The prospective randomized controlled clinical study included 45 patients with unilateral CRPS I, after a fracture of the distal end of the radius, of the tibia and/or the fibula, treated in the Clinical Centre in Nis from 2004 to 2007. The group A consisted of 20 patients treated by low level laser therapy and kinesy-therapy, while the patients in the group B (n = 25 were treated by interferential current and kinesy-therapy. The regions of interest were filmed by a thermovision camera on both sides, before and after the 20 therapeutic procedures had been applied. Afterwards, the quantitative analysis and the comparing of thermograms taken before and after the applied therapy were performed. Results. There was statistically significant decrease of the mean maximum temperature difference between the injured and the contralateral extremity after the therapy in comparison to the status before the therapy, with the patients of the group A (p < 0.001 as well as those of the group B (p < 0.001. The decrease was statistically significantly higher in the group A than in the group B (p < 0.05. Conclusions. By the use of the infrared thermovision we showed that in the treatment of CRPS I both physical medicine methods were effective, but the effectiveness of laser therapy was statistically significantly higher compared to that of the interferential current therapy.

  18. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US

  19. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease associated with low-level arsenic exposure among long-term smokers in a US population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu [Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Karagas, Margaret R., E-mail: margaret.r.karagas@dartmouth.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States)

    2015-09-01

    High levels of arsenic exposure have been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease risk. However, studies of arsenic's effects at lower exposure levels are limited and few prospective studies exist in the United States using long-term arsenic exposure biomarkers. We conducted a prospective analysis of the association between toenail arsenic and cardiovascular disease mortality using longitudinal data collected on 3939 participants in the New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study. Using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, we estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk of death from any cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, in relation to natural-log transformed toenail arsenic concentrations. In this US population, although we observed no overall association, arsenic exposure measured from toenail clipping samples was related to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality among long-term smokers (as reported at baseline), with increased hazard ratios among individuals with ≥ 31 total smoking years (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), ≥ 30 pack-years (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.45), and among current smokers (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.75). These results are consistent with evidence from more highly exposed populations suggesting a synergistic relationship between arsenic exposure and smoking on health outcomes and support a role for lower-level arsenic exposure in ischemic heart disease mortality. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. • Little is known about CVD effects at lower levels of As exposure common in the US. • Few have investigated the joint effects of As and smoking on CVD in US adults. • We examine chronic low-level As exposure and smoking in relation to CVD mortality. • Arsenic exposure may increase ischemic heart disease mortality among smokers in US.

  20. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated

  1. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  2. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Impact of New Information since 2008 PA on Current Low-Level Solid Waste Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: New Kd values for iodine, radium and uranium; Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors; Updated radionuclide data; Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides; Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025; and Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction. Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0

  3. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  4. Detection of low-level environmental exposure rates due to noble gas releases from the Muehleberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Volkle, H.; Pretre, S.

    1980-01-01

    The increase of radiation doses in the vicinity of the Swiss Nuclear Power Stations due to airborne releases is generally expected to be below one mrem/year (about one percent of the natural radiation dose). To prove this expected rate, long term measurements with pressure ionization chambers in the vicinity of the Muhleberg plant (BWR) were conducted. Two of these chambers were installed at places where the greatest dose rates from the noble gas plumes were expected in the two prevailing wind directions. The local dose rates were continuously registered on magnetic tape to allow minicomputer evaluation. After the fuel change in the summer of 1976 the noble gas releases from Muhleberg dropped considerably. From that time the noble gas releases consisted of a very low continuous component and some rare short-time spike compoments resulting from turbine and reactor trips. The dose due to the low continuous component was determined by correlating the dose rates at the measuring points with the release measure--ments at the stack and with weather conditions, and by subtracting the natural background. The short noble gas spikes lasted from minutes to some hours and caused small dose rate increases which were easily measured with the ionization chambers, and usually amounted to doses of some microroentgens. By further correlating these dose peaks with wind direction and stack emission measurements, determination of short time atmospheric dilution factors for existing weather situations became possible. By this process, the very low annual environmental doses in the range of 1 mrem per year were determined. (author)

  5. Evaluation of shale hosted low-level waste disposal sites in semi-arid environments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggenthen, W.M.; Rahn, P.H.; Arthur, R.C.; Miller, J.R.; Bangsund, W.J.; Eberlin, J.

    1985-09-01

    This report covers the findings of a multidisciplinary investigation intended to delineate critical factors and concerns associated with shale hosted, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites located in semiarid environments. The investigations focus primarily upon concerns regarding the hydrology, geochemistry, and meteorology of such an environment. The studies described within this report specifically do not constitute an evaluation of any one particular site nor even a particular class of sites. Rather, it is the intention of the report to present data and insights that would assist private concerns and governmental agencies in the efficient and prudent development of such disposal areas. This report assumes that the hypothetical waste site in question would be developed as a trench type operation similar to that used at Barnwell, South Carolina, with variations upon the techniques used at Beatty Flat, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington. The trench design (Figures 1 and 2) is assumed to be similar to that generic design described in ''Procedures and Technology for Shallow Land Burial, DOE/LLw-13Td, 1983) although it is also assumed that improvements and adaptations will be made upon this basic design to meet the individual needs of a particular site. During the preparation of this report it became apparent that new types of trench design are being studied. Discussions of these trench design proposals are not central to this report. The examples of trench design in Figures 1 and 2 are presented only to give an idea as to the general philosophy of construction of shallow burial facilities

  6. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and quantification capabilities and the evaluation of low-level data. Some international perspectives and continuing challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The minimum amounts or concentrations of an analyte that may be detected or quantified by a specific measurement process (MP) represent fundamental performance characteristics that are vital for planning experiments and designing MPs to meet external specifications. Following many years of conceptual and terminological disarray regarding detection and quantification limits, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC, 1995) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO, 1997) developed a harmonized position and documents that provide a basis for international consensus on this topic. During the past year, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed a TECDOC on Quantifying Uncertainty in Nuclear Analytical Measurements that treats 'Uncertainty in Measurements Close to Detection Limits' from the perspective of the UIPAC and ISO recommendations. The first part of this article serves as a review of these international developments during the last quinquennium of the twentieth century. Despite the achievement of international consensus on these contentious matters, many challenges remain. One quickly discovers this in the practical world of high stakes, ultra-trace analysis, where complications are introduced by the nature and distribution of the blank, the variance function (σ vs. concentration), non-linear models, and hidden algorithms and data evaluation/reporting schemes. Some of these issues are illustrated through a multidisciplinary case study of fossil and biomass burning aerosol at extremely low levels in the polar atmosphere and cryosphere, and by biased reporting practices for 'non-detects.' (author)

  8. Evaluation of the low-level laser therapy application parameters for skin burn treatment in experimental model: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassolatti, Patricia; de Andrade, Ana Laura Martins; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Otterço, Albaiza Nicoletti; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio

    2018-05-05

    Burn is defined as a traumatic injury of thermal origin, which affects the organic tissue. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has gained great prominence as a treatment in this type of injury; however, the application parameters are still controversial in the literature. The aims of this study were to review the literature studies that use LLLT as a treatment in burns conducted in an experimental model, discuss the main parameters used, and highlight the benefits found in order to choose an appropriate therapeutic window to be applied in this type of injury. The selection of the studies related to the theme was carried out in the main databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, and Scopus in the period from 2001 to 2017). Subsequently, the articles were then chosen that fell within the inclusion criteria previously established. In the end, 22 were evaluated, and the main parameters were presented. The analyzed studies presented both LLLT use in continuous and pulsed mode. Differences between the parameters used (power, fluence, and total energy) were observed. In addition, the protocols are distinct as to the type of injury and the number of treatment sessions. Among the results obtained by the authors are the improvements in the local microcirculation and cellular proliferation; however, a study reported no effects with LLLT as a treatment. LLLT is effective in accelerating the healing process. However, there is immense difficulty in establishing the most adequate protocol, due to the great discrepancy found in the applied dosimetry values.

  9. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  10. Low level and sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury induces hypertension in rats: nitric oxide depletion and oxidative damage as possible mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotto, Denise; Barcelos, Gustavo R.M.; Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Castro, Michele M. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Increased risk of hypertension after methylmercury (MeHg) exposure has been suggested. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well explored. In this paper, we have analyzed whether sub-chronic exposure to MeHg increases systolic blood pressure even at very low levels. In addition, we analyzed if the methylmercury-induced hypertension is associated with a decreased plasmatic nitric oxide levels and with a dysregulation of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of MDA and glutathione. For this study, Wistar rats were treated with methylmercury chloride (100 {mu}g/kg per day) or vehicle. Total treatment time was 100 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and circulating NOx levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in plasma, whereas glutathione levels were determined in erythrocytes. Our results show that long-term treatment at a low level of MeHg affected systolic blood pressure, increasing and reducing the levels of plasmatic MDA and NOx, respectively. However, the activity of SOD did not decrease in the MeHg exposed group when compared to the control. We found a negative correlation between plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and systolic blood pressure (r=-0.67; P=0.001), and a positive correlation between MDA and systolic blood pressure (r=0.61; P=0.03), thus suggesting increased inhibition of NO formation with the increase of hypertension. In conclusion, long-term exposure to a low dose of MeHg increases the systolic pressure and is associated, at least in part, with increased production of ROS as judged by increased production of malondialdehyde and depressed NO availability. (orig.)

  11. Effects of low-level exposure to sarin and cyclosarin during the 1991 Gulf War on brain function and brain structure in US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Rothlind, Johannes C; Cardenas, Valerie A; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-09-01

    Potentially more than 100,000 US troops may have been exposed to the organophosphate chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when a munitions dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the Gulf War (GW) in 1991. Although little is known about the long-term neurobehavioral or neurophysiological effects of low-dose exposure to GB/GF in humans, recent studies of GW veterans from the Devens Cohort suggest decrements in certain cognitive domains and atrophy in brain white matter occur individuals with higher estimated levels of presumed GB/GF exposure. The goal of the current study is to determine the generalizability of these findings in another cohort of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure. Neurobehavioral and imaging data collected in a study on Gulf War Illness between 2002 and 2007 were used in this study. We focused on the data of 40 GW-deployed veterans categorized as having been exposed to GB/GF at Khamisiyah, Iraq and 40 matched controls. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain were analyzed using automated and semi-automated image processing techniques that produced volumetric measurements of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hippocampus. GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure had reduced total GM and hippocampal volumes compared to their unexposed peers (p< or =0.01). Although there were no group differences in measures of cognitive function or total WM volume, there were significant, positive correlations between total WM volume and measures of executive function and visuospatial abilities in veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure. These findings suggest that low-level exposure to GB/GF can have deleterious effects on brain structure and brain function more than decade later. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptual Evaluation for the Installation of Treatment Capability for Mixed Low-Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    National Security Technologies, LLC, initiated an evaluation of treatment technologies that they would manage and operate as part of the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal facilities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive waste from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex since the 1960s, and since 2005 the NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive and MLLW for disposal only. In accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), all mixed waste must meet land disposal restrictions (LDRs) prior to disposal. Compliance with LDRs is attained through treatment of the waste to mitigate the characteristics of the listed waste hazard. Presently, most generators utilize commercial capacity for waste treatment prior to shipment to the NNSS Disposal Facility. The objectives of this evaluation are to provide a conceptual study of waste treatment needs (i.e., demand), identify potential waste treatment technologies to meet demand, and analyze implementation considerations for initiating MLLW treatment capacity at the NNSS Disposal Facility. A review of DOE complex waste generation forecast data indicates that current and future Departmental demand for mixed waste treatment capacity will remain steady and strong. Analysis and screening of over 30 treatment technologies narrowed the field of treatment technologies to four: (1) Macroencapsulation; (2) Stabilization/microencapsulation; (3) Sort and segregation; and (4) Bench-scale mercury amalgamation. The analysis of treatment technologies also considered existing permits, current the NNSS Disposal Facility infrastructure such as utilities and procedures, and past experiences such as green-light and red-light lessons learned. A schedule duration estimate has been developed for permitting, design, and construction of onsite treatment capability at the NNSS Disposal Facility. Treatment capability can be ready in 20 months.

  13. Conceptual Evaluation for the Installation of Treatment Capability for Mixed Low Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-11-24

    National Security Technologies, LLC, initiated an evaluation of treatment technologies that they would manage and operate as part of the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal facilities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive waste from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex since the 1960s, and since 2005 the NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive and MLLW for disposal only. In accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), all mixed waste must meet land disposal restrictions (LDRs) prior to disposal. Compliance with LDRs is attained through treatment of the waste to mitigate the characteristics of the listed waste hazard. Presently, most generators utilize commercial capacity for waste treatment prior to shipment to the NNSS Disposal Facility. The objectives of this evaluation are to provide a conceptual study of waste treatment needs (i.e., demand), identify potential waste treatment technologies to meet demand, and analyze implementation considerations for initiating MLLW treatment capacity at the NNSS Disposal Facility. A review of DOE complex waste generation forecast data indicates that current and future Departmental demand for mixed waste treatment capacity will remain steady and strong. Analysis and screening of over 30 treatment technologies narrowed the field of treatment technologies to four: • Macroencapsulation • Stabilization/microencapsulation • Sort and segregation • Bench-scale mercury amalgamation The analysis of treatment technologies also considered existing permits, current the NNSS Disposal Facility infrastructure such as utilities and procedures, and past experiences such as green-light and red-light lessons learned. A schedule duration estimate has been developed for permitting, design, and construction of onsite treatment capability at the NNSS Disposal Facility. Treatment capability can be ready in 20 months.

  14. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere

  15. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas:Estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge);Analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility;Evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; andEstimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance.An estimate of recharge at a LLW site is important since recharge is a principal factor in controlling the release of contaminants via the groundwater pathway. The most common methods for estimating recharge are discussed in Chapter 2. Many factors affect recharge; the natural recharge at an undisturbed site is not necessarily representative either of the recharge that will occur after the site has been disturbed or of the flow of water into a disposal facility at the site. Factors affecting recharge are discussed in Chapter 2.At many sites engineered components are required for a LLW facility to meet performance requirements. Chapter 3 discusses the use of engineered barriers to control the flow of water in a LLW facility, with a particular emphasis on cover systems. Design options and the potential performance and degradation mechanisms of engineered components are also discussed.Water flow in a LLW disposal facility must be evaluated before construction of the facility. In addition, hydrologic performance must be predicted over a very long time frame. For these reasons, the hydrologic evaluation relies on the use of predictive modeling. In Chapter 4, the evaluation of unsaturated water flow modeling is discussed. A checklist of items is presented to guide the evaluation

  16. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5 on Cardiopulmonary Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. C. Malecki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21–74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM2.5 μg/m3. Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM2.5. Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L in one second FEV1 (β = −0.40 μg/L; 95% CI −0.45, −0.06. Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM2.5 and lung function (FEV1 only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who

  17. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5) on Cardiopulmonary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Bergmans, Rachel S

    2018-01-06

    Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21-74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM 2.5 μg/m³). Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio) were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM 2.5 . Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM 2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L) in one second FEV1 (β = -0.40 μg/L; 95% CI -0.45, -0.06). Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM 2.5 and lung function (FEV1) only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who felt their

  18. Chronic low-level arsenite exposure through drinking water increases blood pressure and promotes concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Soria, Pablo; Broka, Derrick; Monks, Sarah L; Camenisch, Todd D

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. High incidence of cardiovascular diseases has been linked to populations with elevated arsenic content in their drinking water. Although this correlation has been established in many epidemiological studies, a lack of experimental models to study mechanisms of arsenic-related cardiovascular pathogenesis has limited our understanding of how arsenic exposure predisposes for development of hypertension and increased cardiovascular mortality. Our studies show that mice chronically exposed to drinking water containing 100 parts per billion (ppb) sodium arsenite for 22 weeks show an increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Echocardiographic analyses as well as histological assessment show concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, a primary cardiac manifestation of chronic hypertension. Live imaging by echocardiography shows a 43% increase in left ventricular mass in arsenic-treated animals. Relative wall thickness (RWT) was calculated showing that all the arsenic-exposed animals show an RWT greater than 0.45, indicating concentric hypertrophy. Importantly, left ventricular hypertrophy, although often associated with chronic hypertension, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular-related mortalities. These results suggest that chronic low-level arsenite exposure promotes the development of hypertension and the comorbidity of concentric hypertrophy.

