Sample records for evaluating element migration

  1. Mixed Finite Element Method for Melt Migration (United States)

    Taicher, A. L.; Hesse, M. A.; Arbogast, T.


    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium. Therefore, a numerical method must also carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. The finite element framework provides support for additional analysis of error and convergence. Moreover, both mesh refinement and anisotropy are naturally incorporated into finite elements. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. Mixed methods also produce discretely conservative fluxes that are required for the transport problem to remains stable without violating conservation of mass. Based preliminary investigations in 1D and derived energy estimates, we present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, using novel elements of lowest order and

  2. A Missing Element in Migration Theories. (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S


    From the mid-1950s through the mid1980s, migration between Mexico and the United States constituted a stable system whose contours were shaped by social and economic conditions well-theorized by prevailing models of migration. It evolved as a mostly circular movement of male workers going to a handful of U.S. states in response to changing conditions of labor supply and demand north and south of the border, relative wages prevailing in each nation, market failures and structural economic changes in Mexico, and the expansion of migrant networks following processes specified by neoclassical economics, segmented labor market theory, the new economics of labor migration, social capital theory, world systems theory, and theoretical models of state behavior. After 1986, however, the migration system was radically transformed, with the net rate of migration increasing sharply as movement shifted from a circular flow of male workers going a limited set of destinations to a nationwide population of settled families. This transformation stemmed from a dynamic process that occurred in the public arena to bring about an unprecedented militarization of the Mexico-U.S. border, and not because of shifts in social, economic, or political factors specified in prevailing theories. In this paper I draw on earlier work to describe that dynamic process and demonstrate its consequences, underscoring the need for greater theoretical attention to the self-interested actions of politicians, pundits, and bureaucrats who benefit from the social construction and political manufacture of immigration crises when none really exist.

  3. A Missing Element in Migration Theories (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.


    From the mid-1950s through the mid1980s, migration between Mexico and the United States constituted a stable system whose contours were shaped by social and economic conditions well-theorized by prevailing models of migration. It evolved as a mostly circular movement of male workers going to a handful of U.S. states in response to changing conditions of labor supply and demand north and south of the border, relative wages prevailing in each nation, market failures and structural economic changes in Mexico, and the expansion of migrant networks following processes specified by neoclassical economics, segmented labor market theory, the new economics of labor migration, social capital theory, world systems theory, and theoretical models of state behavior. After 1986, however, the migration system was radically transformed, with the net rate of migration increasing sharply as movement shifted from a circular flow of male workers going a limited set of destinations to a nationwide population of settled families. This transformation stemmed from a dynamic process that occurred in the public arena to bring about an unprecedented militarization of the Mexico-U.S. border, and not because of shifts in social, economic, or political factors specified in prevailing theories. In this paper I draw on earlier work to describe that dynamic process and demonstrate its consequences, underscoring the need for greater theoretical attention to the self-interested actions of politicians, pundits, and bureaucrats who benefit from the social construction and political manufacture of immigration crises when none really exist. PMID:27398085

  4. Mixed Finite Element Methods for Melt Migration (United States)

    Taicher, A. L.


    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium so must carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. We present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, we present novel elements of lowest order and compatible with both Darcy and Stokes flow Finally, we present our 2D mixed FEM code result for solving Stokes and Darcy flow as well as the coupled Darcy-Stokes system the mid-ocean ridge or corner flow problem.

  5. Finite element analysis of moisture migration, creep, shrinkage and cracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Borst, R. de; Rots, J.G.


    A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of moisture migra-tion, creep, shrinkage and cracking in cementitious materials. A one-way coupled approach is followed, where the pore humidity, the driving force for shrinkage, is solved for from a diffusion equation. The evolution of the

  6. Concentrations and migratabilities of hazardous elements in second-hand children's plastic toys. (United States)

    Turner, Andrew


    About 200 second-hand plastic toys sourced in the UK have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for hazardous elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se) and Br as a proxy for brominated flame retardants. Each element was detected in > 20 toys or components thereof with the exception of As, Hg and Se, with the frequent occurrence of Br, Cd and Pb and at maximum concentrations of about 16,000, 20,000 and 5000 μg g-1, respectively, of greatest concern from a potential exposure perspective. Migration was evaluated on components of 26 toys under simulated stomach conditions (0.07 M HCl) with subsequent analysis by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. In eight cases, Cd or Pb exceeded their migration limits as stipulated by the current EU Toy Safety Directive (17 and 23 μμ g-1, respectively), with Cd released from yellow and red Lego bricks exceeding its limit by an order of magnitude. Two further cases were potentially non-compliant based on migratable Cr, with one item also containing > 250 μg g-1 migratable Br. While there is no retroactive regulation on second-hand toys, consumers should be aware that old, mouthable, plastic items may present a source of hazardous element exposure to infants.

  7. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid (United States)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.


    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  8. Methodologies for measurement of transuranic elements in environmental samples and migration behavior of transuranic elements in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Ueno, Kaori [Kanazawa Univ., Tatsunokuchi, Ishikawa (Japan). Low Level Radioactivity Lab.; Amano, Hikaru


    Methodologies for the measurement of transuranic elements in environmental samples and migration behavior of transuranic elements in paddy fields are reviewed in this report. Long lived transuranic elements in our environment are quite important, because their effect to human is prolonged. Migration analysis of long lived transuranic elements in paddy fields is also quite important, because rice is our main dishes. For the methodologies about the measurement of transuranic elements in environmental samples, traditional chemical separation and purification plus alpha-ray spectrometric methods are reviewed with mass spectrometric method. For the estimation of migration behavior of transuranic elements in paddy fields, experimental results from 1957y to 1989y in Japan are reviewed. Important findings are as follows. (1) Detection limit of transuranic elements for traditional chemical separation and purification plus alpha-ray spectrometric methods is about 0.2mBq/sample(10,000min counting). On contrast, detection limit of transuranic elements for mass spectrometric methods using High Resolution ICP-MS is 0.02mBq/sample for {sup 237}Np. (2) Integrated deposits of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs in paddy field soils are 2-3 times higher in Pacific ocean side area than Japan sea side area in Japan. (3) Apparent residence time of {sup 237}Np in paddy field soils was estimated to be in the range of 50-70 years, which is shorter than those of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs(100-140 years). (author) 54 refs.

  9. Reaction-diffusion finite element model of lateral line primordium migration to explore cell leadership. (United States)

    Allena, R; Maini, P K


    Collective cell migration plays a fundamental role in many biological phenomena such as immune response, embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. In the present work, we propose a reaction-diffusion finite element model of the lateral line primordium migration in zebrafish. The population is modelled as a continuum with embedded discrete motile cells, which are assumed to be viscoelastic and able to undergo large deformations. The Wnt/ß-catenin-FGF and cxcr4b-cxcr7b signalling pathways inside the cohort regulating the migration are described through coupled reaction-diffusion equations. The coupling between mechanics and the molecular scenario occurs in two ways. Firstly, the intensity of the protrusion-contraction movement of the cells depends on the cxcr4b concentration. Secondly, the intra-synchronization between the active deformations and the adhesion forces inside each cell is triggered by the cxcr4b-cxcr7b polarity. This influences the inter-synchronization between the cells and results in two main modes of migration: uncoordinated and coordinated. The main objectives of the work were (i) to validate our assumptions with respect to the experimental observations and (ii) to decipher the mechanical conditions leading to efficient migration of the primordium. To achieve the second goal, we will specifically focus on the role of the leader cells and their position inside the population.

  10. Evaluation of aluminum migration into foodstuffs from aluminium cookware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Radi


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the existence of aluminum in human diet as a food contaminant has attracted the concerns of many researchers. It seems that the cooking pans are common sources of aluminum exposure through foodstuffs in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the migration of aluminum from cooking containers into foodstuffs. For this purpose, solutions with different concentrations of citric acid, sodium chloride, fat, protein and sugar were prepared and migration of aluminum into these solutions was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that salt and citric acid concentrations could enhance aluminum migration; whereas, acid concentration was more effective than salt due to its corrosive effect. The intensity of heat processing and the duration of heat treatment had direct relation with aluminum migration. The aluminum content of cooked foods in aluminum cooking pans was also significantly more than control samples.

  11. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)


    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  12. [Migration of eight harmful elements from household products made with synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake]. (United States)

    Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji


    Harmful elements are used as stabilizers and colorants in synthetic resin products. Accidental ingestion of harmful elements from such synthetic resins by infants is a dangerous health hazard. The Japanese Food Sanitation Law and the International Standard ISO 8124-3 "Safety of toys-Part 3: Migration of certain elements" control the levels of migrated harmful elements, such as lead or cadmium, from infants toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from household products that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the law or standard. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) migrated from household products made of synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3: 2010 was executed in 135 products (total 150 specimens), and the concentration of these elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 1810 mg/kg and 1660 mg/kg of lead, exceeding the maximum acceptable level of the ISO standard, migrated from two products. In addition, lead and/or chromium at levels more than 1/10 of the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard migrated from four products. Household products that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and chromium.

  13. A study of element migration in the Maqarin site (Jordan) by the means of column experiments: I. major elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotignon, L.; Bienvenu, P. [CEA Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire CE - Cadarache - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Rose, J.; Bulle, C.; Crouzet, N. [CEREGE, UMR 6635 Universite Paul Cezanne-CNRS, Europole de l' Arbois, BP 45, 13545 Aix En Provence Cedex 04 (France); Khoury, H. [Dept. Of Geology - Jordan University - PO Box 17167 - Amman 11195 (Jordan)


    Full text of publication follows: The site of Maqarin (Jordan), in which natural cements occur as a result of the combustion metamorphism of a bio-micrite, is studied since 1989 as a natural analogue for the long term evolution of a cementitious repository environment [1]. In order to better understand and simulate observed elemental migrations along high pH groundwater plumes, laboratory scale column experiments were conducted in which crushed materials (cement, bio-micrite) collected on site were submitted to leaching by deionized water or Ca(OH){sub 2} equilibrated solutions. The evolution of pH and major elements was monitored in leachates (Ca, SO{sub 4}, Si, Al) during the experiments. Simulations of the experiments were attempted using the reactive transport code Hytec (Ecole des Mines de Paris and Pole Geochimie Transport). The column experiments presented here contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of hyper-alkaline waters in Maqarin. They suggest several key parameters to be taken into account in the modelling of such systems: - the rate limited precipitation of CSH phases; - the pH dependence of ettringite dissolution (and probably precipitation); - the competition in the availability of Al and Si from the bio-micrite, showing to be a critical issue for modeling the alkaline perturbation Further experiments and modeling of this type is needed to understand how (and how fast) Maqarin groundwaters acquire their high pH. Such information will be useful to better bracket the extent of precipitation of secondary CSH phases in the near field of a repository. [1] Khoury H.N., Salameh E., Clark I.D., Fritz P., Bajjali W., Milodowski A.E., Cave M.R. and Alexander W.R. 1992. A natural analogue of high pH cement pore waters from the Maqarin area of northern Jordan. I: Introduction to the site. J. Geochem. Explor. 46: 117-132. (authors)

  14. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor as an Emerging Drug Target to Regulate Antioxidant Response Element System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yukitake


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in pathophysiology and pathological conditions of numerous human diseases. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying the redox homeostasis in cells and organs is valuable for discovery of therapeutic drugs for oxidative stress-related diseases. Recently, by applying chemical biology approach with an ARE activator, BTZO-1, we found macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF as a new regulator of antioxidant response element- (ARE- mediated gene transcription. BTZO-1 and its active derivatives bound to MIF and protected cells and organs from oxidative insults via ARE activation in animal models with oxidative stress such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, and septic shock. In this review, we briefly highlight key findings in understanding the MIF-ARE system.

  15. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia (United States)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova


    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  16. Trace Elements in Basalts From the Siqueiros Fracture Zone: Implications for Melt Migration Models (United States)

    Pickle, R. C.; Forsyth, D. W.; Saal, A. E.; Nagle, A. N.; Perfit, M. R.


    Incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios in MORB from a variety of locations may provide insights into the melt migration process by constraining aggregated melt compositions predicted by mantle melting and flow models. By using actual plate geometries to create a 3-D thermodynamic mantle model, melt volumes and compositions at all depths and locations may be calculated and binned into cubes using the pHMELTS algorithm [Asimow et al., 2004]. These melts can be traced from each cube to the surface assuming several migration models, including a simplified pressure gradient model and one in which melt is guided upwards by a low permeability compacted layer. The ITE ratios of all melts arriving at the surface are summed, averaged, and compared to those of the actual sample compositions from the various MOR locales. The Siqueiros fracture zone at 8° 20' N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) comprises 4 intra-transform spreading centers (ITSCs) across 140 km of offset between two longer spreading ridges, and is an excellent study region for several reasons. First, an abundance of MORB data is readily available, and the samples retrieved from ITSCs are unlikely to be aggregated in a long-lived magma chamber or affected by along-axis transport, so they represent melts extracted locally from the mantle. Additionally, samples at Siqueiros span a compositional range from depleted to normal MORB within the fracture zone yet have similar isotopic compositions to samples collected from the 9-10° EPR. This minimizes the effect of assuming a uniform source composition in our melting model despite a heterogeneous mantle, allowing us to consistently compare the actual lava composition with that predicted by our model. Finally, it has been demonstrated with preliminary migration models that incipient melts generated directly below an ITSC may not necessarily erupt at that ITSC but migrate laterally towards a nearby ridge due to enhanced pressure gradients. The close proximity of the

  17. Elements patterns of soil and river sediments as a tracer of sediment migration (United States)

    Dordevic, Dragana; Pétursdóttir, Þórunn; Halldórsson, Guðmundur; Sakan, Sanja; Škrivalj, Sandra; Finger, David Christian


    Iceland is the small island on the mid Atlantic ridge, with strong natural catastrophes, such as floods, droughts, landslides, storms and volcanic eruptions that can have devastating impacts on natural and build environment. Rangárvellir area next to Mt Hekla and the glacier Tindfjallajökul has impacted by severe erosion processes but also rich of surface water that play a crucial role in sediment transport processes in the watersheds of the two rivers Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá. Their sediments consist of various materials originating from volcanoes ash and lava. Difference of contents of various chemical components in sediments and surrounding soil could be bases for identification of erosion processes and watersheds connectivity. River sediment is accumulator of chemical constituents from water in water-sediment interaction, making it as an important material for investigation their migration routes. In order to develop of methods for investigating of sediment migration using their chemical patterns the STSM of Connecteur COST Action ES1306-34336 have been approved. Samples of river sediments and surrounding soils of the Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá rivers in watersheds of Rangárvellir area as well as primarily volcanic ash from Eyafjallajökull were taken. Sequential extraction of heavy metals and trace elements from collected samples has been applied using the optimized procedure proposed by European Community Bureau of reference (BCR) in the next fractions: 1) soluble in acid - metals that are exchangeable or associated with carbonates; 2) reducible fraction - metals associated with oxides of Fe and Mn; 3) oxidizable fraction - metals associated with organic matter and sulfides and 4) residual fraction - metals strongly associated with the crystalline structure of minerals. Extracted solutions have analyzed by ICP/OES on next elements: Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Si, Sr, V, Zn. Distributions

  18. Sr - an element shows the way - Applications of Sr isotopes for provenance, tracing and migration (Invited) (United States)

    Prohaska, T.; Irrgeher, J.; Zitek, A.; Teschler Nicola, M.


    Strontium - named after the small Scottish town Strontian - as such is an element with little popularity. Firstly described by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1798, the metal is used in metallurgy to some extent whereas its compounds are interesting in glass industries, electronics and pyrotechnics. The element has chemical similarity to Ca and makes up 1/60 of the earth’s amount of the latter. Nonetheless, it is its isotopic composition which makes Sr so interesting for a large number of scientists. The natural composition of the four naturally occurring isotopes (84Sr, 86Sr 87Sr and 88Sr) varies in nature due to the radioactive decay of 87Rb to 87Sr. Thus, it was early recognized as geochronometer especially in Ca rich matrices. With increasing precision of applied methodology, the natural variation of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio (analyzed at first mainly by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS)) became more and more popular in provenance studies. The natural variation of the ratio is mainly determined by the geological age and the original composition of the rock and can be used therefore as fingerprint of the local geology. The ratio is transferred with no significant fractionation via the water into plants and finally via the food chain into animal and human tissues (especially bones and teeth). As the element is chemically similar to Ca, it appears in most matrices. The use for provenance studies is supported by the fact that the long half life (4.8 x 1010 years) does not lead to an alteration during the time scales which are investigated (from recent samples to human or animal skeletal remains which date back up to 30.000 BC). The uniqueness of the system besides the natural variation is defined by the ubiquity in nature and the relatively high (and thus measurable) elemental concentration in most tissues. It was finally the advent of multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) which augmented the number of applications

  19. Evaluation of impurity migration and microwave digestion methods for lithographic materials (United States)

    Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Hsiao, Li-Tung; Chou, Cheng-Tung; Wang, Mei-Ya; Wang, Tien-Ko; Sun, Yuh-Chang; Cheng, Bor-Jen; Yeng, Steven; Dai, Bau-Tong


    In the section of incoming quality or quality reliability analysis of advanced semiconductor fabrication company, it is inevitable to regulate the strict standard for the incoming materials to ensure the reliability. In our radioactive tracer study, it is interestingly found the various amounts of metal and trace element impurities in the lithographic materials may migrate into the substrate. Based on the complex organic matrix in lithographic materials such as bottom anti-reflective coating, I-line resist and DUV resist, it is not easy to direct determine the multi- elements by the instrumentation. In this work, the lithographic materials are first composed by the close- vessel and open-focused microwave oven, and the digest is evaporated to incipient dryness. After adding water, the sample solutions are used either for evaluating the completeness of the digestion process by UV-VIS spectrometer, or for the determination of eleven elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, the digestion efficiency is also evaluated by the limits for analytes can be achieved at lower than ng/g level. For evaluation of data accuracy, the result obtained by the two 130 percent. According to the microcontamination control limit predicted by the SIA roadmap, the established method can meet the requirements for the quality control of lithographic materials in the future ten years.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Andrei CIOCĂNESCU


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the following article is to present, based on the Eurostat and INS research, the structure of the Romanian immigrants according to age and sex. The second objective of this article is to show the impact that the external migration phenomenon has on labour market at national level.The approaches are quantitative and specific elements of the descriptive statistics and more advanced procedures of the analysis of the bounds between variables are being used.

  1. Low expression of cyclic AMP response element modulator-1 can increase the migration and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Wang, Yuchan; Zhou, Shuhui; Yang, Xiaojing; Shi, Hui; Li, Mei; Xue, Qun; Huang, Xianting; Wang, Xinxiu; Wang, Huijie; Zhang, Jianguo


    Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family can regulate biological functions of various types of cells and has relation with esophageal cancer cell migration and invasion. Cyclic AMP response element modulator-1 (CREM-1) is one member of the family with limited acquaintance. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of CREM-1 on migration and invasion in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The expression of CREM-1 protein in ESCC tissues with or without lymph nodes metastasis was determined by western blot. Immunohistochemical analysis of CREM-1 expression were carried out in paraffin-embedded sections of ESCC and correlated with clinical features. The roles of CREM-1 in migration and invasion were studied in TE1 cells through knocking CREM-1 down with siRNA or overexpression of CREM-1 in ECA109 cells. The regulations of CREM-1 on invasion and migration were determined by transwell and wounding healing assay. The effect of CREM-1 on chemotherapy drug was analyzed by Cell counting kit-8 assay. We found that the expression of CREM-1 was significantly downregulated in ESCC tissues with lymph nodes metastasis compared with the tissues without lymph nodes metastasis and was correlated with the clinical features of pathological grade, tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, knocking CREM-1 down with siRNA increased cell migration and invasion in human ESCC cell lines TE1 while upregulation of CREM-1 inhibited the motility. Our data suggested that CREM-1 might play an important role in the regulation of tumor metastasis and invasion and serve as a tumor suppressor in human ESCC. We proposed that CREM-1 might be used as a potential therapeutic agent for human ESCC.

  2. Migration Management in Albania Mapping and Evaluating Outside Intervention


    Geiger, Martin,


    Unwanted migratory flows from Albania serve as a justification for external interventions aimed at regulating migration ‘from within’. Over the last years the exertions of a number of international organizations have led to a situation of dead-lock. Overriding vested interests seem to block a national ownership: Albanian government is not yet empowered to assume full control over its migration policy. While remaining in anxiety for new emigration waves, the international stakeholders share a ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anatolievich Sychev


    Full Text Available The article assesses the migration intentions of young people living in the Republic of Mordovia. The attention is focused on the migration intentions and moods as elements of the migratory behavior which act as an incentive to migrate. The authors analyze the results of the survey of young people and the structured interview and propose the measures aimed at reducing the outbound migration level in the region.In order to study the migration attitudes of the population in 2015 the survey of young people was carried out (quota type of sample, the selection was carried out by sex, age from 18 to 35, area of residence, 383 people were interviewed, with a 5% error supplemented with structured interview (9 persons interviewed, the selection of informants was based on the principle of intensive sampling.The results show that people in the Republic of Mordovia show clear migration intentions, and about half of them are focused on migration in the nearest future. If these intentions are realized, the region will face the increase of the rate of outflow of young working-age population. This phenomenon can entail a number of negative consequences, including shortages on the labor-markets, decline in the birth rate, population aging and others.Based on the results of the study recommendations are made to address the problems of migration in the region.

  4. Clinical evaluation of correction of pathologic migration with periodontal therapy. (United States)

    Rohatgi, Sumidha; Narula, Satish Chander; Sharma, Rajinder Kumar; Tewari, Shikha; Bansal, Pankaj


    there is a paucity of clinical evidence regarding the amount and frequency of repositioning of pathologically migrated teeth after conventional periodontal treatment. The present study was carried out to find and relate these two parameters of periodontal success with severity of migration. a total of 45 subjects with a history of recently formed diastema or noticeable increase in already existing diastema were selected. Twenty-nine patients with 76 diastema sites participated in the study (16 patients were lost to follow-up). Repositioning was assessed by measuring the sites on study models obtained at baseline, reevaluation at 6 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy, and 4 months after surgery. after nonsurgical therapy, 65.78% of sites demonstrated some degree of repositioning, while 7.89% closed completely. Four months after surgical treatment, 32.30% of sites showed complete repositioning and 47.69% of sites showed an additional partial repositioning. This corresponds to a 79.99% rate of positive responses to therapy. When sites measuring ⋜ 1 mm were considered, 65.38% showed complete closure and 96.15% demonstrated positive response to therapy. the findings suggest that there is an inverse relationship between the severity of migration and amount (as well as frequency) of repositioning. The results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis in the successful treatment of pathologic migration to prevent more complex and time-consuming orthodontic and prosthodontic procedures.

  5. Economical evaluation of the soil element in magnesite firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novek Zoltán


    Full Text Available In the paper "Economical evaluation of the soil element in magnezite firm" firm´s situation of the soil element is presented. Firm performes mining of the magnezite deposit, its elaboration, as well as its burning in rotary and shafted furnaces and producing magnezite bricks such is characterized by the proper ecological behaviour.

  6. A study of element migration in the Maqarin site (Jordan) by the means of column experiments: II. trace elements (Cr, Se, Mo, Re)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotignon, L.; Bienvenu, P.; Provitina, O. [CEA Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire CE - Cadarache - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Rose, J. [CEREGE, UMR 6635 Universite Paul Cezanne-CNRS, Europole de l' Arbois, BP 45, 13545 Aix En Provence Cedex 04 (France); Khoury, H. [Dept. of Geology - Jordan University - PO Box 17167 - Amman 11195 (Jordan); Trocellier, P. [CEA DSM/LPS CE Saclay 91190 Gif sur Yvette (France); Mercier, F. [Evry University (France); Raimbault, L. [Ecoles des Mines de Paris - CIG - 77305 Fontainebleau (France)


    Full text of publication follows: The site of Maqarin (Jordan), in which natural cements occur as a result of the combustion metamorphism of a bio-micrite, is studied since 1989 as a natural analogue for the long term evolution of a cementitious repository environment [1]. Several trace elements of interest (Cr, Se, Mo, Re) are mobilized on this site by percolating groundwaters and migrate along high pH plumes. Laboratory scale column experiments were conducted in which crushed materials (cement, bio-micrite) collected on site were submitted to leaching by deionized water or Ca(OH){sub 2} equilibrated solutions. The evolution of Cr, Mo, Se and Re was monitored in leachates during the experiments. Characterizations of the solid phase using several techniques were also conducted in order to locate these elements in the mineral phases. Comparison of experimental data with records of trace element concentration in Maqarin groundwaters gives some insight on Re, Cr, Se and Mo sources and sinks in this environment. Both the imprint of the past combustion event and present day redox transformations explain several features of the datasets. However, due to the high complexity of the cements, in which trace elements are often distributed among several mineral phases, it is presently not possible to link in a straightforward way individual mineral dissolution processes and trace element signals in waters. [1] Khoury H. N., Salameh E., Clark I. D., Fritz P., Bajjali W., Milodowski A. E., Cave M. R. and Alexander W. R. 1992. A natural analogue of high pH cement pore waters from the Maqarin area of northern Jordan. I: Introduction to the site. J. Geochem. Explor. 46: 117-132. (authors)

  7. Cost of Virtual Machine Live Migration in Clouds: A Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Voorsluys, William; Broberg, James; Venugopal, Srikumar; Buyya, Rajkumar

    Virtualization has become commonplace in modern data centers, often referred as "computing clouds". The capability of virtual machine live migration brings benefits such as improved performance, manageability and fault tolerance, while allowing workload movement with a short service downtime. However, service levels of applications are likely to be negatively affected during a live migration. For this reason, a better understanding of its effects on system performance is desirable. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of live migration of virtual machines on the performance of applications running inside Xen VMs. Results show that, in most cases, migration overhead is acceptable but cannot be disregarded, especially in systems where availability and responsiveness are governed by strict Service Level Agreements. Despite that, there is a high potential for live migration applicability in data centers serving modern Internet applications. Our results are based on a workload covering the domain of multi-tier Web 2.0 applications.

  8. Technical Feasibility of Centrifugal Techniques for Evaluating Hazardous Waste Migration (United States)


    biodegradation (Borden et al., 1984) or a variety of rheological phenomena associated with multiple phase (e.g, air-water-oil) flow systems, including the pure...developed. The triaxial apparatus coffines the soil sample in a flexible membrane whi.c-h allows transmittal of confining pressures to the soil specimen. Flw...Borden, R. C., M. D. Lee, J. T. Wilson, C. H.. Ward, and P. B. Bedient, Modeling the migration and biodegradation of hydrocarbonsý derived from a wood

  9. Finite Element Modeling of Suspended Particle Migration in Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altobelli, S.; Baer, T.; Mondy, L.; Rao, R.; Stephens, T.


    Shear-induced migration of particles is studied during the slow flow of suspensions of spheres (particle volume fraction {phi} = 0.50) in an inelastic but shear-thinning, suspending fluid in flow between counterrotating concentric cylinders, The conditions are such that nonhydrodynamic effects are negligible. The movement of particles away from the high shear rate region is more pronounced than in a Newtonian suspending liquid. We test a continuum constitutive model for the evolution of particle concentration in a flowing suspension proposed by Phillips et al. (1992) by using shear-thinning, suspending fluids. The fluid constitutive equation is Carreau-like in its shear-thinning behavior but also varies with the local particle concentration. The model is compared with the experimental data gathered with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging.

  10. Evaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditions. (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; Van Hoeck, Els; Negreira, Noelia; Quirynen, Laurent; Van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian


    After the prohibition of bisphenol-A-containing polycarbonate baby bottles in the European Union (EU), alternative materials, such as polypropylene, polyethersulphone, Tritan™ copolyester, etc., have appeared on the market. Based on an initial screening and in vitro toxicity assessment, the most toxic migrating compounds were selected to be monitored and quantified using validated GC- and LC-QqQ-MS methods. The effect of several 'real-life-use conditions', such as microwave, sterilisation and dishwasher, on the migration of different contaminants was evaluated by means of duration tests. These results were compared with a reference treatment (filling five times with pre-heated simulant at 40°C) and with the legal EU 'repetitive-use conditions' (three migrations, 2 h at 70°C). Analysis of the third migration step of the EU repetitive-use conditions (which has to comply with the EU legislative migration limits) showed that several non-authorised compounds were observed in some baby bottles exceeding 10 µg kg(-1). However, all authorised compounds were detected well below their respective specific migration limits (SMLs). The reference experiment confirmed the migration of some of the compounds previously detected in the EU repetitive-use experiment, though at lower concentrations. Analysis of extracts from the microwave and dishwasher experiments showed a reduction in the migration during the duration tests. In general, the concentrations found were low and comparable with the reference experiment. Similar observations were made for the two sterilisation types: steam and cooking sterilisation. However, steam sterilisation seems to be more recommended for daily use of baby bottles, since it resulted in a lower release of substances afterwards. Repeated use of baby bottles under 'real-life' conditions showed no increase in the migration of investigated compounds and, after some time, the migration of these compounds even became negligible.

  11. Evaluation of intraretinal migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells with Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Miura, M.; Makita, S.; Sugiyama, S.; Hong, Y. J.; Yasuno, Y.; Elsner, A. E.; Iwasaki, T.; Goto, H.


    We evaluated intraretinal RPE migration in AMD using multimodal imaging including polarimetric images. Depolarized light images were computed using a PS-SLO. M-DOPU was calculated using multifunctional Jones-matrix OCT. RPE migration was detected in 59 of 155 eyes. Focal similarities could be confirmed among en-face projection images of minimum M-DOPU, depolarized light images, and NIR-AF images.

  12. Oriental Elements in the Material Culture of Azaq and the Problem of Migrations of the Golden Horde Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslovskiy Andrey N.


    Full Text Available The data on the emergence of new Oriental material culture elements in the city of Azaq, such as new housing and pottery types, characteristic of the mid-14th-century Golden Horde cities of the Lower Volga region, are provided in the article. Particular attention is paid to the appearance of new types of dwellings with the kang-based system of heating. They make up about 10 per cent of all residential complexes studied in Azaq: mostly ground dwellings, as semi-subterranean dwellings with kangs are rarely met. It has been suggested that in the mid-14th century a considerable group of residents of the Golden Horde Lower Volga towns had migrated to Azaq. The reasons for this relocation can be discussed only hypothetically.

  13. Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Migration in Household Food Containers under Domestic Use Conditions. (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Gómara, Belén


    Plasticizers and plastic monomers are commonly used in packaging. Most of them act as endocrine disrupters and are susceptible to migrate from the packaging to the food. We evaluated the migration of endocrine disrupting compounds from three different household food containers to four food simulants under different domestic treatments and for different periods of time, with the aim of reproducing real domestic conditions. The results showed that the migration to the simulants increased with the storage time, up to more than 50 times in certain cases. The heating power seemed to increase the migration processes (up to more than 30 times), and reusing containers produced an increase or decrease of the concentrations depending on the container type and the simulant. The concentrations found were lower than other concentrations reported (always less than 4000 pg/mL, down to less than 20 pg/mL), which might be a consequence of the domestic conditions used.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The finite element model, FETRA, simulates transport of sediment and radionuclides (and other contaminants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and other toxic substances) in surface water bodies. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral} model which consists of the following three submodels coupled to include sediment-contaminant interactions: 1) sediment transport submodel, 2} dissolved contaminant transport submodel, and 3) particulate contaminant (contaminant adsorbed by sediment) transport submodel. Under the current phase of the study, FETRA was modified to include sediment-wave interaction in order to extend the applicability of the model to coastal zones and large lakes (e.g., the Great Lakes) where wave actions can be one of the dominant mechanisms to transport sediment and toxic contaminant. FETRA was further modified to handle both linear and quadratic approximations to velocity and depth distributions in order to be compatible with various finite element hydrodynamic models (e.g., RMA II and CAFE) which supply hydrodynamic input data to FETRA. The next step is to apply FETRA to coastal zones to simulate transport of sediment and radionuclides with their interactions in order to test and verify the model under marine and large lacustrine environments.

  15. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  16. Anomalous scattering factors of some rare earth elements evaluated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The real and imaginary parts, '() and ''() of the dispersion corrections to the forward Rayleigh scattering amplitude (also called anomalous scattering factors) for the elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, have been determined by a numerical evaluation of the dispersion integral that relates them through the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko D. Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Since 1960, Taguchi methods have been used for improving the quality of Japanese products with great success. Basic assumption of Taguchi's design for six sigma or robust design is that quality must be designed into a product from the start at both the product and process design stage in order to improve product reliability and manufacturability. This paper deals with case study of product design based on Taguchi's approach that involves parametric optimization of piston rod geometry aiming mass reduction with stress restriction. Finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench was used to get access to CAD parameters of piston rod within a process of parametric finite element evaluation and optimization.

  18. Evaluation of trace element status of organic dairy cattle. (United States)

    Orjales, I; Herrero-Latorre, C; Miranda, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, R; López-Alonso, M


    The present study aimed to evaluate trace mineral status of organic dairy herds in northern Spain and the sources of minerals in different types of feed. Blood samples from organic and conventional dairy cattle and feed samples from the respective farms were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of the essential trace elements (cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)) and toxic trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb)). Overall, no differences between organic and conventional farms were detected in serum concentrations of essential and toxic trace elements (except for higher concentrations of Cd on the organic farms), although a high level of inter-farm variation was detected in the organic systems, indicating that organic production greatly depends on the specific local conditions. The dietary concentrations of the essential trace elements I, Cu, Se and Zn were significantly higher in the conventional than in the organic systems, which can be attributed to the high concentration of these minerals in the concentrate feed. No differences in the concentrations of trace minerals were found in the other types of feed. Multivariate chemometric analysis was conducted to determine the contribution of different feed sources to the trace element status of the cattle. Concentrate samples were mainly associated with Co, Cu, I, Se and Zn (i.e. with the elements supplemented in this type of feed). However, pasture and grass silage were associated with soil-derived elements (As, Cr, Fe and Pb) which cattle may thus ingest during grazing.

  19. Experimental Studies to Evaluate the Role of Colloids on the Radionuclide Migration in a Crystalline Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, Nairoby; Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel; Mingarro, Manuel; Lopez, Trinidad [CIEMAT, Departamento de Medioambiente, Avenida Complutense, 22 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    In a deep geological repository (DGR) of high level radioactive waste, all the possible phenomena affecting radionuclide migration have to be studied to assess its security over time. Colloids can play an important role for contaminant transport if the following conditions are fulfilled: colloids exist in a non negligible concentration, they are mobile and stable in the environment of interest, and they are able to adsorb radionuclides irreversibly. In this study, different transport experiments where performed to improve the knowledge on the main mechanisms affecting the radionuclide migration in the presence of colloids in a crystalline medium. Firstly, colloid stability was analysed and then transport experiments in an artificial granite longitudinal fracture were carried out. Synthetic colloids of different size and bentonite clay colloids were used to evaluate the effects of colloid size, charge, and water flow rate on their mobility. Results showed that both major importance of the water flow rate on the mobility of colloids and their recovery and a higher interaction of smaller particles with the surface. Finally, the migration behaviour of Sr, and Sr adsorbed onto bentonite colloids was compared. The elution curves of Sr adsorbed onto colloid were significantly different from the ones of Sr alone, pointing out that sorption/desorption mechanisms must be taken into account to understand the radionuclide migration in the fracture in the presence of colloids. (authors)

  20. An evaluated neutronic data file for elemental cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, P.; Lawson, R.; Meadows, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Howerton, R.