  19. Estimation of health effects of long-term chronic exposure of the low level radiation among children exposed in consequence of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, E.I.; Romanneko, A.E.; Bomko, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The low level dose effects have been studied for a long time within a framework of biological effects of radiation exposure. The estimation of the dose level of Ukrainian people who have been exposed in consequence of the Chernobyl accident allowed to consider that one of the critical populations which had been exposed to the low level radiation were children residing on the areas contaminated with radionuclides. The purpose of this work is - to reveal a regularity in morbidity and mortality of the critical populations having been exposed to long-term chronic exposure of the low level doses of radiation in consequences of the Chernobyl accident

  20. Effects of low-level sarin and cyclosarin exposure and Gulf War Illness on brain structure and function: a study at 4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Abadjian, Linda; Hlavin, Jennifer; Meyerhoff, Deiter J; Weiner, Michael W

    2011-12-01

    More than 100,000 US troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when an ammunition dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the 1991 Persian Gulf War (GW). We previously found reduced total gray matter (GM) volume in 40 GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure relative to 40 matched, unexposed GW veterans on a 1.5T MR scanner. In this study, we reexamine the relationship between GB/GF exposure and volumetric measurements of gross neuroanatomical structures in a different cohort of GW veterans on a 4T MR scanner. Neuropsychological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a cross sectional study on Gulf War Illness performed between 2005 and 2010 were used in this study. 4T MRI data were analyzed using automated image processing techniques that produced volumetric measurements of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Binary comparisons of 64 GB/GF exposed veterans and 64 'matched', unexposed veterans revealed reduced GM (p=0.03) and WM (p=0.03) volumes in the exposed veterans. Behaviorally, exposed veterans committed more errors of omission (p=0.02) and tended to have slower responses (p=0.05) than unexposed veterans on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), a measure sustained and selective attention. Regression analyses confirmed that GB/GF exposure status predicted GM (β=-0.11, p=0.02) and WM (β=-0.14, p=0.03) volumes, and number of CPT omission errors (β=0.22, p=0.02) over and above potentially confounding demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables. There was no dose-response relationship between estimated levels of GB/GF exposure and brain volume. However, we did find an effect of Gulf War Illness/Chronic Multisymptom Illness on both GM and WM volume in the GB/GF exposed veterans. These findings confirm previous reports by our group and others of central nervous system pathology in GW veterans with suspected exposure to low levels of GB/GF two decades after the

  1. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  2. Low level postnatal methylmercury exposure in vivo alters developmental forms of short-term synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Sameera; Yuan, Yukun

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been previously shown to affect neurotransmitter release. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) is primarily related to changes in the probability of neurotransmitter release. To determine if MeHg affects STP development, we examined STP forms in the visual cortex of rat following in vivo MeHg exposure. Neonatal rats received 0 (0.9% NaCl), 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg subcutaneously for 15 or 30 days beginning on postnatal day 5, after which visual cortical slices were prepared for field potential recordings. In slices prepared from rats treated with vehicle, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by paired-pulse stimulation at 20-200 ms inter-stimulus intervals showed a depression (PPD) of the second fEPSP (fEPSP2). PPD was also seen in slices prepared from rats after 15 day treatment with 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg. However, longer duration treatment (30 days) with either dose of MeHg resulted in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of fEPSP2 in the majority of slices examined. PPF remained observable in slices prepared from animals in which MeHg exposure had been terminated for 30 days after completion of the initial 30 day MeHg treatment, whereas slices from control animals still showed PPD. MeHg did not cause any frequency- or region-preferential effect on STP. Manipulations of [Ca 2+ ] e or application of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline could alter the strength and polarity of MeHg-induced changes in STP. Thus, these data suggest that low level postnatal MeHg exposure interferes with the developmental transformation of STP in the visual cortex, which is a long-lasting effect.

  3. Risk evaluation of embedded, single-walled liquid low-level waste piping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ESD Publication 4315

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Four categories of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) systems are defined in the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Categories A and B are new and fully compliant existing systems, respectively: Category C is singly contained and must be removed from service, and Category D is inactive. The FFA requires that secondary containment and leak detection be provided for all Category A and B piping in the LLLW System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); however, as noted in the D2 revision of the secondary containment design demonstration report (DOE 1994), some sections of single-walled embedded piping in Category B underground vaults at three ORNL facilities do not meet this requirement. A risk evaluation was performed in order compare the potential radiation dose to a member of the public that could result from a postulated leak in the single-walled pipes with projected radiation exposure to the workers who would modify the piping to meet FFA requirements. The risk to human health from replacing segments of embedded, single-walled piping in the LLW system is higher than the risk of leaving the piping as it is

  4. Non-Linearity of dose-effect relationship on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells at low level exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, Alla; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Dikarev, Vladimir; Dikareva, Nina; Chernonog, Elena; Copplestone, David; Evseeva, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    -particles [Nagasawa and Little, 1992; Mothersill et al., 1995]. Other phenomena including genomic instability, low-dose hypersensitivity, and increased radiation resistance effects are also under study [Marples et al., 1997; Kadhim et al., 2004; Bonner, 2004]. The nonlinearity of the dose-effect relationship with low level exposures has been demonstrated in a number of studies where chromosome aberrations were considered as the endpoint of interest. For example, the number of radiation-induced dicentrics in human peripheral blood lymphocytes found in [Pohl-Ruling et al., 1983; Lloyd et al., 1988, 1992] did not exceed the control level at doses below 40 mGy, with some experimental points lying significantly below control values. Essential deviations of chromosome aberrations appearance from linearity in mammals were also shown at higher doses of 100-300 mGy [Luchnik and Sevankaev, 1976; Takahashi et al., 1982]. In other species, deviations of cytogenetic effect induced by low doses from linearity have also been reported. For example, the dose response for cytogenetic effects in Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Vicia faba germs at doses from 0 to 2.5 Gy was shown to be non linear with a plateau at low doses by [Zaichkina et al., 1992]. Dose-effect curves on chromosome aberrations in root meristem cells of Pisum sativum plantlets in the dose range of 0-10 Gy also showed non-linear responses with a plateau for doses up to 1 Gy [Zaka et al., 2002]. However the available information on dose-effect relationships at low doses for non-human species is scarce despite its importance. In their natural environment, some non-human species may be at a higher risk of impact than humans because of differences in ecological niches occupied. [Geras'kin et.al., 2003]. Currently, radiation protection of the environment and maintenance of ecosystem sustainability is of a special concern. and the development of a harmonized approach to human and biota protection has been recognized as a challenge for modern

  5. Non-Linearity of dose-effect relationship on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells at low level exposure to ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, Alla; Geras' kin, Stanislav; Dikarev, Vladimir; Dikareva, Nina; Chernonog, Elena [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, RIARAE, 249032 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Copplestone, David [Environment Agency, Millbank Tower, 25th. Floor, 21/24 Millbank, London, SW1P 4XL (United Kingdom); Evseeva, Tatyana [Institute of Biology, Kommunisticheskaya st., 28 Syktyvkar 167610, Komi Republic (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    alpha-particles [Nagasawa and Little, 1992; Mothersill et al., 1995]. Other phenomena including genomic instability, low-dose hypersensitivity, and increased radiation resistance effects are also under study [Marples et al., 1997; Kadhim et al., 2004; Bonner, 2004]. The nonlinearity of the dose-effect relationship with low level exposures has been demonstrated in a number of studies where chromosome aberrations were considered as the endpoint of interest. For example, the number of radiation-induced dicentrics in human peripheral blood lymphocytes found in [Pohl-Ruling et al., 1983; Lloyd et al., 1988, 1992] did not exceed the control level at doses below 40 mGy, with some experimental points lying significantly below control values. Essential deviations of chromosome aberrations appearance from linearity in mammals were also shown at higher doses of 100-300 mGy [Luchnik and Sevankaev, 1976; Takahashi et al., 1982]. In other species, deviations of cytogenetic effect induced by low doses from linearity have also been reported. For example, the dose response for cytogenetic effects in Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Vicia faba germs at doses from 0 to 2.5 Gy was shown to be non linear with a plateau at low doses by [Zaichkina et al., 1992]. Dose-effect curves on chromosome aberrations in root meristem cells of Pisum sativum plantlets in the dose range of 0-10 Gy also showed non-linear responses with a plateau for doses up to 1 Gy [Zaka et al., 2002]. However the available information on dose-effect relationships at low doses for non-human species is scarce despite its importance. In their natural environment, some non-human species may be at a higher risk of impact than humans because of differences in ecological niches occupied. [Geras'kin et.al., 2003]. Currently, radiation protection of the environment and maintenance of ecosystem sustainability is of a special concern. and the development of a harmonized approach to human and biota protection has been recognized

  6. Evaluation of Department of Energy-held potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW), and through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and/or for health and safety reasons, the waste is being stored by DOE. A determination is required, considering specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, whether disposal is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facility or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility is appropriate. This report presents the preliminary results of an assessment conducted by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. legal counsel and GTCC LLW Program staff

  7. The Screening of Genes Sensitive to Long-Term, Low-Level Microwave Exposure and Bioinformatic Analysis of Potential Correlations to Learning and Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ya Li; LI Ying Xian; MA Hong Bo; LI Dong; LI Hai Liang; JIANG Rui; KAN Guang Han; YANG Zhen Zhong; HUANG Zeng Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To gain a better understanding of gene expression changes in the brain following microwave exposure in mice. This study hopes to reveal mechanisms contributing to microwave-induced learning and memory dysfunction. Methods Mice were exposed to whole body 2100 MHz microwaves with specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.45 W/kg, 1.8 W/kg, and 3.6 W/kg for 1 hour daily for 8 weeks. Differentially expressing genes in the brains were screened using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, with genes showing more significant differences further confirmed by RT-PCR. Results The gene chip results demonstrated that 41 genes (0.45 W/kg group), 29 genes (1.8 W/kg group), and 219 genes (3.6 W/kg group) were differentially expressed. GO analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in metabolic processes, cellular metabolic processes, regulation of biological processes, macromolecular metabolic processes, biosynthetic processes, cellular protein metabolic processes, transport, developmental processes, cellular component organization, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes are mainly involved in pathways related to ribosome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, long-term potentiation, Huntington's disease, and Neurotrophin signaling. Construction of a protein interaction network identified several important regulatory genes including synbindin (sbdn), Crystallin (CryaB), PPP1CA, Ywhaq, Psap, Psmb1, Pcbp2, etc., which play important roles in the processes of learning and memory. Conclusion Long-term, low-level microwave exposure may inhibit learning and memory by affecting protein and energy metabolic processes and signaling pathways relating to neurological functions or diseases.

  8. The Screening of Genes Sensitive to Long-Term, Low-Level Microwave Exposure and Bioinformatic Analysis of Potential Correlations to Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya Li; Li, Ying Xian; Ma, Hong Bo; Li, Dong; Li, Hai Liang; Jiang, Rui; Kan, Guang Han; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Huang, Zeng Xin

    2015-08-01

    To gain a better understanding of gene expression changes in the brain following microwave exposure in mice. This study hopes to reveal mechanisms contributing to microwave-induced learning and memory dysfunction. Mice were exposed to whole body 2100 MHz microwaves with specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.45 W/kg, 1.8 W/kg, and 3.6 W/kg for 1 hour daily for 8 weeks. Differentially expressing genes in the brains were screened using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, with genes showing more significant differences further confirmed by RT-PCR. The gene chip results demonstrated that 41 genes (0.45 W/kg group), 29 genes (1.8 W/kg group), and 219 genes (3.6 W/kg group) were differentially expressed. GO analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in metabolic processes, cellular metabolic processes, regulation of biological processes, macromolecular metabolic processes, biosynthetic processes, cellular protein metabolic processes, transport, developmental processes, cellular component organization, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes are mainly involved in pathways related to ribosome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, long-term potentiation, Huntington's disease, and Neurotrophin signaling. Construction of a protein interaction network identified several important regulatory genes including synbindin (sbdn), Crystallin (CryaB), PPP1CA, Ywhaq, Psap, Psmb1, Pcbp2, etc., which play important roles in the processes of learning and memorye. Long-term, low-level microwave exposure may inhibit learning and memory by affecting protein and energy metabolic processes and signaling pathways relating to neurological functions or diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  10. Effects of low-level prenatal lead exposure on child IQ at 4 and 8 years in a UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Kordas, Katarzyna; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2017-09-01

    The association between childhood exposure to lead (Pb) and deficits in cognitive function is well established. The association with prenatal exposure, however, is not well understood, even though the potential adverse effects are equally important. To evaluate the association between low prenatal exposure to lead and IQ in children, to determine whether there were sex differences in the associations, and to evaluate the moderation effect of prenatal Pb exposure on child IQ. Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC (n=4285) and from offspring at age 30 months (n=235) were analysed for Pb. Associations between prenatal blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) and child IQ at age 4 and 8 years (WPPSI and WISC-III, respectively) were examined in adjusted regression models. There was no association of prenatal lead exposure with child IQ at 4 or 8 years old in adjusted regression models, and no moderation of the association between child B-Pb and IQ. However, there was a positive association for IQ at age 8 years in girls with a predicted increase in IQ (points) per 1μg/dl of: verbal 0.71, performance 0.57, total 0.73. In boys, the coefficients tended to be negative (-0.15, -0.42 and -0.29 points, respectively). Prenatal lead exposure was not associated with adverse effects on child IQ at age 4 or 8 years in this study. There was, however, some evidence to suggest that boys are more susceptible than girls to prenatal exposure to lead. Further investigation in other cohorts is required. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  12. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success

  13. Performance evaluation and operational experience with a semi-automatic monitor for the radiological characterization of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Csullog, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) have undertaken a Waste Disposal Project to co-ordinate the transition from the current practice of interim storage to permanent disposal for low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The strategy of the project is to classify and segregate waste segments according to their hazardous radioactive lifetimes and to emplace them in disposal facilities engineered to isolate and contain them. To support this strategy, a waste characterization program was set up to estimate the volume and radioisotope inventories of the wastes managed by CRNL. A key element of the program is the demonstration of a non-invasive measurement technique for the isotope-specific characterization of solid LLW. This paper describes the approach taken at CRNL for the non-invasive assay of LLW and the field performance and early operational experience with a waste characterization monitor to be used in a waste processing facility

  14. Evaluation of Department of Energy-Held Potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), and, through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) or for health and safety reasons, DOE is storing the waste. This report presents the results of an assessment conducted by the GTCC LLW Management Program to consider specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, and to determine whether disposal in a facility licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility, is appropriate. Input from EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., and DOE Idaho Operations Office legal departments concerning the disposal requirements of this waste were the basis for the decision process used in this report

  15. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  16. Performance evaluation and operational experience with a semi-automatic monitor for the radiological characterization of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Csullog, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) have undertaken a Waste Disposal Project to co-ordinate the transition from the current practice of interim storage to permanent disposal for low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The strategy of the project is to classify and segregate waste segments according to their hazardous radioactive lifetimes and to emplace them in disposal facilities engineered to isolate and contain them. To support this strategy, a waste characterization program was set up to estimate the volume and radioisotope inventories of the wastes managed by CRNL. A key element of the program is the demonstration of a non-invasive measurement technique for the isotope-specific characterization of solid LLW. This paper describes the approach taken at CRNL for the non-invasive assay of LLW and the field performance and early operational experience with a waste characterization monitor to be used in a waste processing facility

  17. Evaluation of Department of Energy-Held Potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), and, through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) or for health and safety reasons, DOE is storing the waste. This report presents the results of an assessment conducted by the GTCC LLW Management Program to consider specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, and to determine whether disposal in a facility licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility, is appropriate. Input from EG&G Idaho, Inc., and DOE Idaho Operations Office legal departments concerning the disposal requirements of this waste were the basis for the decision process used in this report.

  18. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  19. Non-linearity of dose-effect relationship at low level exposure on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.A.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Chernonog, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There has been an increasing concern in the current scientific society and among the public about the need to protect the environment in order to maintain the ecosystem sustainability and future well-being of man. The linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis as the most officially acknowledged concept of biological effect of radiation fails to explain many facts on effects at low level exposures (LLE) accumulated lately. Available information on the dose-effect relationship at low doses is scarce and incomplete for non-human species despite the fact that, under conditions of increased radiation exposure, some biota species occur at a risk of higher impact than humans because of differences in ecological niches occupied. Dose-effect relationships for cytogenetic damage in the range of LLE are studied in a series os experiments with plant (Hordeum vulgare L.) meristem cells. Dose-effect dependences obtained show an obvious non-linear behavior in the LLE region. A piecewise linear model (PLM) for dose-cytogenetic effect relationship that considers an existence of dose-independent part at LLE ('plateau') is developed and specified on the data obtained. An advantage of the PLM over linear model in approximating the frequency of cytogenetic disturbances is demonstrated. From an empirical probability distribution analysis, it is shown that the increase in cytogenetic damage level is tightly connected with changes in a process of absorbed energy distribution between target volumes in terms of fraction of cells experienced a radiation hit event. An appropriateness of the LNT hypothesis to the description of cytogenetic disturbances yield in plant meristem cells in the LLE region is discussed. The results support a conclusion about indirect mechanism of mutagenesis induced by low doses. New data obtained concern a perception of fundamental mechanisms governing cell response to LLE. These findings are of general biological interest, since

  20. To evaluate the safety and efficiency of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in treating decubitus ulcers: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ambereen

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Pressure sores (decubitus ulcer) are a serious problem in health care management, especially for middleaged to older people who are bed-ridden. Although preventative measures are used, the condition remains common and development of novel, improved treatment methods are desirable. This article reviews the application of laser-based methods, previously shown to be effective in accelerating wound-healing in animal models and in the treatment of decubitus ulcers in humans. Methods: About 23 scientific articles on the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in animals and humans from 2000-2014 were reviewed. Additionally, results of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed, and compared with other treatment methods available. Results: Whilst carefully controlled, laboratory-based animal studies indicated that LLLT can reduce healing time for several types of injuries, however similar studies in humans failed to demonstrate consistent beneficial effects in the clinical setting. An acceleration of decubitus ulcer healing has been occasionally found, although limited to certain wavelengths and sometimes only in combination with other types of therapies. Indeed, some of the clinical articles indicated that certain laser wavelengths can have detrimental effects on time of healing. Conclusions: To date, there remains no convincing evidence that LLLT has consistent medical benefit in treating decubitus ulcers. Caution should be applied when considering LLLT since only certain wavelengths utilized have shown beneficial effects. It is concluded that, more RCTs are needed since, there is no clinical justification for LLLT, alone or in combination with other methods, in treating decubitus ulcers.

  1. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, M.R.; Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered

  2. The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-11-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Federal Radiation Council (whose activities have since been transferred to the Radiation Office of the EPA) asked the National Academy of Sciences for information relevant to an evaluation of present radiation protection guides. This report is in response to that request. It presents a summary and analysis, by members of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and its subcommittees, of current knowledge relating to risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. In many respects, the report is a sequel to the reports of the Committee on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, published by the NAS-NRC from 1956 to 1961

  3. The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-11-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Federal Radiation Council (whose activities have since been transferred to the Radiation Office of the EPA) asked the National Academy of Sciences for information relevant to an evaluation of present radiation protection guides. This report is in response to that request. It presents a summary and analysis, by members of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and its subcommittees, of current knowledge relating to risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. In many respects, the report is a sequel to the reports of the Committee on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, published by the NAS-NRC from 1956 to 1961.

  4. CHOLINERGIC AND NORADRENERGIC MODULATION OF LONG-TERM EXPLICIT MEMORY ARE ALTERED BY CHRONIC LOW-LEVEL LEAD EXPOSURE. (U915393)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence suggests that septohippocampal cholinergic activity is suppressed in rats exposed to low levels of lead (Pb). As a result, noradrenergic activity may be elevated due to compensatory sympathetic sprouting. Therefore, the goals of this study were to (a) determine...

  5. Review of criterias for shallow burial sites and geohydrological evaluation around the site of temporary storage of low-level solid radioactive wastes of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Marcelino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Some comments about norms of pollutants release from nuclear and other industries are made. For radioactive discharges, the strictly implemented national norms/criterias, are much more advanced technically than those existing for other pollutants. Based on the criterias of site selection and site evaluations, the site of IPEN for temporary storage of low level solid radioactive waster has been evaluated geohydrologically. Rainfall infiltration rate (297 cm/y) was determined by tritium labelling technique. Ground water velocity (max. 46.1 cm/d) and direction (to north) was determined by various radioactive (Br-82, I-131, Cr-51) tracers using single well techniques. (Author) [pt

  6. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  7. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  8. Standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations for low-level and environmental radionuclide mass spectrometry and atom counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; McCurdy, D.; Bell III, T.; Loesch, R.; Barss, N.M.; Morton, J.S.; Povinec, P.; Burns, K.; Henry, R.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the demand for higher sensitivity radionuclide measurements, atom counting technology will become an increasingly used modality in geo-and bio-studies, and process control operations. It is anticipated that requests, intercomparisons and performance evaluations services will surge in near future. In anticipation of such requests, the state-of-the-art needed to be assessed for proactive planning purposes. The results of a workshop focused on these issues indicated that there are several ongoing standards, intercomparisons and performance evaluations thrusts which are expected to expand in the future. Furthermore, new projects were planned and the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (Public and Environmental Radiation Protection subcommittee) ws proposed as an information coordinator. (author)

  9. Comparative evaluation of direct plating and most probable number for enumeration of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Pouillot, Régis; S Burall, Laurel; Strain, Errol A; Van Doren, Jane M; De Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Sheth, Ishani; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Brown, Eric W; Parish, Mickey; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2017-01-16

    A precise and accurate method for enumeration of low level of Listeria monocytogenes in foods is critical to a variety of studies. In this study, paired comparison of most probable number (MPN) and direct plating enumeration of L. monocytogenes was conducted on a total of 1730 outbreak-associated ice cream samples that were naturally contaminated with low level of L. monocytogenes. MPN was performed on all 1730 samples. Direct plating was performed on all samples using the RAPID'L.mono (RLM) agar (1600 samples) and agar Listeria Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA; 130 samples). Probabilistic analysis with Bayesian inference model was used to compare paired direct plating and MPN estimates of L. monocytogenes in ice cream samples because assumptions implicit in ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses were not met for such a comparison. The probabilistic analysis revealed good agreement between the MPN and direct plating estimates, and this agreement showed that the MPN schemes and direct plating schemes using ALOA or RLM evaluated in the present study were suitable for enumerating low levels of L. monocytogenes in these ice cream samples. The statistical analysis further revealed that OLS linear regression analyses of direct plating and MPN data did introduce bias that incorrectly characterized systematic differences between estimates from the two methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A systematic study of the disposition and metabolism of mercury species in mice after exposure to low levels of thimerosal (ethylmercury)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos, E-mail: mafehoca@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Souza, Juliana Maria, E-mail: souza.jmo@gmail.com [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Grotto, Denise, E-mail: denise.grotto@prof.uniso.br [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de Sorocaba, Rodovia Raposo Tavares km 92.5, CEP 18023-000 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); and others

    2014-10-15

    Thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (etHg)-containing preservative used in some vaccines despite very limited knowledge on the kinetics and direct interaction/effects in mammals' tissues after exposure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of Hg species in mice in a time course analysis after intramuscular injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues. Mice were exposed to one single intramuscular dose of 20 µg of Hg as TM. Blood, brain, heart, kidney and liver were collected at 0.5 hour (h), 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 144 h, 720 h and 1980 h after TM exposure (n=4). Hg species in animal tissues were identified and quantified by speciation analysis via liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS). It was found that the transport of etHg from muscle to tissues and its conversion to inorganic Hg (inoHg) occur rapidly. Moreover, the conversion extent is modulated in part by the partitioning between EtHg in plasma and in whole blood, since etHg is rapidly converted in red cells but not in a plasma compartment. Furthermore, the dealkylation mechanism in red cells appears to be mediated by the Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radical formation). Interestingly, after 0.5 h of TM exposure, the highest levels of both etHg and inoHg were found in kidneys (accounting for more than 70% of the total Hg in the animal body), whereas the brain contributed least to the Hg body burden (accounts for <1.0% of total body Hg). Thirty days after TM exposure, most Hg had been excreted while the liver presented the majority of the remaining Hg. Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that TM (etHg) kinetics more closely approximates Hg{sup 2+} than methylmercury (meHg) while the kidney must be considered a potential target for etHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Ethylmercury is rapidly converted to inorganic

  11. A systematic study of the disposition and metabolism of mercury species in mice after exposure to low levels of thimerosal (ethylmercury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Oliveira Souza, Juliana Maria; Grotto, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (etHg)-containing preservative used in some vaccines despite very limited knowledge on the kinetics and direct interaction/effects in mammals' tissues after exposure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of Hg species in mice in a time course analysis after intramuscular injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues. Mice were exposed to one single intramuscular dose of 20 µg of Hg as TM. Blood, brain, heart, kidney and liver were collected at 0.5 hour (h), 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 144 h, 720 h and 1980 h after TM exposure (n=4). Hg species in animal tissues were identified and quantified by speciation analysis via liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS). It was found that the transport of etHg from muscle to tissues and its conversion to inorganic Hg (inoHg) occur rapidly. Moreover, the conversion extent is modulated in part by the partitioning between EtHg in plasma and in whole blood, since etHg is rapidly converted in red cells but not in a plasma compartment. Furthermore, the dealkylation mechanism in red cells appears to be mediated by the Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radical formation). Interestingly, after 0.5 h of TM exposure, the highest levels of both etHg and inoHg were found in kidneys (accounting for more than 70% of the total Hg in the animal body), whereas the brain contributed least to the Hg body burden (accounts for <1.0% of total body Hg). Thirty days after TM exposure, most Hg had been excreted while the liver presented the majority of the remaining Hg. Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that TM (etHg) kinetics more closely approximates Hg 2+ than methylmercury (meHg) while the kidney must be considered a potential target for etHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Ethylmercury is rapidly converted to inorganic mercury.

  12. Evaluation on the structural soundness of the transport package for low-level radioactive waste for subsurface disposal against aircraft impact by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    The structural analysis of aircraft crush on the transport package for low-level radioactive waste was performed using the impact force which was already used for the evaluation of the high-level waste transport package by LSDYNA code. The transport package was deformed, and stresses due to the crush exceeded elastic range. However, plastic strains yieled in the package were far than the elongation of the materials and the body of the package did not contact the disposal packages due to the deformation of the package. Therefore, it was confirmed that the package keeps its integrity against aircraft crush. (author)

  13. Benzene metabolite levels in blood and bone marrow of B6C3F{sub 1} mice after low-level exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Strunk, M.R.; Thornton-Manning, J.R. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) have explored the species-specific uptake and metabolism of benzene. Results have shown that metabolism is dependent on both dose and route of administration. Of particular interest were shifts in the major metabolic pathways as a function of exposure concentration. In these studies, B6C3F{sub 1} mice were exposed to increasing levels of benzene by either gavage or inhalation. As benzene internal dose increased, the relative amounts of muconic acid and hydroquinone decreased. In contrast, the relative amount of catechol increased with increasing exposure. These results show that the relative levels of toxic metabolites are a function of exposure level. Based on these results and assuming a linear relationship between exposure concentration and levels of bone marrow metabolites, it would be difficult to detect an elevation of any phenolic metabolites above background after occupational exposures to the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit of 1 ppm benzene.