    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental cobalt is described. The experimental data base, the calculational methods, the evaluation techniques and judgments, and the physical content are outlined. The file contains: neutron total and scattering cross sections and associated properties, (n,2n) and (n,3n) processes, neutron radiative capture processes, charged-particle-emission processes, and photon-production processes. The file extends from 10/sup /minus/5/ eV to 20 MeV, and is presented in the ENDF/B-VI format. Detailed attention is given to the uncertainties and correlations associated with the prominent neutron-induced processes. The numerical contents of the file have been transmitted to the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. 143 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. [Evaluation of formal elements of Spanish pediatrics journals]. (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; González de Dios, J; Valderrama-Zurián, F J; Bolaños Pizarro, M; Valderrama-Zurián, J C


    Standardization of scientific journals is indispensable for accurate transmission of knowledge, since it guarantees the universality and reproducibility of research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the formal elements of Spanish pediatrics journals. In 2005, we studied the characteristics of Spanish biomedical journals with special emphasis on Spanish pediatrics journals. The form used for the selection of journals for inclusion in the database Indice Médico Español (IME) was employed to evaluate 65 distinct characteristics in each journal. The parameters were grouped in the following five categores: journal presentation, presentation of the articles, scientific and editorial committees, content characteristics, and dissemination parameters. The journals with the highest overall scores were Anales de Pediatría (63 points out of a maximum of 82), followed by Pediatría de Atención Primaria (53 points), Acta Pediátrica Española and Cirugía Pediátrica (55 points each), Pediatrika (53 points), and Revista Española de Pediatría (48 points). The score obtained by Anales de Pediatría places this journal in the top 10 Spanish journals included in IME. Spanish pediatrics journals meet most of the formal elements required of biomedical journals, although some aspects could be improved, such as deficiencies in the frequency and regularity of publication, mention of the dates of manuscript receipt and acceptance, the lack of a clear description of the editorial process of manuscript selection and peer review, the absence of committee members' institutional affiliations, and the absence of articles by non-Spanish authors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad M. Drobac


    Full Text Available Principal object of the author’s research in work is identification of notion, cru- cial elements and evaluation of human resources management in general and apart in sport. From the beginning of usage of term “human resources management”, we use foretoken “strategic” that has especially signified meaning. Strategic approach to the exploration of this problem points to the fact that human resources are from particularly significance for all forms of human organization (firms, associations, institutions etc., regardless are we talking about economy, social activity, politics, science, sport or any other area of human activity. Experience shows that, in our society, we mainly considered human resources management from the aspect of formulation and implementation of strategy in any shape and segment of altogether human activity, but we pay a little interest to the control, or in other words evaluation of human resources performance. What is attained in world rela- tions, on the human resources management plan, admonish and binds that we must ac- cept employees in our environment (it implies sport as an equal partner in management

  3. Evaluating the protein coding potential of exonized transposable element sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodovsky Mark


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable element (TE sequences, once thought to be merely selfish or parasitic members of the genomic community, have been shown to contribute a wide variety of functional sequences to their host genomes. Analysis of complete genome sequences have turned up numerous cases where TE sequences have been incorporated as exons into mRNAs, and it is widely assumed that such 'exonized' TEs encode protein sequences. However, the extent to which TE-derived sequences actually encode proteins is unknown and a matter of some controversy. We have tried to address this outstanding issue from two perspectives: i-by evaluating ascertainment biases related to the search methods used to uncover TE-derived protein coding sequences (CDS and ii-through a probabilistic codon-frequency based analysis of the protein coding potential of TE-derived exons. Results We compared the ability of three classes of sequence similarity search methods to detect TE-derived sequences among data sets of experimentally characterized proteins: 1-a profile-based hidden Markov model (HMM approach, 2-BLAST methods and 3-RepeatMasker. Profile based methods are more sensitive and more selective than the other methods evaluated. However, the application of profile-based search methods to the detection of TE-derived sequences among well-curated experimentally characterized protein data sets did not turn up many more cases than had been previously detected and nowhere near as many cases as recent genome-wide searches have. We observed that the different search methods used were complementary in the sense that they yielded largely non-overlapping sets of hits and differed in their ability to recover known cases of TE-derived CDS. The probabilistic analysis of TE-derived exon sequences indicates that these sequences have low protein coding potential on average. In particular, non-autonomous TEs that do not encode protein sequences, such as Alu elements, are frequently

  4. Rapid Prototyping Integrated With Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.


    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to the practical ability to build high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) files. Using rapid prototyping, full-scale models or patterns can be built using a variety of materials in a fraction of the time required by more traditional prototyping techniques (refs. 1 and 2). Many software packages have been developed and are being designed to tackle the reverse engineering and rapid prototyping issues just mentioned. For example, image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction visualization software such as Velocity2 (ref. 3) are being used to carry out the construction process of three-dimensional volume models and the subsequent generation of a stereolithography file that is suitable for CAD applications. Producing three-dimensional models of objects from computed tomography (CT) scans is becoming a valuable nondestructive evaluation methodology (ref. 4). Real components can be rendered and subjected to temperature and stress tests using structural engineering software codes. For this to be achieved, accurate high-resolution images have to be obtained via CT scans and then processed, converted into a traditional file format, and translated into finite element models. Prototyping a three-dimensional volume of a composite structure by reading in a series of two-dimensional images generated via CT and by using and integrating commercial software (e.g. Velocity2, MSC/PATRAN (ref. 5), and Hypermesh (ref. 6)) is being applied successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The building process from structural modeling to the analysis level is outlined in reference 7. Subsequently, a stress analysis of a composite cooling panel under combined thermomechanical loading conditions was performed to validate

  5. Development and Evaluation of Mould for Double Curved Concrete Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Christian Raun; Kristensen, Mathias Kræmmergaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    freeform concrete formwork are available, and more are being developed [1-4]. The common way of producing moulds for unique elements today is to manufacture one mould for each unique element using CNC milling in cheaper materials, but since the method is still labour intensive and produces a lot of waste...... to the possibilities of the flexible form are limited curvature and limited level of detail, making it especially suited for larger, double curved surfaces like facades or walls, where the curvature of each element is relatively small in comparison to the overall shape. The present paper describes the development...

  6. Evaluation of Concrete Cylinder Tests Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottosen, Niels


    Nonlinear axisymmetric finite element analyses are performed on the uniaxial compressive test of concrete cylinders. The models include thick steel loading plates, and cylinders with height‐to‐diameter ratios (h/d) ranging from 1‐3 are treated. A simple constitutive model of the concrete...... uniaxial strength the use of geometrically matched loading plates seems to be advantageous. Finally, it is observed that for variations of the element size within limits otherwise required to obtain a realistic analysis, the results are insensitive to the element size....

  7. Evaluation of a bridge using simplified element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffey, T.A. [New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas, NM (United States)


    An experimental-numerical comparison of the forced and ambient vibrations Of a multi-span composite plate-girder bridge was performed. The bridge was modeled using a finite element program at three levels of complexity, including a simple 250 DOF model that utilizes a single beam element to represent the entire bridge cross section. Difficulties encountered in the development of the simple model are discussed. The dynamic properties predicted by the simple model were consistent with these measured on the bridge and computed using more detailed finite element models.

  8. The sequential addition and migration method to generate representative volume elements for the homogenization of short fiber reinforced plastics (United States)

    Schneider, Matti


    We present an algorithm for generating volume elements of short fiber reinforced plastic microstructures for prescribed fourth order fiber orientation tensor, fiber aspect ratio and solid volume fraction. The algorithm inserts fibers randomly into an existing microstructure, and removes the resulting overlap systematically based on a gradient descent method. In contrast to existing methods, large fiber aspect ratios (up to 150) and large volume fractions (60 vol% for isotropic orientation and aspect ratio of 33) can be reached. We study the effective linear elastic properties of the resulting microstructures, depending on fiber orientation, volume fraction as well as aspect ratio, and examine the size of a corresponding representative volume element.

  9. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  10. [Internal migration]. (United States)

    Borisovna, L


    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  11. Visual elements of packaging shaping healthiness evaluations of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, Carla; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina


    Visual elements of food products can play an important role in determining food choice through shaping the attributes perception of consumers. Symbols and logos have the role of conveying information, but they can be interpreted in different ways. The product used as a case study is Extra-Virgin

  12. Evaluation of a Nonlinear Finite Element Program - ABAQUS. (United States)


    Elastic-plastic material and small deformation Material Properties: A Ramberg - Osgood stress-strain curve was assumed to represent the strain-hardening...NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT PROGRAM - ABAQUS T. Y. Chang S. M. Wang Department of Civil Engineering The University of Akron Akron, Ohio 44325 August 1, 1982... ABAQUS T. Y. Chang S. M. Wang Department of Civil Engineering The University of Akron Akron, Ohio 44325 August 1, 1982 (Revised on March 15, 1983

  13. Needle migration and dosimetric impact in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer evaluated by repeated MRI. (United States)

    Buus, Simon; Lizondo, Maria; Hokland, Steffen; Rylander, Susanne; Pedersen, Erik M; Tanderup, Kari; Bentzen, Lise

    To quantify needle migration and dosimetric impact in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer and propose a threshold for needle migration. Twenty-four high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with an HDR boost of 2 × 8.5 Gy were included. Patients received an MRI for planning (MRI1), before (MRI2), and after treatment (MRI3). Time from needle insertion to MRI3 was ∼3 hours. Needle migration was evaluated from coregistered images: MRI1-MRI2 and MRI1-MRI3. Dose volume histogram parameters from the treatment plan based on MRI1 were related to parameters based on needle positions in MRI2 or MRI3. Regression was used to model the average needle migration per implant and change in D90 clinical target volume, CTV prostate+3mm . The model fit was used for estimating the dosimetric impact in equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions for dose levels of 6, 8.5, 10, 15, and 19 Gy. Needle migration was on average 2.2 ± 1.8 mm SD from MRI1-MRI2 and 5.0 ± 3.0 mm SD from MRI1-MRI3. D90 CTV prostate+3mm was robust toward average needle migration ≤3 mm, whereas for migration >3 mm D90 decreased by 4.5% per mm. A 3 mm of needle migration resulted in a decrease of 0.9, 1.7, 2.3, 4.8, and 7.6 equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions for dose levels of 6, 8.5, 10, 15, and 19 Gy, respectively. Substantial needle migration in high-dose-rate brachytherapy occurs frequently in 1-3 hours following needle insertion. A 3-mm threshold of needle migration is proposed, but 2 mm may be considered for dose levels ≥15 Gy. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbonate redistribution, element mobilisation and petroleum hydrocarbon migration in Posidonia shale (Hils basin, NW Germany) as a function of palaeotemperature load from the Vlotho mass; Karbonatumverteilung, Mobilisation von Elementen und Migration von Erdoel-Kohlenwasserstoffen im Posidonienschiefer (Hilsmulde, NW-Deutschland) in Abhaengigkeit von der Palaeotemperaturbeanspruchung durch das Massiv von Vlotho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochum, J.


    Temperature-controlled processes of carbonate redistribution, element mobilisation and petroleum hydrocarbon migration in the Posidonia shale of North West Germany (Lower Toarcian) were documented, and a statistical evaluation was made. The investigations focused on six Posidonia shales of the Hils basin which had been exposed to increasing palaeotemperature stress from SE to NW in the direction of the injected mass of Vlotho. According to earlier investigations, the mean values of vitrinite reflection in the six boreholes are between 0.48% Rm and 1.45% Rm. This corresponds to a maximum palaeotemperature of 93-190 C. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden temperaturgesteuerte Prozesse der Umverteilung von Karbonaten, der Mobilisation von Elementen und der Migration von Erdoel-Kohlenwasserstoffen im nordwestdeutschen Posidonienschiefer (Unteres Toarcium) dokumentiert und bilanziert. Gegenstand der Untersuchungen waren sechs Posidonienschieferprofile aus dem Bereich der Hilsmulde, die von SE and NW in Annaeherung an das Intrusivmassiv von Vlotho eine zunehmende Palaeotemperaturbeanspruchung erfahren haben. Frueheren Untersuchungen zufolge liegen die Mittelwerte der Vitrinitreflexion in den sechs Bohrungen zwischen 0,48% Rm und 1,45% Rm, was einem Bereich der maximal erreichten Palaeotemperatur zwischen ca. 93 C und ca. 190 C entspricht. (orig./EF)

  15. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (United States)

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.


    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  16. Evaluation of elemental sulphur in biodesulphurized low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Gonsalvesh; S.P. Marinov; M. Stefanova; R. Carleer; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry


    A new procedure for elemental sulphur (S{sup el}) determination in coal and its fractions is offered. It includes exhaustive CHCl{sub 3} extraction and subsequent quantitative analysis of the extracts by HPLC using C{sub 18} reversed phase column. Its application gives ground to achieve better sulphur balance and to specify the changes in the organic and elemental sulphur as a result of biotreatments. Two Bulgarian high sulphur containing coal samples, i.e. subbituminious (Pirin) and lignite (Maritza East), and one Turkish lignite (Cayirhan-Beypazari) are used. Prior to biotreatments, the samples are demineralized and depyritized. In the biodesulphurization processes, the applied microorganisms are: the white rot fungi 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' - ME446 and the thermophilic and acidophilic archae 'Sulfolobus Solfataricus' - ATCC 35091. In the preliminary demineralized and depyritized coals, the highest presence of S{sup el} is registered, which is explained by their natural weathering. As a result of the implemented biotreatments, the amount of S{sup el} could be reduced in the range of 16.1-53.8%. The content of S{sub el} is also assessed as part of the total sulphur and organic sulphur. The following range of S{sup el} content is measured: 0.01-0.16 wt.% or 0.3-4.6% of total sulphur and 0.3-5.1% of organic sulphur. In this way, more precise information is obtained concerning the content of organic sulphur presence. 31 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Design of amphoteric mixed oxides of zinc and Group 3 elements (Al, Ga, In): migration effects on basic features. (United States)

    Mekki-Berrada, Adrien; Grondin, Didier; Bennici, Simona; Auroux, Aline


    The design of new amphoteric catalysts is of great interest for several industrial processes, especially those covering dehydration and dehydrogenation phenomena. Adsorption microcalorimetry was used to monitor the design of mixed oxides of zinc with Group 3 elements (aluminium, gallium, indium) with amphoteric character and enhanced specific surface area. Acid-base features were found to evolve non-linearly with the relative amounts of metal, and the strengths of the created acidic or basic sites were measured by adsorption microcalorimetry. A panel of bifunctional catalysts of various acid-base (amounts, strengths) and redox character was obtained. Besides, special interest was given to In-Zn mixed oxides for their enhanced basicity: this series of catalysts displays important basic features of high strength (q(diff) (SO₂ ads.) > 200 kJ mol(SO₂)⁻¹ in substantial amounts (1 - 2 μmol m(catalyst)⁻²), whose impact on efficiency or selectivity in catalytic dehydration/dehydrogenation can be valuable.

  18. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas


    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  19. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds (United States)

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  20. Evaluating the Representation of Cultural Elements in an In-Use EFL Textbook (United States)

    Bahrami, Nazli


    The present study was an attempt to evaluate and specify teachers' perception of the cultural elements of Total English book series. Another objective was to study the techniques and strategies that teachers usually use in teaching these elements. To this end, a total of 50 male and female teachers working at Kish Language Institute in Esfahan…

  1. Evaluation of selenium in dietary supplements using elemental speciation. (United States)

    Kubachka, Kevin M; Hanley, Traci; Mantha, Madhavi; Wilson, Robert A; Falconer, Travis M; Kassa, Zena; Oliveira, Aline; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph


    Selenium-enriched dietary supplements containing various selenium compounds are readily available to consumers. To ensure proper selenium intake and consumer confidence, these dietary supplements must be safe and have accurate label claims. Varying properties among selenium species requires information beyond total selenium concentration to fully evaluate health risk/benefits A LC-ICP-MS method was developed and multiple extraction methods were implemented for targeted analysis of common "seleno-amino acids" and related oxidation products, selenate, selenite, and other species relatable to the quality and/or accuracy of the labeled selenium ingredients. Ultimately, a heated water extraction was applied to recover selenium species from non-selenized yeast supplements in capsule, tablet, and liquid forms. For selenized yeast supplements, inorganic selenium was monitored as a means of assessing selenium yeast quality. A variety of commercially available selenium supplements were evaluated and discrepancies between labeled ingredients and detected species were noted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Needle migration and dosimetric impact in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer evaluated by repeated MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Simon; Lizondo, Maria; Hokland, Steffen


    PURPOSE: To quantify needle migration and dosimetric impact in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer and propose a threshold for needle migration. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-four high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with an HDR boost of 2 × 8.5 Gy were included. Patients...... received an MRI for planning (MRI1), before (MRI2), and after treatment (MRI3). Time from needle insertion to MRI3 was ∼3 hours. Needle migration was evaluated from coregistered images: MRI1-MRI2 and MRI1-MRI3. Dose volume histogram parameters from the treatment plan based on MRI1 were related...... to parameters based on needle positions in MRI2 or MRI3. Regression was used to model the average needle migration per implant and change in D90 clinical target volume, CTVprostate+3mm. The model fit was used for estimating the dosimetric impact in equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions for dose levels of 6, 8.5, 10...

  3. Evaluating predictors of local dabbling duck abundance during migration: Managing the spectrum of conditions faced by migrants (United States)

    Aagaard, Kevin; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Tavernia, Brian G.; Lyons, James E.


    The development of robust modelling techniques to derive inferences from large-scale migratory bird monitoring data at appropriate scales has direct relevance to their management. The Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring programme (IWMM) represents one of the few attempts to monitor migrating waterbirds across entire flyways using targeted local surveys. This dataset included 13,208,785 waterfowl (eight Anas species) counted during 28,000 surveys at nearly 1,000 locations across the eastern United States between autumn 2010 and spring 2013 and was used to evaluate potential predictors of waterfowl abundance at the wetland scale. Mixed-effects, log-linear models of local abundance were built for the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways during spring and autumn migration to identify factors relating to habitat structure, forage availability, and migration timing that influence target dabbling duck species abundance. Results indicated that migrating dabbling ducks responded differently to environmental factors. While the factors identified demonstrated a high degree of importance, they were inconsistent across species, flyways and seasons. Furthermore, the direction and magnitude of the importance of each covariate group considered here varied across species. Given our results, actionable policy recommendations are likely to be most effective if they consider species-level variation within targeted taxonomic units and across management areas. The methods implemented here can easily be applied to other contexts, and serve as a novel investigation into local-level population patterns using data from broad-scale monitoring programmes.

  4. Finite Element Evaluation of Two Retrofit Options to Enhance the Performance of Cable Media Barriers. (United States)


    This report summarizes the finite element modeling and simulation efforts on evaluating the performance of cable median barriers including the current and several proposed retrofit designs. It also synthesizes a literature review of the performance e...

  5. Clinical evaluation of a membrane-based voice-producing element for laryngectomized women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, J.W.; Qiu, Q.J.; Schutte, H.K.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Meeuwis, C.A.; van der Houwen, E.B.; Mahieu, H.F.; Verkerke, G.J.


    Background. A newly developed artificial voice source was clinically evaluated in laryngectomized women for voice quality improvements. The prosthesis was placed In a commercially available, tracheoesophageal shunt valve. Methods. In 17 subjects, voice-producing element (VPE) prototypes were

  6. Clinical evaluation of a membrane-based voice-producing element for female laryngectomized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, Johannes W.; Qiu, Qingjun; Schutte, Harm K.; Kooijman, Piet G.C.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; van der Houwen, Eduard B.; Mahieu, Hans F.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob


    Background: A newly developed artificial voice source was clinically evaluated in laryngectomized women for voice quality improvements. The prosthesis was placed in a commercially available, tracheoesophageal shunt valve. - Methods: In 17 subjects, voice-producing element (VPE) prototypes were

  7. Clinical evaluation of a membrane-based voice-producing element for laryngectomized women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, Johannes W.; Qiu, Qingjun; Schutte, Harm K.; Kooijman, Piet G. C.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; van der Houwen, Eduard B.; Mahieu, Hans F.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    Background. A newly developed artificial voice source was clinically evaluated in laryngectomized women for voice quality improvements. The prosthesis was placed in a commercially available, tracheoesophageal shunt valve. Methods. In 17 subjects, voice-producing element (VPE) prototypes were

  8. Clinical evaluation of a membrane-based voice-producing element for laryngectomized women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, J.W.; Qiu, Q.; Schutte, H.K.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Meeuwis, C.A.; Houwen, E.B. van der; Mahieu, H.F.; Verkerke, G.J.


    BACKGROUND: A newly developed artificial voice source was clinically evaluated in laryngectomized women for voice quality improvements. The prosthesis was placed in a commercially available, tracheoesophageal shunt valve. METHODS: In 17 subjects, voice-producing element (VPE) prototypes were

  9. The effect of diagenesis and fluid migration on rare earth element distribution in pore fluids of the northern Cascadia accretionary margin (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Torres, Marta E.; Haley, Brian A.; Kastner, Miriam; Pohlman, John W.; Riedel, Michael; Lee, Young-Joo


    Analytical challenges in obtaining high quality measurements of rare earth elements (REEs) from small pore fluid volumes have limited the application of REEs as deep fluid geochemical tracers. Using a recently developed analytical technique, we analyzed REEs from pore fluids collected from Sites U1325 and U1329, drilled on the northern Cascadia margin during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311, to investigate the REE behavior during diagenesis and their utility as tracers of deep fluid migration. These sites were selected because they represent contrasting settings on an accretionary margin: a ponded basin at the toe of the margin, and the landward Tofino Basin near the shelf's edge. REE concentrations of pore fluid in the methanogenic zone at Sites U1325 and U1329 correlate positively with concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity. Fractionations across the REE series are driven by preferential complexation of the heavy REEs. Simultaneous enrichment of diagenetic indicators (DOC and alkalinity) and of REEs (in particular the heavy elements Ho to Lu), suggests that the heavy REEs are released during particulate organic carbon (POC) degradation and are subsequently chelated by DOC. REE concentrations are greater at Site U1325, a site where shorter residence times of POC in sulfate-bearing redox zones may enhance REE burial efficiency within sulfidic and methanogenic sediment zones where REE release ensues. Cross-plots of La concentrations versus Cl, Li and Sr delineate a distinct field for the deep fluids (z > 75 mbsf) at Site U1329, and indicate the presence of a fluid not observed at the other sites drilled on the Cascadia margin. Changes in REE patterns, the presence of a positive Eu anomaly, and other available geochemical data for this site suggest a complex hydrology and possible interaction with the igneous Crescent Terrane, located east of the drilled transect.

  10. Dynamic cellular finite-element method for modelling large-scale cell migration and proliferation under the control of mechanical and biochemical cues: a study of re-epithelialization. (United States)

    Zhao, Jieling; Cao, Youfang; DiPietro, Luisa A; Liang, Jie


    Computational modelling of cells can reveal insight into the mechanisms of the important processes of tissue development. However, current cell models have limitations and are challenged to model detailed changes in cellular shapes and physical mechanics when thousands of migrating and interacting cells need to be modelled. Here we describe a novel dynamic cellular finite-element model (DyCelFEM), which accounts for changes in cellular shapes and mechanics. It also models the full range of cell motion, from movements of individual cells to collective cell migrations. The transmission of mechanical forces regulated by intercellular adhesions and their ruptures are also accounted for. Intra-cellular protein signalling networks controlling cell behaviours are embedded in individual cells. We employ DyCelFEM to examine specific effects of biochemical and mechanical cues in regulating cell migration and proliferation, and in controlling tissue patterning using a simplified re-epithelialization model of wound tissue. Our results suggest that biochemical cues are better at guiding cell migration with improved directionality and persistence, while mechanical cues are better at coordinating collective cell migration. Overall, DyCelFEM can be used to study developmental processes when a large population of migrating cells under mechanical and biochemical controls experience complex changes in cell shapes and mechanics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner


    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...

  12. Evaluation of cancer stem cell migration using compartmentalizing microfluidic devices and live cell imaging. (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Agrawal, Basheal; Clark, Paul A; Williams, Justin C; Kuo, John S


    In the last 40 years, the United States invested over 200 billion dollars on cancer research, resulting in only a 5% decrease in death rate. A major obstacle for improving patient outcomes is the poor understanding of mechanisms underlying cellular migration associated with aggressive cancer cell invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most prevalent primary malignant adult brain tumor, exemplifies this difficulty. Despite standard surgery, radiation and chemotherapies, patient median survival is only fifteen months, due to aggressive GBM infiltration into adjacent brain and rapid cancer recurrence. The interactions of aberrant cell migratory mechanisms and the tumor microenvironment likely differentiate cancer from normal cells. Therefore, improving therapeutic approaches for GBM require a better understanding of cancer cell migration mechanisms. Recent work suggests that a small subpopulation of cells within GBM, the brain tumor stem cell (BTSC), may be responsible for therapeutic resistance and recurrence. Mechanisms underlying BTSC migratory capacity are only starting to be characterized. Due to a limitation in visual inspection and geometrical manipulation, conventional migration assays are restricted to quantifying overall cell populations. In contrast, microfluidic devices permit single cell analysis because of compatibility with modern microscopy and control over micro-environment. We present a method for detailed characterization of BTSC migration using compartmentalizing microfluidic devices. These PDMS-made devices cast the tissue culture environment into three connected compartments: seeding chamber, receiving chamber and bridging microchannels. We tailored the device such that both chambers hold sufficient media to support viable BTSC for 4-5 days without media exchange. Highly mobile BTSCs initially introduced into the seeding chamber are isolated after migration though bridging microchannels to the parallel

  13. Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.


    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  14. Evaluation of finite element formulations for transient conduction forced-convection analysis (United States)

    Thornton, E. A.; Wieting, A. R.


    Numerical studies clarifying the advantages and disavantages of conventional versus upwind convective finite elements are presented along with lumped versus consistent formulations for practical conduction forced-convection analysis. A finite-element procedure for treatment of negligible capacitance fluid nodes is presented. The procedure is based on procedures used in finite-element structural dynamics to treat nodes with negligible structural mass. Two finite-element programs and a finite-difference lumped-parameter program used in the studies are discussed. Evaluation studies utilizing three convection and two combined conduction-convection problems are then presented and discussed. Additionally, the computational time saving offered by the finite element procedure is considered for a practical combined conduction-convection problem.

  15. Water, lithium and trace element compositions of olivine from Lanzo South replacive mantle dunites (Western Alps): New constraints into melt migration processes at cold thermal regimes (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Ottolini, Luisa; Hamada, Morihisa


    Replacive mantle dunites are considered to be shallow pathways for extraction of mantle melts from their source region. Dunites offer a unique possibility to unravel the compositional variability of the melts produced in the upper mantle, before mixing and crystal fractionation modify their original signature. This study includes a quantification of H2O, Li and trace elements (Ni, Mn, Co, Sc, V, Ti, Zr, Y and HREE) in olivine from large replacive dunite bodies (>20 m) within a mantle section exposed in the Western Italian Alps (Lanzo South ophiolite). On the basis of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel compositions, these dunites were previously interpreted to be formed by melts with a MORB signature. Variations in Ni, Mn, Co and Ca contents in olivine from different dunite bodies suggested formation by different melt batches. The variable H2O and Li contents of these olivines agree with this idea. Compared to olivine from residual peridotites and olivine phenocrysts in MORB (both having H2O 1 ppm), the Lanzo South dunite olivine has high H2O (18-40 ppm) and low Li (0.35-0.83 ppm) contents. Geochemical modelling suggests that the dunite-forming melts were produced by low melting degrees of a mixed garnet-pyroxenite-peridotite mantle source, with a contribution of a garnet pyroxenite component variable from 20 to 80%. The Lanzo dunites experienced migration of melts geochemically enriched and mainly produced in the lowermost part of the melting region. Extraction of enriched melts through dunite channels are probably characteristic of cold thermal regimes, where low temperatures and a thick mantle lithosphere inhibit mixing with melts produced at shallower depths.

  16. Simulation study {epsilon}-Caprolactam monomer and metallic elements migration from irradiated polymeric packaging into food stimulants; Simulacao numerica da migracao de elementos metalicos e do monomero {epsilon}-caprolactama de embalagens polimericas irradiadas para simulantes de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Faena Machado Leite


    For decades migration study of chemical compounds from packaging into food, such as metals, residual monomers and additives, is a very important issue, concerning public health and minimize chemical contamination. In this work, it was done irradiations of packagings taken in contact with food simulant, and it was studied this migration through a mathematical model of the diffusion process, compiled in a computational simulation method in order to study the microscopic behavior of migration of metallic elements cadmium, chromium, antimony and cobalt, present in metallic plastics from dairy product packagings, and also the migration of - caprolactam monomer, present in nylon polymeric plastics used for package meat stuffs, to the food simulant acetic acid 3%. The results from simulations of the migration of -caprolactam monomer were compared with experimental results obtained from high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) measurements, and the simulation of metallic elements migration were compared with the neutron activation analysis measurements (NAA). These experimental results were performed and kindly informed by another research groups, partners in this project. The food packaging system was discretized in one-dimension space and in time and the partial differential equation that defines the diffusive process, the second 'Fick's law', together with an equation of Arrhenius type dealing with the thermal influence, were solved using finite differences. The final step of the resolution was a tridiagonal linear system, solved using the Thomas algorithm. It was studied, and in some cases even foreseen, experimental quantities, like the diffusion coefficient, activation energy and concentration profile of migrant compounds, allowing the understanding of the diffusion process and the quantitative estimate of the migration of such compounds under ionizing radiation influence. Variation on the initial concentration levels (C{sub 0}) of the monomer inside

  17. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport. (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong


    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical "pollution" elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP.

  18. Evaluation of Brine Migration Risks Due to CO2 Injection - an Integrated Natural and Social Science Modeling Approach (United States)

    Noack, V.; Kissinger, A.; Class, H.; Knopf, S.; Konrad, W.; Scheer, D.


    Evaluation of possible risks for shallow groundwater systems caused by brine displacement due to CO2 injection requires an investigation of possible vertical pathways in regional-scale structural settings. The project CO2BRIM investigates this crucial issue in collaboration with external stakeholders to integrate expert feedback on migration scenarios. To evaluate possible brine displacement scenarios we construct a regional-scale 3D structural model based on data which represent a typical geological setting of the North German Basin. The model has a horizontal size of 39 km times 58 km and includes 11 geological layers from the Permian Zechstein salt up to the Quaternary. It comprises an anticlinal structure on top of a salt pillow and an elongated salt wall that dissect the overburden. For the risk scenarios we include discontinuities in the regionally important Rupelian aquitard (Tertiary) and a transition zone along the salt flank as such discontinuities are supposed to provide permeable pathways for brines which could reach shallow drinking water horizons. Based on this model we develop scenarios in which we vary for example hydro-geological parameters of the geological discontinuities, the injection rate and the initial state of the system in terms of the salinity distribution. Furthermore we compare different levels of model complexity with regard to the physical processes considered and their effects on our results. During the process of scenario development, external experts were invited to participate and share knowledge and concerns on both brine migration risks and possible migration paths and mechanisms. The results may help in site selection as they provide improved knowledge of pressure build-up in the reservoir and the overburden for such complex geological systems. Additionally, we want to identify the level of model complexity which is sufficient for this kind of setting with regard to the limited data availability at hand for the far field.

  19. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Majgaard; Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard


    alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix, hereby, theoretically, yielding characteristic stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. At present, the discrimination between potentially damaged elements and undamaged ones is typically conducted on the basis...... of modified characteristic stress resultants, which are compared to a pre-defined tolerance value, without any thorough statistical evaluation. In the present paper, it is tested whether three widely-used statistical pattern-recognition-based damage-detection methods can provide an effective statistical...... evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling’s statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study...

  20. Evaluation of the Cultural Elements in the Textbook "Genki I: an Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese" (United States)

    Er, Onur


    This study aims to examine the textbook "Genki I: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese" in terms of cultural elements. The data of this qualitative research were collected by means of the document review method. Content analysis, one of the qualitative analysis techniques, was used in the evaluation of the research data. A second…

  1. A behavioral evaluation of sex differences in a mouse model of severe neuronal migration disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongnhu T Truong

    Full Text Available Disruption of neuronal migration in humans is associated with a wide range of behavioral and cognitive outcomes including severe intellectual disability, language impairment, and social dysfunction. Furthermore, malformations of cortical development have been observed in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism and dyslexia, where boys are much more commonly diagnosed than girls (estimates around 4 to 1. The use of rodent models provides an excellent means to examine how sex may modulate behavioral outcomes in the presence of comparable abnormal neuroanatomical presentations. Initially characterized by Rosen et al. 2012, the BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J mouse mutant exhibits a highly penetrant neuroanatomical phenotype that consists of bilateral midline subcortical nodular heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis. In the current study, we confirm our initial findings of a severe impairment in rapid auditory processing in affected male mice. We also report that BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J (mutant female mice show no sparing of rapid auditory processing, and in fact show deficits similar to mutant males. Interestingly, female BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J mice do display superiority in Morris water maze performance as compared to wild type females, an affect not seen in mutant males. Finally, we report new evidence that BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J mice, in general, show evidence of hyper-social behaviors. In closing, the use of the BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J strain of mice - with its strong behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype - may be highly useful in characterizing sex independent versus dependent mechanisms that interact with neural reorganization, as well as clinically relevant abnormal behavior resulting from aberrant neuronal migration.

  2. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makmal, T. [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Nuclear Physics and Engineering Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Radiation Safety Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Gilad, E., E-mail: [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections. - Highlights: • Simple, inexpensive, safe and flexible experimental setup that can be quickly deployed. • Experimental results are thoroughly corroborated against ORIGEN2 burnup code. • Experimental uncertainty of 9% and 5% deviation between measurements and simulations. • Very high burnup MTR fuel element is examined, with 60% depletion of {sup 235}U. • Impact of highly irregular irradiation regime on burnup evaluation is studied.