  14. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  15. Cytogenetic evaluation of hospital workers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Assessment of two cytogenetic procedures: accumulated dosimetry versus radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sagredo, J. M.; Villalon, C.; Lopez-Abente, G.; Arranz, L.; Ferro, M. T.; Ferrando, P.; Pollan, M.; Aragones, N.; Ferrer, N.; Sastre, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    We try to establish a cumulative ionising radiation (IR) biologicla dosimetry in occupationally exposed workers as a routine health tes, analysing chromosome translocations. 100 hospital workers occupationally exposed to low levels of X-ray, g-ray and radioactive isotopes are included in this study. Blood samples were cultured for cytogenetic analysis. Chromosome translocatiosn were scored using whole chromosome paint probes cocktail (Vysis) for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Furthermore, a personal detailed interview about confounding factors, as tobacco smoking X-ray examination, occupational exposure to chemotherapeutics agents and solvents, electromagnetic fields exposure, and others was done. Our results showed that there is no statistical association between cumulative doses of IRE, type of LET and chromosome translocation rate. For the contraty, we have found a translocation risk increase related with IR equivalent dose rate, independently of the time of exposure and age. Those workers receiving 1mSv/year or more vs<1mSv/year show a relative risk of 2.56 (95% confidence interval 1.10-5.95). A comparison of translocationrate and different confounding factors suggest a relative risk increase in intensive users of mobile phones. Other exposures as tobacco smoking solvents, UV radiation anaesthetic gases and any other confounding factors have not shown assocaition with translocation rate. At the same time, we try to analyse radiosensitivity through the CBMN-test (cytokinesis block micronucelus test). Results on CBMN are in progress. Finally we try to asses the two cytogentic procedures as the most suitable routine health test in radiation occupational protection. (Author)

  16. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  17. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  18. Methodology for evaluating radiological consequences of the management of very low-level solide waste arising from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Hemming, C.R.; Clark, J.M.; Chapuis, A.M.; Garbay, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this report a methodology is described, and illustrated by examples, for the evaluation of individual doses and collective dose commitments arising as a result of various management modes for very low-level solid wastes arising from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Estimates have been made of the masses of materials activated and contaminated to within three concentration limits, 0.37, 3.7 and 37 Bq g-1, at three times after reactor shutdown, 5 y, 25 y and 100 y. The disposal options considered are shallow land burial, at a municipal landfill site or at the reactor site, and disposal on the seabed in coastal waters or the deep ocean. It is assumed that there is no special treatment to reduce or eliminate the potential radiological hazard. Consideration has also been given to the radiological impact of recycling of contaminated steel. The radiological impacts of all the management options for the wastes considered were found to be small. It may therefore be acceptable to allow such very low-level wastes to be disposal of without special restrictions provided that the level and type of activity of the wastes can be verified. In addition the health detriment cost associated with all the management options is small, so it is likely that other factors such as transport and engineering costs will be more important in final decisions about the management of these wastes

  19. Ready-to-eat vegetables production with low-level water chlorination. An evaluation of water quality, and of its impact on end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Acunzo, Francesca; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Marinelli, Lucia; Aurigemma, Caterina; De Giusti, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the microbiological impact of low-level chlorination (1 ppm free chlorine) on the production of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables by monitoring the microbiological quality of irrigation and processing water in two production plants over a 4-season period, as well as the microbiological quality of unprocessed vegetables and RTE product. Water samples were also characterized in terms of some chemical and physico-chemical parameters of relevance in chlorination management. Both producers use water with maximum 1 ppm free chlorine for vegetables rinsing, while the two processes differ by the number of washing cycles. Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp were detected once in two different irrigation water samples out of nine from one producer. No pathogens were found in the vegetable samples. As expected, the procedure encompassing more washing cycles performed slightly better in terms of total mesophilic count (TMC) when comparing unprocessed and RTE vegetables of the same batch. However, data suggest that low-level chlorination may be insufficient in preventing microbial build-up in the washing equipment and/or batch-to batch cross-contamination.

  20. Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, Stephane; Rooney, Andrew A.; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl 2 ) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

  1. Chronic low-level arsenic exposure causes gender-specific alterations in locomotor activity, dopaminergic systems, and thioredoxin expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardullas, U.; Limon-Pacheco, J.H.; Giordano, M.; Carrizales, L.; Mendoza-Trejo, M.S.; Rodriguez, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid widely present in the environment. Human exposure to As has been associated with the development of skin and internal organ cancers and cardiovascular disorders, among other diseases. A few studies report decreases in intelligence quotient (IQ), and sensory and motor alterations after chronic As exposure in humans. On the other hand, studies of rodents exposed to high doses of As have found alterations in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, and oxidative stress. In the present study both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of As such as 0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg As/L of drinking water for 4 months, and locomotor activity was assessed every month. Male mice presented hyperactivity in the group exposed to 0.5 mg As/L and hypoactivity in the group exposed to 50 mg As/L after 4 months of As exposure, whereas female mice exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg As/L exhibited hyperactivity in every monthly test during As exposure. Furthermore, striatal and hypothalamic dopamine content was decreased only in female mice. Also decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx-1) mRNA expression in striatum and nucleus accumbens were observed in male and female mice, respectively. These results indicate that chronic As exposure leads to gender-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers and spontaneous locomotor activity, and down-regulation of the antioxidant capacity of the brain.

  2. Intraoperative and postoperative evaluation of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Qiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate intraoperative and postoperative condition of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients. Methods: A total of 176 cases of elderly patients (more than 60 years old receiving laparoscopic surgery in our hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group included 88 cases, control group received conventional ventilation strategy, observation group received low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation strategy, and then levels of hemodynamic indexes, respiratory mechanical indexes, serology indexes and cerebral vessel related indexes, etc of two groups were compared. Results: Intraoperative and postoperative heart rate and mean arterial pressure levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and oxygenation index levels were higher than those of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative APIP and Pplat values of observation group were lower than those of control group, Cs value was higher than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative and postoperative serum IL-8 and TNF-α levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, IL-10 level was higher than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative and postoperative PjvO2, SjvO2 and CjvO2 levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, Da-jvO2 level was lower than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05. Conclusions: When elderly patients receive laparoscopic surgery, the use of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation strategy can stabilize hemodynamic

  3. Polymorphism’s assessment of children’s candidate genes associated with low-level long-term exposure to strontium in drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Zaitseva; O.V. Dolgilh; A.V. Krivtsov; K.G. Starkova; V.A. Luchnikova; O.A. Bubnov; E.A. Otavina; N.V. Bezruchenko; N.A. Vdovina

    2015-01-01

    A sequencing of the candidate genes of the pupils, exposed to strontium by the method of targeted resequencing has been performed. It is shown, that under conditions of increased revenues of strontium in drinking water the number of polymorphonuclear altered portions of candidate genes increases. As a result of the targeted resequencing in conditions of strontium exposure, the maximum polymorph modifications of the following genes are defined: sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) and methylenetetra...

  4. Polymorphism’s assessment of children’s candidate genes associated with low-level long-term exposure to strontium in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sequencing of the candidate genes of the pupils, exposed to strontium by the method of targeted resequencing has been performed. It is shown, that under conditions of increased revenues of strontium in drinking water the number of polymorphonuclear altered portions of candidate genes increases. As a result of the targeted resequencing in conditions of strontium exposure, the maximum polymorph modifications of the following genes are defined: sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1 and methylenetetrahydrofolate. It was shown that the structure of the mutations in conditions of the strontium exposure was characterized by the formation of defects in the gene mapping detoxification (38.5 % of all mutations and immunoregulation (22.5 %. Analysis of the cause-effect relationships in the system "factor - the number of mutations" revealed that candidate genes reflecting strontium exposure conditions (content of strontium in drinking water is 1.3 MAC, are genes: cytochrome P450, glutathione - transaminase (detoxification; dopamine (CNS, interleukin 17 and the major histocompatibility complex (immune system, methylene-tetra-hydro-folate-reductase (reproduction.

  5. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R O; Randell, J T; Haelinen, A I; Pennanen, A S [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V M [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1996-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  6. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Pennanen, A.S. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V.M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1995-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  7. Estimating the risk of bladder and kidney cancer from exposure to low-levels of arsenic in drinking water, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jacques, Nathalie; Brown, Patrick; Nauta, Laura; Boxall, James; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water impacts health. Highest levels of arsenic have been historically observed in Taiwan and Bangladesh but the contaminant has been affecting the health of people globally. Strong associations have been confirmed between exposure to high-levels of arsenic in drinking water and a wide range of diseases, including cancer. However, at lower levels of exposure, especially near the current World Health Organization regulatory limit (10μg/L), this association is inconsistent as the effects are mostly extrapolated from high exposure studies. This ecological study used Bayesian inference to model the relative risk of bladder and kidney cancer at these lower concentrations-0-2μg/L; 2-5μg/L and; ≥5μg/L of arsenic-in 864 bladder and 525 kidney cancers diagnosed in the study area, Nova Scotia, Canada between 1998 and 2010. The model included proxy measures of lifestyle (e.g. smoking) and accounted for spatial dependencies. Overall, bladder cancer risk was 16% (2-5μg/L) and 18% (≥5μg/L) greater than that of the referent group (water arsenic-levels within the current the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  9. Significant changes in the amounts of neurotransmitter and related substances in rat brain induced by subacute exposure to low levels of toluene and xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T.; Sudo, A.; Miyagawa, M.; Sato, M.; Hasegawa, H.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were exposed to toluene and xylene at 200-800 ppm for 30 days. After exposure, changes in the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine (ACh), cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, GABA, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, taurine, glycine and alanine content of different areas of the brain were investigated. ACh in the striatum and whole brain were reduced dose-dependently by toluene and xylene. The reduction at 800 ppm of the solvents was in the range of 10 to 20% of the ACh content of the control rats. Toluene and xylene caused different changes in monoamine content other than ACh, but the changes were not dose-dependent. Among the seven free amino acids that are the main amino acid components of the brain, the glutamine content was increased by toluene and xylene at 800 ppm. Decrease in ACh and increase in glutamine in the brain appear to be phenomena common to many kinds of organic solvents including toluene and xylene after acute and subacute exposure.

  10. INFLUENCE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA (DRUM-STICK FRUIT EXTRACT ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO LOW LEVELS OF ARSENIC THROUGH FEED ON RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav R. Pachade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Moringa oleifera fruits hot methanolic extract (MFE, if any, in minimizing the adverse reactions of repeated exposure to arsenic trioxide (AT in feed was investigated in Wistar rats with reference to haematological profile. Three groups of rats each containing 10 (5male+5female were used. The group I served as negative control. Rats of group II were fed arsenic trioxide (AT alone @ 100 ppm in feed while those of group III simultaneously received AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Blood samples were collected from retroorbital plexus for estimation of hematological parameters (haemoglobin, PCV, TEC, MCH, MCHC, MCV of different groups on 0 day, 15th day and 29th day respectively. Exposure to AT through feed in group II resulted in significant (P<0.05 decrease in haemoglobin, TEC and MCHC, accompanied by increased MCV, with no significant alteration of PCV or MCH of the rats. While rats of group III treated with AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day also resulted in same consequences as it was in group II but it was slightly less than that of group II suggesting of mild non significant protective effect.

  11. Evaluation of a simplified modified Atkins diet for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Goel, Shaiphali; Jain, Puneet; Agarwala, Anuja; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-11-01

    This study was planned to develop and evaluate a simple, easy-to-understand variation of the modified Atkins diet, for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a simplified version of the modified Atkins diet was developed. In the second phase this was evaluated in children aged 2-14 years who had daily seizures despite the appropriate use of at least two anticonvulsant drugs, in an open-label randomized-controlled-trial. Children were randomized to receive either the simplified modified Atkins diet or no dietary intervention for a period of 3 months with the ongoing anticonvulsant medications being continued unchanged in both the groups. Reduction in seizure frequency was the primary outcome-measure. Data was analyzed using intention to treat approach. Adverse effects were also studied. (Clinical trial identifier NCT0189989). Forty-one children were randomly assigned to the diet-group, and 40 were assigned to the control-group. Two patients discontinued the diet during the study period. The proportion of children with>50% seizure reduction was significantly higher in the diet group as compared to the control group (56.1% vs 7.5%, pliteracy. This diet was found to be feasible, efficacious and well tolerated in children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perinatal Exposure to Low Levels of the Environmental Antiandrogen Vinclozolin Alters Sex-Differentiated Social Play and Sexual Behaviors in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Nathan K.W.; Pelletier, Nicole C.; Cote, Joyce M.; Concannon, John B.; Jurdak, Nicole A.; Minott, Sara B.; Markowski, Vincent P.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of exposure to the antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin (Vz) on the development of two sex-differentiated behaviors that are organized by the perinatal actions of androgens. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered a daily oral dose of 0, 1.5, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg Vz from the 14th day of gestation through postnatal day (PND)3. The social play behavior of juvenile offspring was examined on PND22 and again on PND34 during play sessions with a same-sex littermate. After they reached adulthood, the male offspring were examined with the ex copula penile reflex procedure to assess erectile function. Vz did not produce any gross maternal or neonatal toxicity, nor did it reduce the anogenital distance in male pups. We observed no effects of Vz on play behavior on PND22. However, the 12-mg/kg Vz dose significantly increased play behavior in the male offspring on PND34 compared with controls. The most dramatic increases were seen with the nape contact and pounce behavior components of play. The Vz effect was more pronounced in male than in female offspring. As adults, male offspring showed a significant reduction of erections at all dose levels during the ex copula penile reflex tests. The 12-mg/kg dose was also associated with an increase in seminal emissions. These effects demonstrate that perinatal Vz disrupts the development of androgen-mediated behavioral functions at exposure levels that do not produce obvious structural changes or weight reductions in androgen-sensitive reproductive organs. PMID:15929892

  13. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, T.; Ezaki, T.; Moriguchi, J.; Fukui, Y.; Okamoto, S.; Ukai, H.; Sakurai, H.; Aoshima, K.; Ikeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), α 1 -microglobulin (α 1 -MG), β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., ≥ 4 μg/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 μg/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 μg/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in α 1 -MG and NAG (β 2 -MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake

  14. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikeda@kyotokojohokenkai.or.jp

    2006-06-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd

  15. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  16. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to low levels of gamma rays on open-field activity in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Hirokaga, Kouichi

    1995-01-01

    The open-field activity of first-generation (F 1 ) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with γ rays on day 14 of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months (young), 12-13 months (adult) and 19-20 months (old). Doses were 0.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. Open-field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every second through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 8-cm 2 units. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The walking speed of the 1.0-Gy group recorded at 19-20 months was higher than that for the comparably aged control group. The time which the irradiated group, recorded at 19-20 months, spent in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. Conversely, the time spent by the irradiated group in the middle fields when recorded at 19-20 months was shorter than in the comparably aged control group. No effect of radiation was shown for any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 6-7 and 12-13 months. The results demonstrate that such exposure to γ rays on day 14 of gestation results in behavioral changes which occur at 19-20 but not at 6-7 or 12-13 months. 10 refs. 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to low levels of gamma rays on open-field activity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, T; Hirokaga, K

    1995-11-01

    The open-field activity of first-generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with gamma rays on day 14 of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months (young), 12-13 months (adult) and 19-20 months (old). Doses were 0.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. Open-field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every second through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 8-cm2 units. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The walking speed of the 1.0-Gy group recorded at 19-20 months was higher than that for the comparably aged control group. The time which the irradiated group, recorded at 19-20 months, spent in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. Conversely, the time spent by the irradiated group in the middle fields when recorded at 19-20 months was shorter than in the comparably aged control group. No effect of radiation was shown for any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 6-7 and 12-13 months. The results demonstrate that such exposure to gamma rays on day 14 of gestation results in behavioral changes which occur at 19-20 months but not at 6-7 or 12-13 months.

  18. A Comparative Evaluation of Low-Level Laser and Topical Steroid Therapies for the Treatment of Erosive-Atrophic Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shenawy, Hanaa M; Eldin, Amany Mohy

    2015-09-15

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes bilateral white striations, papules, or plaques on the buccal mucosa, tongue, and gingivae. Erythema, erosions, and blisters may or may not be present. Several empirical therapies have been used in the treatment of (OLP). To evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) versus topical steroids for the treatment of erosive-atrophic lichen planus. Twenty-four patients with erosive-atrophic (OLP) were categorized into two groups. In the first group patients were treated with 970 nm diode laser irradiation, while, in the second group patients used topical corticosteroids (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide orabase). The gender, medical history and pain score were recorded. The pain score was measured before and after treatment by visual analogue scale (VAS). Steroid-treated group (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide orabase) show reduced pain score than laser group. Topical steroids are more effective than LLLT. LLLT may be used as an alternative treatment for symptomatic OLP when steroids are contraindicated.

  19. Effects of corticopuncture (CP) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption in rats using micro-CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Selly Sayuri; Garcez, Aguinaldo Silva; Reese, Patricia Oblitas; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Moon, Won

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of tooth displacement, quantity of root resorption, and alveolar bone changes in five groups: corticopuncture (CP), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), CP combined with LLLT (CP + LLLT), control (C), and negative control (NC). A total of 60 half-maxilla from 30 male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups: three (CP, LLLT, and CP + LLLT) test groups with different stimulation for accelerated-tooth-movement (ATM), one control (C) group, and one negative control (NC) group with no tooth movement. Nickel-titanium coil springs with 50 g of force were tied from the upper left and right first molars to micro-implants placed behind the maxillary incisors. For the CP and CP + LLLT groups, two perforations in the palate and one mesially to the molars were performed. For the LLLT and CP + LLLT groups, GaAlAs diode laser was applied every other day for 14 days (810 nm, 100 mW, 15 s). The tooth displacements were measured directly from the rat's mouth and indirectly from microcomputer (micro-CT) tomographic images. Bone responses at the tension and compression sites and root resorption were analyzed from micro-CT images. The resulting alveolar bone responses were evaluated by measuring bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and trabecular thickness (TbTh). Root resorption crater volumes were measured on both compression and tension sides of mesial and distal buccal roots. The tooth displacement in the CP + LLLT group was the greatest when measured clinically, followed by the CP, LLLT, and control groups (C and NC), respectively (p CP and CP + LLLT groups compared to the LLLT and control groups. The BMD, BV/TV, and TbTh values were lower at the compression side and higher at the tension side for all three test groups compared to the control group. The root resorption crater volume of the distal buccal root was higher in the control group, followed by CP, LLLT

  20. Altered operant responding for motor reinforcement and the determination of benchmark doses following perinatal exposure to low-level 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, V P; Zareba, G; Stern, S; Cox, C; Weiss, B

    2001-06-01

    Pregnant Holtzman rats were exposed to a single oral dose of 0, 20, 60, or 180 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the 18th day of gestation. Their adult female offspring were trained to respond on a lever for brief opportunities to run in specially designed running wheels. Once they had begun responding on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement, the fixed-ratio requirement for lever pressing was increased at five-session intervals to values of FR2, FR5, FR10, FR20, and FR30. We examined vaginal cytology after each behavior session to track estrous cyclicity. Under each of the FR values, perinatal TCDD exposure produced a significant dose-related reduction in the number of earned opportunities to run, the lever response rate, and the total number of revolutions in the wheel. Estrous cyclicity was not affected. Because of the consistent dose-response relationship at all FR values, we used the behavioral data to calculate benchmark doses based on displacements from modeled zero-dose performance of 1% (ED(01)) and 10% (ED(10)), as determined by a quadratic fit to the dose-response function. The mean ED(10) benchmark dose for earned run opportunities was 10.13 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 5.77 ng/kg. The corresponding ED(01) was 0.98 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 0.83 ng/kg. The mean ED(10) for total wheel revolutions was calculated as 7.32 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 5.41 ng/kg. The corresponding ED(01) was 0.71 ng/kg with a 95% lower bound of 0.60. These values should be viewed from the perspective of current human body burdens, whose average value, based on TCDD toxic equivalents, has been calculated as 13 ng/kg.

  1. Simultaneous determination of various aromatic amines and metabolites of aromatic nitro compounds in urine for low level exposure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tobias; Angerer, Jürgen

    2002-10-05

    A newly developed method permits the simultaneous quantitative determination of various aromatic amines (or metabolites of aromatic nitro compounds, respectively) in human urine in one analytical run. Applying this method it is possible to determine aniline, toluidines, 4-isopropylaniline, o-anisidine, 3- and 4-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline, aminonitrotoluenes, aminodinitrotoluenes, 3,5- and 3,4-dichloroaniline, alpha- and beta-naphtylamine and 4-aminodiphenyl. After separation from the urinary matrix by a simple liquid-liquid extraction at pH 6.2-6.4 the analytes are converted into their pentafluoropropionic acid amides. Separation and quantitative analysis is carried out by capillary gas chromatography and mass-selective detection in the single ion monitoring mode. The limits of detection were within the range from 0.05 microg/l (4-aminobiphenyl, o-anisidine, 3,5-dichloroaniline) to 2 microg/l urine (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene). The relative standard deviation of the within-series imprecision (determined at spiked concentrations of 2.0 microg/l and 10 microg/l) was between 2.9 and 13.6% depending on analyte and concentration. The relative recovery rates were in the range of 70-121%. The analytes that do not contain a nitro function showed better performance regarding the analytical reliability criteria. In order to determine the suitability of this new method for biological monitoring we analysed 20 12-h urine samples of persons without known exposure to aromatic amines, nitroaromatics or precursors in a pilot study. In these samples various aromatic amines could be clearly identified. The general population renally excretes aniline (median: 3.5 microg/l; 95th percentile: 7.9 microg/l), o- (0.12 microg/l; 2.7 microg/l), m- (0.17 microg/l; 2.2 microg/l) and p-toluidine (0.11 microg/l; 0.43 microg/l), and o-anisidine (0.22 microg/l; 0.68 microg/l). Additionally, we found that the persons investigated also excrete 3- (<0.05 microg/l; 0.55 microg/l) and 4

  2. Stochastic and deterministic models to evaluate the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, A.S.M., E-mail: asergi@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Graduate Program of Nuclear Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horácio Macedo 2030, Bloco G, sala 206, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos, E.M., E-mail: epassos@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontes, G.S., E-mail: gsfontes@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia – IME, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The water infiltration scenario is evaluated for a near surface repository. • The main objective is the determination of the critical distance of the repository. • The column liquid height in the repository is governed by an Ito stochastic equation. • Practical results are obtained for the Abadia de Goiás repository in Brazil. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the stochastic and deterministic models developed for the evaluation of the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The critical distance of a repository is defined as the distance between the repository and a well in which the water activity concentration is able to cause a radiological dose to a member of the public equal to the dose limit set by the regulatory body. The mathematical models are developed based on the Richards equation for the liquid flow in the porous media and on the solute transport equation in this medium. The release of radioactive material from the repository to the environment is considered through its base and its flow is determined by Darcy's Law. The deterministic model is obtained from the stochastic approach by neglecting the influence of the Gaussian white noise on the rainfall and the equations are solved analytically with the help of conventional calculus (non-stochastic calculus). The equations of the stochastic model are solved analytically based on the Ito stochastic calculus and numerically by using the Euler–Maruyama method. The impact on the value of the critical distance of the Abadia de Goiás repository is analyzed, taken as a study case, when the deterministic methodology is replaced by the stochastic one, considered more appropriate for modeling rainfall as a stochastic process.

  3. Low-Level Evidence Suggests that Perceived Ability to Evaluate and Trust Online Health Information is Associated with Low Health Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To review, based on research evidence, the correlation between low health literacy and four outcomes of interest: (1 the ability to evaluate online health information based on (2 perceived reliability and accuracy, (3 trust in the Internet as an information source, and (4 the application of established evaluation criteria. Design – Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Setting –MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete as well as articles discovered through the snowball method. Subjects – 38 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching five online databases and Google Scholar, and hand searching of references. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a two-phase screening process in which two researchers participated to address reliability. Data, including study characteristics and metadata, predictors, assessment methods, and outcomes, were extracted from relevant studies, and then synthesized narratively. Main Results – Following duplication removal 13,632 records were retrieved, 254 of which were identified for full-text assessment. Thirty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies were non-experimental and therefore graded as a low level of evidence; 35 were cross-sectional designs, 1 a focus group, and 2 were observational studies. Studies varied widely in population definition and sample size and were published between 2001 and 2013, primarily in North America. Overall, a positive association was identified between health literacy and outcomes related to the ability to evaluate or trust Internet health information, while findings were inconsistent related to perceived quality of information and the application of evaluative criteria. Four studies examined the impact of health literacy levels on one or more of the outcomes of interest. The most prevalent

  4. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy, platelet-rich plasma, and their combination on the healing of Achilles tendon in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Amin; Sharifi, Davood; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khansari, Mohammadreza; Dorbeh, Shahab Sarrout

    2015-05-01

    Tendon repair is still one of the challenges for rehabilitation. Various treatments for tendon injuries have been used in recent decade. This study was established to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment alone, and using combined method on the healing of Achilles tendon in rabbits. Seventy-two healthy mature male white New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into four groups of 18 animals each: control: partial tenotomy with no treatment, only 1 mL normal saline was injected on days 1, 8, and 15 at the site of splitting; PRP: partial tenotomy with PRP treatment on days 1, 8, and 15 at the site of splitting; LLLT: partial tenotomy with LLLT (K30 hand-held probe, AZOR, Technica, Russia, 650 nm, 30 mW, surface area = 1 cm(2), 60 S/cm(2), energy density = 1.8 J/cm(2)) for 15 consecutive days; LLLT + PRP: partial tenotomy with LLLT + PRP. At the end of trial, the rabbits were euthanatized and tendon specimens were harvested and were submitted for histopathological evaluation, hydroxyproline levels, and biomechanical measurement. The Tukey post hoc test was performed. The results for these parameters showed that PRP or LLLT alone has significant advantages over untreated animals (P  0.05) between the two groups of LLLT and PRP. However, the treatments combining PRP and LLLT showed significant results in comparison of PRP or LLLT alone (P tendon decreases by using the two therapies combined.

  5. Low-level-waste-treatment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, S.D.; Goeller, H.E.; Holladay, D.W.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The initial draft of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. A revised draft is scheduled to be delivered to DOE Headquarters in December 1982. The Handbook is designed to be useful to all individuals and groups concerned with low-level wastes. It is one of several volumes that will ultimately comprise a Low-Level Waste Technology Handbook. The objective of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook is to present an overview of current practices related to the segregation, classification, volume reduction, solidification, handling, packaging, and transportation of LLW for disposal in a shallow land burial facility. The Handbook is intended to serve as a guide to individuals interested in the treatment and handling of low-level radioactive waste. The Handbook will not explicitly tell the user how to design and operate LLW treatment facilities, but rather will identify (1) kinds of information required to evaluate the options, (2) methods that may be used to evaluate these options, and (3) limitations associated with the selection of the treatment options. The focus of the Handbook is providing guidance on how to do waste treatment for disposal by shallow land burial

  6. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  7. Hair Follicle Bulb as a Biodosimeter for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure: Initial Studies Validating the Presence of Potential Protein Biomarkers of Exposure in the Sprague-Dawley Rat Whisker Follicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chambers, Amanda E; Benton, Bernard J; Valdes, James J; Sekowski, Jennifer W

    2006-01-01

    .... The traditional approaches to determine OP exposure are invasive (e.g. require blood samples) laboratory-based assays that are not ideal for rapid, reliable testing in the event of a mass exposure scenario...

  8. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  9. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  10. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  11. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  12. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA

  13. Evaluation of environmental radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The environmental radiation exposure due to radioactive rare gases is most important both at the time of reactor accidents and also in the long-term normal operation of reactor plants. The exposure dose is usually calculated by means of computers. The procedure of the calculation on environmental exposure dose is divided in several consecutive steps. The calculational formulae frequently used and those proposed recently are given with the explanation on released radionuclides, release to the atmosphere, concentration in the atmosphere, β-ray exposure, γ-ray exposure, and calculation of long-term exposure dose. (Mori, K.)

  14. Demonstration of an initial screening phase for site selection for low level radioactive waste burial - an evaluation of relevant IAEA guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    Low level radioactive wastes, arising from the use of radioisotopes in medicine and industry are accumulating throughout Australia. The rate of accumulation has not been large and storage of these wastes close to the point of use has proved practicable to date, but consideration must now be given to a central repository or repositories for these low level wastes. This report considers the question of selecting a site suitable for disposal of wastes by shallow ground burial. It attempts to asses the practicability of using factors suggested by the IAEA for the initial phase of site screening. The screening process described has essentially two stages. In the first, New South Wales was divided into broad structural units and these ranked in order of suitability. In the second stage, survey sites in which thick clay beds outcropped were delineated in the five highest ranking structural units. These survey sites were ranked on the basis of various geomorphological properties which largely described the hydrogeology of the site

  15. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  16. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  17. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D'Amico, N.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D'Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace

  18. A Structured, Manual-Based Low-Level Intervention vs. Treatment as Usual Evaluated in a Randomized Controlled Trial for Adolescents with Extreme Obesity - the STEREO Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Mühlig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare efficacy and safety of a manual-based low-level psychological intervention with treatment as usual (weight loss treatment. Methods: A two-armed randomized controlled trial without blinding and computer-based stratified block randomization included adolescents and young adults (14.0-24.9 years with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at five German university hospitals. Primary outcomes were adherence (participation rate ≥ 5/6 sessions and quality of life (DISABKIDS-37 6 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes included depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress scores. Results: Of 397 screened adolescents, 119 (mean BMI 40.4 ± 7.0 kg/m2, 49.6% female were randomized to the manual-based low-level intervention (n = 59 or treatment as usual (n = 60. We observed no group difference for adherence (absolute risk reduction 0.4%, 95% CI -14.7% to 15.5%; p = 1.0 or health-related quality of life (score difference 8.1, 95% CI -2.1 to 18.3; p = 0.11. Among all secondary outcomes, we detected explorative evidence for an effect on the DISABKIDS-37 ‘social exclusion' subscale (score difference 15.5; 95% CI 1.6-29.4; p = 0.03. 18/19 adverse events occurred in 26 participants, none were classified as serious. Conclusion: Adherence to a coping-oriented intervention was comparable to weight loss treatment, although it was weak in both interventions. Psychological interventions may help to overcome social isolation; further confirmation is required.

  19. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  20. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  1. Can low-level radiation cause cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Health in a multicellular organism is maintained by homeostatic processes. Disruption of these homeostatic controls at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and organ systems levels can be brought about by irreversible changes in the genetic material (mutagenesis), cell death (cytotoxicity), or reversible changes in the expression of genes at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational levels (epigenesis). While radiation is known to induce DNA damage/mutations, cell, death and epigenetic changes, in addition to cancers that are found in radiation-exposed animals, experimentally, and in humans, epidemiologically, the question is, At low-level exposure, what is the risk that cancers are open-quotes causedclose quotes by the radiation?