  3. Quality evaluation of value sets from cancer study common data elements using the UMLS semantic groups. (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G


    The objective of this study is to develop an approach to evaluate the quality of terminological annotations on the value set (ie, enumerated value domain) components of the common data elements (CDEs) in the context of clinical research using both unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic types and groups. The CDEs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Data Standards Repository, the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) concepts and the UMLS semantic network were integrated using a semantic web-based framework for a SPARQL-enabled evaluation. First, the set of CDE-permissible values with corresponding meanings in external controlled terminologies were isolated. The corresponding value meanings were then evaluated against their NCI- or UMLS-generated semantic network mapping to determine whether all of the meanings fell within the same semantic group. Of the enumerated CDEs in the Cancer Data Standards Repository, 3093 (26.2%) had elements drawn from more than one UMLS semantic group. A random sample (n=100) of this set of elements indicated that 17% of them were likely to have been misclassified. The use of existing semantic web tools can support a high-throughput mechanism for evaluating the quality of large CDE collections. This study demonstrates that the involvement of multiple semantic groups in an enumerated value domain of a CDE is an effective anchor to trigger an auditing point for quality evaluation activities. This approach produces a useful quality assurance mechanism for a clinical study CDE repository.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Melanoma Cell Migration with an Elastic Continuum Model for the Evaluation of the Influence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vianna Gallinaro


    Full Text Available An elastic continuum mathematical model was implemented to study collective C8161 melanoma cell migration during a “scratch wound” assay, in control and under the influence of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. The model has four constants: force that results from lamellipod formation (F, adhesion constant between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM (b, cell layer elasticity modulus (k, and growth rate (ρ. A nonlinear regression routine was used to obtain the parameters of the model with data from an experiment made with C8161 melanoma cells, with and without TNF-α. Coefficient of determination for both situations was R2=0.89 and R2=0.92, respectively. The parameters values obtained were similar to the ones found in the literature. However, the adhesion constant value decreased with the introduction of TNF-α, which is not in accordance with expected since the presence of TNF-α is associated with an increased expression of integrins that would promote an enhanced adhesion among cells. The model was used in a study relating to the adhesion constant and cell migration, and the results suggested that cell migration decreases with higher adhesion, which is also not in accordance with expected. These differences would not occur if it was considered that TNF-α increases the elasticity modulus of the cell layer.

  5. Report on Evaluation, Verification, and Assessment of Porosity Migration Model in Fast Reactor MOX Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, John William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Abstract This report documents the progress of simulating pore migration in ceramic (UO2 and mixed oxide or MOX) fuel using BISON. The porosity field is treated as a function of space and time whose evolution is governed by a custom convection-diffusion-reaction equation (described here) which is coupled to the heat transfer equation via the temperature field. The porosity is initialized to a constant value at every point in the domain, and as the temperature (and its gradient) are increased by application of a heat source, the pores move up the thermal gradient and accumulate at the center of the fuel in a time-frame that is consistent with observations from experiments. There is an inverse dependence of the fuel’s thermal conductivity on porosity (increasing porosity decreases thermal conductivity, and vice-versa) which is also accounted for, allowing the porosity equation to couple back into the heat transfer equation. Results from an example simulation are shown to demonstrate the new capability.

  6. [Evaluation and analysis of inorganic elements in Ginkgo biloba leaves by microwave digestion-ICP-AES]. (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shang, Er-Xin; Su, Shu-Lan; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao


    Abstract Inorganic elements were determined by ICP-AES using microwave digestion, and principal components analysis(PCA) was used for analysis. The result showed that ginkgo biloba leaves contained more than 22 inorganic elements, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, B, Si and Ni were essential trace elements, and Ca, P, K% Na and Mg were essential macro elements. PCA with seven factors (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7) selected could be used to evaluate the quality of ginkgo biloba leaves. The function was following F=0.230 17F1+0.122 39F2+0.079 67F3+0.078 97F4+0.065 25F5+0.062 03F6+0.056 71F7. The samples from Taixing, Shijiazhuang and Taian was the top three which indicated the quality in those cultivation sources was better based on inorganic elements. All the results will provide good basis for comprehensive utilization of ginkgo biloba leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars.

  7. Diversity and MIMO Performance Evaluation of Common Phase Center Multi Element Antenna Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Papamichael


    Full Text Available The diversity and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO performance provided by common phase center multi element antenna (CPCMEA systems is evaluated using two practical methods which make use of the realized active element antenna patterns. These patterns include both the impact of the mutual coupling and the mismatch power loss at antenna ports. As a case study, two and four printed Inverted F Antenna (IFA systems are evaluated by means of Effective Diversity Gain (EDG and Capacity (C. EDG is measured in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR enhancement at a specific outage probability and in terms of the SNR reduction for achieving a desired average bit error rate (BER. The concept of receive antenna selection in MIMO systems is also investigated and the simulation results show a 43% improvement in the 1% outage C of a reconfigurable 2x2 MIMO system over a fixed 2x2 one.

  8. Evaluation of the larval migration inhibition assay for detecting macrocyclic lactone resistance in Dirofilaria immitis. (United States)

    Evans, Christopher C; Moorhead, Andrew R; Storey, Bobby E; Blagburn, Byron L; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Kaplan, Ray M


    Anthelmintics of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) drug class are widely used as preventives against the canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). Over the past several years, however, reports of ML lack of efficacy (LOE) have emerged, in which dogs develop mature heartworm infection despite the administration of monthly prophylactics. More recently, isolates from LOE cases have been used to infect laboratory dogs and the resistant phenotype has been confirmed by the establishment of adult worms in the face of ML treatment at normally preventive dosages. Testing for and monitoring resistance in D. immitis requires a validated biological or molecular diagnostic assay. In this study, we assessed a larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) that we previously optimized for use with D. immitis third-stage larvae (L3). We used this assay to measure the in vitro ML susceptibilities of a known-susceptible laboratory strain of D. immitis and three highly suspected ML-resistant isolates originating from three separate LOE cases; progeny from two of these isolates have been confirmed ML-resistant by treatment of an infected dog in a controlled setting. A nonlinear regression model was fit to the dose-response data, from which IC50 values were calculated. The D. immitis LMIA yielded consistent and reproducible dose-response data; however, no statistically significant differences in drug susceptibility were observed between control and LOE parasites. Additionally, the drug concentrations needed to paralyze the L3 were much higher than those third- and fourth-stage larvae would experience in vivo. IC50 values ranged from 1.57 to 5.56μM (p≥0.19). These data could suggest that ML resistance in this parasite is not mediated through a reduced susceptibility of L3 to the paralytic effects of ML drugs, and therefore motility-based assays are likely not appropriate for measuring the effects of MLs against D. immitis in this target stage. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluation of Flanking Noise Transmission within Periodically Distributed Lightweight Beam Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey


    . Two different theoretical methods are taken into consideration to evaluate flanking noise transmission within the beam structure: The finite-element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. Research is carried out regarding the effects of periodicity in a wide range of frequencies from 0 to 300 Hz...... are thoroughly investigated and compared. The findings of the analysis are applicable in the design of structures such as buildings, ships and aircrafts, regarding minimization of flanking noise transmission....

  10. Quasi-exact evaluation of time domain MFIE MOT matrix elements

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifei


    A previously proposed quasi-exact scheme for evaluating matrix elements resulting from the marching-on-in-time (MOT) discretization of the time domain electric field integral equation (EFIE) is extended to matrix entries resulting from the discretization of its magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) counterpart. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the scheme as well as the late-time stability of the resulting MOT-MFIE solver. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework. (United States)

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje


    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them.

  12. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework (United States)

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje


    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them. PMID:25798197

  13. Research on the Core Competitive Power Elements Evaluation System of Green Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang


    Full Text Available Green hotel is a new type of hospitality industry development model based on the concept of circular economy and sustainable development. This paper makes an analysis and evaluation of the elements of green hotel core competence, on this basis, constructs the Green Hotel core competitive evaluation index system.The construction of the system is conducive to understand the green hotel’s own competitive advantage objectively, and explore ways to enhance its core competitiveness, providing objective basis for sustainable development of China's Hotel industry.

  14. Evaluation of Solid Modeling Software for Finite Element Analysis of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Mital, Subodh; Lang, Jerry


    Three computer programs, used for the purpose of generating 3-D finite element models of the Repeating Unit Cell (RUC) of a textile, were examined for suitability to model woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). The programs evaluated were the open-source available TexGen, the commercially available WiseTex, and the proprietary Composite Material Evaluator (COMATE). A five-harness-satin (5HS) weave for a melt-infiltrated (MI) silicon carbide matrix and silicon carbide fiber was selected as an example problem and the programs were tested for their ability to generate a finite element model of the RUC. The programs were also evaluated for ease-of-use and capability, particularly for the capability to introduce various defect types such as porosity, ply shifting, and nesting of a laminate. Overall, it was found that TexGen and WiseTex were useful for generating solid models of the tow geometry; however, there was a lack of consistency in generating well-conditioned finite element meshes of the tows and matrix. TexGen and WiseTex were both capable of allowing collective and individual shifting of tows within a ply and WiseTex also had a ply nesting capability. TexGen and WiseTex were sufficiently userfriendly and both included a Graphical User Interface (GUI). COMATE was satisfactory in generating a 5HS finite element mesh of an idealized weave geometry but COMATE lacked a GUI and was limited to only 5HS and 8HS weaves compared to the larger amount of weave selections available with TexGen and WiseTex.

  15. A study of the impact of moist-heat and dry-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements migration in food waste. (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Qiu, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xin


    Using laboratory experiments, the authors investigated the impact of dry-heat and moist-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements (As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in food waste and explored their distribution patterns for three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components. The results indicated that an insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste-0.61-14.29% after moist-heat treatment and 4.53-12.25% after dry-heat treatment-and a significant reduction in hazardous trace elements (except for Hg without external addition) after centrifugal dehydration (P heat treatment, over 90% of the hazardous trace elements in the waste were detected in the aqueous and solid components, whereas only a trace amount of hazardous trace elements was detected in the oil component (heat treatment process did not significantly reduce the concentration of hazardous trace elements in food waste, but the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk considerably. Finally, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment on the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements. An insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste showed that heat treatment does not reduce trace elements contamination in food waste considerably, whereas the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk significantly. Moreover, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment for the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements, by exploring distribution patterns of trace elements in three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components.

  16. Evaluating rare earth element availability: a case with revolutionary demand from clean technologies. (United States)

    Alonso, Elisa; Sherman, Andrew M; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark P; Field, Frank R; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph E


    The future availability of rare earth elements (REEs) is of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions, environmentally unsustainable mining practices, and rapid demand growth. We present an evaluation of potential future demand scenarios for REEs with a focus on the issue of comining. Many assumptions were made to simplify the analysis, but the scenarios identify some key variables that could affect future rare earth markets and market behavior. Increased use of wind energy and electric vehicles are key elements of a more sustainable future. However, since present technologies for electric vehicles and wind turbines rely heavily on dysprosium (Dy) and neodymium (Nd), in rare-earth magnets, future adoption of these technologies may result in large and disproportionate increases in the demand for these two elements. For this study, upper and lower bound usage projections for REE in these applications were developed to evaluate the state of future REE supply availability. In the absence of efficient reuse and recycling or the development of technologies which use lower amounts of Dy and Nd, following a path consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO(2) at 450 ppm may lead to an increase of more than 700% and 2600% for Nd and Dy, respectively, over the next 25 years if the present REE needs in automotive and wind applications are representative of future needs.

  17. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (DIAMB/CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div, de Monitoração Ambiental; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)


    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  18. Analytical and finite element performance evaluation of embedded piezoelectric sensors in polyethylene (United States)

    Safaei, Mohsen; Anton, Steven R.


    A common application of piezoelectric transducers is to obtain operational data from working structures and dynamic components. Collected data can then be used to evaluate dynamic characterization of the system, perform structural health monitoring, or implement various other assessments. In some applications, piezoelectric transducers are bonded inside the host structure to satisfy system requirements; for example, piezoelectric transducers can be embedded inside the biopolymers of total joint replacements to evaluate the functionality of the artificial joint. The interactions between the piezoelectric device (inhomogeneity) and the surrounding polymer matrix determine the mechanical behavior of the matrix and the electromechanical behavior of the sensor. In this work, an analytical approach is employed to evaluate the electromechanical performance of 2-D plane strain piezoelectric elements of both circular and rectangular-shape inhomogeneities. These piezoelectric elements are embedded inside medical grade ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene, a material commonly used for bearing surfaces of joint replacements, such as total knee replacements (TKRs). Using the famous Eshelby inhomogeneity solution, the stress and electric field inside the circular (elliptical) inhomogeneity is obtained by decoupling the solution into purely elastic and dielectric systems of equations. For rectangular (non-elliptical) inhomogeneities, an approximation method based on the boundary integral function is utilized and the same decoupling method is employed. In order to validate the analytical result, a finite element analysis is performed for both the circular and rectangular inhomogeneities and the error for each case is calculated. For elliptical geometry, the error is less than 1% for stress and electric fields inside and outside the piezoelectric inhomogeneity, whereas, the error for non-elliptical geometry is obtained as 11% and 7% for stress and electric field inside

  19. 'Migration & Integration'


    Lisa Pilgram


    Migration, Integration : [kommunalpolitische Herausforderungen]. - Augsburg : Geo-Anwenderzentrum, [ca. 2004]. - XVIII, 281 S. - (Angewandte Sozialgeographie ; 49) (GEO-Taschenbuch). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2003

  20. Experimental Behavior Evaluation of Series and Parallel Connected Constant Phase Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Tsirimokou, Georgia


    Fractional-order capacitors are the core building blocks for implementing fractional-order circuits. Due to the absence of their commercial availability, they can be approximated through appropriately configured passive or active integer-order element topologies. Such a topology, constructed using Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) and capacitors has been implemented in monolithic form through the AMS 0.35μm CMOS process, and the fabricated chips are employed here for the experimental evaluation of the behavior of networks constructed from fractional-order capacitors connected in series or in parallel.

  1. Quality evaluation of cancer study Common Data Elements using the UMLS Semantic Network. (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G


    The binding of controlled terminology has been regarded as important for standardization of Common Data Elements (CDEs) in cancer research. However, the potential of such binding has not yet been fully explored, especially its quality assurance aspect. The objective of this study is to explore whether there is a relationship between terminological annotations and the UMLS Semantic Network (SN) that can be exploited to improve those annotations. We profiled the terminological concepts associated with the standard structure of the CDEs of the NCI Cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR) using the UMLS SN. We processed 17798 data elements and extracted 17526 primary object class/property concept pairs. We identified dominant semantic types for the categories "object class" and "property" and determined that the preponderance of the instances were disjoint (i.e. the intersection of semantic types between the two categories is empty). We then performed a preliminary evaluation on the data elements whose asserted primary object class/property concept pairs conflict with this observation - where the semantic type of the object class fell into a SN category typically used by property or visa-versa. In conclusion, the UMLS SN based profiling approach is feasible for the quality assurance and accessibility of the cancer study CDEs. This approach could provide useful insight about how to build mechanisms of quality assurance in a meta-data repository. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović


    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  3. Evaluation of Strip Footing Bearing Capacity Built on the Anthropogenic Embankment by Random Finite Element Method (United States)

    Pieczynska-Kozlowska, Joanna


    One of a geotechnical problem in the area of Wroclaw is an anthropogenic embankment layer delaying to the depth of 4-5m, arising as a result of historical incidents. In such a case an assumption of bearing capacity of strip footing might be difficult. The standard solution is to use a deep foundation or foundation soil replacement. However both methods generate significant costs. In the present paper the authors focused their attention on the influence of anthropogenic embankment variability on bearing capacity. Soil parameters were defined on the basis of CPT test and modeled as 2D anisotropic random fields and the assumption of bearing capacity were made according deterministic finite element methods. Many repeated of the different realizations of random fields lead to stable expected value of bearing capacity. The algorithm used to estimate the bearing capacity of strip footing was the random finite element method (e.g. [1]). In traditional approach of bearing capacity the formula proposed by [2] is taken into account. qf = c'Nc + qNq + 0.5γBN- γ (1) where: qf is the ultimate bearing stress, cis the cohesion, qis the overburden load due to foundation embedment, γ is the soil unit weight, Bis the footing width, and Nc, Nq and Nγ are the bearing capacity factors. The method of evaluation the bearing capacity of strip footing based on finite element method incorporate five parameters: Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (ν), dilation angle (ψ), cohesion (c), and friction angle (φ). In the present study E, ν and ψ are held constant while c and φ are randomized. Although the Young's modulus does not affect the bearing capacity it governs the initial elastic response of the soil. Plastic stress redistribution is accomplished using a viscoplastic algorithm merge with an elastic perfectly plastic (Mohr - Coulomb) failure criterion. In this paper a typical finite element mesh was assumed with 8-node elements consist in 50 columns and 20 rows. Footings width B

  4. Evaluation and simulation of silver and copper nanoparticle migration from polyethylene nanocomposites to food and an associated exposure assessment. (United States)

    Cushen, M; Kerry, J; Morris, M; Cruz-Romero, M; Cummins, E


    Silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) and copper nanoparticles (nanocopper) exhibit antimicrobial activity and have been incorporated into polymers to create antimicrobial packaging materials. Their use in conjunction with food has caused concerns regarding the potential risk of particle migration, resulting in human exposure to nanoparticles. A migration experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of time and temperature on the migration of nanosilver and nanocopper particles from polyethylene (PE) nanocomposites to boneless chicken breasts. Migration of silver ranged from 0.003 to 0.005 mg/dm², while migration of copper ranged from 0.024 to 0.049 mg/dm², for a set of four different scenarios representing typical storage conditions. Effects of time and temperature were not significant (p > 0.1). A migration and exposure model was developed on the basis of mathematical relationships defining migratability and subsequent migratables using the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation for time-temperature superposition. The results of the model accurately predicted the nanosilver levels detected in the laboratory migration tests (R values ranging from 0.43 to 0.99); however, the model was less accurate in predicting nanocopper levels (R values ranging from 0.65 to 0.99), probably because of the highly variable background levels of copper observed in the real food matrix. The 95th percentile of the simulated human exposure to nanosilver based on laboratory experimental results of four scenarios ranged from 5.89 × 10⁻⁵ to 8.9 × 10⁻⁵ mg kg(bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹. For the measured migration of copper under the same storage conditions, the exposure ranged from 2.26 × 10⁻⁵ to 1.17 × 10⁻⁴ mg kg(bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹. This study highlights the potential migration of nanoparticles from PE composite packaging to a food material and the potential for simulation models to accurately capture this migration potential; however, variable background levels of copper in the

  5. Evaluation of a combination of continuum and truss finite elements in a model of passive and active muscle tissue. (United States)

    Hedenstierna, S; Halldin, P; Brolin, K


    The numerical method of finite elements (FE) is a powerful tool for analysing stresses and strains in the human body. One area of increasing interest is the skeletal musculature. This study evaluated modelling of skeletal muscle tissue using a combination of passive non-linear, viscoelastic solid elements and active Hill-type truss elements, the super-positioned muscle finite element (SMFE). The performance of the combined materials and elements was evaluated for eccentric motions by simulating a tensile experiment from a published study on a stimulated rabbit muscle including three different strain rates. It was also evaluated for isometric and concentric contractions. The resulting stress-strain curves had the same overall pattern as the experiments, with the main limitation being sensitivity to the active force-length relation. It was concluded that the SMFE could model active and passive muscle tissue at constant rate elongations for strains below failure, as well as isometric and concentric contractions.

  6. Uncertainty evaluation in correlated quantities: application to elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols;Evaluacion de la incertidumbre en cantidades correlacionadas: aplicacion al analisis elemental de aerosoles atmosfericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, A.; Miranda, J.; Pineda, J. C., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.m [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    One of the aspects that are frequently overlooked in the evaluation of uncertainty in experimental data is the possibility that the involved quantities are correlated among them, due to different causes. An example in the elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols using techniques like X-ray Fluorescence (X RF) or Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). In these cases, the measured elemental concentrations are highly correlated, and then are used to obtain information about other variables, such as the contribution from emitting sources related to soil, sulfate, non-soil potassium or organic matter. This work describes, as an example, the method required to evaluate the uncertainty in variables determined from correlated quantities from a set of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in the Metropolitan Area of the Mexico Valley and analyzed with PIXE. The work is based on the recommendations of the Guide for the Evaluation of Uncertainty published by the International Organization for Standardization. (Author)

  7. In vitro evaluation of the human gingival fibroblast/gingival mesenchymal stem cell dynamics through perforated guided tissue membranes: cell migration, proliferation and membrane stiffness assay. (United States)

    Gamal, A Y; Al-Berry, N N; Hassan, A A; Rashed, L A; Iacono, V J


    Migration of gingival fibroblasts/gingival mesenchymal stem cells through macro-perforated barrier membranes may allow them to participate positively in periodontal regeneration. The optimal guided tissue membrane perforation diameter that could favor maximum cell migration into the defect area and at the same time act as an occlusive barrier for gingival epithelium and its associated gingival extracellular matrix component is not yet identified. Cultured human gingival fibroblasts/gingival mesenchymal stem cells were placed in the upper chambers of 12-well collagen-coated polytetrafluoroethylene transwells, which were manually perforated with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.7 mm sized pores. The lower chambers of the transwells received blood clot as an attraction medium. The number of cells that have migrated to the lower chambers was calculated. Proliferation of these cells was evaluated using MTT assay. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for the lower surfaces of the transwell membranes. Perforated bovine collagen membranes (Tutopatch(®) ) were subjected to mechanical testing to determine the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. Group 3 (0.7 mm) showed significantly higher values for cell migration and proliferation. All groups showed a small degree of extracellular matrix migration through membrane perforations. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation revealed variable numbers of cells in fibrin matrices located mainly around the pore edges. There were non-significant differences between groups regarding mechanical properties. The present study demonstrated that macro-membrane perforations of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.7 mm are suitable pore diameters that could maintain membrane stiffness and allow for cellular migration. However, these membrane perforation diameters did not allow for total gingival connective tissue isolation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluating Crustal Contamination Effects On The Lithophile Trace Element Budget Of Shergottites, NWA 856 As A Test Case (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Ferdous, J.; Peslier, A. H.


    The issue of whether crustal contamination has affected the lithophile trace element budget of shergottites has been a point of contention for decades. The evaluation has focused on the enriched shergottite compositions as an outcome of crustal contamination of mantle-derived parent magmas or, alternatively, the compositions of these stones reflect an incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched mantle source.

  9. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić


    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  10. Biomonitors as a tool to evaluate trace element deposition in complex urban environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaci, F.; Bargagli, R. [Siena Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Biology


    Automotive traffic is recognized as the main source of metal pollution in urban environments. Fuel combustion and tyre and brake wear release Pb, Cd and many other toxic elements. The assessment of urban atmospheric pollution is usually carried out by (fixed or mobile) recording instruments. Although this approach is accepted by decision makers, it has several disadvantages, such as high investment and maintenance costs, and it does not provide data on the effects on organisms. Furthermore, the low density of measuring stations makes pollutant distribution models based on such data scarcely reliable. The aim of this study was to evaluate trace metal deposition in Siena, a small medieval town in Tuscany, which like many others in Europe, was built on hills and is characterized by narrow streets, between high buildings. In such complex urban environments, traffic is the main source of metal pollution and the use of recording instruments is unsuitable. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the reliability of biological monitoring. Preliminary observations on the effects of street conformation on trace elements deposition were also made

  11. Health evaluation and reported symptoms in workers with past occupational exposure to elemental mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenbach, L.R.


    A comprehensive health evaluation was conducted on 502 workers at the Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee of which approximately half (247) had past exposure to elemental mercury vapor between 1953 and 1966. Extensive urinalysis records were available and a number of exposure indices were generated from these in an attempt to model different aspects of exposure. Selection into the study group was based on an index of cumulative exposure that consisted of the sum of average quarterly mercury urinalyses. Cumulative and peak exposure indices based on workers' average exposure from company work histories were more strongly associated with adverse health effects than corresponding indices based on individual urinary records. Substantial evidence suggested that higher exposed workers were at elevated risk for the development of a mild peripheral neuropathy and sustention tremor. In addition, a small increase in the frequency of mild myelopathies was noted in the mercury-exposed group which was not clearly related to exposure. Reported symptoms of lightheadedness, confused, trouble remembering steps, bothered by clumsiness, and trouble grasping objects were significantly associated with increasing level of elemental mercury. A preliminary evaluation tends to validate the use of symptoms data in epidemiologic surveys. Symptom reports were related to poorer performance on objective tests of psychomotor and other behavioral attributes.

  12. Experimental evaluation of admission and disposition of artificial radionuclides including transuranium elements in agricultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhakhanov, T.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)


    Processes of radionuclides migration and transfer to agricultural plants are quite well developed worldwide, but the information on character of accumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu transuranium radionuclides in agricultural plants is still fragmentary. Even in generalized materials of worldwide studies, IAEA guide, accumulation coefficient (AC) can have wide range of values (5-6 orders), no data exists on radionuclides' distribution in different organs of plants and they are given for joined groups of plants and types of soils. That is why the main aim of this work was to obtain basic quantitative parameters of radionuclides' migration in 'soil-plant' system, and firs of all- for transuranium elements.. In 2010 a series of experiments with agricultural plants was started at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site aimed to investigate entry of artificial radionuclides by crop products in natural climatic conditions. To conduct the experiment for study of coefficient of radionuclides' accumulation by agricultural corps, there was chosen a land spot at the STS territory, characterized by high concentration of radionuclides: {sup 241}Am - n*10{sup 4} Bq/kg, {sup 137}Cs - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg, {sup 90}Sr - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg and {sup 239+240}Pu- n*10{sup 5} Bq/kg. As objects of investigation, cultures, cultivated in Kazakhstan have been selected: wheat (Triticum vulgare), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa L.), water melon (Citrullus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus cultus), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), parsley(Petroselinum vulgare)and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). Investigated plants have been planted within the time limits, recommended for selected types of agricultural plants. Cropping system included simple agronomic and amelioration measures. Fertilizers were not

  13. Evaluation of lead and essential elements in whole blood during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Liu, K; Mao, X; Shi, J; Lu, Y; Liu, C


    Physiological concentrations of some elements fluctuate during pregnancy due to the increased requirements of growing fetus and changes in the maternal physiology. The aim of the study is to evaluate the distribution at different stages of pregnancy in healthy Chinese women and to show the association between trace elements and gestational age-specific reference intervals. A cross-sectional study was performed in 1089 pregnant women and 677 nonpregnant control women. Five element concentrations, including Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb in the blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to assess the relationship between weeks of gestation and blood element concentrations. The mean levels of Cu and Mg were 23.64 ± 4.69 μmol/L and 1.36 ± 0.12 mmol/L, respectively, in the control women. While 0.68 % of all pregnant women showed Cu levels below the normal ranges, the levels of Mg were comparable in different groups. Though the overall mean blood zinc and Ca concentrations (83.84 ± 17.50 μmol/L and 1.60 ± 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) increased gradually with the progress of gestation, the Zn and Ca deficiency levels (16.6 and 3.6 %, respectively) decreased with the advance of gestation. Compared with nonpregnant group, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb during the different stages of pregnancy, as a whole, were significantly different. Positive correlations were observed between weeks of gestation and blood Cu, Ca, Pb concentrations (r = 0.301, 0.221, 0.223; P gestation (r = -0.321; P gestation (r = 0.125; P < 0.05). The importance of Cu and Mg deficiency and supplementation is well realized, but, Zn/Ca deficiency and Pb exposure is still exist; the overall deficiency of pregnant women was not so optimistic. During pregnancy, the established reference values will provide an important guidance for the reasonable supplementation of essential elements and surveillance of lead overexposure.

  14. Cohort migration. (United States)

    Taeuber, K E


    Most migration analyses focus on net migration and are concerned with areal redistributions of population. Migration may also be studied as an event in the life-cycle of an individual, and migration rates may be defined as properties of cohorts. A number of efforts to examine migration as a cohort process has been hampered by the character of available data [or the United States. Rather than await the development of a registration system-either directly or via social security and tax records-the collection of residence histories is suggested as the most feasible approach to obtaining suitable data. A schematic representation of residence histories clarifies their relation to other types of migration data and illustrates the need to design such surveys with specific research purposes in mind. Exploratory work with the 1958 Residence History Supplement to the Current Population Survey (by Beale, Shryock, myself, and various colleagues) demonstrates the utility of this approach.Local studies have made fruitful use of residence histories but typically are unable to delineate birth cohorts or other appropriate base populations exposed to risk. Development of cohort migration techniques analogous to the life table approach to mortality or cohort Jertility analysis requires national data. But migration, unlike Jertility and mortality, involves events that are reversible and repeatable. Hence the demographer's stock of analytic tools requires expansion. To the sociologist-demographer, experimentation with cohort migration models seems to be getting at one of the crucial methodological problems of sociology, the analysis of social mobility. A mutually profitable interchange with students of social mobility is envisaged.

  15. The finite element method for evaluating files rotary Nickel-Titanium: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Aldana Ojeda


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse through the evaluation of the articles found in this literature review, the usefulness of Finite Element Method in determining fracture mechanisms les Ni–Ti and correlated with experimental results. Materials and methods: A search of the literature aiming experimental and theoretical studies in databases and journals was performed. Results: The comparison of the experimental and theoretical results Mtwo® found that the best system is the cyclical fracture resistance occurs in correlation with low accumulation of Von Mises stress, the ProTaper® system has low tensile strength cyclic correlated with a large accumulation of Von Mises stress in extreme conditions, the QUANTEC® system was more exible but with a large accumulation of Von Mises stress system. Conclusions: We found that the nite element method has agreement with experimental methods; in rotary systems the best for handling curved canals is the Mtwo® system, ProTaper® system is the best torsional resistance presents; concluded that the cross–sectional design of the le is directly related to the mechanical performance of it.

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of three surgical scenarios of posterior lumbar interbody fusion by finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhitao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the treatment of low back pain, the following three scenarios of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF were usually used, i.e., PLIF procedure with autogenous iliac bone (PAIB model, PLIF with cages made of PEEK (PCP model or titanium (Ti (PCT model materiel. But the benefits or adverse effects among the three surgical scenarios were still not fully understood. Method Finite element analysis (FEA, as an efficient tool for the analysis of lumbar diseases, was used to establish a three-dimensional nonlinear L1-S1 FE model (intact model with the ligaments of solid elements. Then it was modified to simulate the three scenarios of PLIF. 10 Nm moments with 400 N preload were applied to the upper L1 vertebral body under the loading conditions of extension, flexion, lateral bending and torsion, respectively. Results Different mechanical parameters were calculated to evaluate the differences among the three surgical models. The lowest stresses on the bone grafts and the greatest stresses on endplate were found in the PCT model. The PCP model obtained considerable stresses on the bone grafts and less stresses on ligaments. But the changes of stresses on the adjacent discs and endplate were minimal in the PAIB model. Conclusions The PCT model was inferior to the other two models. Both the PCP and PAIB models had their own relative merits. The findings provide theoretical basis for the choice of a suitable surgical scenario for different patients.

  17. Biomechanical evaluation of heel elevation on load transfer — experimental measurement and finite element analysis (United States)

    Luximon, Yan; Luximon, Ameersing; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Ming


    In spite of ill-effects of high heel shoes, they are widely used for women. Hence, it is essential to understand the load transfer biomechanics in order to design better fit and comfortable shoes. In this study, both experimental measurement and finite element analysis were used to evaluate the biomechanical effects of heel height on foot load transfer. A controlled experiment was conducted using custom-designed platforms. Under different weight-bearing conditions, peak plantar pressure, contact area and center of pressure were analyzed. A three-dimensional finite element foot model was used to simulate the high-heel support and to predict the internal stress distributions and deformations for different heel heights. Results from both experiment and model indicated that heel elevations had significant effects on all variables. When heel elevation increased, the center of pressure shifted from the midfoot region to the forefoot region, the contact area was reduced by 26% from 0 to 10.2 cm heel and the internal stress of foot bones increased. Prediction results also showed that the strain and total tension force of plantar fascia was minimum at 5.1 cm heel condition. This study helps to better understand the biomechanical behavior of foot, and to provide better suggestions for design parameters of high heeled shoes.

  18. Evaluation of an in vitro method to estimate trace elements bioavailability in edible seaweeds. (United States)

    Domínguez-González, Raquel; Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; García-Sartal, Cristina; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Barciela-Alonso, María Del Carmen; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar


    Raw edible seaweed harvested in the Galician coast (Northwestern Spain), including two red seaweed types (Dulse and Nori), three brown seaweed (Kombu, Wakame and Sea Spaghetti), one green seaweed (Sea Lettuce) and one microalgae (Spirulina platensis) were studied to assess trace elements bioavailability using an in vitro method (simulated gastric and intestinal digestion/dialysis). Similarly, a cooked seaweed sample (canned in brine) consisting of a mixture of two brown seaweed (Sea Spaghetti and Furbelows) and a derived product (Agar-Agar) from the red seaweed Gelidiumm sesquipedale, were also included in the study. The total trace element content as well as the non-dialyzable fractions was carried out after a microwave acid digestion of the seaweed samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The dialyzable fraction was determined without any pre-treatment by ICP-MS. PIPES buffer solution at a pH of 7.0 and dialysis membranes of 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO) were used for intestinal digestion. Accuracy of the method was assessed by analyzing a NIES-09 certified reference material (Sargasso seaweed). The accuracy of the in vitro procedure was established by a mass balance study which led to good accuracy of the whole in vitro process, after statistical evaluation (95% confidence interval). The highest dialyzability percentages (100±0.2%) were obtained for Dulse in Mn and V. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using a finite element pediatric hip model in clinical 2 evaluation - a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, T. L.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Sonne-Holm, Stig


    to calculate the resulting stress in the normal direction. At a load of 233% BW the model predicted peak pressures in the hip joint of 9.7-13.8 MPa and an area in contact of 351-405 mm2. Experimental validation using the hip joint of a child was not ethical viable. Instead, our results were compared......The paper describe a method to construct a finite element model of the hip joint of a child based on clinical recorded CT data. A model which can be used for diagnostic aid and pre-operative surgical evaluation. First part of this development is a feasibility study of this method. A scan...