  2. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  3. Evaluation of overturning capacity of low level radioactive waste drum during earthquake. Part 2. Investigation of drum weight distribution effect and drum columns interaction by numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Numerical analysis case study is carried out for three layered and four layered low level radioactive waste drums by numerical models based on the results of shaking table test. First of all, numerical analysis results about drums displacement due to uplift and sliding on pallets during earthquake are compared with the experimental results and it is shown good agreement in both results. By this analytical model effects of drum weight distribution along height direction and drum columns interaction followed by each other drum's collisions on overturning capacity during earthquake are researched. From numerical analysis results the limit acceleration which is minimum value of input acceleration at storage building floor when three layered or four layered waste drums overturn is researched. It is shown that overturning capacity during earthquake decline when height of gravity center of three layered and four layered drums get large. So it is available to get down height of gravity center by controlling drum weight distribution along height direction. And as effect of drum columns interaction it is indicated that overturning capacity of single column arrangement drums is larger than that of many columns arrangement drums because phase deference between drum columns occur and decrease vibration amplitude by each other collisions. (author)

  4. Evaluation of muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism before and after low level laser applied to acupoints: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Mônica da Consolação Canuto; Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Horliana, Anna Carolina RattoTempestini; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Motta, Pamella de Barros; MesquitaFerrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2017-08-08

    Bruxism is a repetitive activity that causes tooth wear, audible sounds, and discomfort. Preventive measures have been studied for conditions that can exert a negative influence on physiological development in children. Low-level laser therapy administered over acupoints is an effective, painless, low-cost treatment option that has achieved good results. Thus, the aim of the proposed study is to evaluate changes in muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism after the application of low-level laser to accupoints. The children will be randomly allocated to four groups of 19 individuals: G1 - low-level laser; G2 - occlusal splint; G3 - placebo laser; and G4 - control (without bruxism). The BTS TMJOINT electromyography will be used to determine muscle activity and a digital gnathodynamometer will be used to measure bite force. Salivary cortisol will be analysed at baseline as well as one and six months after treatment. Two-way ANOVA will be employed and complemented by Tukey's test. Bruxism is a repetitive activity of the masticatory muscles that can have negative consequences if not treated, such as tooth wear, noises, discomfort and anxiety. Thus, control and treatment measures should be taken. Although low-level laser therapy over acupoints has been indicated for children, the effects of this treatment modality have not yet been studied. NCT02757261 on 8 April 2016. This study protocol received a grant from the Brazilian fostering agency São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP: #2015/24731-0).

  5. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  6. Low-level radwaste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.; Miller, C.C.; Nelson, R.A.; Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ''Advanced Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems'' conducted under an EPRI contract. The object of the study is to identify advanced lowlevel radwaste treatment systems that are commercially available or are expected to be in the near future. The current state-ofthe-art in radwaste solidification technology is presented. Related processing technologies, such as the compaction of dry active waste (DAW), containers available for radwaste disposal, and the regulatory aspects of radwaste transportation and solidification, are described. The chemical and physical properties of the currently acceptable solidification agents, as identified in the Barnwell radwaste burial site license, are examined. The solidification agents investigated are hydraulic cements, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. It is concluded that solidification processes are complex and depend not only on the chemical and physical properties of the binder material and the waste, but also on how these materials are mixed

  7. Background information for the development of a low-level waste performance assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.

    1989-12-01

    This document identifies and describes the potential postclosure pathways of radionuclide release, migration, and exposure from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Each pathway identified is composed of a combination of migration pathways (air, surface water, ground water, food chain) and exposure pathways (direct gamma, inhalation, ingestion, surface contact). The pathway identification is based on a review and evaluation of existing information, and not all pathways presented in the document would necessarily be of importance at a given low-level waste disposal site. This document presents pathways associated with undisturbed (ground water, gas generation), naturally disturbed (erosion, bathtubbing, earth creep, frost heave, plant and animal intruder), and inadvertent intruder (construction, agriculture) scenarios of a low-level waste disposal facility. 20 refs., 1 fig

  8. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  9. Review and evaluation of principles used in the estimation of radiation doses associated with the practice of deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Templeton, W.L.; Soldat, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    The relevant national and international guidance concerning the estimation of radiological doses from the practice of deepsea disposal of radioactive waste was reviewed. The review includes the dose limitation guidance of the various national and international bodies, especially that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Pathway modeling is discussed as well as the oceanographic models of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Included in the discussion are the recommendations for the definition of high-level waste by the IAEA for use by the London Dumping Convention (LDC) in setting limits for ocean disposal of waste. An assessment of the ICRP's radiological protection system using the effective whole-body dose methodology is made. Present models, which should continue to be improved as the research data becomes available, do provide an adequate basis for regulatory authorities to decide whether authorization for a proposed disposal can be granted, since they provide a means of indicating whether maximum individual (critical groups) exposure limits are likely to be exceeded. However, new models and information are continuously being developed by the international community to assess ocean disposal of radioactive waste in comparison to land disposal and to compare one site against another. 47 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  11. Routine low-level monitoring of polar pesticides and pesticide degradates by HPLC/ESI-MS: Evaluating long-term performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Werner, S.L.; Gates, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity and selective determination of polar pesticides were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). The effects of multiple operators and instruments on method performance were evaluated using 440 pairs of fortified reagent-water and blank reagent-water samples. The influence of varying environmental matrices on recovery and precision were also analyzed using 200 fortified ambient water samples and duplicate ambient water samples. The results show that compound stability in filtered water was matrix-, chemical class- and compound-dependent which ranged from 1 day to 2 weeks.

  12. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  13. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  14. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  15. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  16. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  17. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  18. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  19. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  20. State of R and D of radioactive waste disposal (5). R and D of low level radioactive waste disposal. Engineered barrier: evaluation of barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko

    2008-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has researched and developed the long-term durability evaluation of engineered barrier materials for the facility of sub-surface disposal at intermediate depth. The important functions of engineered barrier are mechanical stability of construction, low hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity, and absorption of nuclide. A natural barrier plays an important part in nuclide transfer. Some examples of researches on the engineered barrier with cement and bentonite are reported. They contained the leaching test of hardened cement paste using X-ray microanalysis, relation between the dissociation rate of montmorillonite and pH from 15 to 70 deg C, and the mechanism of gas permeability of dense bentonite. The results of leaching test showed that the modified underground water leached smaller amount of ions than the ion exchanged water. The sediment was found on the surface of hardened paste. The dissociation rate of smectite under alkaline conditions showed almost the same values as neutral conditions at 15 deg C. (S.Y.)

  1. Risks of low-level radiation - the evidence of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloag, D.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in estimating risks from very low levels of radiation and the use of dose-response models for cancer incidence are discussed with reference to the third BEIR Committee report on the Effects on Populations of Exposure to low levels of Ionizing Radiation (1980). Cancer risk estimates derived from different epidemiological studies are reviewed. They include atom bomb survivors, medically irradiated groups and occupational groups. (36 references). (author)

  2. The semi-empirical low-level background statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Manh Toan; Nguyen Trieu Tu

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical low-level background statistics was proposed. The one can be applied to evaluated the sensitivity of low background systems, and to analyse the statistical error, the 'Rejection' and 'Accordance' criteria for processing of low-level experimental data. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  3. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  4. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Miller, C.C.; Young, L.G.

    1984-07-01

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  5. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  6. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  7. Effects of RF low levels electromagnetic fields on Paramecium primaurelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofani, S.; Testa, B.; Agnesod, G.; Tartagbino, L.; Bonazzola, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years many studies have been performed to examine biological effects of prolonged exposure at electric field low levels. This great interest is linked to a specific interaction possibility, also related to the exposure length, between electromagnetic fields and biological systems without remarkable enhancement of organism's temperature. Hence the need to investigate in vitro the possible cellular regulation mechanisms involved in these interactions, varying physical exposure parameters

  8. Storage of low-level radioactive wastes in the ground hydrogeologic and hydrochemical factors (with an appendix on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, radioactive waste storage site: current knowledge and data needs for a quantitative hydrogeologic evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopulos, S.S.; Winograd, I.J.

    1974-01-01

    Hydrogeologic criteria presented by Cherry and others (1973) are adopted as a guideline to define the hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data needs for the evaluation of the suitability of proposed or existing low-level radioactive waste burial sites. Evaluation of the suitability of a site requires the prediction of flow patterns and of rates of nuclide transport in the regional hydrogeologic system. Such predictions can be made through mathematical simulation of flow and solute transport in porous media. The status of mathematical simulation techniques, as they apply to radioactive waste burial sites, is briefly reviewed, and hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data needs are listed in order of increasing difficulty and cost of acquisition. Predictive modeling, monitoring, and management of radionuclides dissolved and transported by ground water can best be done for sites in relatively simple hydrogeologic settings; namely, in unfaulted relatively flat-lying strata of intermediate permeability such as silt, siltstone and silty sandstone. In contrast, dense fractured or soluble media and poorly permeable porous media (aquitards) are not suitable for use as burial sites, first, because of media heterogeneity and difficulties of sampling, and consequently of predictive modeling, and, second, because in humid zones burial trenches in aquitards may overflow. A buffer zone several thousands of feet to perhaps several miles around existing or proposed sites is a mandatory consequence of the site selection criteria. As a specific example, the Maxey Flats, Kentucky low-level waste disposal site is examined. (U.S.)

  9. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  10. Effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation: implications for nuclear energy and medical radiation. The 1979 report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (The BEIR Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    The following aspects of the 1979 BEIR report are described: societal decision-making; nuclear energy needs and medical care services; epidemiological and experimental studies; public acceptance; concept of risks to health; risk estimates and cost-benefit analysis; and comparison of risks. Other topics discussed are as follows: need for advisory committees on radiation; value of the BEIR report; health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation; determination of radiation risk estimates; and quantitation of radioinduced cancer risk estimates

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix G: Evaluation of potential for greater-than-Class C classification of irradiated hardware generated by utility-operated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.

    1991-08-01

    This study compiles and evaluates data from many sources to expand a base of data from which to estimate the activity concentrations and volumes of greater-than-Class C low-level waste that the Department of Energy will receive from the commercial power industry. Sources of these data include measurements of irradiated hardware made by or for the utilities that was classified for disposal in commercial burial sites, measurements of neutron flux in the appropriate regions of the reactor pressure vessel, analyses of elemental constituents of the particular structural material used for the components, and the activation analysis calculations done for hardware. Evaluations include results and assumptions in the activation analyses. Sections of this report and the appendices present interpretation of data and the classification definitions and requirements

  12. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M.; Sergio, L.P.S.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  13. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M. [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Sergio, L.P.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  14. Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-05-01

    The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations

  15. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  16. Information exposure, opportunity evaluation and entrepreneurial action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, E.; Dahlander, L.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We study how an individual's exposure to external information regulates the evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurial action. Combining data from interviews, a survey, and a comprehensive web log of an online user community spanning eight years, we find that technical inform...

  17. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  18. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  19. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  20. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  1. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  2. Report on the evaluation under the Act No 24/2006 of Coll. Environmental Impact Assessment Law Extension of National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal low-level radioactive waste and construction of very low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanusik, V.; Moravek, J.; Kusovska, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The report elaborated assessment of the environmental impact of extension of the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Within this repository also the premises for very low level radioactive waste deposition should be built. The assessment report was prepared according to the Act no. 24/2006 Coll, as amended 'On the assessment of environmental impacts' Annex No. 11 upon The scope of assessment issued by the competent authority on the basis of assessment of Intent for this action. The report was prepared in VUJE, Inc. Trnava for Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, Inc. Bratislava (JAVYS).

  3. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa; da Silva, Camila Luna; de Carvalho, Simone Nunes; Cortez, Erika; Mencalha, André Luiz; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Stumbo, Ana Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Low-level infrared laser is considered safe and effective for treatment of muscle injuries. However, the mechanism involved on beneficial effects of laser therapy are not understood. The aim was to evaluate cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser at therapeutic fluences. C2C12 myoblast cultures at different (2 and 10 %) fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (808 nm, 100 mW) at different fluences (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) and evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by WST-1 assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased atthe lowest FBS concentration. Laser exposure increased the cell viability in myoblast cultures at 2 % FBS after 48 and 72 h, but no significant increase in ROS was observed. Apoptosis was decreased at the higher fluence and necrosis was increased at lower fluence in myoblast cultures after 24 h of laser exposure at 2 % FBS. No laser-induced alterations were obtained at 10 % FBS. Results show that level of reactive oxygen species is not altered, at least to those evaluated in this study, but low-level infrared laser exposure affects cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures depending on laser fluence and physiologic conditions of cells.

  4. Problems in evaluating health effects of occupational and environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Existing standards for exposure are based primarily on estimates of health effects obtained by extrapolation from effects of high-level exposures such as those experienced at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational and environmental exposures provide one source of data for this task. A number of studies of populations exposed in this manner have attracted recent attention. Because of the size of most of the groups and the magnitude of the exposures received, the amount that can be learned from such populations is severely limited. A number of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting such data are addressed. Many of these problems are illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant

  5. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs

  6. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  8. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  9. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  10. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  12. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  14. Low level radwaste packaging: why not cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years many words have been expended in a quest to define a variety of competing radioactive waste immobilization technologies. With the more recent recognition of the technical pitfalls of urea-formaldehyde (UF) a liquid chemical binder considered as optimum less than two years ago, utilities, architect-engineers and systems vendors find themselves in a technology void, awaiting the inevitable breakthrough which will identify the perfect immobilization agent. The culmination of these pressures has brought about the introduction of new immobilization technologies including: one which offers both volume reduction and immobilization in yet another new binder agent; the costly development of highly sophisticated volume reduction systems, the highly-concentrated products from which may pose as-yet unknown immobilization problems; and, the marketing of several new more expensive liquid chemical binders which are reputed to have eliminated the kinds of problems associated with urea-formaldehyde. This paper addresses these issues by coming full circle and arriving back at the initial approach employed for low level radwaste immobilization, the use of cement. Based on an evaluation of the three principal competing immobilization approaches, liquid chemical, bitumen and cement, the merits and drawbacks of each is examined. As will be described, an objective assessment of these competing technologies has resulted in a somewhat surprising conclusion that, while none of the approaches is without disadvantages, cement can be shown to offer the most reliable, versatile long-term solution to today's needs

  15. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  16. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  17. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  18. Low-level radioactive wastes: Their treatment, handling, disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P [Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Radiological Health Research Activities, Cincinnati, OH(United States)

    1964-07-01

    The release of low level wastes may result in some radiation exposure to man and his surroundings. This book describes techniques of handling, treatment, and disposal of low-level wastes aimed at keeping radiation exposure to a practicable minimum. In this context, wastes are considered low level if they are released into the environment without subsequent control. This book is concerned with practices relating only to continuous operations and not to accidental releases of radioactive materials. It is written by use for those interested in low level waste disposal problems and particularly for the health physicist concerned with these problems in the field. It should be helpful also to water and sewage works personnel concerned with the efficiency of water and sewage treatment processes for the removal of radioactive materials; the personnel engaged in design, construction, licensing, and operation of treatment facilities; and to student of nuclear technology. After an introduction the following areas are discussed: sources, quantities and composition of radioactive wastes; collection, sampling and measurement; direct discharge to the water, soil and air environment; air cleaning; removal of radioactivity by water-treatment processes and biological processes; treatment on site by chemical precipitation , ion exchange and absorption, electrodialysis, solvent extraction and other methods; treatment on site including evaporation and storage; handling and treatment of solid wastes; public health implications. Appendices include a glossary; standards for protection against radiation; federal radiation council radiation protection guidance for federal agencies; site selection criteria for nuclear energy facilities.