  20. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li


    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  1. Assessment of country-of-origin-related and -neutral elements of mobile communication service offers: An empirical study of consumers with a Turkish migration background in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten J. Gerpott


    Full Text Available Due to more than three million people in Germany with a Turkish migration background country-of-origin (COO-sensitive, designs of offers directed at this customer segment have been implemented by various corporations and discussed in the management literature for quite a while. Unfortunately, to date most publications have a weak empirical foundation and refrain from simultaneously investigating preference effects of several country-of-origin-sensitive and -neutral offer characteristics among Turkish migrants living in Germany. Therefore, the present paper explores the relative impacts of three COO-sensitive offer characteristics and one COO-neutral attribute of bundled mobile communication offers on preference statements derived from a conjoint-analysis of questionnaire responses of 249 consumers in Germany with Turkish roots. The results suggest that for the offering category in question a COO-neutral feature (cell phone type/brand shapes the preferences of Turkish migrants almost to the same extent as the three remaining price- and communication-related characteristics investigated. Furthermore, we found that Turkish consumers in Germany encompass four subsegments with distinct preferences with respect to the design of mobile communication offerings. The members of these subsegments in turn differ primarily in terms of their age and gender structures as well as their level of accommodation to the German culture.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of PCA-based finite element modelling of the human femur. (United States)

    Grassi, Lorenzo; Schileo, Enrico; Boichon, Christelle; Viceconti, Marco; Taddei, Fulvia


    Computed tomography (CT)-based finite element (FE) reconstructions describe shape and density distribution of bones. Both shape and density distribution, however, can vary a lot between individuals. Shape/density indexation (usually achieved by principal component analysis--PCA) can be used to synthesize realistic models, thus overcoming the shortage of CT-based models, and helping e.g. to study fracture determinants, or steer prostheses design. The aim of this study was to describe a PCA-based statistical modelling algorithm, and test it on a large CT-based population of femora, to see if it can accurately describe and reproduce bone shape, density distribution, and biomechanics. To this aim, 115 CT-datasets showing normal femoral anatomy were collected and characterized. Isotopological FE meshes were built. Shape and density indexation procedures were performed on the mesh database. The completeness of the database was evaluated through a convergence study. The accuracy in reconstructing bones not belonging to the indexation database was evaluated through (i) leave-one-out tests (ii) comparison of calculated vs. in-vitro measured strains. Fifty indexation modes for shape and 40 for density were necessary to achieve reconstruction errors below pixel size for shape, and below 10% for density. Similar errors for density, and slightly higher errors for shape were obtained when reconstructing bones not belonging to the database. The in-vitro strain prediction accuracy of the reconstructed FE models was comparable to state-of-the-art studies. In summary, the results indicate that the proposed statistical modelling tools are able to accurately describe a population of femora through finite element models. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition (United States)

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N


    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated RST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the RST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA RST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA RST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the RST values. The DXA RST values were strongly associated with the RST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted RST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured RST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA RST evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat. PMID:20393230

  4. Effect of nordihydroguaiaretic acid cross-linking on fibrillar collagen: in vitro evaluation of fibroblast adhesion strength and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Y. Rioja


    Full Text Available Fixation is required to reinforce reconstituted collagen for orthopedic bioprostheses such as tendon or ligament replacements. Previous studies have demonstrated that collagen fibers cross-linked by the biocompatible dicatechol nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA have mechanical strength comparable to native tendons. This work focuses on investigating fibroblast behavior on fibrillar and NDGA cross-linked type I collagen to determine if NDGA modulates cell adhesion, morphology, and migration. A spinning disk device that applies a range of hydrodynamic forces under uniform chemical conditions was employed to sensitively quantify cell adhesion strength, and a radial barrier removal assay was used to measure cell migration on films suitable for these quantitative in vitro assays. The compaction of collagen films, mediated by the drying and cross-linking fabrication process, suggests a less open organization compared to native fibrillar collagen that likely allowed the collagen to form more inter-chain bonds and chemical links with NDGA polymers. Fibroblasts strongly adhered to and migrated on native and NDGA cross-linked fibrillar collagen; however, NDGA modestly reduced cell spreading, adhesion strength and migration rate. Thus, it is hypothesized that NDGA cross-linking masked some adhesion receptor binding sites either physically, chemically, or both, thereby modulating adhesion and migration. This alteration in the cell-material interface is considered a minimal trade-off for the superior mechanical and compatibility properties of NDGA cross-linked collagen compared to other fixation approaches.

  5. [Correlation analysis and evaluation of inorganic elements in Angelica sinensis and its correspondence soil from different regions]. (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Da-wei; Su, Shu-lan; Song, Bing-sheng; He, Zi-qing


    Evaluate the relationship between the inorganic elements and the genuineness, invigoration efficacy of this medicinal material by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the inorganic elements in Angelica sinensis and its correspondence soil. The contents of 14 kinds of inorganic elements from 40 samples from 4 main habits of Angelica sinensis in China were determined by the method of ICP-AES. In Angelica sinensis and its correspondence soil, significant positive correlations existed between each pair of Ca, Na, Ni. The enrichment coefficients of Mg by Angelica sinensis was a certain peculiarity. The analysis showed that Zn, Cu, Mn, Mg were distincter to Angelica sinensis's geo-authentic than other elements. The results seemly confirmed that the Mingui was considered as geo-authentic crude drugs by traditional knowledge. The inorganic elements in Angelica sinensis may be correlated with its geo-authentic certainly. This result can provide scientific basis for understanding of Angelica sinensis's geo-authentic nature and the active material base.

  6. Tooth stiffness with composite veneers: a strain gauge and finite element evaluation. (United States)

    Reeh, E S; Ross, G K


    This study was conducted to determine the impact of composite veneer procedures on the functional properties of incisors. Ten extracted human maxillary central incisors were mounted in pairs in a nylon ring. One strain gauge was bonded along the long axis of each tooth on the center of the lingual surface. Each pair formed half of a Wheatstone bridge circuit and was wired to eliminate all but the voltage resulting from experimentally applied procedures. The teeth were ramp-loaded to 50 N near the incisal edge on the lingual surface. Loading was performed on the unaltered teeth, teeth with preparations and restored teeth. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models were generated to evaluate each test condition. Relative stiffness, compared with the unaltered tooth, was calculated from measurements with the strain gauge steps and from the FE models. A relative stiffness value of unity represents recovery of stiffness to the level of the unaltered tooth. Both methods of evaluation demonstrated a decrease in mean relative stiffness with each subsequent reduction in tooth structure. The composite restoration increased its mean relative stiffness compared to its corresponding preparation but never to the level of the unaltered tooth. Across all procedures, the two-dimensional FE model correlated well in both direction and magnitude with the experimental strain gauge method (R = 0.83). A resin composite veneer does not restore the stiffness to the level of an unaltered tooth.

  7. Evaluation of Stress Distribution on Implant-Retained Auricular Prostheses: The Finite Element Method. (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed A; Santiwong, Peerapong; Wonglamsam, Amornrat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Chanthasopeephan, Teeranoot

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate stress distribution around two craniofacial implants in an auricular prosthesis according to the removal forces. Three attachment combinations were used to evaluate the stress distribution under removal forces of 45 and 90 degrees. Three attachment designs were examined: (1) a Hader bar with three clips; (2) a Hader bar with one clip and two extracoronal resilient attachments (ERAs); and (3) a Hader bar with one clip and two Locators. The removal force was determined by means of an Instron universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute. All three designs were created in three dimensions using SolidWorks. The applied removal force and the models were then introduced to finite element software to analyze the stress distribution. The angle of removal force greatly affected the magnitude and direction of stress distribution on the implants. The magnitude of stress under the 45-degree removal force was higher than the stress at 90 degrees. The combination of the 1,000-g retention clip and 2,268-g retention Locator exhibited the highest stress on the implant flange when the removal force was applied at 45 degrees. The removal angle greatly influences the amount of force and stress on the implants. Prosthodontists are encouraged to inform patients to remove the prosthesis at 90 degrees and, if possible, use a low-retentive attachment to reduce stress.

  8. Evaluating formability of LCP plate for sacral fractures with one step inverse forming finite element analysis. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoda; Zhang, Xiangkui; Hu, Ping; Liu, Weijie; Shen, Guozhe; Zhan, Xianghui


    The locking compression plate fixation treatment for the unstable sacral fractures is simple and effective, with less trauma and complications. Some locking compression plate parts have been made of high-strength Plate manufactured by hot stamping process since the demand for lightweight biomedical materials. Finite Element (FE) method of One-Step inverse forming based on deformation theory is the tool to evaluate the formability of locking compression plate panel quickly in initial design for reducing costs and development cycle of Plate. But current one-step inverse forming methods are all suitable for cold stamping, not hot-stamping. This paper proposed one-step inverse forming method and workflow for hot-stamping of locking compression Plate. And the B pillar of a sacral bone was simulated and its computing result was compared with experimental value. The result shows that the proposed method in this paper can quickly evaluate high temperature formability of high-strength Plate. And the method is proposed to be used in initial design.

  9. Fidelity to the Cognitive Processing Therapy Protocol: Evaluation of Critical Elements. (United States)

    Farmer, Courtney C; Mitchell, Karen S; Parker-Guilbert, Kelly; Galovski, Tara E


    The contributions of individual therapy elements to the overall efficacy of evidence-based practices for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well-understood. This study first examined the extent to which theoretically important treatment components of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; i.e., skill in Socratic questioning; prioritizing assimilation; attention to practice assignments; emphasis on expression of natural affect) were successfully administered across the course of therapy for 68 PTSD-positive survivors of interpersonal trauma. Therapist fidelity in the administration of these four elements was evaluated in 533 taped CPT sessions of study participants included in one of two randomized controlled CPT treatment trials. Second, we examined therapist fidelity to these components as a predictor of session-to-session PTSD and depression symptom change. Third, follow-up analyses examined the influence of high therapist competence for these four components across an entire course of therapy on symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. Results showed consistently high adherence and more variable competence for these four treatment components. There were no significant effects of therapist fidelity on session-to-session symptom change. However, results showed that overall high therapist competence for "skill in Socratic questioning" and "prioritizing assimilation before overaccommodation" were related to greater client improvement in PTSD severity, but "attention to practice assignments" and "emphasis on expression of natural affect" were not. Overall competence ratings for the four components were not significantly associated with improvement in depressive symptoms. Findings contribute to increased understanding of the relationship between the key treatment components of CPT and symptom change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Attentional Bias Modification With Serious Game Elements: Evaluating the Shots Game (United States)

    Sanchez Maceiras, Soraya; Boffo, Marilisa; Wiers, Reinout W


    Background Young adults often experiment with heavy use of alcohol, which poses severe health risks and increases the chance of developing addiction problems. In clinical patients, cognitive retraining of automatic appetitive processes, such as selective attention toward alcohol (known as “cognitive bias modification of attention,” or CBM-A), has been shown to be a promising add-on to treatment, helping to prevent relapse. Objective To prevent escalation of regular use into problematic use in youth, motivation appears to play a pivotal role. As CBM-A is often viewed as long and boring, this paper presents this training with the addition of serious game elements as a novel approach aimed at enhancing motivation to train. Methods A total of 96 heavy drinking undergraduate students carried out a regular CBM-A training, a gamified version (called “Shots”), or a placebo training version over 4 training sessions. Measures of motivation to change their behavior, motivation to train, drinking behavior, and attentional bias for alcohol were included before and after training. Results Alcohol attentional bias was reduced after training only in the regular training condition. Self-reported drinking behavior was not affected, but motivation to train decreased in all conditions, suggesting that the motivational features of the Shots game were not enough to fully counteract the tiresome nature of the training. Moreover, some of the motivational aspects decreased slightly more in the game condition, which may indicate potential detrimental effects of disappointing gamification. Conclusions Gamification is not without its risks. When the motivational value of a training task with serious game elements is less than expected by the adolescent, effects detrimental to their motivation may occur. We therefore advise caution when using gamification, as well as underscore the importance of careful scientific evaluation. PMID:27923780

  11. Evaluation of rare earth elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest Nigeria. (United States)

    Ayedun, H; Arowolo, T A; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A


    Rare earth elements in our environment are becoming important because of their utilization in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, superconductors, rechargeable batteries, catalyst, ceramics and other applications. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of rare earth elements (REE) and the variability of their anomalous behavior in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. REE concentrations were determined in 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Lagos State groundwater is enriched with REE [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [0.365-488 (69.5 ± 117)] µg L-1 than Ogun State groundwater [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [1.14-232 (22.6 ± 41.1)] µg L-1. Boreholes are more enriched with REEs than wells. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (R = Pearson) was recorded in Lagos State groundwater between sum REEs and Fe (R = 0.55). However, there were no significant correlations between sum REEs, pH (R = 0.073) and HCO32- (R = 0.157) in Ogun State groundwater. Chondrite-normalized plot shows that Lagos groundwater exhibits positive Ce anomaly, while Ogun State groundwater does not. The source of REE in Lagos State may be from the ocean and leaching from wastes dumpsites, while the source in Ogun State groundwater may be from the rocks.

  12. Social Dynamics of Return Migration to Puerto Rico. (United States)

    de Cintron, Celia Fernandez; Vales, Pedro A.

    The sociological elements associated with the process of return migration such as the motivations responsible for, or associated not only with return migration but with the migration process in general, are addressed in this investigation. Among the questions that guide the research problem are the following: the meaning of migration and of return…

  13. Evaluation of Human and Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Models under Spaceflight Loading Conditions (United States)

    Putnam, Jacob P.; Untaroiu, Costin; Somers. Jeffrey


    In an effort to develop occupant protection standards for future multipurpose crew vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has looked to evaluate the test device for human occupant restraint with the modification kit (THOR-K) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in relevant impact test scenarios. With the allowance and support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NASA has performed a series of sled impact tests on the latest developed THOR-K ATD. These tests were performed to match test conditions from human volunteer data previously collected by the U.S. Air Force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the THOR-K finite element (FE) model and the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) FE model with respect to the tests performed. These models were evaluated in spinal and frontal impacts against kinematic and kinetic data recorded in ATD and human testing. Methods: The FE simulations were developed based on recorded pretest ATD/human position and sled acceleration pulses measured during testing. Predicted responses by both human and ATD models were compared to test data recorded under the same impact conditions. The kinematic responses of the models were quantitatively evaluated using the ISO-metric curve rating system. In addition, ATD injury criteria and human stress/strain data were calculated to evaluate the risk of injury predicted by the ATD and human model, respectively. Results: Preliminary results show well-correlated response between both FE models and their physical counterparts. In addition, predicted ATD injury criteria and human model stress/strain values are shown to positively relate. Kinematic comparison between human and ATD models indicates promising biofidelic response, although a slightly stiffer response is observed within the ATD. Conclusion: As a compliment to ATD testing, numerical simulation provides efficient means to assess vehicle safety throughout the design process and further improve the

  14. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail:


    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  15. In vitro toxicity evaluation of new silane-modified clays and the migration extract from a derived polymer-clay nanocomposite intended to food packaging applications. (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Ortuño, Natalia; Jos, Ángeles


    The clay montmorillonite (Mt) is among the nanofillers more frequently used for food packaging applications. The organomodification of clays with different modifiers, such as silanes, is an important step in the preparation of improved polymer/clay materials known as nanocomposites. However, the toxicological data about these nanofillers is still scarce. In the present study, an in vitro toxicological evaluation in Caco-2 cells of two silane-modified clays based on Mt, Clay3 and Clay4 (0-250μg/ml), was performed. The cytotoxicity, cell death, genotoxicity and oxidative stress produced by both organoclays were evaluated after 24 and 48h of exposure. Moreover, the migration extracts obtained from nanocomposites of polypropylene (PP) + Clay3 and only PP were also investigated. Only Clay4 induced cytotoxicity, showing a reduction of cell viability to 63% of the control, as well as oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner. Regarding the PP-Clay3 migration extract, no cytotoxic effects were observed after exposure to the tested concentrations (0-100%). Moreover, significant differences in the presence of Ca, Mg and Si compared to the PP extract were obtained, although migration levels were in accordance with the food contact materials regulation. These findings indicate that a case-by-case toxicological assessment of organoclays should be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program: foundational elements for program evaluation planning, implementation, and use of findings. (United States)

    MacDonald, Goldie; Garcia, Danyael; Zaza, Stephanie; Schooley, Michael; Compton, Don; Bryant, Terry; Bagnol, Lulu; Edgerly, Cathy; Haverkate, Rick


    The Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program (Steps Program) enables funded communities to implement chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes, obesity, asthma, and related risk factors. At both the national and community levels, investment in surveillance and program evaluation is substantial. Public health practitioners engaged in program evaluation planning often identify desired outcomes, related indicators, and data collection methods but may pay only limited attention to an overarching vision for program evaluation among participating sites. We developed a set of foundational elements to provide a vision of program evaluation that informs the technical decisions made throughout the evaluation process. Given the diversity of activities across the Steps Program and the need for coordination between national- and community-level evaluation efforts, our recommendations to guide program evaluation practice are explicit yet leave room for site-specific context and needs. Staff across the Steps Program must consider these foundational elements to prepare a formal plan for program evaluation. Attention to each element moves the Steps Program closer to well-designed and complementary plans for program evaluation at the national, state, and community levels.

  17. Use of element model to evaluate transmissibility reduction due to barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanes, T.; South, D.; Dronen, O.M. [Statoil, Bergen (Norway)


    Water breakthrough has been observed a year earlier than expected in the productive Oseberg Formation in the Veslefrikk Field. Production data revealed extensive water override, whereas the opposite situation was expected based on a homogeneous and coarse flow simulation model. A new model was developed to include geological heterogeneities using a simple upscaling method. The Oseberg Fm. consists of an upper homogeneous unit (zone 2) and a lower unit containing thin barriers of shale and calcite cemented sandstone (zone 1). The barrier content varies laterally. When barriers are distributed in a complex 3D pattern, they reduce the upscaled horizontal transmissibility more than what is obtained by multiplying the sand permeability by the net-to-gross ratio (N/G). However, the transmissibility reduction strongly depends on the spatial distribution of barriers and their geometry. Therefore, a fine scale element model was used to derive the average transmissibility reduction as a function of N/G for alternative geological descriptions of the barriers. A geo-statistical method called General Marked Point Process was used to generate the fine scale descriptions. This work has resulted in a simple upscaling routine for horizontal transmissibility, which represents an effective bridge between geological evaluation of uncertainties and fluid flow simulation. The method combines geo-statistical and deterministic modelling in an elegant manner, recognising that most often these methods complement one another.

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of dental implants in D1 and D4 bone by Finite Element Analysis. (United States)

    Danza, M; Quaranta, A; Carinci, F; Paracchini, L; Pompa, G; Vozza, I


    The aim of the present study was to analyze stress and strain distribution in dental implants with different abutment's inclination inserted in D1 and D4 bone. The biomechanical behavior of 5 mm x 16 mm dental implants with straight, 15 degrees and 25 degrees angulated abutments subjected to static loads, in contact with D1 and D4 bone, was evaluated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The lowest stress and strain values were found in the system composed by implants with straight abutments loaded with a 200-N vertical strength, while the highest stress and strain values were found in implants with 15 degrees angulated abutment loaded with a tilted strength (FY=200 N and FZ=140 N). Stress value increased from D1 to D4 bone, while strain value decreased due to the effect of normal elasticity mode of biological tissues. The different stress and strain distribution in D1 and D4 bone tissue surrounding dental implants with a tapered neck could favor prosthetic load and play a role in implant long-term success.

  19. Interlaminar Fracture Toughness Evaluation in Glass/Epoxy Composites Using Acoustic Emission and Finite Element Methods (United States)

    Saeedifar, Milad; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Najafabadi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Toudeshky, Hossein Hosseini


    Delamination is one of the most common modes of failure in laminated composites and it leads to the loss of structural strength and stiffness. In this paper, mode I, mode II, and mixed of these pure modes were investigated using mechanical data, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Acoustic Emission (AE) signals. Experimental data were obtained from in situ monitoring of glass/epoxy laminated composites with different lay-ups when subjected to different modes of failure. The main objective was to investigate the behavior of delamination propagation and to evaluate the critical value of the strain energy which is required for onset of the delamination ( G C). For the identification of interlaminar fracture toughness of the specimens, four methods were used: (a) ASTM standard methods, (b) FEM analysis, (c) AE method, and (d) sentry function method which is a function of mechanical and AE behaviors of the specimens. The results showed that the G C values obtained by the sentry function method and FEM analysis were in a close agreement with the results of nonlinearity methods which is recommended in the ASTM standards. It was also found that the specimens under different loading conditions and various lay-up have different G C values. These differences are related to different stress components distribution in the specimens which induce various damage mechanisms. Accordingly, stress components distribution obtained from FEM analyses were in agreement with SEM observations of the damaged surfaces of the specimens.

  20. Finite element analysis of 6 large PMMA skull reconstructions: A multi-criteria evaluation approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ridwan-Pramana

    Full Text Available In this study 6 pre-operative designs for PMMA based reconstructions of cranial defects were evaluated for their mechanical robustness using finite element modeling. Clinical experience and engineering principles were employed to create multiple plan options, which were subsequently computationally analyzed for mechanically relevant parameters under 50N loads: stress, strain and deformation in various components of the assembly. The factors assessed were: defect size, location and shape. The major variable in the cranioplasty assembly design was the arrangement of the fixation plates. An additional study variable introduced was the location of the 50N load within the implant area. It was found that in smaller defects, it was simpler to design a symmetric distribution of plates and under limited variability in load location it was possible to design an optimal for expected loads. However, for very large defects with complex shapes, the variability in the load locations introduces complications to the intuitive design of the optimal assembly. The study shows that it can be beneficial to incorporate multi design computational analyses to decide upon the most optimal plan for a clinical case.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of plate type nuclear fuel elements during manufacturing stage using ultrasonic test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Mucio Jose Drumond de; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Alencar, Donizete Anderson de; Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia do Combustivel], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    Structural discontinuities, such as cracks and bonding lacks at the core/cladding interface can be introduced in plate type nuclear fuel elements during the manufacturing stages, due to the mechanical and thermal processing conditions. They can reduce the performance of the nuclear fuel during its operational life or contribute to its premature failure. Plate type nuclear fuels (PTNF) consist of a core formed by a dispersion of UO{sub 2} into a metallic matrix, involved by a metallic cladding. Nondestructive testing methods such as eddy current, radiography and ultrasonic have been used to detect and monitoring discontinuities generated in the fuel's manufacturing stage, each one presenting advantages and limitations. The use of ultrasonic testing for this purpose presents two main difficulties: the small thickness of the plates as well as the presence of materials with different characteristics. The study described in this paper presents the methodology used in the evaluation of a prototype of PTNF by ultrasonic testing method, using different test techniques and transducers. The main results obtained and the next steps to be developed in this activity are discussed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of effect of selected trace elements on dynamics of sperm dna fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wdowiak


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead and cadmium can lead to negative effects on sperm chromatin DNA integrity. Copper, zinc and selenium are essential components of many enzymes which are important for reproduction. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and selenium on the dynamics of semen DNA fragmentation.Material and methods: The present study concerned 85 fertile and 131 infertile men aged 25-35. DNA fragmentation in the samples was determined after 3 h, 6 h and 12 h. The Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Se measurements were performed by the electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry method.Results: We found that sperm DNA fragmentation was a dynamic process which was intensified with an increase in the level of lead in seminal plasma. The levels of lead and cadmium were higher in seminal plasma of infertile men, compared to fertile men. The levels of zinc, copper and selenium in seminal plasma were higher in men with proven fertility, compared to infertile men, and did not exert a significant effect on the dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation. The level of cadmium had no significant effect on intensification of sperm DNA fragmentation in time.Discussion: Reports in the literature which concern the effect of trace elements on human reproduction are equivocal. The present study confirmed an unfavourable effect, especially that of lead, on the dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation; however, these studies need to be expanded and continued in the future.

  3. Finite element analysis of 6 large PMMA skull reconstructions: A multi-criteria evaluation approach. (United States)

    Ridwan-Pramana, Angela; Marcián, Petr; Borák, Libor; Narra, Nathaniel; Forouzanfar, Tymour; Wolff, Jan


    In this study 6 pre-operative designs for PMMA based reconstructions of cranial defects were evaluated for their mechanical robustness using finite element modeling. Clinical experience and engineering principles were employed to create multiple plan options, which were subsequently computationally analyzed for mechanically relevant parameters under 50N loads: stress, strain and deformation in various components of the assembly. The factors assessed were: defect size, location and shape. The major variable in the cranioplasty assembly design was the arrangement of the fixation plates. An additional study variable introduced was the location of the 50N load within the implant area. It was found that in smaller defects, it was simpler to design a symmetric distribution of plates and under limited variability in load location it was possible to design an optimal for expected loads. However, for very large defects with complex shapes, the variability in the load locations introduces complications to the intuitive design of the optimal assembly. The study shows that it can be beneficial to incorporate multi design computational analyses to decide upon the most optimal plan for a clinical case.

  4. Evaluation of the phytostabilisation efficiency in a trace elements contaminated soil using soil health indicators. (United States)

    Pardo, T; Clemente, R; Epelde, L; Garbisu, C; Bernal, M P


    The efficiency of a remediation strategy was evaluated in a mine soil highly contaminated with trace elements (TEs) by microbiological, ecotoxicological and physicochemical parameters of the soil and soil solution (extracted in situ), as a novel and integrative methodology for assessing recovery of soil health. A 2.5-year field phytostabilisation experiment was carried out using olive mill-waste compost, pig slurry and hydrated lime as amendments, and a native halophytic shrub (Atriplex halimus L.). Comparing with non-treated soil, the addition of the amendments increased soil pH and reduced TEs availability, favoured the development of a sustainable vegetation cover (especially the organic materials), stimulated soil microorganisms (increasing microbial biomass, activity and functional diversity, and reducing stress) and reduced direct and indirect soil toxicity (i.e., its potential associated risks). Therefore, under semi-arid conditions, the use of compost and pig slurry with A. halimus is an effective phytostabilisation strategy to improve soil health of nutrient-poor soils with high TEs concentrations, by improving the habitat function of the soil ecosystem, the reactivation of the biogeochemical cycles of essential nutrients, and the reduction of TEs dissemination and their environmental impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Test Methods for Triaxially Braided Composites using a Meso-Scale Finite Element Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao


    The characterization of triaxially braided composite is complicate due to the nonuniformity of deformation within the unit cell as well as the possibility of the freeedge effect related to the large size of the unit cell. Extensive experimental investigation has been conducted to develop more accurate test approaches in characterizing the actual mechanical properties of the material we are studying. In this work, a meso-scale finite element model is utilized to simulate two complex specimens: notched tensile specimen and tube tensile specimen, which are designed to avoid the free-edge effect and free-edge effect induced premature edge damage. The full field strain data is predicted numerically and compared with experimental data obtained by Digit Image Correlation. The numerically predicted tensile strength values are compared with experimentally measured results. The discrepancy between numerically predicted and experimentally measured data, the capability of different test approaches are analyzed and discussed. The presented numerical model could serve as assistance to the evaluation of different test methods, and is especially useful in identifying potential local damage events.

  6. Craniofacial displacement in response to varying headgear forces evaluated biomechanically with finite element analysis. (United States)

    Gautam, Pawan; Valiathan, Ashima; Adhikari, Raviraj


    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomechanically the displacement patterns of the facial bones in response to different headgear loading by using a higher-resolution finite element method model than used in previous studies. An analytical model was developed from sequential computed tomography scan images taken at 2.5-mm intervals of a dry skull of a 7-year-old. Different headgear forces were simulated by applying 1 kg of posteriorly directed force in the first molar region to simulate cervical-pull, straight-pull, and high-pull headgear. Displacements (in mm) of various craniofacial structures were evaluated along the x, y, and z coordinates with different headgear loading. All 3 headgears demonstrated posterior displacement of the maxilla with clockwise rotation of the palatal plane. The distal displacement of the maxilla was the greatest with the straight-pull headgear followed by the cervical-pull headgear. The high-pull headgear had better control in the vertical dimensions. The midpalatal suture opening was evident and was more pronounced in the anterior region. The articular fossa and the articular eminence were displaced laterally and postero-superiorly with each headgear type. The high-pull headgear was most effective in restricting the antero-inferior maxillary growth vector. Midpalatal suture opening similar to rapid maxillary expansion was observed with all 3 headgear types. The center of rotation varied with the direction of headgear forces for both the maxilla and the zygomatic complex. A potential for chondrogenic and osteogenic modeling exists for the articular fossa and the articular eminence with headgear loading.

  7. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  8. Dateline Migration. (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.


    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  9. Osteoblast adhesion, migration, and proliferation variations on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamond films evaluated by live-cell imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Antonín; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kalbáčová, M.H.


    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2017), s. 1469-1478 ISSN 1549-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-32497A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : live- cell imaging * osteoblasts * adhesion * proliferation * migration * patterned surface Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.076, year: 2016

  10. Osteoblast adhesion, migration, and proliferation variations on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamond films evaluated by live-cell imaging. (United States)

    Broz, Antonin; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Hubalek Kalbacova, Marie


    Cell fate modulation by adapting the surface of a biocompatible material is nowadays a challenge in implantology, tissue engineering as well as in construction of biosensors. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films are considered promising in these fields due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties and diverse ways in which they can be modified structurally and chemically. The initial cell distribution, the rate of cell adhesion, distance of cell migration and also the cell proliferation are influenced by the NCD surface termination. Here, we use real-time live-cell imaging to investigate the above-mentioned processes on oxidized NCD (NCD-O) and hydrogenated NCD (NCD-H) to elucidate cell preference to the NCD-O especially on surfaces with microscopic surface termination patterns. Cells adhere more slowly and migrate farther on NCD-H than on NCD-O. Cells seeded with a fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplement in the medium move across the surface prior to adhesion. In the absence of FBS, the cells adhere immediately, but still exhibit different migration and proliferation on NCD-O/H regions. We discuss the impact of these effects on the formation of cell arrays on micropatterned NCD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1469-1478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lichen elements as pollution indicators: evaluation of methods for large monitoring programmes (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher


    Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated...

  12. Evaluation of trace elements in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disturbance in the metabolism of these elements may be a contributing factor in the development of certain diseases such as pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study is to determine the status of these elements in pre-eclamptic pregnant women in Osogbo, Western Nigeria. Forty-nine pre-eclamptic patients and 40 ...

  13. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns and Populations Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Casey, Sean


    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440-4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  14. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns, and Population Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle; Winter, Christiane; McClanahan, Dee


    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440 - 4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  15. Automated evaluation of matrix elements between contracted wavefunctions: A Mathematica version of the FRODO program (United States)

    Angeli, C.; Cimiraglia, R.


    A symbolic program performing the Formal Reduction of Density Operators (FRODO), formerly developed in the MuPAD computer algebra system with the purpose of evaluating the matrix elements of the electronic Hamiltonian between internally contracted functions in a complete active space (CAS) scheme, has been rewritten in Mathematica. New version : A program summaryProgram title: FRODO Catalogue identifier: ADV Y _v2_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3878 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 170729 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica Computer: Any computer on which the Mathematica computer algebra system can be installed Operating system: Linux Classification: 5 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADV Y _v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 171(2005)63 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No Nature of problem. In order to improve on the CAS-SCF wavefunction one can resort to multireference perturbation theory or configuration interaction based on internally contracted functions (ICFs) which are obtained by application of the excitation operators to the reference CAS-SCF wavefunction. The previous formulation of such matrix elements in the MuPAD computer algebra system, has been rewritten using Mathematica. Solution method: The method adopted consists in successively eliminating all occurrences of inactive orbital indices (core and virtual) from the products of excitation operators which appear in the definition of the ICFs and in the electronic Hamiltonian expressed in the second quantization formalism. Reasons for new version: Some years ago we published in this journal a couple of papers [1, 2

  16. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia, HCFM/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil)


    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  17. Structural evaluation of a nickel base super alloy metal foam via NDE and finite element (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Abumeri, G.; Garg, Mohit; Young, P. G.


    Cellular materials are known to be useful in the application of designing light but stiff structures. This applies to various components used in various industries such as rotorcraft blades, car bodies or portable electronic devices. Structural application of the metal foam is typically confined to light weight sandwich panels, made up of thin solid face sheets and a metallic foam core. The resulting high-stiffness structure is lighter than that constructed only out of the solid metal material. The face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads and the role of the foam core is separate the face sheets to carry some of the shear stresses, while remaining integral with the face sheet. Many challenges relating to the fabrication and testing of these metal foam panels continue to exist due to some mechanical properties falling short of their theoretical potential. Hence in this study, a detailed three dimensional foam structure is generated using series of 2D Computer Tomography (CT) scans, on Haynes 25 metal foam. Series of the 2D images are utilized to construct a high precision solid model including all the fine details within the metal foam as detected by the CT scanning technique. Subsequently, a finite element analysis is then performed on an as fabricated metal foam microstructures to evaluate the foam structural durability and behavior under tensile and compressive loading conditions. The analysis includes a progressive failure analysis (PFA) using GENOA code to further assess the damage initiation, propagation, and failure. The open cell metal foam material is a cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten alloy that combines excellent high-temperature strength with good resistance to oxidizing environments up to 1800 °F (980 °C) for prolonged exposures. The foam is formed by a powder metallurgy process with an approximate 100 pores per inch (PPI).

  18. The mechanical properties of human dentin for 3-D finite element modeling: Numerical and analytical evaluation. (United States)

    Grzebieluch, Wojciech; Będziński, Romuald; Czapliński, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Urszula


    The FEM is often used in investigations of dentin loading conditions; however, its anisotropy is mostly neglected. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anisotropy and the elastic properties of an equivalent homogenous material model of human dentin as well as to compare isotropic and anisotropic dentin FE-models. Analytical and numerical dentin homogenization according to Luciano and Barbero was performed and E-modulus (E), Poisson's ratios (v) G-modulus (G) were calculated. The E-modulus of the dentin matrix was 28.0 GPa, Poisson's ratio (v) was 0.3; finite element models of orthotropic and isotropic dentin were created, loaded and compared using Ansys® 14.5 and CodeAster® 11.2 software. Anisotropy of the dentin ranged from 6.9 to 35.2%. E-modulus and G-modulus were as follows: E1 = 22.0-26.0 GPa, E2/E3 = 15.7-23.0 GPa; G12/G13 = 6.96-9.35 GPa and G23 = 6.08-8.09 GPa (highest values in the superficial layer). In FEM analysis of the displacement values were higher in the isotropic than in the orthotropic model, reaching up to 16% by shear load, 37% by compression and 23% in the case of shear with bending. Strain values were higher in the isotropic model, up to 35% for the shear load, 31% for compression and 35% in the case of shear with bending. The decrease in the volumetric fraction and diameter of tubules increased the G and E values. Anisotropy of the dentin applied during FEM analysis decreased the displacements and strain values. The numerical and analytical homogenization of dentin showed similar results.

  19. Evaluation of cryoanalysis as a tool for analyzing elemental distribution in “live” tardigrades using micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, E.J.C., E-mail: [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Pallon, J., E-mail: [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Wang, Y.D., E-mail: [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Jönsson, K.I., E-mail: [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Although heavy on labor and equipment, thus not often applied, cryoanalysis of frozen hydrated biological specimens can provide information that better reflects the living state of the organism, compared with analysis in the freeze-dried state. In this paper we report a study where the cryoanalysis facility with cryosectioning capabilities at Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, South Africa was employed to evaluate the usefulness of combining three ion beam analytical methods (μPIXE, RBS and STIM) to analyze a biological target where a better elemental compositional description is needed – the tardigrade. Imaging as well as quantification results are of interest. In a previous study, the element composition and redistribution of elements in the desiccated and active states of two tardigrade species was investigated. This study included analysis of both whole and sectioned tardigrades, and the aim was to analyze each specimen twice; first frozen hydrated and later freeze-dried. The combination of the three analytical techniques proved useful: elements from C to Rb in the tardigrades could be determined and certain differences in distribution of elements between the frozen hydrated and the freeze-dried states were observed. RBS on frozen hydrated specimens provided knowledge of matrix elements.

  20. Development of the manufacture and process for DUPIC fuel elements; development of the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Choi, Myong Seon; Yang, Hyun Tae; Kim, Dong Gyun; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Jin Ho [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)


    The objective of this research is to set up the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel element. High temperature corrosion test and the SCC test for Zircaloy-4 were performed, and also the possibility of the ultrasonic test technique was verified for the quality evaluation and control of the laser welds in the DUPIC fuel rod end cap. From the evaluation of corrosion properties with measuring the weight gain and observing oxide film of the specimen that had been in the circumstance of steam(400 .deg. C, 1,500 psi) by max. 70 days later, the weight gain of the welded specimens was larger than original tube and the weight increasing rate increased with the exposed days. For the Development of techniques for ultrasonic test, semi-auto ultrasonic test system has been made based on immersion pulse-echo technique using spherically concentrated ultrasonic beam. Subsequently, developed ultrasonic test technique is quite sensible to shape of welds in the inside and outside of tube as well as crack, undercut and expulsion, and also this ultrasonic test, together with metallurgical fracture test, has good reliance as enough to be used for control method of welding process. 43 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  1. A preference for migration


    Stark, Oded


    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  2. A three-dimensional finite element evaluation of magnetic attachment attractive force and the influence of the magnetic circuit. (United States)

    Kumano, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Kanbara, Ryo; Takada, Yukyo; Ochiai, Kent T; Tanaka, Yoshinobu


    The finite element method has been considered to be excellent evaluative technique to study magnetic circuit optimization. The present study analyzed and quantitatively evaluated the different effects of magnetic circuit on attractive force and magnetic flux density using a three-dimensional finite element method for comparative evaluation. The diameter of a non-magnetic material in the shield disk of a magnetic assembly was variably increased by 0.1 mm to a maximum 2.0 mm in this study design. The analysis results demonstrate that attractive force increases until the diameter of the non-magnetic spacing material reaches a diameter of 0.5 mm where it peaks and then decreases as the overall diameter increases over 0.5 mm. The present analysis suggested that the attractive force for a magnetic attachment is optimized with an appropriate magnetic assembly shield disk diameter using a non-magnetic material to effectively change the magnetic circuit efficiency and resulting retention.

  3. Impression Evaluation and Eye Movement Related to The Characteristic Expression as Elements in Abstract Paintings: Mondrian, Malewitsch and Rothko (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kiyomi

    This paper has the purpose to inspect differences regarding impression evaluation and eye movement by comparing characteristic expression as elements in abstract paintings. Malewitsch's paintings which emphasize oblique lines and inclined rectangles elicited impression evaluations such as “hard”, “irritable”, “dynamic” and “exciting”. Mondrian's paintings which emphasize vertical and horizontal line elicited impression evaluations such as “cheerful” and “light”. Rothko's paintings which are obscure outlines elicited impression evaluations such as “mild”, “comfortable”, “relaxing”, “static” and “tedious”. Paintings that have clear vertical and horizontal lines elicit a trend toward higher mean line-of-sight velocity. Paintings that have many distinctive expression elements elicit large frequency of long gaze point. This study indicates that vertical lines, horizontal lines, oblique lines, obscure outlines, and other expression elements in abstract paintings are influencing factors for impression evaluation and eye movement. This suggests that mutual interactions of components that constitute paintings cannot be disregarded. This study is inspection of common impression and perception caused by appreciation of paintings.

  4. Evolution with Stochastic Fitness and Stochastic Migration (United States)

    Rice, Sean H.; Papadopoulos, Anthony


    Background Migration between local populations plays an important role in evolution - influencing local adaptation, speciation, extinction, and the maintenance of genetic variation. Like other evolutionary mechanisms, migration is a stochastic process, involving both random and deterministic elements. Many models of evolution have incorporated migration, but these have all been based on simplifying assumptions, such as low migration rate, weak selection, or large population size. We thus have no truly general and exact mathematical description of evolution that incorporates migration. Methodology/Principal Findings We derive an exact equation for directional evolution, essentially a stochastic Price equation with migration, that encompasses all processes, both deterministic and stochastic, contributing to directional change in an open population. Using this result, we show that increasing the variance in migration rates reduces the impact of migration relative to selection. This means that models that treat migration as a single parameter tend to be biassed - overestimating the relative impact of immigration. We further show that selection and migration interact in complex ways, one result being that a strategy for which fitness is negatively correlated with migration rates (high fitness when migration is low) will tend to increase in frequency, even if it has lower mean fitness than do other strategies. Finally, we derive an equation for the effective migration rate, which allows some of the complex stochastic processes that we identify to be incorporated into models with a single migration parameter. Conclusions/Significance As has previously been shown with selection, the role of migration in evolution is determined by the entire distributions of immigration and emigration rates, not just by the mean values. The interactions of stochastic migration with stochastic selection produce evolutionary processes that are invisible to deterministic evolutionary theory

  5. Investigation of the Feasibility of Utilizing Gamma Emission Computed Tomography in Evaluating Fission Product Migration in Irradiated TRISO Fuel Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Demkowicz


    In the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) the TRISO particle fuel serves as the primary fission product containment. However the large number of TRISO particles present in proposed HTGRs dictates that there will be a small fraction (~10-4 to 10-5) of as manufactured and in-pile particle failures that will lead to some fission product release. The matrix material surrounding the TRISO particles in fuel compacts and the structural graphite holding the TRISO particles in place can also serve as sinks for containing any released fission products. However data on the migration of solid fission products through these materials is lacking. One of the primary goals of the AGR-3/4 experiment is to study fission product migration from failed TRISO particles in prototypic HTGR components such as structural graphite and compact matrix material. In this work, the potential for a Gamma Emission Computed Tomography (GECT) technique to non-destructively examine the fission product distribution in AGR-3/4 components and other irradiation experiments is explored. Specifically, the feasibility of using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS) system for this GECT application is considered. To test the feasibility, the response of the PGS system to idealized fission product distributions has been simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Previous work that applied similar techniques during the AGR-1 experiment will also be discussed as well as planned uses for the GECT technique during the post irradiation examination of the AGR-2 experiment. The GECT technique has also been applied to other irradiated nuclear fuel systems that were currently available in the HFEF hot cell including oxide fuel pins, metallic fuel pins, and monolithic plate fuel.

  6. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.


    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  7. The Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Simulated Science Inquiry Environment Using Gamified Elements (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing


    This study developed a computer-simulated science inquiry environment, called the Science Detective Squad, to engage students in investigating an electricity problem that may happen in daily life. The environment combined the simulation of scientific instruments and a virtual environment, including gamified elements, such as points and a story for…

  8. Nonlinear finite-element analysis and biomechanical evaluation of the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian; Gehrchen, P Martin; Darvann, Tron


    A finite-element analysis (FEA) model of an intact lumbar disc-body unit was generated. The vertebral body of the FEA model consisted of a solid tetrahedral core of trabecular bone surrounded by a cortical shell. The disc consisted of an incompressible nucleus surrounded by nonlinear annulus fibe...

  9. Evaluation of Populus and Salix continuously irrigated with landfill leachate I. Genotype-specific elemental phytoremediation (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer


    There is a need for the identification and selection of specific tree genotypes that can sequester elements from contaminated soils, with elevated rates of uptake. We irrigated Populus (DN17, DN182, DN34, NM2, NM6) and Salix (94003, 94012, S287, S566, SX61) genotypes planted in large soil-filled containers with landfill leachate or...

  10. Evaluation of a 2-step thermal method for separating organic and elemental carbon for radiocarbon analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusek, U.; Monaco, M.; Prokopiou, M.; Gongriep, F.; Hitzenberger, R.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Röckmann, T.


    We thoroughly characterized a system for thermal separation of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) for subsequent radiocarbon analysis. Different organic compounds as well as ambient aerosol filter samples were introduced into an oven system and combusted to CO2 in pure O2. The main

  11. Evaluation of selected risk elements removal processes from wastewater in constructed wetlands.


    MRÁZKOVÁ, Ivana


    The purpose of this bachelor work is to provide a literature survey aimed at the processes responsible for removal of selected risk elements (arsenate, lead, nickel, Merkury, kadmium and manganese) during the wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands. Also, constructed wetlands are compared with conventional treatment plants.

  12. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachenko, Anthony G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail:; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Singh, Balwant [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)


    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the {mu}-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, {mu}-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, {mu}-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue

  13. Band-limited Green's Functions for Quantitative Evaluation of Acoustic Emission Using the Finite Element Method (United States)

    Leser, William P.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Leser, William P.


    A method of numerically estimating dynamic Green's functions using the finite element method is proposed. These Green's functions are accurate in a limited frequency range dependent on the mesh size used to generate them. This range can often match or exceed the frequency sensitivity of the traditional acoustic emission sensors. An algorithm is also developed to characterize an acoustic emission source by obtaining information about its strength and temporal dependence. This information can then be used to reproduce the source in a finite element model for further analysis. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the ability of the band-limited Green's functions approach to determine the moment tensor coefficients of several reference signals to within seven percent, as well as accurately reproduce the source-time function.

  14. An Evaluation of Factors Predisposing Building Elements to Variation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde, S.O.


    Full Text Available The construction industry has been consistently criticized for poor performance in attaining clients’ requirements. The study, thus, assessed the factors predisposing building elements to variation with a view to providing cost-design information that enhance construction project delivery, that is, on-time completion of project within budget. The building elements considered in this study include substructure, frame, upper floors, and roof. Data were collected using well-structured questionnaires administered on professionals in consulting firms, contracting firms, and client organizations in Lagos metropolis. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis revealed nine factors through factor analysis that predispose substructure to variation, seven factors predispose frame, six factors predispose upper floors, and seven factors predispose roofs to variation during construction process in Nigeria.

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Anti-Proliferative Evaluation of [1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ols as Inhibitor of HUVEC Migration and Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Chen


    Full Text Available Allylated biphenol neolignans contain a variety of chemopreventive entities that have been used as anti-tumor drug leads. Herein, 37 allylated biphenols were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity by the MTT assay and inhibitory effect on the migration and tube formation of HUVECs featuring anti-angiogenic properties. 3-(2-Methylbut-3-en-2-yl-3′,5′-bis(trifluoromethyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ol (5c exerted an inhibitory effect on HUVECs compared to honokiol (IC50 = 47.0 vs. 52.6 μM and showed significant blocking effects on the proliferation of C26, Hela, K562, A549, and HepG2 (IC50 = 15.0, 25.0, 21.2, 29.5, and 13.0 μM, respectively, superior to those of honokiol (IC50 = 65.1, 62.0, 42.0, 75.0, and 55.4 μM, respectively. Importantly, compound 5c inhibited the migration and capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs in vitro.

  16. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds. (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola


    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  17. Experimental evaluation of the structural behaviour of adobe masonry structural elements


    H. Varum; Costa, A; Pereira, H; Almeida, J; Rodrigues, H.; D. Silveira


    Rehabilitation and strengthening of existing adobe masonry constructions have been neglected during the last decades. In Aveiro, Portugal, many adobe buildings present an important level of structural damage and, in many cases, are even near to ruin, having the majority a high vulnerability to seismic actions. To face the lack of information concerning the mechanical properties and structural behaviour of adobe elements, it was developed an experimental campaign. The composition and mechanica...

  18. Evaluation of beech stand condition based on the basic growth elements


    Vučković Milivoj; Stajić Branko


    The state of a beech stand is analyzed from the aspect of stability and production level. The arguments are presented for the need of the objective definition of the stand condition by the criteria based on the characteristics of stand growth elements. This contributes to integral management procedures and their verification in the aim of optimal and stabile production. The study results show that there can be significant deviations from the optimal stand condition regarding the number of tre...

  19. PArthENoPE: Public Algorithm Evaluating the Nucleosynthesis of Primordial Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisanti, O.; Cirillo, A.; Esposito, S.; Iocco, F.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Serpico, P.D.


    We describe a program for computing the abundances of light elements produced during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is publicly available at Starting from nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions the program solves the set of coupled ordinary differential equations, follows the departure from chemical equilibrium of nuclear species, and determines their asymptotic abundances as function of several input cosmological parameters as the baryon density, the number of effective neutrino, the value of cosmological constant and the neutrino chemical potential.

  20. Evaluation of Bryozoan limestone properties based on in-situ abd laboratory element tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Peter Graham; Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Foged, Niels Nielsen


    As part of the preparation for the Citytunnel project in Malmö southern Sweden, the Bryozoan limestone formation was investigated, a geological model was defined for this formation and its mass properties were derived for the design of a major cavern. This paper describes the methodology used...... for making the link between the geological model and the engineering properties of the limestone. It also describes the mentodology used to derive mass strength properties from element and borehole scale testing....

  1. Evaluation of apical force distribution for orthodontic tooth movements -A flnite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rex


    Full Text Available FEM is defined as a technique of discrediting a continuum into simple geometric shapes elements, enforcing material properties and governing relationships on these elements giving due consideration to loading and boundary conditions which results in a set of equation, solution which gives the approximate behaviour of the continuum.This study was undertaken to determine the types of orthodontic forces that cause high stress at the root apex. A 3-dimensional finite clement model of a maxillary central incisor, its periodontal ligament (POL,and alveolar bone was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology.The maxillary centralincisor was chosen for study because it is one of the teeth at greatest risk for apical root resorption. The material properties of enamel dentin, POL, and bone and 5 different load systems (tipping, intrusion,extrusion,bodily movement,and rotational force were tested. The finite element analysis showed that purely intrusive, extrusive, and rotational forces had stresses concentrated at the apex of the root. The principal stress from a tipping force was located at the alveolar crest. For bodily movement,stress was distributed throughout the PDL;however,it was concentrated more at the alveolar crest. We conclude that intrusive,extrusive, and rotational forces produce more stress at the apex. Bodily movement and tipping forces concentrate forces at the alveolar crest, not at the apex.

  2. Evaluation and optimization of footwear comfort parameters using finite element analysis and a discrete optimization algorithm (United States)

    Papagiannis, P.; Azariadis, P.; Papanikos, P.


    Footwear is subject to bending and torsion deformations that affect comfort perception. Following review of Finite Element Analysis studies of sole rigidity and comfort, a three-dimensional, linear multi-material finite element sole model for quasi-static bending and torsion simulation, overcoming boundary and optimisation limitations, is described. Common footwear materials properties and boundary conditions from gait biomechanics are used. The use of normalised strain energy for product benchmarking is demonstrated along with comfort level determination through strain energy density stratification. Sensitivity of strain energy against material thickness is greater for bending than for torsion, with results of both deformations showing positive correlation. Optimization for a targeted performance level and given layer thickness is demonstrated with bending simulations sufficing for overall comfort assessment. An algorithm for comfort optimization w.r.t. bending is presented, based on a discrete approach with thickness values set in line with practical manufacturing accuracy. This work illustrates the potential of the developed finite element analysis applications to offer viable and proven aids to modern footwear sole design assessment and optimization.

  3. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallroth, C.F.; Holzgraf, J.F.; Jensen, D.D.


    Fuel test element FTE-6 was irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for 645 equivalent full power days. Four fuel varieties, contained in H-327 graphite bodies, were tested. A primary result of this test has been to demonstrate acceptable performance even with calculated high stresses in the graphite bodies. Heterogeneous fuel loadings in the element caused local power peaking and azimuthal power variations, deforming the graphite fuel bodies and thereby causing bowing nearly five times as large as the diametral clearance within the sleeve. The axial stresses resulting from interference between the fuel bodies and sleeve were estimated to have reached 45% of the ultimate material strength at the end of the irradiation. Residual stresses from differential contraction within the fuel body resulted in probable in-plane stress levels of 130% of the material strength at the end-of-life shutdown and of up to 150% of the strength at shutdown during the irradiation cycle. The high in-plane stresses are local peaks at the corners of a sharp notch in the element, which may account for the stresses failing to cause damage. The lack of observable damage, however, indicates that the methods and data used for stress analysis give results that are either fairly accurate or conservative.

  4. Evaluation of the kinematic structure of indicators key elements of sports equipment exercise by postural orientation movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinenko Y.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose : Examine the kinematic structure of indicators key elements of sports equipment exercise (difficult to coordinate. The method of postural orientation movements. Material : The study involved acrobats jumpers on the path of high qualification (n = 7. The method used video - computer recording the movements of the athlete. Results : Identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck. Exercise performed after rondat and double back flip and stretch after rondat - flick (coup ago. In the preparatory phase of motor actions acrobatic exercises isolated and studied central element of sports equipment - starting posture of the body; in the phase of the main motor action - animation poses of the body; in the final phase - the final body posture (stable landing. Conclusions : The method of video - computer registration allowed to perform a biomechanical analysis and evaluation of key elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and a double back flip and stretch. Also gain new knowledge about the mechanism of the phase structure of movements when performing double somersaults.

  5. Migration into Rustenburg Local Municipality between 1996 and 2001

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the pattern and nature of migration into the Rustenburg area in the North West Province, South Africa. It is important to gain an understanding of the processes of internal migration within South Africa in general and Rustenburg in particular, because migration is an intrinsic element of the development ...

  6. Romanians Abroad: A Snapshot of Highly Skilled Migration (United States)

    Ferro, Anna


    This paper is about the experience of labour migration among skilled Romanians, mainly Information Technology workers and highly qualified researchers. It is based on a questionnaire survey where, among other elements, the researcher investigated the push-pull aspects of qualified migration and the strategies of labour migration. This paper…

  7. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 {mu}g/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 {mu}g/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 {mu}g/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure.

  8. [Rural migration in Poland]. (United States)

    Rakowski, W


    Migration of the rural population in Poland from 1946 to 1983 is analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Consideration is given to regional variations in migration patterns, the causes of migration, and the impact of migration on areas of origin.

  9. Multilevel Control System of Regional Power Consumption: Analysis of Infrastructure Elements Interconnections, Efficiency Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaevna Myznikova


    Full Text Available Fundamental strategic programs in the spheres of power and economics adopted at various levels of management, are not always capable to solve the problem of power efficiency. The changes of systemic connections of economy and power elements are one of the basic problems of management at the regional level. The development of market relations has caused the growth of uncertainty factors at all levels of power consumption management. An insufficient estimation of system infrastructural interrelations and an individualization of organizational-economic relations of economic subjects and their localization, have generated the intersystem conflictness in distribution of power resources and have aggravated the problem of estimating power consumption efficiency at a systemic level. The restriction of application of the traditional management methods based on the principles of technological efficiency of the processes of energy manufacture and consumption, is connected with the information ruptures caused by the growth of factors of uncertainty and inconsistency of efficiency criteria. Application of modern methods of power consumption forecasting has a number of essential restrictions. At the present stage the management of power consumption in multilevel systems is aimed at realisation of system integrity and economic coordination of manufacture elements, transfer and consumption at regional level and demands working out of the new effective management methods based on the analysis of system interrelations. Allocation of system interrelations depends on features of development of electropower sector, active and passive elements of the structure of consumption, power balance. The analysis and estimation of interrelations of power and economic sphere allow to improve methodology of management of power consumption at the regional level in the conditions of uncertainty.

  10. An evaluation of mechanical and high-temperature corrosion properties of Ni-Cr alloy with composition of alloying elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sujin; Kim, Dongjin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Helium is used as a coolant in a VHTR owing to its high thermal conductivity, inertness, and low neutron absorption. However, helium inevitably includes impurities that create an imbalance in the surface reactivity at the interface of the coolant and the exposed materials. As the Alloy 617 has been exposed to high temperatures at 950 .deg. C in the impure helium environment of a VHTR, degradation of material is accelerated and mechanical properties decreased. An alloy superior to alloy 617 should be developed. In this study, the mechanical and high-temperature corrosion properties for Ni-Cr alloys fabricated in laboratory were evaluated as a function of the grain boundary strengthening and alloying element composition. The mechanical property and corrosion property for Ni-Cr alloys fabricated in a laboratory were evaluated as a function of the main element composition. The ductility was increased and decreased by increasing the amount of Mo and Cr, respectively. Surface oxide was detached during the corrosion test, because there was not aluminum element in the alloy. Aluminum seems to act as an anti-corrosive role in Ni-based alloy. In conclusion, the addition of Al into the alloy is required to improvement of high temperature corrosion resistance.

  11. Evaluation of beech stand condition based on the basic growth elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Milivoj


    Full Text Available The state of a beech stand is analyzed from the aspect of stability and production level. The arguments are presented for the need of the objective definition of the stand condition by the criteria based on the characteristics of stand growth elements. This contributes to integral management procedures and their verification in the aim of optimal and stabile production. The study results show that there can be significant deviations from the optimal stand condition regarding the number of trees crown development, taper and diameter increment, which are not perceptible to the eye until the visible signs of tree revitalization when the damage cannot be repaired.





    The aim of this paper is to present the validation of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method used for metals determination from several perennial plant samples. The suitability of two digestion procedures using wet digestion with mineral acids mixture on hot plate and microwave digestion was investigated to determine As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in plants samples. The LOD of the seven analysed elements in solid samples varied between 0.20µg g-1 for Mn and 0...

  13. The safety evaluation of earthquake emergency shelter based on the finite element analysis (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Yu, Jingjing; Yan, Peilei


    The earthquake emergency shelter is the powerful safeguard to resist the natural hazard, human accident and other accidents, so evaluate the buildings whether can be the earthquake emergency shelter appear to be particularly important. So far the adoptive evaluation system inland has not the united criterion and subjectivity, hence it is necessary to realize the quantitative evaluation. The paper set the example of Nenjiang county to make the safety evaluation, the method is combining the measured project profile and the calculative anti-earthquake performance index, comprehensive assessment the buildings' anti-earthquake redundancy, finally providing the identification results. Initially summary, the safety identification method to earthquake emergency shelter has definite guiding significance.

  14. Globalisation and international migration in Asia. (United States)

    Hugo, G


    "The present paper attempts to summarise the major contemporary trends in international migration in Asia and how this is related to the rapid demographic transition occurring across most of the region. The diversity of types of mobility is one of the striking features of Asian international migration and developments in each major type [are] discussed in the paper. It is then argued that there are elements within the Asian migration system that give it a momentum which to some extent operates outside of the influence of economic and political trends. Finally some emerging issues in Asian international migration are briefly addressed. These include the scale and effects of remittances, the feminisation of migration, undocumented migration, increasing government involvement and brain drain issues." (EXCERPT)

  15. Updated evaluation of the migration of styrene monomer and oligomers from polystyrene food contact materials to foods and food simulants. (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; Begley, Timothy


    Due to the 2011 labelling of styrene monomer as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by the National Institutes of Health's National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the controversy over whether styrene oligomers mimic the physiological effects of estrogen, an updated review of styrene monomer and oligomers in food and food contact materials (FCMs) was performed. The concentrations of styrene monomer and oligomers were determined in 24 polystyrene (PS) products and ranged from 9.3 to 3100 mg kg(-1) for the styrene monomer, 130-2900 mg kg(-1) for the sum of three styrene dimers, and 220-16,000 mg kg(-1) for the sum of six styrene trimers. Foods in contact with PS packaging had styrene monomer concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 163 ng g(-1); dimer concentrations from the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 4.8 ng g(-1) and trimer concentrations were all below the LOQ (2 ng g(-1)). Diffusion coefficients (Dp) and partition coefficients (K) were also calculated for styrene dimers and trimers. The results presented here indicate that styrene monomer concentrations in foods have not significantly changed since the 1980s and monomer concentrations in food packaging quantified in this study were all below USFDA limits. Although styrene dimers and trimers are present in higher concentrations in PS FCMs than the monomer, their migration to food is limited because of their high K values (4 × 10(2) to 2 × 10(6)) and their low diffusion coefficients in PS products. Additionally, diffusion coefficients calculated using USFDA-recommended food simulants and Arrhenius plots describing the temperature dependence of styrene dimers and trimers can be used in future calculations of dietary intake of the styrene oligomers.

  16. Trace element evaluation of a suite of rocks from Reunion Island, Indian Ocean (United States)

    Zielinski, R.A.


    Reunion Island consists of an olivine-basalt shield capped by a series of flows and intrusives ranging from hawaiite through trachyte. Eleven rocks representing the total compositional sequence have been analyzed for U, Th and REE. Eight of the rocks (group 1) have positive-slope, parallel, chondrite-normalized REE fractionation patterns. Using a computer model, the major element compositions of group 1 whole rocks and observed phenocrysts were used to predict the crystallization histories of increasingly residual liquids, and allowed semi-quantitative verification of origin by fractional crystallization of the olivine-basalt parent magma. Results were combined with mineral-liquid distribution coefficient data to predict trace element abundances, and existing data on Cr, Ni, Sr and Ba were also successfully incorporated in the model. The remaining three rocks (group 2) have nonuniform positive-slope REE fractionation patterns not parallel to group 1 patterns. Rare earth fractionation in a syenite is explained by partial melting of a source rich in clinopyroxene and/or hornblende. The other two rocks of group 2 are explained as hybrids resulting from mixing of syenite and magmas of group 1. ?? 1975.

  17. Evaluation of Trace Elements and Their Relationship with Growth and Development of Young Children. (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Gao, Zhenyan; Yan, Jin; Li, Minming; Su, Jia; Xu, Jian; Yan, Chong-Huai


    This study was conducted to assess the levels of trace elements and their relationship with growth and development of children in Shanghai, China, to offer scientific evidence for supplementing trace elements in children. A stratified, clustered, random sampling method was used in the study. Blood samples were taken from 2141 Shanghai children from 0 to 6.0 years old, and the concentrations of zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nutritional status was determined and Z-scores of anthropometric parameters, such as height for age (HFA), weight for age (WFA), and body mass index (BMI) were calculated, indicated by HAZ, WAZ, and BMIZ, respectively. The overall median blood levels of Zn, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Mg were 8.83, 79.02, 9.49, 1.04, and 15.45 mg/L, respectively. Fe, Cu, and Mg increased with age and Zn, Fe, and Cu differed by sex. HAZ and WAZ were positively correlated with Zn (r (2) = 0.072 and 0.053, respectively; P development. Dietary supplementation and screening of nutritional states are potential solutions to improve children's growth and development.

  18. Principal component analysis to evaluate the spatial variation of major elements in kaolin deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. –I. E. Ekosse


    Full Text Available This paper explores the variations in major elements concentrations in kaolins from four different deposits in Botswana. The data were obtained from four different kaolin deposits with an additional four-class label based on particle sizes of the rock – providing a natural comparative basis between detected structural features with those of the original data attributes. Using principal component analysis (PCA, the paper reduces the data dimensionality and establishes inherent distinctive attributes of major elements accounting for the highest variation in chemical compositions of the kaolins. The principal components extracted are validated using graphical data visualization tools applied on a 28x11- dimensional data matrix of the oxides of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ti, Mn and Fe, and loss on ignition (LOI. The validated results show that structures based on three retained components exhibit clearly discernible variations within the samples. Discretisation of the particle sizes is highlighted as both a challenge and an opportunity and it is recommended that it be used as a tuning parameter in gauging kaolin variations across samples and in validating new predictive modeling applications. Successful applications will depend on how clay and data scientists keep track, synchronise and share information relating to potentially dynamic data such as the impact of discretisation of kaolin particle sizes. DOI:

  19. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzgraf, J.F.; McCord, F.; Miller, C.M.; Norman, B.L.; Saurwein, J.J.; Wallroth, C.F.


    Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15 were companion nonaccelerated tests of fuel rods and fuel particles representative of the Large High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (LHTGR). The purpose of the tests was to broaden the data base of H-327 graphite and various fuel types; specifically, UO/sub 2/, UC/sub 2/, weak acid resin UC/sub x//O/sub y/, and several fertile fuel types were tested. The irradiation reached peak fuel temperatures of 1600/sup 0/C volume- and time-averaged temperatures of 1300/sup 0/C, and fast fluence exposures up to 2 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/. Experimental results were compared with predictions based on accelerated irradiation tests, postirradiation heating, and other Peach Bottom test elements to validate HTGR design codes. The nuclear design predictions were modified by measurements which allowed the verification of thermal design calculations and thermocouple readings.

  20. Migration of birds (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  1. Evaluation of wastewater treatment by-products as soil amendment: Growth of sorghum-sudan grass and trace elements concentrations. (United States)

    Sivapatham, Paramasivam; Potts, Mariel C; Delise, Jeffrey A; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, Ashok K; Jayaraman, Kuppuswamy; Chakraborty, Paromita


    Wastewater treatment by-products (WTBP), such as sewage sludge (SS) may be used to enhance soil chemical, physical, and biological properties. These enhanced soil properties, in turn, could from its source of production to its site of application. These concerns may be mitigated by incineration of the SS to produce ash (SSA) and dissolved in water and stored in ponds as contribute to an increase in plant growth, production, mineral nutrition. Some SS is difficult to handle due to bad odor in its raw state and has large mass, hence expensive for transportation weathered SSA (WSSA). A greenhouse study was conducted using Candler fine sand CFS; (CFS; pH = 6.8) and Ogeechee loamy sand OLS; (pH = 5.2) with application of either 0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, or 148.2 Mg ha(-1) as either SS, SSA, or WSSA to evaluate the biomass production and elemental composition responses of sorghum-sudan grass (Sorghum vulgaris var. Sudanese hitche). Shoot and root biomass were 2 to 3 fold greater in the soil amended with SS, than either SSA or WSSA. Concentrations of nutrient and trace elements in the shoots and roots increased with increasing rates of amendments. Application of these by-products up to 98.8 Mg ha(-1) rate did not adversely affect growth or accumulation of trace elements in sorghum-sudan grass. Long-term field studies are recommended to investigate the potential leaching of various elements from the amended soils in addition to evaluation of plant growth and production responses to determine the acceptable rates of these by-products as amendments to agricultural soils.

  2. Evaluation of local trace element status and 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations in patients with Tinea pedis. (United States)

    Miraloglu, Meral; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan; Arican, Ozer


    Tinea pedis (TP) is an infection of the feet caused by fungi. The infectious diseases caused by dermatophytes are mainly related to the enzymes produced by these fungi. Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), concentration as oxidative stress biomarker and trace elements status have not been published in patients with TP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se), and to evaluate the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se in this disorder. Forty-three consecutive patients with a diagnosis of unilateral interdigital TP were enrolled in this study. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface. 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in scraping samples were determined by ELISA. In addition, the levels of Se, Zn and Cu in scraping samples were determined on flame and furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer using Zeeman background correction. Oxidative stress was confirmed by the significant elevation in 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations (p iso-PGF2α parameters, but negative correlations between Se-Cu; Se-8-iso-PGF2α parameters in lesional area. Furthermore, the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se were significantly higher on the lesional area than the non-lesional area (p iso-PGF2α and trace elements in patients with TP (p > 0.05). Our results showed that there is a possible link between oxidative stress (increased 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations) and imbalanced of trace elements status in lesional area of TP patients. The use of antifungal agents together with both Zn and Se drugs could be helpful in the both regression of disease and in shortening the duration of disease.

  3. Conceptualising Irish rural youth migration: a biographical approach. (United States)

    Ni Laoire, C


    This paper explores the usefulness of a biographical approach in studying Irish rural youth migration. There have been calls recently for an approach to migration study that involves conceptualizing migration as part of individual biographies as well as social structures. However, there is little research that explicitly adopts a biographical approach. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings, methodological issues and findings of a recent study that was guided by the principles of a biographical approach to migration. The study was an exploration of life-path formation among Irish rural youth from the 1970s to the 1990s. The paper focuses on the three key elements of a biographical approach to migration, and relates them to Irish rural youth migration. Firstly, migration is considered as part of an individual's biography, and the methodological implications of this are explored. Secondly, it is argued, drawing on the research in Ireland, that migration decision-making is a multilayered process. In the case of Irish rural youth migration, a biographical approach highlights the complexity of migration decision-making, revealing the tensions and struggles that lie behind each move, and thus raises questions over the tendency towards simplification of the migration process. Finally, it is argued that migration is a cultural phenomenon, but that this assertion needs careful qualification. This paper problematizes the role of culture in migration processes by untangling the systems of competing discourses of migration that underlie societal norms regarding migration, thereby challenging the view of migration as "normal" for particular societies or cultures.

  4. Evaluation of the criticality of cracks in ice shelves using finite element simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Plate


    Full Text Available The ongoing disintegration of large ice shelf parts in Antarctica raise the need for a better understanding of the physical processes that trigger critical crack growth in ice shelves. Finite elements in combination with configurational forces facilitate the analysis of single surface fractures in ice under various boundary conditions and material parameters. The principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics are applied to show the strong influence of different depth dependent functions for the density and the Young's modulus on the stress intensity factor KI at the crack tip. Ice, for this purpose, is treated as an elastically compressible solid and the consequences of this choice in comparison to the predominant incompressible approaches are discussed. The computed stress intensity factors KI for dry and water filled cracks are compared to critical values KIc from measurements that can be found in literature.

  5. Regional evaluation of mass element fluxes: Geomon network of small catchments. (United States)

    Fottová, D


    Monitoring of element flows and their mass balances in the natural unit of the biosphere represented by a small catchment appears to be the most suitable for the solution of complex problems such as the deterioration of environmental quality. Long-term collection of comparable biogeochemical data, which will enable the identification of environmental trends, is the main aim of the GEOMON network. One of the most important applications of these data will be the calculation of critical loads. The Czech Geological Survey possesses data from 44 catchments in the former Czechoslovakia. Qualitative and quantitative data on inputs in atmospheric deposition and outputs via surface runoff are available. Simple input-output mass balances yield estimates of total accumulation or loss of individual components. Some examples of interpretations of the GEOMON data, especially in connection with different bedrock types, will be given.

  6. Fuel element failure detection experiments, evaluation of the experiments at KNK II/1 (Intermediate Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bruetsch, D


    In the frame of the fuel element failure detection experiments at KNK II with its first core the measurement devices of INTERATOM were taken into operation in August 1981 and were in operation almost continuously. Since the start-up until the end of the first KNK II core operation plugs with different fuel test areas were inserted in order to test the efficiency of the different measuring devices. The experimental results determined during this test phase and the gained experiences are described in this report and valuated. All three measuring techniques (Xenon adsorption line XAS, gas-chromatograph GC and precipitator PIT) could fulfil the expectations concerning their susceptibility. For XAS and GC the nuclide specific sensitivities as determined during the preliminary tests could be confirmed. For PIT the influences of different parameters on the signal yield could be determined. The sensitivity of the device could not be measured due to a missing reference measuring point.

  7. Evaluation of geometrical effects of microneedles on skin penetration by CT scan and finite element analysis. (United States)

    Loizidou, Eriketi Z; Inoue, Nicholas T; Ashton-Barnett, Johnny; Barrow, David A; Allender, Chris J


    Computerized tomography scan (CT scan) imaging and finite element analysis were employed to investigate how the geometric composition of microneedles affects their mechanical strength and penetration characteristics. Simulations of microneedle arrays, comprising triangular, square and hexagonal microneedle base, revealed a linear dependence of the mechanical strength to the number of vertices in the polygon base. A laser-enabled, micromoulding technique was then used to fabricate 3×3 microneedle arrays, each individual microneedle having triangular, square or hexagonal base geometries. Their penetration characteristics into ex-vivo porcine skin, were investigated for the first time by CT scan imaging. This revealed greater penetration depths for the triangular and square-based microneedles, demonstrating CT scan as a powerful and reliable technique for studying microneedle skin penetration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of cryogenic CFRP tank element; Goku teion fukugozai tanku yoso no shisaku shike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, T.; Yoshida, M.; Nosaka, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Goto, T.; Yamashita, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For a realization of perfect and reused transfer vehicle of the rocket propulsion style which enables efficiency improvement of space transportation and drastic reduction in the launch cost, the improvement of drastic lightening of the airframe weight and engine performance is required in comparison with the conventional disposable rocket. In this report, in order to grasp fundamental characteristics in applying the CFRP for the purpose of ultra-lightweight of very low temperature propellant feed system of very low temperature propellant tank and rocket engine, the CFRP composite material element of the thin cylinder type with the flange was produced experimentally, and very low temperature pressurization test using liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen was carried out. (NEDO)

  9. Evaluation of the Finite Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for Binary Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Matin, Rastin; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim


    In contrast to the commonly used lattice Boltzmann method, off-lattice Boltzmann methods decouple the velocity discretization from the underlying spatial grid, thus allowing for more efficient geometric representations of complex boundaries. The current work combines characteristic-based integration of the streaming step with the free-energy based multiphase model by Lee et. al. [Journal of Computational Physics, 206 (1), 2005 ]. This allows for simulation time steps more than an order of magnitude larger than the relaxation time. Unlike previous work by Wardle et. al. [Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 65 (2), 2013 ] that integrated intermolecular forcing terms in the advection term, the current scheme applies collision and forcing terms locally for a simpler finite element formulation. A series of thorough benchmark studies reveal that this does not compromise stability and that the scheme is able to accurately simulate flows at large density and viscosity contrasts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the validation of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES method used for metals determination from several perennial plant samples. The suitability of two digestion procedures using wet digestion with mineral acids mixture on hot plate and microwave digestion was investigated to determine As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in plants samples. The LOD of the seven analysed elements in solid samples varied between 0.20µg g-1 for Mn and 0.55µg g-1 for Pb. The found values for metals determined by ICP-OES in a vegetable certified reference material digested using the two procedures were compared with the certified values and good agreements between these values were obtained. The proposed method indicated satisfactory recovery, detection limits and standard deviations for trace metal determination in perennial plants samples.

  11. Nondestructive pavement evaluation using finite element analysis based soft computing models. (United States)


    Evaluating structural condition of existing, in-service pavements constitutes annually a major part of the : maintenance and rehabilitation activities undertaken by State Highway Agencies (SHAs). Accurate : estimation of pavement geometry and layer m...

  12. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water. (United States)

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L


    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Foot and Ankle Impact Injury: Risk Evaluation of Calcaneus and Talus Fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Wai-Chi Wong

    Full Text Available Foot and ankle impact injury is common in geriatric trauma and often leads to fracture of rearfoot, including calcaneus and talus. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of foot impact on the risk of calcaneus and talus fracture via finite element analysis.A three-dimensional finite element model of foot and ankle was constructed based on magnetic resonance images of a female aged 28. The foot sustained a 7-kg passive impact through a foot plate. The simulated impact velocities were from 2.0 to 7.0 m/s with 1.0 m/s interval.At 5.0 m/s impact velocity, the maximum von Mises stress of the trabecular calcaneus and talus were 3.21MPa and 2.41MPa respectively, while that of the Tresca stress were 3.46MPa and 2.55MPa. About 94% and 84% of the trabecular calcaneus and talus exceeded the shear yielding stress, while 21.7% and 18.3% yielded the compressive stress. The peak stresses were distributed around the talocalcaneal articulation and the calcaneal tuberosity inferiorly, which corresponded to the common fracture sites.The prediction in this study showed that axial compressive impact at 5.0 m/s could produce considerable yielding of trabecular bone in both calcaneus and talus, dominantly by shear and compounded with compression that predispose the rearfoot in the risk of fracture. This study suggested the injury pattern and fracture mode of high energy trauma that provides insights in injury prevention and fracture management.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenolic Compounds, Amino Acids and Mineral Elements of Representative Genotypes of Lonicera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Sochor


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis. A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC–UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during one growing season.

  15. Evaluation of a finite-element reciprocity method for epileptic EEG source localization: Accuracy, computational complexity and noise robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvany, Yazdan; Rubæk, Tonny; Edelvik, Fredrik


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of an EEG source localization method that combines a finite element method (FEM) and the reciprocity theorem.The reciprocity method is applied to solve the forward problem in a four-layer spherical head model for a large number of test dipoles...... with 10 mm electrode misplacement the localization error is 4.8 mm. The reciprocity EEG source localization speeds up the solution of the inverse problem with more than three orders of magnitude compared to the state-of-the-art methods.The reciprocity method has high accuracy for modeling the dipole...

  16. Numerical Analysis of Indoor Sound Quality Evaluation Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tuan Chou


    Full Text Available Indoors sound field distribution is important to Room Acoustics, but the field suffers numerous problems, for example, multipath propagation and scattering owing to sound absorption by furniture and other aspects of décor. Generally, an ideal interior space must have a sound field with clear quality. This provides both the speaker and the listener with a pleasant conversational environment. This investigation uses the Finite Element Method to assess the acoustic distribution based on the indoor space and chamber volume. In this situation, a fixed sound source at different frequencies is used to simulate the acoustic characteristics of the indoor space. This method considers the furniture and decoration sound absorbing material and thus different sound absorption coefficients and configurations. The preliminary numerical simulation provides a method that can forecast the distribution of sound in an indoor room in complex situations. Consequently, it is possible to arrange interior furnishings and appliances to optimize acoustic distribution and environmental friendliness. Additionally, the analytical results can also be used to calculate the Reverberation Time and speech intelligibility for specified indoor space.

  17. Evaluation of circulation classifications from the COST733 database: The ability to stratify surface climate elements (United States)

    Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.


    A large number of classifications of circulation patterns have been produced within the international COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions." The classifications are produced by about 15 different classification methods, including cluster analysis, principal component analysis, leader algorithm methods, and threshold-based methods for unified data over the ERA-40 period (1957-2002) for 12 domains covering Europe. Here we examine the synoptic-climatological applicability of classifications, which is defined as their ability to stratify surface climate elements. The degree of stratification is quantified by conducting the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distribution conditioned by a particular circulation type and the unconditional distribution. As the climate data, temperature and precipitation station series from the ECA&D database and gridded dataset produced in the ENSEMBLES project have been used. The results are sensitive to the number of classes (classifications with a lower number of classes tending to yield a better stratification) and depend on season. We examine whether sequencing (i.e., taking patterns on several consecutive days isntead of on a single day as a classified entity), seasonally specific definition (instead of that for a year as a whole), and including additional variables (500 hPha height, lower tropospheric thickness, and vorticity) to sea level pressure improve the stratification. Although the overall ‘best' method (or a group of optimum methods) cannot be identified, methods with generally better and worse performance can be determined.

  18. Finite element analyses for design evaluation of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents in arterial vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wei [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gastaldi, Dario, E-mail: [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Yang Ke; Tan Lili [Division of Specialized Materials and Devices, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)


    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) can provide a great benefit for diseased vessels and avoid the long-term incompatible interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms. However, the existing MAS showed insufficient scaffolding to the target vessels due to short degradation time. In this study, a three dimensional finite element model combined with a degradable material model of AZ31 (Al 0.03, Zn 0.01, Mn 0.002 and Mg balance, mass percentage) was applied to three different MAS designs including an already implanted stent (Stent A), an optimized design (Stent B) and a patented stent design (Stent C). One ring of each design was implanted through a simulation in a vessel model then degraded with the changing interaction between outer stent surface and the vessel. Results showed that a proper stent design (Stent B) can lead to an increase of nearly 120% in half normalized recoil time of the vessel compared to the Stent A; moreover, the expectation that the MAS design, with more mass and optimized mechanical properties, can increase scaffolding time was verified numerically. The Stent C has more materials than Stent B; however, it only increased the half normalized recoil time of the vessel by nearly 50% compared to the Stent A because of much higher stress concentration than that of Stent B. The 3D model can provide a convenient design and testing tool for novel magnesium alloy stents.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics for Evaluating the Strength of Bonds Between Composite Laminates (United States)

    Poveromo, Scott; Malcolm, Doug; Earthman, James

    Conventional nondestructive (NDT) techniques used to detect defects in composites are not able to determine intact bond integrity within a composite structure and are costly to use on large and complex shaped surfaces. To overcome current NDT limitations, a new technology was adopted based on quantitative percussion diagnostics (QPD) to better quantify bond quality in fiber reinforced composite materials. Results indicate that this technology is capable of detecting weak (`kiss') bonds between flat composite laminates. Specifically, the local value of the probe force determined from quantitative percussion testing was predicted to be significantly lower for a laminate that contained a `kiss' bond compared to that for a well-bonded sample, which is in agreement with experimental findings. Experimental results were compared to a finite element analysis (FEA) using MSC PATRAN/NASTRAN to understand the visco-elastic behavior of the laminates during percussion testing. The dynamic FEA models were used to directly predict changes in the probe force, as well as effective stress distributions across the bonded panels as a function of time.

  20. A Markov model for evaluating resource sharing policies for DASH assisting network elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. Kleinrouweler (Jan Willem); S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)


    textabstractIn this paper, we present a model for evaluating bandwidth sharing policies, that can be applied to networks that handle both video streaming traffic, as well as other traffic. Video streaming is a demanding network application. In crowded networks, resources need to be properly divided

  1. A Markov model for evaluating resource sharing policies for DASH assisting network elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. Kleinrouweler (Jan Willem); S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)


    textabstractIn this paper, we present a model for evaluating bandwidth sharing policies, that can be applied to networks that handle both video streaming traffic, as well as other traffic. Video streaming is a demanding network application. In crowded networks, resources need to be properly divided

  2. Evaluation of Head Response to Blast Using Sagittal and Transverse Finite Element Head Models (United States)


    prediction and evaluation of protection, MASc Thesis, Waterloo, Canada, 2010. [23] Hallquist J.O., LS-DYNA Theory Manual, Livermore, CA, 2006. [24] Visible...Human Project, U.S. National Library of Medicine, NIH [25] Greer A., Numerical modeling for the prediction of primary blast injury to the lung, MASc

  3. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, D.L.


    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire (PREQ Measuring Resiliency in Rearing Children with Developmental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Suzuki

    Full Text Available We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD. A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: "knowledge of the child's characteristics," "perceived social supports," and "positive perceptions of parenting." Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that "knowledge of the child's characteristics" was associated with parenting behavior, whereas "perceived social supports" predicted depressive symptoms; "positive perceptions of parenting" influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions.

  5. Evaluating topographic effects on ground deformation: Insights from finite element modeling (United States)

    Ronchin, Erika; Geyer, Adelina; Marti, Joan


    Ground deformation has been demonstrated to be one of the most common signals of volcanic unrest. Although volcanoes are commonly associated with significant topographic relief, most analytical models assumed the Earth's surface as flat. In the last years, it has been confirmed that this approximation can lead to important misinterpretations of the recorded surface deformation data. Here we perform a systematic and quantitative analysis of how topography may influence ground deformation signals and how these variations correlate with the different topographic parameters characterizing the terrain form (e.g. slope, aspect, curvature, etc.). For this, we bring together the results exposed in previous published papers and complement them with new axisymmetric and 3D Finite Elements (FE) models results. First, we study, in a parametric way, the influence of a volcanic edifice centered above the pressure source axis. Second, we carry out new 3D FE models simulating the real topography of three different volcanic areas representative of topographic scenarios common in volcanic regions: Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) and the volcanic islands of Tenerife and El Hierro (Canary Islands). The calculated differences are then correlated with a series of topographic parameters. The final aim is to investigate the artifacts that might arise from the use of half-space models at volcanic areas considering their diverse topographic features (e.g. collapse caldera structures, prominent central edifices, large landslide scars, etc.). Final conclusions may be also useful for the design of an optimal geodetic monitoring network. This research was partially funded by the European Commission (FP7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO")and RYC-2012-11024.

  6. Evaluating Crustal Contamination Effects on the Lithophile Trace Element Budget of Shergottites (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Ferdous, J.; Peslier, A. H.


    The origin of the incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched compositions of shergottites has been a point of contention for decades [1-2]. Two scenarios have been proposed, the first is that enriched shergottite compositions reflect an ITE-enriched mantle source, whereas in the second, the ITE enrichment reflects crustal contamination of mantle-derived parent magmas. Evidence supporting the first scenario is that the ITE-enriched shergottite compositions are consistent with the outcomes of magma ocean crystallization [3], and that Os-Nd isotope relationships for shergottites cannot be explained by realistic crustal contamination models [4]. In contrast, Cl and S isotopes are consistent with shergottite magmas interacting with Mars crust [5,6], and ITE-enriched olivine-hosted melt inclusions and interstitial glass are found in depleted shergottite Yamato 980459 [7]. These findings indicate that some level of crustal interaction occurred but the question of whether ITE-enrichments in some bulk shergottites reflect crustal contamination remains open. Recently, a Mars crustal breccia meteorite has been found, NWA 7034 and its paired stones, that is our best analogue to an average of Mars ancient crust [8-10]. This allows for better constraints on crustal contamination of shergottite magmas. We modeled magma-crust mixing and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) using ITE-depleted shergottite compositions and bulk NWA 7034 and its clasts as end-members. The results of these models indicate that crustal contamination can only explain the ITE-enriched compositions of some bulk shergottites under unusual circumstances. It is thus likely that the shergottite range of compositions reflects primarily mantle sources.

  7. Biomechanical evaluation of different abutment-implant connections - A nonlinear finite element analysis (United States)

    Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Shafi, Aisyah Ahmad; Rosli, M. U.; Khor, C. Y.; Zakaria, M. S.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan


    The success of dental implant surgery is majorly dependent on the stability of prosthesis to anchor to implant body as well as the integration of implant body to bone. The attachment between dental implant body and abutment plays a vital role in attributing to the stability of dental implant system. A good connection between implant body cavity to abutment may minimize the complications of abutment loosening and implant fractures as widely reported in clinical findings. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of different abutment-implant connections on stress dispersion within the abutment and implant bodies as well as displacement of implant body via three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA). A 3-D model of mandible was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) image datasets using an image-processing software with the selected region of interest was the left side covering the second premolar, first molar and second molar regions. The bone was modelled as compact (cortical) and porous (cancellous) structures. Besides, three implant bodies and three generic models of abutment with different types of connections - tapered interference fit (TIF), tapered integrated screwed-in (TIS) and screw retention (SR) were created using computer-aided design (CAD) software and all models were then analysed via 3D FEA software. Occlusal forces of 114.6 N, 17.2 N and 23.4 N were applied in the axial, lingual and mesio-distal directions, respectively, on the top surface of first molar crown. All planes of the mandibular bone model were rigidly fixed. The result exhibited that abutment with TIS connection produced the most favourable stress and displacement outcomes as compared to other attachment types. This is due to the existence of integrated screw at the bottom portion of tapered abutment which increases the motion resistance.

  8. Importance and utility of microbial elements in evaluating soil quality: case studies in silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Vallejo Quintero


    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability is achieved by main-taining and improving soil quality. This quality is defined as “the ability of soil to function” and is evaluated through measuring a minimum set of data corresponding to different soil properties (physical, chemical and biological. However, assessment of these properties does not meet all the conditions necessary to be ideal indicators such as: clearly discriminating between the systems use and / or management evaluation, sensitivity to stress conditions associated with anthropogenic actions, easy measurement, accessibility to many users and short response time. Because loss in quality is associated with the alteration of many processes performed by soil microorganisms they meet the above conditions and have been proposed as valid indicators for diagnosing the impact of changes in land-use and ecosystem restoration. Thus, through the evaluation of the density, activity and /or structure-composition of microorganisms we can determine whether current management systems maintain, improve or degrade the soil. In this article we review the main concepts related to soil quality and its indicators. We discuss the effect of the implementation of silvopastoral systems on soil quality, with an emphasis on the use of microbial indicators.

  9. Evaluating the migration of ingredients from active packaging and development of dedicated methods: A study of two iron-based oxygen absorbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Cervantes, L.; Sánchez-Machado, D.I.; Pastorelli, S.; Rijk, R.; Paseiro-Losada, P.


    The behaviour of two commercial oxygen-scavenging products with respect to migration of active ingredients into foodstuffs was investigated. Migrants were identified, and by using appropriate analytical methods, migration was determined in a variety of liquid, solid or gelled food simulants and

  10. Evaluation of Vitamin and Trace Element Requirements after Sleeve Gastrectomy at Long Term. (United States)

    Pellitero, Silvia; Martínez, Eva; Puig, Rocío; Leis, Alba; Zavala, Roxanna; Granada, María Luisa; Pastor, Cruz; Moreno, Pau; Tarascó, Jordi; Puig-Domingo, Manel


    Nutritional deficiencies are common after bariatric surgery, but data are scarce after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) at long term. We performed a prospective nutritional status evaluation before and at 2 and 5 years after SG in morbid obese patients receiving mulvitamin and mineral supplementation at a Spanish university hospital. One hundred seventy-six patients (49.3 ± 9.1 years and 46.7 ± 7.4 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated; 51 of them were followed during 5 years. Anthropometric, compliance supplementation intake, and micronutrient evaluation were performed. Baseline concentrations were below normal values for 25(OH) vitamin D (73%), folic acid (16.5%), cobalamin (6.9%), pyridoxine (12%), thiamine (3.4%), and copper (0.5%). Anemia was found in 23%. In 49% of the subjects, at least one micronutrient deficiency was found at 2 years after SG. Vitamin D deficiency persisted at 2 and 5 years higher than 30% of patients. Frequencies of deficiencies for folic acid, B12, B6, and B1 vitamins decreased significantly after 2 years with normalization at 5 years. Copper deficiency increased between 1 and 2 years and it persisted at 5 years after SG. Vitamin supplementation compliance decreased progressively from the first year after surgery (94.8 to 81% at 2 years and to 53% 5 years after surgery). Vitamin D deficiency is the most prevalent long-term nutritional deficiency after SG. About half of patients show some micronutrient deficiency at medium long term, despite supplementation. A proactive follow-up is required to ensure a personalized and adequate supplementation in all surgically treated obese patients including those in which SG has been performed.

  11. Evaluation of serum ferritin and some metal elements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolide AD


    Full Text Available Amare Desalegn Wolide,1 Belay Zawdie,2 Tilahun Alemayehu,3 Samuel Tadesse1 1Department of Medical Physiology, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, 3Department of Human Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes has been associated with an imbalance of some trace metal elements in the blood sample of type 2 diabetes patients. Aim: To evaluate the status of serum ferritin and some selected metal elements among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods: Facility-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15, 2015 to October 30, 2015, at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. A total of 428 type 2 diabetes and nondiabetes study subjects were recruited to the study. After overnight fasting, 10 mL of venous blood samples were taken for biochemical and trace metal element analysis. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for Windows for analysis. Results: Serum concentration of Zn+2, Mg+2, Cr+3, ferritin, and Fe+3 in patients with type 2 diabetes was significantly lower (p<0.0001 than nondiabetes patients. In contrast, serum Cu+2 was significantly higher (p<0.0001 in type 2 diabetes patients than nondiabetics. In addition, significant differences were not seen in both groups with regard to serum Mn+2, Ca+2, and Po4−3. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, serum Fe+3, ferritin, and Mn+2 were significantly higher among oral hypoglycemic agent users of type 2 diabetes patients than the injectable insulin users. Serum Zn+2 had significant positive correlation with serum Mg+2 (r=0.738, Cr+3 (r=0.233, Ca+2 (r=0.238, and Po4−3 (r=0.222. In addition, serum Zn+2 had shown significant and negative correlation with body mass index (BMI, r=−0.331, WHR (r=−0.340, and fasting blood glucose (FBG, r=−0.186. Likewise, serum Mg+2 and Po4−3 are significantly and negatively correlated with BMI, WHR, and FBG. Conclusion

  12. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration. (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas


    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  13. Release of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during: Wood Combustion. Part 1: Development and Evaluation of Quantification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Alonso-Ramírez, Violeta; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    During wood combustion, inorganic elements such as alkali metals, sulfur, chlorine, and some heavy metals are partly released to the gas phase, which may cause problems in combustion facilities because of deposit formation and corrosion. Furthermore, it may cause harmful emissions of gases...

  14. Essential elements of the nursing practice environment in nursing homes: Psychometric evaluation. (United States)

    de Brouwer, Brigitte Johanna Maria; Kaljouw, Marian J; Schoonhoven, Lisette; van Achterberg, Theo


    To develop and psychometrically test the Essentials of Magnetism II in nursing homes. Increasing numbers and complex needs of older people in nursing homes strain the nursing workforce. Fewer adequately trained staff and increased care complexity raise concerns about declining quality. Nurses' practice environment has been reported to affect quality of care and productivity. The Essentials of Magnetism II © measures processes and relationships of practice environments that contribute to productivity and quality of care and can therefore be useful in identifying processes requiring change to pursue excellent practice environments. However, this instrument was not explicitly evaluated for its use in nursing home settings so far. In a preparatory phase, a cross-sectional survey study focused on face validity of the essentials of magnetism in nursing homes. A second cross-sectional survey design was then used to further test the instrument's validity and reliability. Psychometric testing included evaluation of content and construct validity, and reliability. Nurses (N = 456) working at 44 units of three nursing homes were included. Respondent acceptance, relevance and clarity were adequate. Five of the eight subscales and 54 of the 58 items did meet preset psychometric criteria. All essentials of magnetism are considered relevant for nursing homes. The subscales Adequacy of Staffing, Clinically Competent Peers, Patient Centered Culture, Autonomy and Nurse Manager Support can be used in nursing homes without problems. The other subscales cannot be directly applied to this setting. The valid subscales of the Essentials of Magnetism II instrument can be used to design excellent nursing practice environments that support nurses' delivery of care. Before using the entire instrument, however, the other subscales have to be improved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Elements of a better understanding and evaluation of population policy in the Dominican Republic]. (United States)

    Ortega, M M


    This work has 3 objectives: to clarify the concept of population policy, to examine different theoretical approaches to the analysis of a national population policy, and to describe the origin, development, and present characteristics of the population policy of the Dominican Republic. The concept of population policy is often confused with the related concepts of responsible parenthood, family planning, and birth or population control. Population policy may be defined as a coherent group of declarations, decisions, and actions following a rational strategy which, as part of a national development plan, is formulated and implemented by the state and additional social institutions in accordance with national needs. Its final goal is the protection and development of human resources through influencing population characteristics. Although recent attempts to apply the methods of political analysis to the area of population policy all suffer from limitations, 4 frameworks which respectively look at the 3 levels of population policy (the philosophic-ideologic, the scientific, and the practical); at the division of population policy into declarations, decisions, programs, and results; at criteria for evaluating the probability of success of a population policy; and at the stages of development of population policies in dependent countries can be of assistance in understanding and evaluating the population policy of the Dominican Republic. Until 1961, the end of the Trujillo era, a pronatalist attitude predominated in the Dominican Republic, prompted in part by fears of an aggressive and densely populated Haiti sharing the same island. From 1962-66, a gradual change in attitudes began in the private sector as various groups began quiet efforts at family planning and the Dominican Association for Family Welfare was formed and became an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. During this stage the government remained neutral or offered quiet support

  16. A Parametric Finite-Element Model for Evaluating Segmented Mirrors with Discrete, Edgewise Connectivity (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip


    Since future astrophysics missions require space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, there is a need for on-orbit assembly methods that decouple the size of the primary mirror from the choice of launch vehicle. One option is to connect the segments edgewise using mechanisms analogous to damped springs. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach, a parametric ANSYS model that calculates the mode shapes, natural frequencies, and disturbance response of such a mirror, as well as of the equivalent monolithic mirror, has been developed. This model constructs a mirror using rings of hexagonal segments that are either connected continuously along the edges (to form a monolith) or at discrete locations corresponding to the mechanism locations (to form a segmented mirror). As an example, this paper presents the case of a mirror whose segments are connected edgewise by mechanisms analogous to a set of four collocated single-degree-of-freedom damped springs. The results of a set of parameter studies suggest that such mechanisms can be used to create a 15-m segmented mirror that behaves similarly to a monolith, although fully predicting the segmented mirror performance would require incorporating measured mechanism properties into the model. Keywords: segmented mirror, edgewise connectivity, space telescope

  17. Evaluation of Short-Term and Long-Term Migration Testing from Can Coatings into Food Simulants: Epoxy and Acrylic-Phenolic Coatings. (United States)

    Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; DeVries, Jonathan; Begley, Timothy H


    Traditionally, migration testing during 10 days at 40 °C has been considered sufficient and appropriate for simulating the potential migration of substances from food-contact materials into foods. However, some packages, such as food cans, may be stored holding food for extended time periods (years). This study attempts to verify whether common testing conditions accurately estimate long-term migration. Two types of can coatings, epoxy and acrylic-phenolic, were subjected to short-term and long-term migration testing (1 day-1.5 years) using food simulants (water, 3% acetic acid, 50% ethanol, and isooctane) at 40 °C. Using HPLC-DAD/CAD, HPLC-MS, UHPLC-HRMS (where HRMS is accurate mass, mass spectrometry), and DART-HRMS, we identified potential migrants before starting the experiment: BPA, BADGE, BADGE derivatives, benzoguanamine, and other relevant marker compounds. During the experiment using a water-based food simulant, migrants remained stable. Most of the cans in contact with 3% acetic acid did not survive the experimental conditions. Tracked migrants were not detected in isooctane. In the presence of 50% ethanol, the traditional migration test during 10 days at 40 °C did not predict migration during long-term storage. These results suggest that migration protocols should be modified to account for long-term storage.

  18. The Integration of Geotechnologies in the Evaluation of a Wine Cellar Structure through the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villarino


    Full Text Available This paper presents a multidisciplinary methodology to evaluate an underground wine cellar structure using non-invasive techniques. In particular, a historical subterranean wine cellar that presents a complex structure and whose physical properties are unknown is recorded and analyzed using geomatics and geophysics synergies. To this end, an approach that integrates terrestrial laser scanning and ground penetrating radar is used to properly define a finite element-based structural model, which is then used as a decision tool to plan architectural restoration actions. The combination of both techniques implies the registration of external and internal information that eases the construction of structural models. Structural simulation for both stresses and deformations through FEM allowed identifying critical structural elements under great stress or excessive deformations. In this investigation, the ultimate limit state of cracking was considered to determine allowable loads due to the brittle nature of the material. This allowed us to set limit values of loading on the cellar structure in order to minimize possible damage.

  19. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Alessandra Lopes de


    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.

  20. Erwinia amylovora CRISPR elements provide new tools for evaluating strain diversity and for microbial source tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle C McGhee

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs comprise a family of short DNA repeat sequences that are separated by non repetitive spacer sequences and, in combination with a suite of Cas proteins, are thought to function as an adaptive immune system against invading DNA. The number of CRISPR arrays in a bacterial chromosome is variable, and the content of each array can differ in both repeat number and in the presence or absence of specific spacers. We utilized a comparative sequence analysis of CRISPR arrays of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora to uncover previously unknown genetic diversity in this species. A total of 85 E. amylovora strains varying in geographic isolation (North America, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East, host range, plasmid content, and streptomycin sensitivity/resistance were evaluated for CRISPR array number and spacer variability. From these strains, 588 unique spacers were identified in the three CRISPR arrays present in E. amylovora, and these arrays could be categorized into 20, 17, and 2 patterns types, respectively. Analysis of the relatedness of spacer content differentiated most apple and pear strains isolated in the eastern U.S. from western U.S. strains. In addition, we identified North American strains that shared CRISPR genotypes with strains isolated on other continents. E. amylovora strains from Rubus and Indian hawthorn contained mostly unique spacers compared to apple and pear strains, while strains from loquat shared 79% of spacers with apple and pear strains. Approximately 23% of the spacers matched known sequences, with 16% targeting plasmids and 5% targeting bacteriophage. The plasmid pEU30, isolated in E. amylovora strains from the western U.S., was targeted by 55 spacers. Lastly, we used spacer patterns and content to determine that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora from Michigan were low in diversity and matched corresponding streptomycin-sensitive strains

  1. Migration of plasticisers from PVC and other polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Rasmus

    of the diffusion coefficient were evaluated. All models performed similarly, with better predicting ability compared to modeling with a static diffusion coefficient. This numerical solution by the finite element mesh method has also been used to model the migration of an antistatic additive to the surface of Low...... fraction in the gas phase was elevated using higher atomic charges as shown by Chocholousova et al.[J. Chocholousova, J. Vacek, and P. Hobza; J. Phys. Chem. A; 107, 17, (2003), 3086-3092], but the calculated enthalpy of vaporization was still almost twice as high. It was shown that most literature data...

  2. Evaluation of corrosion caused by the use of in natura biogas in steam generator boilers of carbon steel structural elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenelle, Marcellus; Alves, Helton Jose, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Pellizzer, Eder Luis [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC), Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Monteiro, Marcos Roberto; Rovere, Carlos Alberto Della [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Higa, Silvia Midori [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fontenelle, Isaddora [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)


    This work evaluates the corrosion process caused by the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the biogas in natura, in steels commonly used in the construction of steam generator boilers, simulating conditions close to those found on the real application of these materials, exposing the test bodies directly to biogas in natura, flame of combustion and gases resulting from the combustion of this biofuel, in chimney. After 314 hours of exposure under the specified conditions, the corroded surfaces of ASTM A178 and ASTM A516 were analyzed, by optical microscopy, electronic scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface hardness. The determination of corrosion rates for each test condition and each material tested can be used as a parameter for the determination of the minimum tolerance for mechanical stability, in the calculation of the minimum required thickness of the structural elements of the steam generator boilers fed to biogas. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Segmented Amorphous-Contact Planar Germanium Detectors for Heavy-Element Research (United States)

    Jackson, Emily G.

    The challenge of improving our understanding of the very heaviest nuclei is at the forefront of contemporary low-energy nuclear physics. In the last two decades, "in-beam" spectroscopy experiments have advanced from Z=98 to Z=104, Rutherfordium, allowing insights into the dynamics of the fission barrier, high-order deformations, and pairing correlations. However, new detector technologies are needed to advance to even heavier nuclei. This dissertation is aimed at evaluating one promising new technology; large segmented planar germanium wafers for this area of research. The current frontier in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves large-volume (>9 cm thick) coaxial detectors that are position sensitive and employ gamma-ray "tracking". In contrast, the detectors assessed in this dissertation are relatively thin (~1 cm) segmented planar wafers with amorphous-germanium strip contacts that can tolerate extremely high gamma-ray count rates, and can accommodate hostile neutron fluxes. They may be the only path to heavier "in-beam" spectroscopy with production rates below 1 nanobarn. The resiliency of these detectors against neutron-induced damage is examined. Two detectors were deliberately subjected to a non-uniform neutron fluence leading to considerable degradation of performance. The neutrons were produced using the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction at the UMass Lowell Van-de-Graaff accelerator with a 3.7-MeV proton beam incident on a natural Li target. The energy of the neutrons emitted at zero degrees was 2.0 MeV, close to the mean energy of the fission neutron spectrum, and each detector was exposed to a fluence >3.6 x109 n/cm2. A 3-D software "trap-corrector" gain-matching algorithm considerably restored the overall performance. Other neutron damage mitigation tactics were explored including over biasing the detector and flooding the detector with a high gamma-ray count rate. Various annealing processes to remove neutron damage were investigated. An array of very large diameter

  4. Research on Risk Evaluation of Transnational Power Networking Projects Based on the Matter-Element Extension Theory and Granular Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Li


    Full Text Available In project management, risk assessment is crucial for stakeholders to identify the risk factors during the whole life cycle of the project. A risk evaluation index system of a transnational networking project, which provides an effective way for the grid integration of clean electricity and the sustainable development of the power industry, is constructed in this paper. Meanwhile, a combination of granular computing and order relation analysis (G1 method is applied to determine the weight of each indicator and the matter-element extension evaluation model is also employed to seek the global optimal decision during the risk assessment. Finally, a case study is given to validate the index system and evaluation model established in this paper by assessing two different investment schemes of a transnational high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission project. The result shows that the comprehensive risk level of Scheme 1 is “Low” and the level of Scheme 2 is “General”, which means Scheme 1 is better for the stakeholders from the angle of risk control. The main practical significance of this paper lies in that it can provide a reference and decision support for the government’s power sectors, investment companies and other stakeholders when carrying out related activities.

  5. Safety and quality of food contact materials. Part 1: Evaluation of analytical strategies to introduce migration testing into good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigenbaum, A.; Scholler, D.; Bouquant, J.


    The results of a research project (EU AIR Research Programme CT94-1025) aimed to introduce control of migration into good manufacturing practice and into enforcement work are reported. Representative polymer classes were defined on the basis of chemical structure, technological function, migration....... These different techniques were introduced into a systematic testing scheme that is envisaged as being suitable both for industrial control and for enforcement laboratories. Guidelines will be proposed in the second part of this paper....

  6. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)


    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  7. A Novel Hybrid Evaluation Model for the Performance of ERP Project Based on ANP and Improved Matter-Element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hui-ru


    Full Text Available Considerable resources are needed when implementing the ERP project, so it is necessary to evaluate its performance. Firstly, the evaluation index system of implementation performance of the ERP project was built, and an Analytic Network Process (ANP which can fully take the relationship between evaluation indexes into account was employed to determine the index weight. Secondly, an improved matter-element extension model, which can overcome the limitations and inadequacies of traditional matter-element extension model when performing the comprehensive evaluation, was proposed to evaluate the implementation performance of the ERP project. Finally, taking an enterprise's ERP project as an example, a comprehensive evaluation was done, and the empirical analysis result shows that this proposed hybrid evaluation model is feasible and practical.

  8. Evaluation of coupled finite element/meshfree method for a robust full-scale crashworthiness simulation of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tang


    Full Text Available The crashworthiness of a railway vehicle relates to its passive safety performance. Due to mesh distortion and difficulty in controlling the hourglass energy, conventional finite element methods face great challenges in crashworthiness simulation of large-scale complex railway vehicle models. Meshfree methods such as element-free Galerkin method offer an alternative approach to overcome those limitations but have proved time-consuming. In this article, a coupled finite element/meshfree method is proposed to study the crashworthiness of railway vehicles. A representative scenario, in which the leading vehicle of a high-speed train impacts to a rigid wall, is simulated with the coupled finite element/element-free Galerkin method in LS-DYNA. We have compared the conventional finite element method and the coupled finite element/element-free Galerkin method with the simulation results of different levels of discretization. Our work showed that coupled finite element/element-free Galerkin method is a suitable alternative of finite element method to handle the nonlinear deformation in full-size railway vehicle crashworthiness simulation. The coupled method can reduce the hourglass energy in finite element simulation, to produce robust simulation.

  9. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris


    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  10. Migration and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nando Sigona


    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has not radically transformed migration patterns in the Mediterranean, and the label ‘migration crisis’ does not do justice to the composite and stratified reality.

  11. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility. (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer's "historical principle" this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  12. Essays on temporary migration


    Mestres Domenech, J.


    My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption decisions. We simulate our model with return intentions and perform policy simulations. The se...

  13. Irregular Migration of Egyptians


    ROMAN, Howaida


    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective polic...