  19. Evaluation of adjunctive effect of low-level laser Therapy on pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar: A double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Eslami, Hosein; Majidi, Alireza; Fakhrzadeh, Vahid; Ghanizadeh, Milad; KhademNeghad, Sahar

    2017-09-30

    Wisdom teeth remains impacted in the jaw due to several reasons and surgery of impacted wisdom teeth is one of the most common surgeries in dental clinics. Pain, swelling and trismus are the common complications after this surgery which affect quality of life. In articles, various methods are introduced to control immediate inflammatory-response associated with third-molar surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the adjunctive effect of low-level laser Therapy on pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar. This double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on two groups of 24 patients (age range of 18-35) that had referred to surgical ward of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for surgery of their mandibular third molar(2015-16). All the subjects were systemically healthy and had at least one impacted mandibular third molar. After surgery, in experimental group, the laser was applied intraorally (inside the tooth socket) and extraorally (at the insertion point of the masseter muscle) immediately after surgery in contact with the target area for 25 seconds each. The laser energy was 2.5 J per area with an energy density of 5 J/ cm 2 at the surface of the probe (spot size= 0.5 cm 2 ). In the other group, as the control group, it was pretended to radiate. Trismus, pain, and swelling were evaluated on the first and seventh days after surgery. The obtained data were evaluated using SPSS 16 software and independent samples T-test. In the group where LLLT had been used, P> 0.05 was calculated for pain, swelling, and trismus on days 1 and 7 after surgery that was not statistically significant. Under limitations of this study, using low-power laser with mentioned parameters, clinically reduces pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted mandibular wisdom, but not statistically significant.

  20. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  1. Low-level lasers affect Escherichia coli cultures in hyperosmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C. C.; Barboza, L. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    Physical characteristics and practical properties have made lasers of interest for biomedical applications. Effects of low-level lasers on biological tissues could occur or be measurable depending on cell type, presence of a pathologic process or whether the cells are in an adverse environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival, morphology and filamentation of E. coli cells proficient and deficient in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions exposed low-level red and infrared lasers submitted to hyperosmotic stress. Wild type and endonuclease VIII deficient E. coli cells in exponential and stationary growth phase were exposed to red and infrared lasers and submitted to hyperosmotic stress. Cell viability, filamentation phenotype and cell morphology were evaluated. Cell viability was not significantly altered but previous laser exposure induced filamentation and an altered area of stressed cells depending on physiologic condition and presence of the DNA repair. Results suggest that previous exposure to low-level red and infrared lasers could not affect viability but induced morphologic changes in cells submitted to hyperosmotic stress depending on physiologic conditions and repair of oxidative DNA lesions.

  2. Nucleotide excision repair genes are expressed at low levels and are not detectably inducible in Caenorhabditis elegans somatic tissues, but their function is required for normal adult life after UVC exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Windy A.; Crocker, Tracey L.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Leung, Maxwell C.K.; Wade Lehmann, D.; Freedman, Jonathan H.; Van Houten, Ben; Meyer, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments to characterize the inducibility of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in Caenorhabditis elegans, and to examine global gene expression in NER-deficient and -proficient strains as well as germline vs. somatic tissues, with and without genotoxic stress. We also carried out experiments to elucidate the importance of NER in the adult life of C. elegans under genotoxin-stressed and control conditions. Adult lifespan was not detectably different between wild-type and NER-deficient xpa-1 nematodes under control conditions. However, exposure to 6 J/m 2 /day of ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) decreased lifespan in xpa-1 nematodes more than a dose of 100 J/m 2 /day in wild-type. Similar differential sensitivities were observed for adult size and feeding. Remarkably, global gene expression was nearly identical in young adult wild-type and xpa-1 nematodes, both in control conditions and 3 h after exposure to 50 J/m 2 UVC. Neither NER genes nor repair activity were detectably inducible in young adults that lacked germ cells and developing embryos (glp-1 strain). However, expression levels of dozens of NER and other DNA damage response genes were much (5-30-fold) lower in adults lacking germ cells and developing embryos, suggesting that somatic and post-mitotic cells have a much lower DNA repair ability. Finally, we describe a refinement of our DNA damage assay that allows damage measurement in single nematodes.

  3. Nucleotide excision repair genes are expressed at low levels and are not detectably inducible in Caenorhabditis elegans somatic tissues, but their function is required for normal adult life after UVC exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Windy A. [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Crocker, Tracey L. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Rodriguez, Ana M. [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Leung, Maxwell C.K. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wade Lehmann, D. [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Freedman, Jonathan H. [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Van Houten, Ben [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Meyer, Joel N., E-mail: joel.meyer@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2010-01-05

    We performed experiments to characterize the inducibility of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in Caenorhabditis elegans, and to examine global gene expression in NER-deficient and -proficient strains as well as germline vs. somatic tissues, with and without genotoxic stress. We also carried out experiments to elucidate the importance of NER in the adult life of C. elegans under genotoxin-stressed and control conditions. Adult lifespan was not detectably different between wild-type and NER-deficient xpa-1 nematodes under control conditions. However, exposure to 6 J/m{sup 2}/day of ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) decreased lifespan in xpa-1 nematodes more than a dose of 100 J/m{sup 2}/day in wild-type. Similar differential sensitivities were observed for adult size and feeding. Remarkably, global gene expression was nearly identical in young adult wild-type and xpa-1 nematodes, both in control conditions and 3 h after exposure to 50 J/m{sup 2} UVC. Neither NER genes nor repair activity were detectably inducible in young adults that lacked germ cells and developing embryos (glp-1 strain). However, expression levels of dozens of NER and other DNA damage response genes were much (5-30-fold) lower in adults lacking germ cells and developing embryos, suggesting that somatic and post-mitotic cells have a much lower DNA repair ability. Finally, we describe a refinement of our DNA damage assay that allows damage measurement in single nematodes.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  5. Stochastic Model for Population Exposed to Low Level Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the stochastic model for population size, i.e. calculation of the number of deaths due to lethal stochastic health effects caused by the exposure to low level ionising radiation is presented. The model is defined for subpopulation with parameter (a, b) being fixed. Using the corresponding density function, it is possible to find all the quantities of interest by averaging over whole possible values for (a, l). All processes ar at first defined for one radionuclide, exposure pathway and the health effect under consideration. The results obtained in this paper are the basic quantities in the risk assessment, loss of life expectancy etc. The results presented in this paper are also applicable to the other sources of low level risk, not only the radiation risk

  6. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  7. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  8. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW.

  9. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  10. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  11. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  12. Processing of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Although low-level wastes have been generated and have required processing for more than two decades now, it is noteworthy that processing methods are continuing to change. The changes are not only attributable to improvements in technology, but are also the result of changing regulations and economics and uncertainties regarding the future availabilities of burial space for disposal. Indeed, because of the changes which have and are taking place in the processing of low-level waste, an overview of the current situation is in order. This presentation is a brief overview of the processing methods generally employed to treat the low-level wastes generated from both fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle sources. The presentation is far too brief to deal with the processing technologies in a comprehensive fashion, but does provide a snapshot of what the current or typical processing methods are and what changes are occurring and why

  13. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  14. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...... network is conducted. Comparisons (t-test) between CSR tweets and general tweets and between specialized CSR Twitter accounts and general accounts reveal that the low levels of interactivity are due to a reactive interaction approach and a lack of specialization....

  15. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  16. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  17. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  18. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  19. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  20. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  2. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  3. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  4. Analysis of Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 63-63 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 25-30 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak areas * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Slovak_en.pdf

  6. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 28-28 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  7. Siting a low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In processes to site disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, volunteerism and incentives packages hold more promise for attracting host communities than they have for attracting host states. But volunteerism and incentives packages can have disadvantages as well as advantages. This paper discusses their pros and cons and summarizes the different approaches that states are using in their relationships with local governments

  8. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  9. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  10. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  11. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  12. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  13. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed

  14. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  15. Self-reported and laboratory evaluation of late pregnancy nicotine exposure and drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E S; Wexelblatt, S L; Greenberg, J M

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of late pregnancy nicotine exposures, including secondhand smoke exposures, and to evaluate the associated risk of exposure to drugs of abuse. The study was a retrospective single-center cohort analysis of more than 18 months. We compared self-reported smoking status from vital birth records with mass spectrometry laboratory results of maternal urine using a chi-square test. Logistic regression estimated adjusted odds for detection of drugs of abuse based on nicotine detection. Compared with 8.6% self-reporting cigarette use, mass spectrometry detected high-level nicotine exposures for 16.5% of 708 women (Pdrugs of abuse, presented as adjusted odds ratios, (95% confidence interval (CI), for both low-level (5.69, CI: 2.09 to 15.46) and high-level (13.93, CI: 7.06 to 27.49) nicotine exposures. Improved measurement tactics are critically needed to capture late pregnancy primary and passive nicotine exposures from all potential sources.

  16. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  17. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  18. Low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    In the development and utilization of nuclear energy, variety of radioactive wastes arise. A largest part is low level radioactive wastes. In Japan, they are concentrated and solidified, and stored in drums. However, no low level wastes have yet been finally disposed of; there are now about 260,000 drums of such wastes stored on the sites. In Japan, the land is narrow, and its structure is geologically unstable, so that the sea disposal is sought. On the other hand, the development of technology for the ground disposal has lagged behind the sea disposal until recently because of the law concerned. The following matters are described: for the sea disposal, preparatory technology studies, environment safety assessment, administrative measures, and international control; for the ground disposal, experiments, surveys, disposal site selection, and the concept of island repositories.

  19. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  20. Low-level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalph, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the organization and methodology for the certification of solid low-level waste (LLW) and mixed-waste (MW) generated at any of the facilities or major work activities of the Engineered Process Application (EPA) organization. The primary LLW and MW waste generating facility operated by EPA is the 377 Building. This plan does not cover the handling of hazardous or non-regulated waste, though they are mentioned at times for completeness

  1. Low-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A design has been proposed for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that should provide the desired isolation under all foreseeable conditions. Although slightly more costly than current practices; this design provides additional reliability. This reliability is desirable to contribute to the closure of the fuel cycle and to demonstrate the responsible management of the uranium cycle by reestablishing confidence in the system

  2. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  3. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  4. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  5. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  6. Long-range low-level waste management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloyna, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In all waste management considerations, it is necessary to establish the waste source; characterize the waste components; determine treatability; evaluate specific details that comprise a systems approach to overall waste management; and implement practical collection, packaging, storage disposal and monitoring technology. This paper evaluates management considerations by defining the source and magnitude of low-level wastes (LLW), relating LLW disposal, defining principles of LLW burial, and listing LLW burial considerations. 17 refs

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Efficacy evaluation of low-level laser therapy on temporomandibular disorder%低强度激光治疗颞下颌关节紊乱病的疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓冬; 杨征; 张伟华; 易新竹; 梁春燕; 李晓箐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on temporomandibular joint (TMJ)pain. Methods The patients with TMJ pain were randomly assigned laser group(n=21) or control group(n=21), once a day for 6 consecutive days of treatment. TMJ pain and function were measured at baseline, just after treatment course, 1 month and 2 months after the treatment. Results The changes of visual analogue scale (VAS) were appearing over time in both groups but presented statistically significant differences between groups (P<0.001). VAS of laser group decreased faster than that of control group. The same tendency occurred for painless maximum vertical opening (MVO), left lateral excursion (LLE) and right lateral excursion (RLE), which increased faster in laser group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups and evaluation times for protrusion excursion(PE), but an interaction between group and evaluation times existed and should be explored further. Conclusion LLLT is an appropriate treatment for TMJ pain.%目的 评估低强度激光(LLLT)疗颞下颌关节痛的效果.方法 将颞下颌关节痛的患者按随机、双盲原则分为激光组(n=21)和对照组(n=21),每位患者均接受连续6d、每天1次的激光或假激光治疗.在治疗前、治疗后、治疗后1月、治疗后2月14个时点对患者的疼痛程度、功能状态进行测量和评估.结果 2组中疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)随时间变化的幅度差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),且激光组评分下降比对照组更多.无痛最大开口度(MVO)、左侧偏动距离(LLE)和右侧偏动距离(RLE)随时间变化的幅度差异有统计学意义,激光组中各指标值上升更快.下颌前伸距离(PE)的时间与组别交互效应有待进一步研究,尚不能认为组别和时间对PE影响有统计学意义.结论 LLLT适宜治疗颞下颌关节痛.

  10. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  11. Evaluation of muscle regeneration in aged animals after treatment with low-level laser therapy Avaliação da regeneração muscular em animais idosos após tratamento com laser de baixa intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pertille

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aging process and its associated morphophysiological changes trigger a reduction in the regenerative ability of the satellite cells, a reduction of vascular tissue and an increase in the production of fibroblasts, developing a cellular environment unfavorable for muscle regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on the muscle regeneration of old experimental rat models after contusion. METHOD: A total of 25 old rats,18 months old, were divided into three groups: control group (CT without treatment; injury group (IN with muscle contusion and without treatment and laser group (LA with contusion and low-level laser therapy, 830 nm, 30 mW e 4 J/cm². The no invasive contusion was induced in the Tibialis Anterior muscle and the samples were collected after 7 and 21 treatment sessions. The muscle was evaluated by Light Microscopy and Immunoblotting. RESULTS: After 21 days of treatment there was a significant reduction in the areas of inflammation/regeneration of the LA 21 group compared to IN 21 group. The cross-sectional area of the fibers in regeneration was not statistically different between the groups. Molecular analysis showed that the content of MyoD was statistically reduced in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. The Myogenin content was increased in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. Ultimately, the content of TGF-β1 on the IN 21 group was higher when compared to the CT group. CONCLUSION: Considering the parameters used, the laser therapy demonstrated to be effective for muscle regeneration in old rats, however only through its anti-inflammatory effect.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O processo de envelhecimento e suas consequentes alterações morfofisiológicas desencadeiam redução da habilidade regenerativa das células satélites, redução da vascularização tecidual e aumento da produção de fibroblastos, desenvolvendo-se um ambiente celular desfavor

  12. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure

  13. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... Cell and Tissue Culture Research Laboratory (Drug Discovery Unit), ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ... therefore, is to protect the biological integrity of.