  14. More Myths of Migration. (United States)

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail


    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  15. An evaluation of the elements of internal medicine physiopathology curriculum in general practice based on the perspectives of faculty members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: An evaluation of the curriculum elements can be recognized as a necessity in curriculum dynamic and improvement. This study aimed at evaluating five main elements of a physiopathology curriculum in internal medicine (objectives, content, methods, evaluation, and management. Method: The present study is of a descriptive-analytical type, and the study population consisted of a total of 48 faculty members of internal medicine physiopathology department at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Participants were selected using Cochran’s sample size formula and through simple random sampling. The data were collected using a 58-item questionnaire devised by the researcher, using curriculum planning experts. Face and content validity of the scale were obtained through expert views and modifications provided by 10 professors and experts in medical curriculum evaluation. Also, research reliability was calculated using Alpha Cronbachto be 0.99. Reliability value and coefficient was acceptable. Moreover, One-sample t-test, Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: Based on the faculty members’ views, of the five curriculum elements, objectives and content were in relatively good conditions (at an average level while other elements including method, evaluation and management were in poor conditions (lower than average. According to results of two-way ANOVA, there was a significant relationship between faculty members with various work experience in terms of curriculum evaluation. Conclusion: According to research findings, a comparative examination of the curriculum elements and their characteristics in physiopathology course can be conducted, resulting in identification of curriculum weaknesses and their pitfalls. Also, with regard to teaching, evaluation, management methods, weak and strong points of the course, efficiency, and effectiveness of the elements were identified.

  16. Expectations, information, and migration: the case of the West Bank and Gaza. (United States)

    Gabriel, S A; Levy, D


    "This study evaluates the determinants of Palestinian migration from the West Bank and Gaza. Data are employed for the post-1967 period of Israeli rule to specify and test competing models as well as the strucure of expectations in the migration decision. Results of the analysis support a simple static expectation formulation, as is consistent with much of the short-term, low mobility cost migration between the West Bank and Jordan. Findings further point to the importance of various Israeli-Palestinian economic and political economic interactions in the determination of this controversial movement of population, including those associated with employment opportunity for Palestinian labour in Israel, elements of Israeli West Bank settlement policy and changes in local standard of living. Various policy implications of the research are indicated." excerpt

  17. Assessing Task Migration Impact on Embedded Soft Real-Time Streaming Multimedia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimonda Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Multiprocessor systems on chips (MPSoCs are envisioned as the future of embedded platforms such as game-engines, smart-phones and palmtop computers. One of the main challenge preventing the widespread diffusion of these systems is the efficient mapping of multitask multimedia applications on processing elements. Dynamic solutions based on task migration has been recently explored to perform run-time reallocation of task to maximize performance and optimize energy consumption. Even if task migration can provide high flexibility, its overhead must be carefully evaluated when applied to soft real-time applications. In fact, these applications impose deadlines that may be missed during the migration process. In this paper we first present a middleware infrastructure supporting dynamic task allocation for NUMA architectures. Then we perform an extensive characterization of its impact on multimedia soft real-time applications using a software FM Radio benchmark.

  18. Assessing Task Migration Impact on Embedded Soft Real-Time Streaming Multimedia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Acquaviva


    Full Text Available Multiprocessor systems on chips (MPSoCs are envisioned as the future of embedded platforms such as game-engines, smart-phones and palmtop computers. One of the main challenge preventing the widespread diffusion of these systems is the efficient mapping of multitask multimedia applications on processing elements. Dynamic solutions based on task migration has been recently explored to perform run-time reallocation of task to maximize performance and optimize energy consumption. Even if task migration can provide high flexibility, its overhead must be carefully evaluated when applied to soft real-time applications. In fact, these applications impose deadlines that may be missed during the migration process. In this paper we first present a middleware infrastructure supporting dynamic task allocation for NUMA architectures. Then we perform an extensive characterization of its impact on multimedia soft real-time applications using a software FM Radio benchmark.

  19. Russian Migration Policy and Its Impact on Human Development


    IVAKHNYUK, Irina


    For Russia, migration policy – in terms of internal or/and international migration flows management – was an ever-important element of the State activities. Concentrated on State interests, the policy also resulted in human development. The paper presents a historical overview of the Soviet and Russian migration policies with special emphases on the impact on human development and the driving forces behind the changing policies. The Soviet period can be characterized as contradiction between ...

  20. Depth migration and de-migration for 3-D migration velocity analysis; Migration profondeur et demigration pour l'analyse de vitesse de migration 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, F.


    3-D seismic imaging of complex geologic structures requires the use of pre-stack imaging techniques, the post-stack ones being unsuitable in that case. Indeed, pre-stack depth migration is a technique which allows to image accurately complex structures provided that we have at our disposal a subsurface velocity model accurate enough. The determination of this velocity model is thus a key element for seismic imaging, and to this end, migration velocity analysis methods have met considerable interest. The SMART method is a specific migration velocity analysis method: the singularity of this method is that it does not rely on any restrictive assumptions on the complexity of the velocity model to determine. The SMART method uses a detour through the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting multi-offset kinematic information hardly accessible in the time domain. Once achieved the interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated seismic data, a kinematic de-migration technique of the interpreted events enables to obtain a consistent kinematic database (i.e. reflection travel-times). Then, the inversion of these travel-times, by means of reflection tomography, allows the determination of an accurate velocity model. To be able to really image geologic structures for which the 3-D feature is predominant, we have studied the implementation of migration velocity analysis in 3-D in the context of the SMART method, and more generally, we have developed techniques allowing to overcome the intrinsic difficulties in the 3-D aspects of seismic imaging. Indeed, although formally the SMART method can be directly applied to the case of 3-D complex structures, the feasibility of its implementation requires to choose well the imaging domain. Once this choice done, it is also necessary to conceive a method allowing, via the associated de-migration, to obtain the reflection travel-times. We first consider the offset domain which constitutes, still today, the strategy most usually used

  1. Evaluation of Forces Generated on Three Different Rotary File Systems in Apical Third of Root Canal using Finite Element Analysis. (United States)

    Medha, Ashish; Patil, Suvarna; Hoshing, Upendra; Bandekar, Siddhesh


    AIM of the study is to evaluate the distribution of forces on the instrument in the apical 3rd of curved canal with three Nickel Titanium rotary systems. Three brands of instruments (ProTaper Universal; DENTSPLY Maillefer, RevoS; MicroMega and Hyflex; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) were scanned with the Laser assisted computerized scanner to produce a real-size, 3-dimensional (3-D) model for each. The stresses on the instrument during simulated shaping of a root canal were analyzed numerically by using a 3-D finite element package, taking into account the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the nickel-titanium material. RevoS shows lowest values for force generation in the apical 3rd of canal as compared to Protaper which shows highest values, while Hyflex shows intermediate values for forces. With FE simulation of root canal shaping by 3 files, it was observed that different instrument designs would experience unequal degree of force generation in canal, as well as reaction torque from the root canal wall.

  2. Evaluation of finite element formulations for transient conduction forced-convection analysis. [of heat transfer for active cooling of hypersonic airframe and engine structures (United States)

    Thornton, E. A.; Wieting, A. R.


    Conventional versus upwind convective finite elements, and lumped versus consistent formulations for practical conduction/forced convection analysis are evaluated on the basis of numerical studies, with finite element and finite difference lumped-parameter temperatures compared to closed-form analytical solutions for convection problems. Attention is given to two practical combined conduction and forced convection applications, stressing that the finite element method, showing superior accuracy, is competitive with the finite difference lumped-parameter method. Also considered are the computational time savings offered by the zero capacitance nodes procedure and comparative finite element and finite difference lumped-parameter computer times. The present study has reference to the design of actively cooled engine and airframe structures for hypersonic flight.

  3. Prestack exploding reflector modeling and migration in TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H.


    Prestack depth migration in anisotropic media, especially those that exhibit tilt, can be costly using reverse time migration (RTM). We present two-way spectral extrapolation of prestack exploding reflector modeling and migration (PERM) in acoustic transversely isotropic (TI) media. We construct systematic ways to evaluate phase angles and phase velocities in dip oriented TI (DTI), vertical TI (VTI) and tilted TI (TTI) media. Migration results from the Marmousi VTI model and the BP2007 TTI model show the feasibility of our approach.

  4. Equivalent model construction for a non-linear dynamic system based on an element-wise stiffness evaluation procedure and reduced analysis of the equivalent system (United States)

    Kim, Euiyoung; Cho, Maenghyo


    In most non-linear analyses, the construction of a system matrix uses a large amount of computation time, comparable to the computation time required by the solving process. If the process for computing non-linear internal force matrices is substituted with an effective equivalent model that enables the bypass of numerical integrations and assembly processes used in matrix construction, efficiency can be greatly enhanced. A stiffness evaluation procedure (STEP) establishes non-linear internal force models using polynomial formulations of displacements. To efficiently identify an equivalent model, the method has evolved such that it is based on a reduced-order system. The reduction process, however, makes the equivalent model difficult to parameterize, which significantly affects the efficiency of the optimization process. In this paper, therefore, a new STEP, E-STEP, is proposed. Based on the element-wise nature of the finite element model, the stiffness evaluation is carried out element-by-element in the full domain. Since the unit of computation for the stiffness evaluation is restricted by element size, and since the computation is independent, the equivalent model can be constructed efficiently in parallel, even in the full domain. Due to the element-wise nature of the construction procedure, the equivalent E-STEP model is easily characterized by design parameters. Various reduced-order modeling techniques can be applied to the equivalent system in a manner similar to how they are applied in the original system. The reduced-order model based on E-STEP is successfully demonstrated for the dynamic analyses of non-linear structural finite element systems under varying design parameters.

  5. Resistographic evaluation on defibred wood elements of the leaching tower at the Santa Laura saltpeter works in Chile. A world heritage site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ortiz


    Full Text Available The leaching tower is located in the Santa Laura saltpeter works office in Chile. In recent years studies have been carried out, using Non Destructive Techniques (TND, which have determined that the tower is in good condition. However, there are doubts regarding the actual dimensions of the construction elements affected by the desfibration. The present study had the objective of evaluate defibred wood elements, from the leaching tower of the Santa Laura saltpeter works office, using the resistography technique. Additional studies of ultrasound and xylohigrometry were also developed. The obtained results establish that the reduction of the dimensions of the evaluated elements does not present significant difference and that there are no deep damages in the woods. The study confirms that the building is not at risk.

  6. Evaluation of energy expenditure in adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream in the Columbia River Basin: an assessment based on sequential proximate analysis (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.


    The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.

  7. Dialogues on migration policy


    Giugni, Marco; Passy, Florence


    Dialogues on Migration Policy brings together leading American and European scholars of immigration politics to address migration policy. Editors Marco Giugni and Florence Passy's aim to present a number of informed "dialogues" addressing three main theoretical concerns in this field: the role of the national state in a globalizing world, the determinants of policy change, and the role of collective interests in migration policy. Adopting an unconventional format, the novelty of Dialogues on ...

  8. Many Faces of Migrations


    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs


    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  9. Evaluation of load transfer characteristics of five different implants in compact bone at different load levels by finite elements analysis. (United States)

    Bozkaya, Dincer; Muftu, Sinan; Muftu, Ali


    The external contour of an implant and the magnitude of occlusal loading can have significant effects on the load transfer characteristics and may result in different bone failure rates for different implant systems. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of external geometry and occlusal load magnitude on bone failure modes for 5 commercially available dental implant systems. Five different implant systems; Ankylos, Astra, Bicon, ITI, and Nobel Biocare, comparable in size, but different in thread profile and crest module shapes, were compared using the finite element method. Type II bone quality was approximated and complete osseous integration was assumed. Occlusal loads of varying magnitudes (0 to 2000 N) were applied on the abutments supporting single tooth restorations at 11.3 degrees from the vertical axis with a 1-mm offset. Total overloaded bone area, where tensile and compressive normal stresses fell outside of the recommended limits of 100 and 170 MPa, respectively, was investigated for different load levels. For moderate levels of occlusal loads up to 300 N, the compact bone was not overloaded by any of the implant systems. At the extreme end of the occlusal load range (1000 N or more) the overloading characteristics of implants may be dependent on geometric shape. In general, overloading occurs near the superior region of compact bone, in compression, and it is primarily caused by the normal and lateral components of the occlusal load. At the region of intersection of compact and trabecular bone, overloading occurs in tension due to the vertical component of the occlusal load. For excessive forces greater than 1000 N, the overloaded areas of the bone varied considerably among 5 different implants systems evaluated.

  10. Evaluation of a subject-specific finite-element model of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint under physiological load. (United States)

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G


    The equine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is frequently injured, especially by racehorses in training. Most injuries result from repetitive loading of the subchondral bone and articular cartilage rather than from acute events. The likelihood of injury is multi-factorial but the magnitude of mechanical loading and the number of loading cycles are believed to play an important role. Therefore, an important step in understanding injury is to determine the distribution of load across the articular surface during normal locomotion. A subject-specific finite-element model of the MCP joint was developed (including deformable cartilage, elastic ligaments, muscle forces and rigid representations of bone), evaluated against measurements obtained from cadaver experiments, and then loaded using data from gait experiments. The sensitivity of the model to force inputs, cartilage stiffness, and cartilage geometry was studied. The FE model predicted MCP joint torque and sesamoid bone flexion angles within 5% of experimental measurements. Muscle-tendon forces, joint loads and cartilage stresses all increased as locomotion speed increased from walking to trotting and finally cantering. Perturbations to muscle-tendon forces resulted in small changes in articular cartilage stresses, whereas variations in joint torque, cartilage geometry and stiffness produced much larger effects. Non-subject-specific cartilage geometry changed the magnitude and distribution of pressure and the von Mises stress markedly. The mean and peak cartilage stresses generally increased with an increase in cartilage stiffness. Areas of peak stress correlated qualitatively with sites of common injury, suggesting that further modelling work may elucidate the types of loading that precede joint injury and may assist in the development of techniques for injury mitigation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of stress distributions occurring on zirconia and titanium implant-supported prostheses: A three-dimensional finite element analysis. (United States)

    Bankoğlu Güngör, Merve; Yılmaz, Handan


    Titanium implants have been successfully used to support fixed dental prostheses. Zirconia implants have been suggested as support for crowns, but information on their use to support partial fixed dental prostheses is limited. The purpose of this finite element study was to evaluate the maximum principal, minimum principal, and von Mises stresses and their distributions on zirconia and titanium implant-supported, partial fixed dental prostheses located in the anterior maxillary region. Zirconia and titanium implants (4 mm in diameter and 11. 5 mm in length) and prostheses made from 2 different materials (lithium disilicate and zirconia) were simulated, and 4 models were generated: Titan-IPS, Titan-Lava, Zircon-IPS, and Zircon-Lava. The maxillary bone was modeled as type 3 bone. The load was applied obliquely (534 N) and horizontally (76.5 N), and the stress values and distributions were examined. Under horizontal loading, stresses generated on the cortical bone in the Zircon models were lower than those in the Titan models. Under oblique loading, stress values were similar in the same implant material and stress type. For all types of stress among the models, the stress values that occurred on the trabecular bone were found to be similar under both horizontal and oblique loading. The maximum stress values on the bones, implants, cores, and veneers did not exceed the strength of the structures. Different stress values resulted from the different implant types. The prosthetic materials did not change the stress distributions in bone. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  13. Migration and Its Consequences


    Ivan Vasile Ivanoff


    ABSTRACT: Migration, as a social phenomenon, has an especially complex character and can be analyzed from the point of view of the state which is the source of the migration as well as from the point of view of the state which is the destination of the migration. Its causes are especially complex but the economic ones are determinant and are fundamentally different of the causes which determine the population to seek refuge in case of armed conflict. The effects of the migration are equally c...

  14. Migration into art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...... visibility and recognition of migrant artists, and the interrelations between aesthetics and politics, including the balancing of aesthetics, politics and ethics in representations of forced migration....

  15. Development, Evaluation, and Sensitivity Analysis of Parametric Finite Element Whole-Body Human Models in Side Impacts. (United States)

    Hwang, Eunjoo; Hu, Jingwen; Chen, Cong; Klein, Katelyn F; Miller, Carl S; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hallman, Jason J


    Occupant stature and body shape may have significant effects on injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the current finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) only represent occupants with a few sizes and shapes. Our recent studies have demonstrated that, by using a mesh morphing method, parametric FE HBMs can be rapidly developed for representing a diverse population. However, the biofidelity of those models across a wide range of human attributes has not been established. Therefore, the objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the accuracy of HBMs considering subject-specific geometry information, and 2) to apply the parametric HBMs in a sensitivity analysis for identifying the specific parameters affecting body responses in side impact conditions. Four side-impact tests with two male post-mortem human subjects (PMHSs) were selected to evaluate the accuracy of the geometry and impact responses of the morphed HBMs. For each PMHS test, three HBMs were simulated to compare with the test results: the original Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 (O-THUMS), a parametric THUMS (P-THUMS), and a subject-specific THUMS (S-THUMS). The P-THUMS geometry was predicted from only age, sex, stature, and BMI using our statistical geometry models of skeleton and body shape, while the S-THUMS geometry was based on each PMHS's CT data. The simulation results showed a preliminary trend that the correlations between the PTHUMS- predicted impact responses and the four PMHS tests (mean-CORA: 0.84, 0.78, 0.69, 0.70) were better than those between the O-THUMS and the normalized PMHS responses (mean-CORA: 0.74, 0.72, 0.55, 0.63), while they are similar to the correlations between S-THUMS and the PMHS tests (mean-CORA: 0.85, 0.85, 0.67, 0.72). The sensitivity analysis using the PTHUMS showed that, in side impact conditions, the HBM skeleton and body shape geometries as well as the body posture were more important in modeling the occupant impact responses than the bone and soft

  16. Evaluation of early stage human bone marrow stromal proliferation, cell migration and osteogenic differentiation on μ-MIM structured stainless steel surfaces. (United States)

    Bitar, Malak; Benini, Fausta; Brose, Claudia; Friederici, Vera; Imgrund, Philipp; Bruinink, Arie


    It is well established that surface topography greatly affect cell-surface interactions. In a recent study we showed that microstructured stainless steel surfaces characterized by the presence of defined hexagonally arranged hemisphere-like structures significantly affected cell architecture (shape and focal adhesion size) of primary human bone mesenchymal stromal cells. This study aimed at further investigating the influence these microstructures (microcline protruding hemispheres) on critical aspects of cell behaviour namely; proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation. As with previously reported data, we used primary human bone mesenchymal stromal cells to investigate such effects at an early stage in vitro. Cells of different patients were utilised for cell migration studies. Our data showed that an increase in cell proliferation was exhibited as a function of surface topography (hemispheres). Cell migration velocity also varied as a function of surface topography on patient specific basis and seems to relate to the differentiated state of the seeded cell population (as demonstrated by bALP positivity). Osteogenic differentiation, however, did not exhibit significant variations (both up and down-regulation) as a function of both surface topography and time in culture.

  17. Mexico-United States labor migration flows. (United States)

    Bustamante, J A


    "International migration from Mexico to the United Sates is viewed very differently depending on from which side of the border this phenomenon is observed and evaluated....[It is] imperative to begin a process of ¿demythifying' migration as a necessary and sufficient condition that would allow both countries to come together within the context of bilateral relations and find ways to act jointly to address the impacts of the issue. Such a demythifying effort must begin with scientific research which can help develop a diagnosis of the costs and benefits that labor migration from Mexico to the United States brings to the two countries." excerpt

  18. Evaluating Trends in Historical PM2.5 Element Concentrations by Reanalyzing a 15-Year Sample Archive (United States)

    Hyslop, N. P.; White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.


    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network monitors aerosol concentrations at 170 remote sites throughout the United States. Twenty-four-hour filter samples of particulate matter are collected every third day and analyzed for chemical composition. About 30 of the sites have operated continuously since 1988, and the sustained data record ( offers a unique window on regional aerosol trends. All elemental analyses have been performed by Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California in Davis, and sample filters collected since 1995 are archived on campus. The suite of reported elements has remained constant, but the analytical methods employed for their determination have evolved. For example, the elements Na - Mn were determined by PIXE until November 2001, then by XRF analysis in a He-flushed atmosphere through 2004, and by XRF analysis in vacuum since January 2005. In addition to these fundamental changes, incompletely-documented operational factors such as detector performance and calibration details have introduced variations in the measurements. Because the past analytical methods were non-destructive, the archived filters can be re-analyzed with the current analytical systems and protocols. The 15-year sample archives from Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM), Mount Rainier (MORA), and Point Reyes National Parks (PORE) were selected for reanalysis. The agreement between the new analyses and original determinations varies with element and analytical era. The graph below compares the trend estimates for all the elements measured by IMPROVE based on the original and repeat analyses; the elements identified in color are measured above the detection limit more than 90% of the time. The trend estimates are sensitive to the treatment of non-detect data. The original and reanalysis trends are indistinguishable (have overlapping confidence intervals) for most of the well-detected elements.

  19. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  20. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.


    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for

  1. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  2. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    (co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  3. The Globalisation of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić


    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities. First, in accordance with Saskia Sassen’s analysis, the author rejects the wide-spread notion that unqualified migrants have lost an (important role in »global cities«, i.e. in the centres of the new (global economy. Namely, the post-modern service sector cannot function without the support of a wide range of auxiliary unqualified workers. Second, a critical comparison with traditional overseas mass migration to the USA at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries indicates that present international migration is, perhaps, less extensive – however it is important to take into consideration various limitations that previously did not exist, and thus the present migration potential is in really greater. Third, globalisation is more evident in a diversification of the forms of migration: the source area of migrants to the New World and Europe has expanded to include new regions in the world; new immigration areas have arisen (the Middle East, new industrial countries of the Far East, South Europe; intra-regional migration has intensified. Forth, globalisation is linked to an increased migration of experts and the pessimistic notion of a brain drain has been replaced by the optimistic idea of a brain gain. Fifth, contemporary international migration has been associated with a crisis of the national model of citizenship. Sixth, the interlinking of (migrant cultural communities regardless of distance and the physical proximity of cultural centres (the

  4. Migration and Environmental Hazards (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.


    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  5. Migration of health workers. (United States)

    Buchan, James


    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  6. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by {mu}-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP),Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)


    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using {mu}-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 {mu}m thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 {mu}m microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by

  7. Evaluation of Eleven Macro and Micro Elements Present in Various Hybrids of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum, or P. Americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Qadir Shar


    Full Text Available Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-451 and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e.zinc (50mg/kg, manganese (8mg/kg, and copper (8mg/kg was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83720 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-7704, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83720 in the edible part of millet plants (grains cultivars respectively.

  8. Integrated application of in situ non destructive techniques for the evaluation of the architectural elements of monumental structures. (United States)

    Fais, Silvana; Casula, Giuseppe; Cuccuru, Francesco; Ligas, Paola; Bianchi, Maria Giovanna; Marraccini, Alessandro


    The need to integrate different non invasive geophysical datasets for an effective diagnostic process of the stone materials of cultural heritage buildings is due to the complexity of the intrinsic characteristics of the different types of stones and of their degradation process. Consequently integration between different geophysical techniques is required for the characterization of stone building materials. In order to perform the diagnostic process by different non-invasive techniques thus interpreting in a realistic way the different geophysical parameters, it is necessary to link the petrophysical characteristics of stones with the geophysical ones. In this study the complementary application of three different non invasive techniques (terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), infrared thermography and ultrasonic surface and tomography measurements) was carried out to analyse the conservation state and quality of the carbonate building materials of three inner columns of the old precious church of San Lorenzo in the historical city center of Cagliari (Sardinia). In previous works (Casula et al., 2009; Fais et al., 2015), especially the integrated application of TLS and ultrasonic techniques has been demonstrated to represent a powerful tool in evaluating the quality of the stone building materials by solving or limiting the uncertainties typical of all indirect methods. Thanks to the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) technique it was possible to 3D model the investigated columns and their surface geometrical anomalies. The TLS measurements were complemented by several ultrasonic in situ and laboratory tests in the 24kHz - 54kHz range. The ultrasonic parameters, especially longitudinal and transversal velocities, allow to recover information on materials related with mechanical properties. A good correlation between TLS surface geometrical anomalies and the ultrasonic velocity ones is evident at the surface and in shallow parts of the investigated architectural elements

  9. European migration: Push and pull

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmermann, Klaus F


      In recent decades, Europe has experienced periods of push and pull migration. Whereas pull migration has been seen as economically beneficial, there is concern that push migration will accelerate the employment crisis...

  10. Migration and AIDS. (United States)


    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  11. Migration of the population. (United States)

    Krasinets, E


    Two factors influence foreign migration balance of the Russian Federation. The first factor involves the migration process between Russia and former union republics. The influx of population to the Russian Federation from other republics of the former Soviet Union is considered as one of the largest in the world. The average annual migratory growth of Russia during the years 1991-94 as a result of this migration exchange has tripled as compared with 1986-90, with a total of 2.7 million Russians who migrated into Russia. However, from 1996 up to the present time, the number of persons arriving in Russia declined dramatically. Meanwhile, the second factor that determines the country's migration balance is emigration to the far abroad. The most significant trend in determining the development of internal migration in Russia is the outflow of population from northern and eastern regions. The directions of internal and external migratory flows have a large influence on the migration balance in Russia's rural areas. The reduction of migratory flows in rural areas is the direct result of processes in the economic sphere. It confirms the reconstruction of rural-urban migratory exchange.

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.


    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  13. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Augmentation of Statin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Uremic Serum-Exposed Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Uchiyama


    Full Text Available Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD are at higher risk for rhabdomyolysis induced by statin than patients with normal kidney function. Previously, we showed that this increase in the severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis was partly due to uremic toxins. However, changes in the quantity of various trace elements in ESKD patients likely contribute as well. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of trace elements on statin-induced toxicity in rhabdomyosarcoma cells exposed to uremic serum (US cells for a long time. Cell viability, apoptosis, mRNA expression, and intracellular trace elements were assessed by viability assays, flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR, and ICP-MS, respectively. US cells exhibited greater simvastatin-induced cytotoxicity than cells long-time exposed with normal serum (NS cells (non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Intracellular levels of Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn were significantly less in US cells compared to that in NS cells (p < 0.05 or 0.01. Pre-treatment with TPEN increased simvastatin-induced cytotoxicity and eliminated the distinction between both cells of simvastatin-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that Zn deficiencies may be involved in the increased risk for muscle complaints in ESKD patients. In conclusion, the increased severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis in ESKD patients may be partly due to trace elements deficiencies.

  14. Amphiboles as indicators of mantle source contamination: Combined evaluation of stable H and O isotope compositions and trace element ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demény, A.; Harangi, S.; Vennemann, T.W.; Casillas, R.; Horváth, P.; Milton, A.J.; Mason, P.R.D.; Ulianov, A.


    Stable isotope and trace element compositions of igneous amphiboles from different tectonic settings (ocean island basalts, intraplate alkaline basalts, subduction-related andesitic complexes) were compiled to help understand the role of fluids and melts in subduction-related mantle metasomatism

  15. Evaluation of a two-step thermal method for separating organic and elemental carbon for radiocarbon analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusek, U.; Monaco, M.; Prokopiou, M.; Gongriep, F.; Hitzenberger, R.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Rockmann, T.


    We thoroughly characterized a system for thermal separation of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) for subsequent radiocarbon analysis. Different organic compounds as well as ambient aerosol filter samples were introduced into an oven system and combusted to CO2 in pure O-2. The main

  16. Applicability of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method to evaluation of toxic elements bioaccessibility from algae for human consumption. (United States)

    Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Ugolini, Lucia; Meli, Maria Assunta


    This study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of toxic elements, including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in five commercial algae consumed by humans in Italy. The degree of bioaccessibility of these elements may have important implications for human health. Simulation of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion was divided into three stages through use of synthetic saliva, gastric, and bile-pancreas solutions. After pre-treatment with a saliva solution, seaweed samples underwent one of the following treatments: (1) simulated gastric digestion only or (2) simulated complete GIT digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). The bioaccessibility of these toxic elements ranged from approximately 5% to 73% and from 4% to 77% in gastric and GIT digestion, respectively. The bioaccessibility of Al and Pb is poor (5-15%), As and Ni were fairly (40-55%), while Cd displayed a high bioaccessibility. No significant differences in toxic elements mobility was found between samples that only underwent gastric digestion compared to those that underwent a complete GIT digestion.

  17. Evaluation of the 3D finite element method using a tantalum rod for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. (United States)

    Shi, Jingsheng; Chen, Jie; Wu, Jianguo; Chen, Feiyan; Huang, Guangyong; Wang, Zhan; Zhao, Guanglei; Wei, Yibing; Wang, Siqun


    The aim of this study was to contrast the collapse values of the postoperative weight-bearing areas of different tantalum rod implant positions, fibula implantation, and core decompression model and to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of tantalum rod implantation in different ranges of osteonecrosis in comparison with other methods. The 3D finite element method was used to establish the 3D finite element model of normal upper femur, 3D finite element model after tantalum rod implantation into different positions of the upper femur in different osteonecrosis ranges, and other 3D finite element models for simulating fibula implant and core decompression. The collapse values in the weight-bearing area of the femoral head of the tantalum rod implant model inside the osteonecrosis area, implant model in the middle of the osteonecrosis area, fibula implant model, and shortening implant model exhibited no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) when the osteonecrosis range was small (60°). The stress values on the artificial bone surface for the tantalum rod implant model inside the osteonecrosis area and the shortening implant model exhibited statistical significance (pmethods.

  18. Assessing Migration Risk for Scientific Data Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Frisz


    Full Text Available The majority of information about science, culture, society, economy and the environment is born digital, yet the underlying technology is subject to rapid obsolescence. One solution to this obsolescence, format migration, is widely practiced and supported by many software packages, yet migration has well known risks. For example, newer formats – even where similar in function – do not generally support all of the features of their predecessors, and, where similar features exist, there may be significant differences of interpretation.There appears to be a conflict between the wide use of migration and its known risks. In this paper we explore a simple hypothesis – that, where migration paths exist, the majority of data files can be safely migrated leaving only a few that must be handled more carefully – in the context of several scientific data formats that are or were widely used. Our approach is to gather information about potential migration mismatches and, using custom tools, evaluate a large collection of data files for the incidence of these risks. Our results support our initial hypothesis, though with some caveats. Further, we found that writing a tool to identify “risky” format features is considerably easier than writing a migration tool.

  19. Psychosocial Aspects of Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Tuzcu


    Full Text Available The incident of migration that occurs as a result of the mobility of individuals between various regions and is considered a social change process brings along various factors. Among these factors, the most important one is the culture of the new society where the immigrant begins to live and the process of adaptation with this culture. Individuals from different cultures are required to live together, cope with differences and overcome the difficulties. The process of adaptation to the new lifestyle might cause the individual to have some feelings such as loneliness, socially isolation, being alienated, being regretful and self-depreciation, and consequently experience a greater stress. Being unable to cope with stress efficiently creates risks in individuals in terms of health problems such as anxiety and depression. Healthcare professionals are required to evaluate life styles, difficulties and coping levels of immigrants in order to protect and develop their mental health. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 56-66

  20. Final Report: Migration Mechanisms for Large-scale Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Nieh


    Process migration is the ability to transfer a process from one machine to another. It is a useful facility in distributed computing environments, especially as computing devices become more pervasive and Internet access becomes more ubiquitous. The potential benefits of process migration, among others, are fault resilience by migrating processes off of faulty hosts, data access locality by migrating processes closer to the data, better system response time by migrating processes closer to users, dynamic load balancing by migrating processes to less loaded hosts, and improved service availability and administration by migrating processes before host maintenance so that applications can continue to run with minimal downtime. Although process migration provides substantial potential benefits and many approaches have been considered, achieving transparent process migration functionality has been difficult in practice. To address this problem, our work has designed, implemented, and evaluated new and powerful transparent process checkpoint-restart and migration mechanisms for desktop, server, and parallel applications that operate across heterogeneous cluster and mobile computing environments. A key aspect of this work has been to introduce lightweight operating system virtualization to provide processes with private, virtual namespaces that decouple and isolate processes from dependencies on the host operating system instance. This decoupling enables processes to be transparently checkpointed and migrated without modifying, recompiling, or relinking applications or the operating system. Building on this lightweight operating system virtualization approach, we have developed novel technologies that enable (1) coordinated, consistent checkpoint-restart and migration of multiple processes, (2) fast checkpointing of process and file system state to enable restart of multiple parallel execution environments and time travel, (3) process migration across heterogeneous

  1. Evaluation of trace elemental composition of aerosols in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad using radio analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Zaidi, Jamshaid Hussain [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad Capital Territory (Pakistan); Ahmad, Shaikh Asrar; Gulzar, Asad [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township, Lahore (Pakistan); Yaseen, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Gugrat University, Gugrat (Pakistan); Atta, Sadia; Tufail, Asma [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)


    Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, using instrumental neutron activation for trace elemental analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study particulate size distribution and morphology. Twenty two elements were analyzed and their likely sources were identified. It was found that 69% of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Islamabad, and 52% in Rawalpindi, were of a diameter less than 3 {mu}m. The presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf indicates that a major portion of the trace elements in the aerosol particulates was due to the geological nature of the land, while Sc was considered to be arising from coal burning. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd was attributed to anthropogenic activities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Unusually high concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in the atmosphere of Islamabad, based on soil derived aerosols. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion is made on Total suspended Particulate (TSP) matter in the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement of Radio active elements in the TSP by using SSNTD which was found non significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 23 Trace element analysis of the TSPs in the atmosphere of twin cities i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad and their relation to their sources by using Neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mountain of Islamabad has some unique and important deposits of Nb and Gd , this paper will help the Geological survey of Pakistan to explore their deposits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is high level of TSPs>10 um, which is a great threat to the peoples of Islamabad.

  2. Applicability/evaluation of flux based representations for linear/higher order elements for heat transfer in structures - Generalized gamma(T)-family (United States)

    Namburu, R. R.; Tamma, K. K.


    The applicability and evaluation of a generalized gamma(T) family of flux-based representations are examined for two different thermal analysis formulations for structures and materials which exhibit no phase change effects. The so-called H-theta and theta forms are demonstrated for numerous test models and linear and higher-order elements. The results show that the theta form with flux-based representations is generally superior to traditional approaches.

  3. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  4. Stable fixation of an osseointegated implant system for above-the-knee amputees: titel RSA and radiographic evaluation of migration and bone remodeling in 55 cases. (United States)

    Nebergall, Audrey; Bragdon, Charles; Antonellis, Anne; Kärrholm, Johan; Brånemark, Rickard; Malchau, Henrik


    Rehabilitation of patients with transfemoral amputations is particularly difficult due to problems in using standard socket prostheses. We wanted to assess long-term fixation of the osseointegrated implant system (OPRA) using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and periprosthetic bone remodeling. 51 patients with transfemoral amputations (55 implants) were enrolled in an RSA study. RSA and plain radiographs were scheduled at 6 months and at 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 years after surgery. RSA films were analyzed using UmRSA software. Plain radiographs were graded for bone resorption, cancellization, cortical thinning, and trabecular streaming or buttressing in specifically defined zones around the implant. At 5 years, the median (SE) migration of the implant was -0.02 (0.06) mm distally. The rotational movement was 0.42 (0.32) degrees around the longitudinal axis. There was no statistically significant difference in median rotation or migration at any follow-up time. Cancellization of the cortex (plain radiographic grading) appeared in at least 1 zone in over half of the patients at 2 years. However, the prevalence of cancellization had decreased by the 5-year follow-up. The RSA analysis for the OPRA system indicated stable fixation of the implant. The periprosthetic bone remodeling showed similarities with changes seen around uncemented hip stems. The OPRA system is a new and promising approach for addressing the challenges faced by patients with transfemoral amputations.

  5. Evaluation of strontium isotope abundance ratios in combination with multi-elemental analysis as a possible tool to study the geographical origin of ciders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Silvia [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Moldovan, Mariella [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fortunato, Giuseppino [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research EMPA, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Wunderli, Samuel [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research EMPA, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)]. E-mail:


    In order to evaluate alternative analytical methodologies to study the geographical origin of ciders, both multi-elemental analysis and Sr isotope abundance ratios in combination with multivariate statistical analysis were estimated in 67 samples from England, Switzerland, France and two Spanish regions (Asturias and the Basque Country). A methodology for the precise and accurate determination of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio in ciders by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was developed. Major elements (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were measured by ICP-AES and minor and trace elements (Li, Be, B, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, W, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U) were measured by ICP-MS using a collision cell instrument operated in multitune mode. An analysis of variance (ANOVA test) indicated that group means for B, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd, Cs, Ce, W, Pb, Bi and U did not show any significant differences at the 95% confidence level, so these elements were rejected for further statistical analysis. Another group of elements (Li, Be, Sc, Co, Ga, Y, Sn, Sb, La, Tl, Th) was removed from the data set because concentrations were close to the limits of detection for many samples. Therefore, the remaining elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba) together with {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio were considered for principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, LDA was able to classify correctly 100% of cider samples coming from different Spanish regions, France, England and Switzerland when considering Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio as original variables.

  6. Migration og etnicitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe


    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....

  7. Microscopic and micro chemical evaluation (elemental Analysis of the medicinal herb, Lippia nodiflora (Linn. Rich (Phyla nodiflora Linn. Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkara Yashvanth


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the micro morphology and elemental analysis of Lippia nodoflora (L. nodiflora Methods: Fresh leaf sections and epidermal peels were used for light microscopy. Glutaraldehyde fixed and dehydrated plant material was used for Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive -ray analysis (EDAX. Results: Scanning electron microscopic studies unraveled the characteristic fine details of the plant. These include the mid fixed or malpighigiaceous, rhomboidal, multi cellular leafy hairs, anisocytic or cruciferous stomata, single celled glands. Leaf constants like stomatal number (stomatal frequency/density and stomatal index were measured. Detailed anatomy of stem, root and leaf was studied. Elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of the plant. Conclusions: Microscopic analysis was informative and useful in the sample identification, standardization for quality & purity. Information on micro chemical composition indicates the enrichment of the plant with Si, Ca and Fe. This helps in using the plant in certain herbal preparations that need plants with enriched minerals.

  8. Evaluation of the 3D Finite Element Method Using a Tantalum Rod for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head (United States)

    Shi, Jingsheng; Chen, Jie; Wu, Jianguo; Chen, Feiyan; Huang, Gangyong; Wang, Zhan; Zhao, Guanglei; Wei, Yibing; Wang, Siqun


    Background The aim of this study was to contrast the collapse values of the postoperative weight-bearing areas of different tantalum rod implant positions, fibula implantation, and core decompression model and to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of tantalum rod implantation in different ranges of osteonecrosis in comparison with other methods. Material/Methods The 3D finite element method was used to establish the 3D finite element model of normal upper femur, 3D finite element model after tantalum rod implantation into different positions of the upper femur in different osteonecrosis ranges, and other 3D finite element models for simulating fibula implant and core decompression. Results The collapse values in the weight-bearing area of the femoral head of the tantalum rod implant model inside the osteonecrosis area, implant model in the middle of the osteonecrosis area, fibula implant model, and shortening implant model exhibited no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) when the osteonecrosis range was small (60°). The stress values on the artificial bone surface for the tantalum rod implant model inside the osteonecrosis area and the shortening implant model exhibited statistical significance (p<0.01). Conclusions Tantalum rod implantation into the osteonecrosis area can reduce the collapse values in the weight-bearing area when osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) was in a certain range, thereby obtaining better clinical effects. When ONFH was in a large range (120°), the tantalum rod implantation inside the osteonecrosis area, shortening implant or fibula implant can reduce the collapse values of the femoral head, as assessed by other methods. PMID:25479830

  9. Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.


    The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

  10. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  11. Evaluation of trace elemental composition of aerosols in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad using radio analytical methods. (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Zaidi, Jamshaid Hussain; Ahmad, Shaikh Asrar; Gulzar, Asad; Yaseen, Muhammad; Atta, Sadia; Tufail, Asma


    Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, using instrumental neutron activation for trace elemental analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study particulate size distribution and morphology. Twenty two elements were analyzed and their likely sources were identified. It was found that 69% of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Islamabad, and 52% in Rawalpindi, were of a diameter less than 3 μm. The presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf indicates that a major portion of the trace elements in the aerosol particulates was due to the geological nature of the land, while Sc was considered to be arising from coal burning. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd was attributed to anthropogenic activities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Unusually high concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in the atmosphere of Islamabad, based on soil derived aerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Upper-limb virtual rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: a preliminary within-group evaluation of the elements system. (United States)

    Mumford, Nick; Duckworth, Jonathan; Thomas, Patrick R; Shum, David; Williams, Gavin; Wilson, Peter H


    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Elements virtual reality (VR) system for rehabilitation of upper-limb function in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a within-group design, patients were tested three times, each 4 weeks apart: Pre-intervention 1 and 2 and Post-intervention. During intervention, participants received 12 1-hour training sessions over 4 weeks in addition to their usual care. Five males and four females aged 18-48 years with severe TBI were recruited. The Elements system consisted of a 100-cm tabletop LCD, camera tracking system, tangible user interfaces (i.e. graspable objects of basic shape) and software. The system provided two modes of interaction with augmented feedback: goal-directed and exploratory. Upper-limb performance was assessed using system-rated measures (movement speed, accuracy and efficiency) and standardized tests. Planned comparisons revealed little change in performance over the pre-test period apart from an increase in movement speed. There were significant training effects, with large effect sizes on all measures except the nuts-and-bolts task. These preliminary findings support the results of an early case study of the Elements system, further demonstrating that VR training is a viable adjunct to conventional physical therapy in facilitating motor learning in patients with TBI.

  13. Development of geological disposal system; localization of element cost data and cost evaluation on the HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik; Kim, Kil Jung; Yang, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Chun [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)


    To estimate Total Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for Korea HLW Repository through localization of element cost data, we review and re-organize each basic element cost data for reference repository system, localize various element cost and finally estimate TSLCC considering economic parameters. As results of the study, TSLCC is estimated as 17,167,689 million won, which includes costs for site preparation, surface facilities, underground facilities and management/integration. Since HLW repository Project is an early stage of pre-conceptual design at present, the information of design and project information are not enough to perform cost estimate and cost localization for the Project. However, project cost structure is re-organized based on the local condition and Total System Life Cycle Cost is estimated using the previous cost data gathered from construction experience of the local nuclear power plant. Project results can be used as basic reference data to assume total construction cost for the local HLW repository and should be revised to more reliable cost data with incorporating detail project design information into the cost estimate in a future. 20 refs. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  15. There and back again: migration in freshwater fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brönmark, C.; Hulthén, K.; Nilsson, P.A.


    that migration occurs in a range of freshwater fish taxa from many different habitats. In this review we focus on the causes and consequences of migration in freshwater fishes. We start with an introduction of concepts and categories of migration, and then address the evolutionary causes that drive individuals...... to make these migratory journeys. The basis for the decision of an individual fish to migrate or stay resident is an evaluation of the costs and benefits of different strategies to maximize its lifetime reproductive effort. We provide examples by discussing our own work on the causes behind seasonal......Animal migration is an amazing phenomenon that has fascinated humans for long. Many freshwater fishes also show remarkable migrations, whereof the spectacular mass migrations of salmonids from the spawning streams are the most well known and well studied. However, recent studies have shown...

  16. Evaluation of Steelhead Kelt Passage into the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse Corner Collector Prior to the Juvenile Migration Seasons, 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Kim, Jina; Nagy, William T.; Johnson, Gary E.


    This report documents the results of a steelhead kelt passage study conducted by the PNNL for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at Bonneville Dam in early spring 2007 and 2008. At the Second Powerhouse, a surface flow outlet called the corner collector (B2CC) may be an effective non-turbine passage route for steelhead kelt moving downstream in early spring before the main juvenile emigration season. The goal of this project was to inform management decisions regarding B2CC operations by estimating the number of kelt using the B2CC for downstream passage at Bonneville Dam prior to the juvenile spring migration season. We performed a hydroacoustic study from March 2 to April 10, 2007 and from March 13 to April 15, 2008.



    Kobylinsky S. V.; Usenko A. S.


    Several peculiarities of the implementation of migration policy in the Russian Federation were considered in this article. We have shown main provisions on refugees and forced migrants from the Ukraine and labor migration. On the basis of the study we have suggested an improvement of migration legislation, in particular, creation of a single codex and migration police

  18. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged


    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.


    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  20. Evaluation of stress patterns on maxillary posterior segment when intruded with mini implant anchorage: A three-dimensional finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Pekhale


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate stress and displacement effects of maxillary posterior intrusion mechanics with mini-implant anchorage by using finite element method. Materials and Methods: A computer stimulation of three-dimensional model maxilla with all teeth, PDL, bone, mini-implants, brackets, arch wire, force element, and transpalatal arch was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology. Finite element analysis was done to evaluate the amount of stress and its distribution during orthodontic intrusive force. Results: Increased Von Mises stress values were observed in mesio-cervical region of first molar. The middle third of second premolar and second molar and regions adjacent to force application sites also showed relatively high stress values. Minimum stress values were observed in apical region of first premolar as it is away from force application. Conclusion: Using three mini-implant and transpalatal arches, this study demonstrates that significant amount of true intrusion of maxillary molars could be obtained with lesser concentration of stresses in the apical area recorded.

  1. Evaluation of the relationship between some blood metabolites and elements on the ovarian persistent follicle formation in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Merati


    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the effect of some blood metabolites and elements on the ovarian persistent follicle formation in dairy cattle. Blood samples were obtained from 117 lactating cows in two groups of normal and persistent follicle status. Glucose, urea, total protein, phosphorus and betahydroxy butyrate were measured by spectrophotometer method. Estradiol concentration in blood serum was measured by ELISA method. Effects of calving season, parity and milk production at 50-60 days postpartum were studied on persistent follicle status. Status of animal (presence or absence of resistant follicle had significant effect on urea, protein, beta-hydroxybutyrate, phosphorus and estradiol (p

  2. An evaluation of microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion methods for determining elemental impurities in carbon nanostructures using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikant P.


    It is common for as-prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene samples to contain remnants of the transition metals used to catalyze their growth; contamination may also leave other trace elemental impurities in the samples. Although a full quantification of impurities in as-prepared samples of carbon nanostructures is difficult, particularly when trace elements are intercalated or encapsulated within a protective layer of graphitic carbon, reliable information is essential for reasons such as quantifying the adulteration of physico-chemical properties of the materials and for evaluating environmental issues. Here, we introduce a microwave-based fusion method to degrade single- and double-walled CNTs and graphene nanoplatelets into a fusion flux thereby thoroughly leaching all metallic impurities. Subsequent dissolution of the fusion product in diluted hydrochloric and nitric acid allowed us to identify their trace elemental impurities using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Comparisons of the results from the proposed microwave-assisted fusion method against those of a more classical microwave-assisted acid digestion approach suggest complementarity between the two that ultimately could lead to a more reliable and less costly determination of trace elemental impurities in carbon nanostructured materials. Graphical abstract A method for the complete digestion of carbon nanostructures has been demonstrated. Photographs (on the left side) show zirconium crucibles containing SWCNTs with flux of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, before and after microwave fusion; (on the right side) the appearance of the final solutions containing dissolved samples, from microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion. These solutions were used for determining the trace elemental impurities by ICP‒OES.

  3. Construction and evaluation of thoracic injury risk curves for a finite element human body model in frontal car crashes. (United States)

    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin


    There is a need to improve the protection to the thorax of occupants in frontal car crashes. Finite element human body models are a more detailed representation of humans than anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). On the other hand, there is no clear consensus on the injury criteria and the thresholds to use with finite element human body models to predict rib fractures. The objective of this study was to establish a set of injury risk curves to predict rib fractures using a modified Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Injury criteria at the global, structural and material levels were computed with a modified THUMS in matched Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs) tests. Finally, the quality of each injury risk curve was determined. For the included PMHS tests and the modified THUMS, DcTHOR and shear stress were the criteria at the global and material levels that reached an acceptable quality. The injury risk curves at the structural level did not reach an acceptable quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Orbital angular momentum eigenfunctions for fast and numerically stable evaluations of closed-form pseudopotential matrix elements (United States)

    Hu, Anguang; Chan, Nora W. C.; Dunlap, Brett I.


    The computation of s-type Gaussian pseudopotential matrix elements involving low powers of the distance from the pseudopotential center using Gaussian orbitals can be reduced to familiar integrals. They may be directly expressed as either simple three-center overlap integrals for even powers of the radial distance from the pseudopotential center or related to the three-center nuclear integrals of a Gaussian charge distribution for odd powers. Orbital angular momentum about each atom is added to these integrals by solid-harmonic differentiation with respect to its center. The solid-harmonic addition theorem allows all the integrals to be factored into products of invariant one-dimensional integrals involving the Gaussian exponents and angular factors that contain the azimuthal quantum numbers but are independent of all Gaussian exponents. Precomputing the angular factors allow looping over all Gaussian exponents about the three centers. The fact that solid harmonics are eigenstates of angular momentum removes the singularities seen in previous treatments of pseudopotential matrix elements.

  5. A novel sax-stent method in treatment of ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysms evaluated by finite element simulations. (United States)

    Arokiaraj, M C; De Beule, M; De Santis, G


    A novel stent method to simplify treatment of proximal ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysms was developed and investigated by finite element analysis. Therapy of ascending aortic and aortic arch aneurysms is difficult and challenging and is associated with various complications. A 55mm wide×120mm long stent was designed without the stent graft and the stent was deployed by an endovascular method in a virtual patient-specific aneurysm model. The stress-strain analysis and deployment characteristics were performed in a finite element analysis using the Abaqus software. The stent, when embedded in the aortic wall, significantly reduced aortic wall stresses, while preserving the side coronary ostia and side branches in the aortic arch. When tissue growth was modeled computationally over the stent struts the wall stresses in aorta was reduced. This effect became more pronounced when increasing the thickness of the tissue growth. There were no abnormal stresses in the aorta, coronary ostium and at the origin of aortic branches. The stent reduced aneurysm expansion cause by hypertensive condition from 2mm without stenting to 1.3mm after stenting and embedding. In summary, we uncovered a simple treatment method using a bare nitinol stent without stent graft in the treatment of the proximal aorta and aortic arch aneurysms, which could eventually replace the complex treatment methods for this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Finite element model-based evaluation of tissue stress variations to fabricate corrective orthosis in feet with neutral subtalar joint. (United States)

    Paul, Sathish; Vijayakumar, Rekha; Mathew, Lazar; Sivarasu, Sudesh


    The subtalar joint position during static stance is a crucial determinant of the peak plantar pressures and forms ideal reference point for any intervention in foot-related problems for leprosy-affected patients. The study pursued the hypothesis through a three-dimensional model that stress will be minimal in the distal joints of the foot when the subtalar joint is in neutral static stance position. Finite element model. The computed tomography images of the feet for five patients suffering from Hansen's disease having no muscle weakness and joint restriction were acquired. The gray intensities corresponding to the bones of the foot from the computed tomography images were three-dimensionally reconstructed. The three-dimensional model of the human foot, incorporating the realistic geometry, and the material properties of the hard tissues were then analyzed using a finite element solver for the stress distribution on bones of the foot. The results demonstrate that the position of the calcaneum in the static stance position does contribute to the varying stress in the foot. The stresses in the bones of the foot are minimal while the subtalar is in neutral position; this position will be suitable for foot orthotic fabrication. Clinical relevance The clinicians, therapists, and podiatrists having less engineering skills can quickly assess the patient and get optimal results on the stress associated with the joints of the foot.

  7. Migration and health. (United States)

    Evans, J; Baldwin, W


    Investigation of migration and health often forces us to acknowledge that the types of migration (international, internal, and residential) interact with each other as well as other population parameters such as the age/sex structure, sexual activity, fertility, mortality, and family structure. Research on migration is often obscured by these interactions. In fact, the adoption of a health perspective in the design of migration research represents a substantial improvement over traditional approaches that are based on distinctions among the various types of population movement. This is because a health perspective treats population movement as a dynamic process by which individuals are related to specific locations by reason of their participation in human networks. In other words, migration is regarded as a human process rather than a discrete event, and accordingly, it becomes less important to describe the individual's involvement with human networks and the institutions sustaining them. The use of a health perspective in migration research often calls our attention to the ways in which the types of migration are interconnected. For example, a migrant from Mexico might exhibit considerable internal mobility and may circulate between Mexico might exhibit considerable internal mobility and may circulate between Mexico and the US over several years until he develops enough contacts in the US to settle in a particular community in which his personal contact with human networks and place-specific institutions are conducive to settlement. Through him, family members may attach to the community. In the process, they all encounter health risks, make demands on the health care system, change the demographic/health characteristics of both sending and receiving places, sometimes act as transmitting agents of disease to those with whom they interact and, undergo changes in their levels of personal development and well-being. A research perspective that investigates these

  8. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe


    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...... the creation of object surrogates as an abstraction of the abovementioned style of migration. We introduce Øjeblik, a distribution-free subset of Obliq, and provide three different configuration-style semantics, which only differ in the respective aliasing model. We show that two of the semantics, one of which...... matches Obliq’s implementation, render migration unsafe, while our new proposal for a third semantics is provably safe. Our work suggests a straightforward repair of Obliq’s aliasing model such that it allows programs to safely migrate objects....

  9. The 2D Finite Element Microstructure Evaluation of V-Shaped Arc Welding of AISI 1045 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Eyercioglu


    Full Text Available In the present study, V-shaped arc welding of the AISI 1045 steel is modeled by using 2D Finite Element Model (FEM. The temperature distribution, microstructure, grain growth, and the hardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ of the welding are simulated. The experimental work is carried out to validate the FE model. The very close agreement between the simulation and experimental results show that the FE model is very effective for predicting the microstructure, the phase transformation, the grain growth and the hardness. The effect of preheat temperature on the martensite formation is analysed, and it is shown that 225 °C preheating completely eliminates the martensite formations for the 12 mm thick plate.

  10. Evaluation of trace elements, calcium, and magnesium levels in the plasma and erythrocytes of patients with essential hyperhidrosis. (United States)

    Güder, Hüsna; Karaca, Semsettin; Cemek, Mustafa; Kulaç, Mustafa; Güder, Semih


    Essential hyperhidrosis is a disease that expresses itself with excessive sweating in palmar, plantar, axillary, and craniofacial regions. The etiopathogenesis of the disease, which has particular importance because of leading to psychosocial morbidity, could have not been completely elucidated. In previous studies, it has been shown that oxidative stress might play a role in the pathogenesis. Assessing the levels of trace elements such as Se, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mg that have an important role in oxidative stress, as well as Ca and Mg that have an important role in membrane physiology, in patients with essential hyperhidrosis. Blood samples taken from the patient group with essential hyperhidrosis (42) and the control group (37) were separated into plasma and erythrocytes, and the levels of the bioelements were measured by use of ICP-OES device. Erythrocyte levels of Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg were detected significantly higher in patients with essential hyperhidrosis. Furthermore, plasma levels of Cu, Ca, and Mg were significantly lower in patients with essential hyperhidrosis. Plasma levels of Se, Fe, and Zn showed no statistical difference between two groups. It was thought that the high levels of Cu and Fe in erythrocytes may play a role in increased intracellular oxidative stress, whereas the increase in Se and Zn levels may be secondary to increased oxidative stress. Low extracellular concentrations of Ca and Mg raise the thought that they play a role either enhancing the membrane excitability of eccrine sweat glands or influencing the autonomic nerve system. The levels of trace elements, which were determined to be different from the control group, may play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hyperhidrosis either in direct relation with or without oxidative mechanisms. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. En fornemmelse for migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  12. More myths of migration. (United States)

    Basch, L; Lerner, G


    This paper discusses some of the myths of migration. The 5 myths presented are: 1) racism has little to do with the causes of migration and does not necessarily impede the adjustment or success of migrants; 2) in areas where there is a strong feminist movement and trade unions, migrant women receive their support and can count on the solidarity of these organizations; 3) transnational corporations are positive forces in the developing countries where they operate--not only do they provide these states with new sources of capital, but they also impart new industrial skills to the labor force; 4) migration today is essentially short-term in nature--it therefore does not have a strong impact on family life; and 5) most migrants cluster together in ethnic enclaves which provide a strong source of support and diminish dislocation inherent in the migrant process.

  13. Arsenic and other oxyanion-forming trace elements in an alluvial basin aquifer: Evaluating sources and mobilization by isotopic tracers (Sr, B, S, O, H, Ra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, David S., E-mail: [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); McIntosh, Jennifer C. [University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dwyer, Gary S.; Vengosh, Avner [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)


    Highlights: > Elevated natural As and F occur in the Willcox Basin aquifer of Arizona. > Oxyanion-forming elements are derived from volcanic-source aquifer sediments. > Sr isotopes trace sediment sources linked to oxyanion-forming trace elements. > {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr > 0.720 indicates Proterozoic crystalline-source sediment contributing low As. > Both sediment source and hydrogeochemical evolution (Ca/Na) affect As levels. - Abstract: The Willcox Basin is a hydrologically closed basin in semi-arid southeastern Arizona (USA) and, like many other alluvial basins in the southwestern USA, is characterized by oxic, near-neutral to slightly basic groundwater containing naturally elevated levels of oxyanion-forming trace elements such as As. This study evaluates the sources and mobilization of these oxyanionic trace elements of health significance by using several isotopic tracers of water-rock interaction and groundwater sources ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4}, {delta}{sup 11}B, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 18}O, {sup 3}H). Values of {delta}{sup 2}H (-85 per mille to -64 per mille) and {delta}{sup 18}O (-11.8 per mille to -8.6 per mille) are consistent with precipitation and groundwater in adjacent alluvial basins, and low to non-detectable {sup 3}H activities further imply that modern recharge is slow in this semi-arid environment. Large variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios imply that groundwater has interacted with multiple sediment sources that constitute the basin-fill aquifer, including Tertiary felsic volcanic rocks, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and Proterozoic crystalline rocks. In general, low concentrations of oxyanion-forming trace elements and F{sup -} are associated with a group of waters exhibiting highly radiogenic values of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.72064-0.73336) consistent with waters in Proterozoic crystalline rocks in the mountain blocks (0.73247-0.75010). Generally higher As concentrations (2-29 {mu}g L{sup -1}), other

  14. Transventricular Migration of Neurocysticercosis. (United States)

    Shah, Abhidha; Vutha, Ravikiran; Sankhe, Shilpa; Goel, Atul


    The movements of a neurocysticercosis cyst within the ventricular cavity have been identified rarely. A 22-year old male patient presented with the main symptom of diplopia for about a week. Findings of the neurologic examination revealed bilateral sixth cranial nerve weakness. Investigations during the period showed an intraventricular tumor that migrated from lateral ventricle to the third ventricle and subsequently to the fourth ventricle. The lesion was resected from the fourth ventricle and was identified to be a neurocysticercosis cyst. Such an intraventricular migration of any kind of tumor has not been recorded in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    three consecutive summers from 2010 to 2012. The articles focus on various aspects of the migrant experience and try to answer questions about migrant identity and its representations in literature and the media. The book closes with an original play by Carlos Morton, the Chicano playwright working......(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  16. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till


    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  17. Samtidskunst og migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...... Europa og i bredere forstand Vesten. Rapporten er en intern rapport som er lavet i tilknytning til det kollektive forskningsprojekt "Islam i europæisk litteratur" på Afdelingen for Litteraturvidenskab og Moderne Kultur og indleveret til dette projekts leder, Peter Madsen....

  18. Making Migration Meaningful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger


    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during periods...... of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility is also...

  19. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond


    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  20. [Migration and diabetes]. (United States)

    Aydinkoc-Tuzcu, Kadriye; Schindler, Karin; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter


    The article deals with the demographic data of migration in Austria and with therapeutic advice concerning drug therapy and diabetes education for patients with migration background. In this context socio-cultural specifics are discussed. These suggestions are seen complementary to the general treatment guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association.Especially for the fast months Ramadan there are a lot of informations. The most important point is that the patient care must be highly individualized and the management plan may differ for each patient.

  1. What's driving migration? (United States)

    Kane, H


    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  2. Evaluating Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell’s Survival, Migration, and Expression of Wound Repair Markers under Conditions of Ischemia-Like Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Himal


    Full Text Available The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy is currently limited by low retention and poor survival of transplanted cells as demonstrated by clinical studies. This is mainly due to the harsh microenvironment created by oxygen and nutrient deprivation and inflammation at the injured sites. The choice of MSC source could be critical in determining fate and cellular function of MSCs under stress. Our objective here was to investigate the influence of ischemia-like stress on Wharton’s jelly MSCs (WJ-MSCs from human umbilical cord to assess their therapeutic relevance in ischemic diseases. We simulated conditions of ischemia in vitro by culturing WJ-MSCs in 2% oxygen in serum deprived and low glucose medium. Under these conditions, WJ-MSCs retained viable population of greater than 80%. They expressed the characteristic MSC surface antigens at levels comparable to the control WJ-MSCs and were negative for the expression of costimulatory molecules. An upregulation of many ECM and adhesion molecules and growth and angiogenic factors contributing to wound healing and regeneration was noted in the ischemic WJ-MSC population by a PCR array. Their migration ability, however, got impaired. Our findings provide evidence that WJ-MSCs might be therapeutically beneficial and potent in healing wounds under ischemic conditions.

  3. Evaluation Of Finite Element Mesh Arrangements And Stress Intensity Factor Calculation Methods For Opening Mode Fracture Of Cracked-Cemented Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Nikraz


    Full Text Available Fracture mechanics is a branch of mechanics, which deals with the cracked body. Every construction material that currently in use inevitably is not flawless. The pre-existing crack may grow to cause structure failure due to low stress, which acts to a structure. Stress intensity factor (K is a single parameter in fracture mechanics, which can be used to examine if a crack, would propagate in a cracked structure under particular loading condition. Finite element method is used to analyze the cracked body to provide the displacements data around the crack tip (at quarter point elements due to load prescribed, for stress intensity factor determination. Two methods of stress intensity factor calculation, Quarter Point Displacement Technique (QPDT and Displacement Correlation Technique (DCT, were evaluated. A series of standard fracture testing were undertaken to provide the fracture load data (Pf, which coupled with the stress intensity factor analytical formula to calculate fracture toughness. The results showed that under a particular mesh arrangement, the result of finite element analysis could deviate from the analytical formula calculation result. The QPDT method is suitable for compact tension specimen but DCT seemed to be not. For cracked beam analysis, the QPDT and DCT calculations were in good agreement with the analytical formula as long as coupled with the appropriate mesh arrangement around the crack tip.

  4. Elemental matrices for the finite element method in electromagnetics with quadratic triangular elements


    Cojocaru, E.


    The finite element method has become a preeminent simulation technique in electromagnetics. For problems involving anisotropic media and metamaterials, proper algorithms should be developed. It has been proved that discretizing in quadratic triangular elements may lead to an improved accuracy. Here we present a collection of elemental matrices evaluated analytically for quadratic triangular elements. They could be useful for the finite element method in advanced electromagnetics.

  5. Migration scenarii in extrasolar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crida A.


    Full Text Available In this review talk, I present the theory of type I migration of small mass planets, and its latest developments that open the possibility of outward migration in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk. I also review the type II migration of giant planets, and mention the runaway, type III. Then, we focus on the migration of pairs of planets in resonance. The eccentricity of the planets raise, and possibly their mutual inclination as well. Also, the migration rate can be changed, and directed outward if the outer planet is the lighter. Last, we present a synthetic scenario of migration for the giant planets of our Solar System.

  6. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stojić-Mitrović


    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  7. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens. (United States)

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz


    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  8. Evaluating the health risks of potentially toxic elements through wheat consumption in multi-industrial metropolis of Faisalabad, Pakistan. (United States)

    Abbas, Qumber; Yousaf, Balal; Liu, Guijian; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Munir, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba; Hussain, Syed Arif


    Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution is the fastest growing concern around the entire globe especially in developing countries. Rapid industrialization and urbanization are the dominant sources of anthropogenic soil-food chain contamination with PTEs. The intent of current study was to investigate the interactive levels of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil and their accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples collected from 96 sites including industrial, urban, and peri-urban areas of a leading multi-industrialized center (Faisalabad) of Pakistan. According to results obtained from present study, non-carcinogenic (HQ) and life-time carcinogenic risks (CR) of the PTEs to the local inhabitants were estimated following the risk assessment modals proposed by the US-EPA. With respect to estimated HQ for chronic non-carcinogenic risk of Mn, Ni, and Pb, higher potential hazards were observed as compared to Cu, Fe, and Zn. Meanwhile, the carcinogenic risk of Ni marginally exceeded the limit described by US-EPA for adults. Overall, the health risks of PTEs with the consumption of wheat were lower than the limits described by US-EPA except for Ni. However, continuous consumption of this PTEs contaminated food may result the potential buildup of poisonousness and various disorders in humans. Therefore, long-term monitoring and gastrointestinal bio-accessibility studies are requisite for the safety of humans under such conditions.

  9. Evaluation of different screw fixation techniques and screw diameters in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: finite element analysis method. (United States)

    Sindel, A; Demiralp, S; Colok, G


    Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) is used for correction of numerous congenital or acquired deformities in facial region. Several techniques have been developed and used to maintain fixation and stabilisation following SSRO application. In this study, the effects of the insertion formations of the bicortical different sized screws to the stresses generated by forces were studied. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis (FEA) and static linear analysis methods were used to investigate difference which would occur in terms of forces effecting onto the screws and transmitted to bone between different application areas. No significant difference was found between 1·5- and 2-mm screws used in SSRO fixation. Besides, it was found that 'inverted L' application was more successful compared to the others and that was followed by 'L' and 'linear' formations which showed close rates to each other. Few studies have investigated the effect of thickness and application areas of bicortical screws. This study was performed on both advanced and regressed jaws positions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma injection for elemental mercury oxidation in a simulated flue gas. (United States)

    An, Jiutao; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Jiang, Yuze; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan


    The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) injection approach to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated flue gas at 110°C was studied, where a surface discharge plasma reactor (SDPR) inserted in the simulated flue duct was used to generate and inject active species into the flue gas. Approximately 81% of the Hg(0) was oxidized and 20.5μgkJ(-1) of energy yield was obtained at a rate of 3.9JL(-1). A maximal Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was found with a change in the NTP injection air flow rate. A high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O2, H2O, SO2, NO and HCl. Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N2 metastable states and UV-light) were found to contribute to Hg(0) oxidation, with ozone playing a dominant role. The deposited mercury species on the internal surface of the flue duct was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the deposit was identified as HgO. The mercury species is thought to primarily exist in the form of HgO(s) by adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah


    rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...

  12. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog


    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  13. Digitizing migration heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi


    Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...

  14. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  15. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.


    Full Text Available Ringing of birds unveiled many aspects of avian migration and dispersal movements. However, there is even much more to be explored by the use of ringing and other marks. Dispersal is crucial in understanding the initial phase of migration in migrating birds as it is to understand patterns and processes of distribution and gene flow. So far, the analysis of migration was largely based on analysing spatial and temporal patters of recoveries of ringed birds. However, there are considerable biases and pitfalls in using recoveries due to spatial and temporal variation in reporting probabilities. Novel methods are required for future studies separating the confounding effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of recovery data and heterogeneity of the landscape as well. These novel approaches should aim a more intensive and novel use of the existing recovery data by taking advantage of, for instance, dynamic and multistate modeling, should elaborate schemes for future studies, and should also include other marks that allow a more rapid data collection, like telemetry, geolocation and global positioning systems, and chemical and molecular markers. The latter appear to be very useful in the delineating origin of birds and connectivity between breeding and non–breeding grounds. Many studies of migration are purely descriptive. However, King and Brooks (King & Brooks, 2004 examine if movement patterns of dolphins change after the introduction of a gillnet ban. Bayesian methods are an interesting approach to this problem as they provide a meaningful measure of the probability that such a change occurred rather than simple yes/no response that is often the result of classical statistical methods. However, the key difficulty of a general implementation of Bayesian methods is the complexity of the modelling —there is no general userfriendly package that is easily accessible to most scientists. Drake and Alisauskas (Drake & Alisauskas, 2004 examine the

  16. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco


    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  17. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  18. Migrating the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure to lit...

  19. Practical Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Johny


    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  20. Evaluation of prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence, macrophage migration inhibitory factor and Golgi protein-73 versus alpha fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and surveillance. (United States)

    Ismail, Manar M; Morsi, Heba K; Abdulateef, Nahla A B; Noaman, Maissa K; Abou El-Ella, Ghada A


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a challenging malignancy of worldwide importance. It is the third most common cause of cancer-related death globally as most patients present with unresectable disease. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the widely and solely used biomarker for HCC diagnosis; yet, its usefulness is hampered by low sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to identify more sensitive biomarkers for HCC diagnosis and a surveillance algorithm that may facilitate early detection of HCC. A total of 305 Egyptian and Saudi participants grouped as healthy controls, cancer controls, benign hepatic lesions, chronic viral hepatitis and HCC were included. Serum AFP, prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and Golgi protein-73 (GP-73) levels were quantitated by enzyme immunoassay. Significantly higher levels of GP-73 and PIVKA-II were detected in the HCC group than in all other groups, while MIF showed a highly significant increase in HCC from all groups except the cancer control group. The HCC group showed no significant difference between the studied biomarkers and the type of chronic viral hepatitis. On the basis of multiple ROC curve analyses, GP-73 and PIVKA-II showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for surveillance and diagnosis. In conclusion, PIVKA-II and GP-73 offer an effective approach for early HCC diagnosis and surveillance of high-risk groups with a higher accuracy than AFP. MIF may serve as a promising screening tumor marker for the detection of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) malignancy.

  1. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes


    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and macrophage migration inhibition factor changes in the porcine remnant kidney model: Evaluation by MRI (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Misra, Khamal D; Glockner, James F.


    Purpose To determine the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in the porcine remnant kidney model and quantify renal blood flow and volume using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography (PC MRI/MRA). Material and methods In 23 pigs, the left renal artery was completely embolized using polyvinyl acrylide (PVA) particles and the right kidney partially embolized (remnant kidney) while six pigs served as controls. The animals were sacrificed early (day 3, 7, and 14, N=3), day 24 (D24, N=5), day 37 (D37, N=3), day 42 (D42, N=9), and day 84 (D84, N=3). MRI/PC MRA of the kidneys was performed prior to sacrifice. The remnant and control kidneys were harvested for Western blotting of VEGF-A, MMP-1, and MIF. Blood was removed for BUN and creatinine prior to embolization and at time of sacrifice. Results