  14. Health effects of low level radiation exposure among radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Motoi

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, a cohort study of radiation workers has been conducted since 1990. The cohort population consisted of about 176,000 workers (mostly males) who had been registered in the centralized radiation dose registry system and engaged in various radiation works at nuclear facilities. Statistical analyses were performed mainly on the 2,934 deaths, of which 1,191 were cancer cases, detected among 119,000 male subjects during the prospective follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio showed that for any cancers mortality was not different between this population and Japanese general population. By the trend test, though significantly increasing trend in accord with increasing doses was not observed for both cancer in all sites and leukemia, it was highly significant for esophagus cancer and external causes of deaths. Results of the questionnaire survey study of lifestyle of radiation workers suggested that increasing trend of these diseases was at least partly due to the influence of some confounding factors. As a result of reviewing published studies, including the present work, trend of mortality from cancer in all sites with increasing doses seems still unclear, whereas for leukemia it appears to stay flat under 100 mSv but rapidly rise up in the doses higher than this as if fitting to either a linear-quadratic or threshold models. (author)

  15. Regulatory control of low level radiation exposure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanda, A.M.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    In Tanzania, the radiation protection law was issued in 1983. Under this law, the National Radiation Commission is responsible for safe uses of ionizing radiation. The regulatory control of the resulting doses from the uses of radiation sources in medicine, industry, research and teaching is presented. The system of control reflects the existing interactions between the National Radiation Commission and users through the established radiation protection infrastructure. From the national dose registry data, it is found that the highest annual individual doses over 10 years ago, came from less than 5% of total monitored workers and were in the range 10 - 15 mSv y -1 . The experienced radiation levels in uncontrolled areas of potential workplaces is less than 1 μSv h -1 . The possibility for associating such low dose levels to the effectiveness of the existing regulatory dose control framework is discussed. Despite of this achievement, the need to improve further the radiation protection and safety programs is found necessary. (author)

  16. Patient exposure evaluation in Romanian radiological departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girjoaba, O.; Cucu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A nation-wide evaluation of ionizing radiation exposure of the Romanian population due to the radiological examinations is performed in accordance with European Directive 97/43 EURATOM implemented in national regulations. Method: The study is applied to the collected data from radiological departments from Romanian hospitals during 2010. The radiological examinations were grouped in three categories: conventional diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology and computed tomography. The annual collective dose was determined from the reported data about the mean effective doses and the frequency for each type of radiological examination, in conformity with the national regulations. Regarding the frequency aspects, the results include the age and gender distributions. Major results: More then 6 million radiological examinations were performed in 2010, Romania having a population about of 20.3 million inhabitants. The collective effective dose for 2010 resulted from the study is 152 mSv per 1000 inhabitants. Conclusions: Medical practitioners must select the best medical imaging investigation for each clinical case taking into account the importance of keeping the patient dose as low as possible. Medical physicists should be strongly involved in the establishing of the dosimetry procedures. (author)

  17. Assumed genetic effects of low level irradiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1976-01-01

    The significance of human genetic pathology is stated and a study is made of the assumed effect of low level ionizing radiations. The theoretical notions thus derived are compared to experimental data which are poor. A quick survey of the literature shows that is has not yet been possible to establish a direct relationship between an increase of exposure and any genetic effect on man. However, this must not lead to conclude on the innoxiousness of radiation but rather shows how such analyses are difficult in as much as the effect investigated is necessarily low [fr

  18. Low-level memory processes in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, S

    2000-06-01

    Psychophysical studies of the short-term memory for attributes or dimensions of the visual stimulus that are known to be important in early visual processing (spatial frequency, orientation, contrast, motion and color) identify a low-level perceptual memory mechanism. This proposed mechanism is located early in the visual processing stream, prior to the structural description system responsible for shape priming but beyond primary visual cortex (V1); it is composed of a series of parallel, special-purpose perceptual mechanisms with independent but limited processing resources. Each mechanism is devoted to the analysis of a single dimension and is coupled to a memory store.

  19. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  20. Network Communication for Low Level RF Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiqing; Yin Chengke; Zhang Tongxuan; Fu Zechuan; Liu Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Low Level RF (LLRF) control system for storage ring of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) has been built by digital technology. The settings of parameters and the feedback loop status are carried out through the network communication interface, and the local oscillation and clock, which is the important component of the digital LLRF control system, are also configured through network communication. NIOS II processor was employed as a core to build the embedded system with a real-time operating system MicroC/OS-II, finally Lightweight TCP/IP (LwIP) was used to achieve the communication interface. The communication network is stable after a long-term operation. (authors)

  1. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  2. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  3. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  4. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  5. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 6, July--September 1977. [Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-04-01

    A survey of the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level radioactive waste disposal site was conducted to obtain an overview of the radioactivity in the trench waters for the purpose of selecting specific trenches for comprehensive study. Water samples collected from trenches and wells were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma radioactivities. The results indicate that there are large differences in the composition of trench waters at the site. Several trenches, that represent extreme and average values of the major parameters measured, have been tentatively selected for further study. 10 fig, 6 tables.

  6. Development of a low-level waste risk methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.; Falconer, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment method is presented for performance evaluation of low-level waste disposal facilities. The associated program package calculates the risk associated with postulated radionuclide release and transport scenarios. Risk is computed as the mathematical product of two statistical variables: the dose consequence of a given release scenario, and its occurrence probability. A sample risk calculation is included which demonstrates the method. This PRA method will facilitate evaluation of facility performance, including identification of high risk scenarios and their mitigation via optimization of site parameters. The method is intended to be used in facility licensing as a demonstration of compliance with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR Part 61, or in corresponding state regulations. The Low-Level Waste Risk Methodology is being developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  7. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    2014-01-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  8. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevillard, S.; Ugolin, N.; Lebeau, J.; Ory, K.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy production is necessarily associated with the handling and storage of radioactive elements, which are liable to have deleterious effects on human health, and on environment. These deleterious effects are varied, but they greatly depend on the dose, which has been received, and the exposure type. Therefore, only intense and massive exposures are liable to be clinically detected. They can entail immediate consequences, even lead to the person's death. Thanks to safety measures, which have been implemented to an international scale, this occurs very rarely. Excluding extensive accidental cases, medical irradiation for therapeutic use and conflicts, workers and population in general are exposed to low doses and low dose-rates. Low dose exposures, resulting from either a contamination or an external irradiation are more frequent. In fact, we could say that the whole humanity is concerned by natural exposure, which varies depending on regions, as well as by medical exposure, which varies depending on the medicalisation status of the country. (author)

  9. Health effects of low-level radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys have attempted to assess the carcinogenic risk induced by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Such studies are difficult to carry out because the incidence of radiation induced cancers is of only a few per cent, even following relativity large doses, and because there is no way to distinguish radiation induced cancer from the background of natural human cancers; moreover these surveys are exposed to many biases due to relatively small sizes of the populations studied and the difficulties of finding an appropriate control group, of estimating the absorbed doses and of collecting the data. A few national or international expert committees have analysed the available data and evaluated the carcinogenic effects. Their estimations of the risk, are similar and allow one to quantify the carcinogenic risk for doses above 100 rads. The risks of lower doses must be determined by extrapolation from human data at high doses. This extrapolation requires the knowledge of the dose-effect relationship. A linear extrapolation is most common and probably leads to a conservative estimate of the risk. A linear-quadratic function is probably more realistic and in better accordance with most scientific data. However the validity of its use for the estimation of carcinogenic risk is still debated. In experimental animals, the influence of dose-rate is important and some data suggest that this is the same for the carcinogenic effect in human beings. The genetic effects are probably less important than was feared a few years ago. The most important recent observation is the absence of any significant genetic effect in the progeny of the survivors of the A. bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This allows a conservative estimate of the maximum genetic risk for human beings [fr

  10. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  11. Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air

  12. Development of digital low level rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michizono, Shinichiro; Anami, Shozo; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Fang, Zhigao; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Miura, Takako; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest advantages of the digital low level rf (LLRF) system is its flexibility. Owing to the recent rapid progress in digital devices (such as ADCs and DACs) and telecommunication devices (mixers and IQ modulators), digital LLRF system becomes popular in these 10 years. The J-PARC linac LLRF system adopted cPCI crates and FPGA based digital feedback system. Since the LLRF control of the normal conducting cavities are more difficult than super conducting cavities due to its lower Q values, fast processing using the FPGA was the essential to the feedback control. After the successful operation of J-PARC linac LLRF system, we developed the STF (ILC test facility in KEK) LLRF system. Since the klystron drives eight cavities in STF phase 1, we modified the FPGA board. Basic configuration and the performances of these systems are summarized. The future R and D projects (ILC and ERL) is also described from the viewpoints of LLRF. (author)

  13. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  14. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  15. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  16. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  17. Low level processing of diode spectrometry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic measurements in gamma spectrometry on slightly radioactive samples have led to study low levels existing in the spectra and to develop suitable processing methods. These methods and the advance that they represent in reading sensitivity are now applicable to all types of spectrum. The principles of this automatic reading are briefly summarized, leading to a description of the modifications which proved necessary to increase sensitivity. Three sample spectra are used to illustrate the arguments employed to achieve this result. The conclusions from the corresponding measurements provide a clearer understanding of the quality of the responses obtained during the initial reading. The application of these methods to systematic measurements is considered in the case of atmospheric aerosols. The owerall results obtained since 1969 are presented [fr

  18. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  19. Low-level therapy in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, O. P.

    1999-07-01

    Extremely slow introduction of low-level laser therapy into the practice of ophthalmologists is restricted by the lack of good methodological recommendation and modern equipment adopted to the needs of ophthalmology. The most perspective is considered to be further improvement of the methods and the elaboration of the medical equipment, working in several wave bands, combined with magnetotherapy and working with the use of various modes of the modulation of the intensity of the luminous flux. It may be asserted that unlike the mode of continuous radiation, in some cases, the effectiveness of the treatment increases when the modulated light with the frequency of one to a few tens HZ is used. Moreover, the methods are being elaborated, when the modulation frequency of laser light and the biorhythms of man physiologic parameters are synchronized. Very perspective seems the computerization of the treatment process with the simultaneous electrophysiological control of the condition of visual functions.

  20. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  1. Low-level radiation effects: a fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Adelstein, S.J.; Saenger, E.L.; Webster, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Low Level Raidation Effects: A Fact Book, prepared by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Subcommittee on the Risks of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation, attempts to examine the health effects of small doses of radiation. For immediate questions, this work provides a well-organized brief summary of recent radiologic data from refereed scientific literature and from the publications of advisory groups such as the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Since it consists almost entirely of tables and graphs from the above-mentioned sources along with summary paragraphs, the Fact Book is very useful in the preparation of lectures. The book is divided into seven sections. Chapter One, Glossary, Units and Conversion Factors, is useful because nearly all data given in the rest of the book is in conventional units and should be converted to SI units for future technical audiences. Chapter 2, Radiobiology, covers the fundamental principles of the field. Chapter 3, Radiation Doses, can be used to help an audience appreciate the relative magnitudes of radiation exposures they may read about or encounter. Chapter 4, Late Somatic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, gives data concerning cancer induction and embryonic effects, and Chapter 5 provides data on genetic effects Chapter 6, Risks, Statistical Facts and Public Perception can be used to compare the risks of radiation exposure with more commonly encountered risks

  2. Evaluation of NDA techniques applying to the measurement of alpha-activities in medium or low level radioactive reprocessing wastes (part 5). The development of LiF coating semiconductor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Ishii, Keiichiro [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1988-12-01

    In order to design the neutron detection system in the non-destructive assay device applying to the measurement of alpha-activity in medium or low level radioactive reprocessing wastes, we examined the property of the LiF coating semiconductor detector applying to gamma-radiation field. The sensitivity for thermal neutron of LiF coating ion implanted detector is 1.6 cps/nv, and reduced to half in about 300 R/h gamma-radiation field. Compared with the other neutron detectors, for example proportional counters, the performance of this detector is almost similar to that of them. This new detector has a merit to be possible to use a dry battery instead of a high voltage supply. (author).

  3. Land disposal alternatives for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.; Lindeman, R.; Saulnier, G.; Adam, J.; Sutherland, A.; Gruhlke, J.; Hung, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop data regarding the effectiveness and costs of the following options for disposing of specific low-level nuclear waste streams; sanitary landfill; improved shallow land burial; intermediate depth disposal; deep well injection; conventional shallow land burial; engineered surface storage; deep geological disposal; and hydrofracturing. This will be accomplished through the following steps: (1) characterize the properties of the commercial low-level wastes requiring disposal; (2) evaluate the various options for disposing of this waste, characterize selected representative waste disposal sites and design storage facilities suitable for use at those sites; (3) calculate the effects of various waste disposal options on population health risks; (4) estimate the costs of various waste disposal options for specific sites; and (5) perform trade-off analyses of the benefits of various waste disposal options against the costs of implementing these options. These steps are described. 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  5. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  6. On the genetic effects of low-level tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aka; Nakai, Sayaka

    1976-01-01

    Genetic risk assessment for potential hazard from environmental tritium to man becomes important with increasing nuclear-power industry. The purpose of this short review is to discuss the possible genetic effects of tritium from a view of genetic risk estimation. The discussion is based mainly on our experimental results on the chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by tritium at the very low-level. The types of chromosome aberrations induced by radiation from tritium incorporated into the cells are mostly chromatid types. The most interesting finding is that the dose-response relationship observed in both tritiated-water and tritiated-thymidine is composed of two phases. The examination on the nature of two-phase dose-response relationship is very important not only for the mechanisms of chromosome aberrations, but also for the evaluation of genetic risk from low-level radiation. (auth.)

  7. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  8. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, A.; Loria, G.

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg -1 . The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author) [es

  9. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes

  10. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin.

  11. Studies on disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1989-08-01

    The Turkish Government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. Studies have begun for improved control of low level wastes (LLW) in Turkey before establishment of these reactors. In this study, the PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Exposures form Shallow Trench Operations) computer code is used to assess the risk associated with the shallow land disposal of low level waste (LLW) in various sites in Turkey. PRESTO-II is a computer code developed under the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission funding to evaluate possible health effects from radioactive releases from shallow, radioactive waste disposal trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. A preliminary simulation using the PRESTO-II computer code has been run for the site in Koteyli, Balikesir, Turkey. This example simulation was performed using the same radionuclide data set believed representative of the LLW disposal facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. Site environmental variables were selected to typify credible worst case exposure scenarios. Radionuclide inventories are primarily based on estimated waste composition rather than measured values. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Derivation methods for clearance levels and safety assessments for very low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    The clearance level was evaluated by the dose of concrete and metal when they would be recycled and reused from shallow land burial of radioactive facilities. The state of waste after clearance is not specified, so that we studied large scale of exposure pathways. The parameter values used for safety assessment were determined as the average values under the consideration of natural and social environment in Japan. Propriety of these values was confirmed by a probability analysis. On the safety assessment of very low-level waste disposal facility, the disposer pathway and parameters were determined under the consideration of special site conditions (natural and social environment) and properties of waste. However, the same exposure pathway of them used the same model for external (exposure by sky shine' s ray) and internal exposure. The calculation results of estimated pathway showed 1.2x10 -5 mSv/y the largest dose for the external exposure pathway by sky shine's ray. (S.Y.)

  13. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series: Low-level radioactive waste management in medical and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Development of this handbook began in 1982 at the request of the Radhealth Branch of the California Department of Health Services. California Assembly Bill 1513 directed the DHS to ''evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of (1) reducing the volume, reactivity, and chemical and radioactive hazard of (low-level radioactive) waste and (2) substituting nonradioactive or short-lived radioactive materials for those radionuclides which require long-term isolation from the environment. A contract awarded to the University of California at Irvine-UCI (California Std. Agreement 79902), to develop a document focusing on methods for decreasing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generation in institutions was a result of that directive. In early 1985, the US Department of Energy, through EG and G Idaho, Inc., contracted with UCI to expand, update, and revise the California text for national release

  14. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-01

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10 -12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10 -12 to 10 -9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  15. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  16. Low-level wastes pathways at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.; Casseau, L.Ph.

    1999-01-01

    First, what are, for EDF, the main issues dealing with the future management of low level wastes (LLW) will be recalled; and followed by a description of what are the implications of implementing these management principles: areas zoning, set up of pathways, traceability of the wastes and associated controls. The origin of the wastes will then be described using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the description will specifically address the spreading of wastes production in time. LLW management at EDF will then be envisaged: storage in a specific discharge, pathways for treatment and elimination of wastes with acceptable radiological impact and costs. The example of LLW oils will be developed: particularly as far as hypothesis and results concerning the radiological impacts are concerned. The choice of incineration will then be justified, however expected difficulties to implement it industrially will be pointed out. Other on going studies and their main results will be mentioned: the present time is a turning point on that issue between thought and action; to be on going dismantling must take into account the emerging principles and give rise to good communication. (author)

  17. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  18. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff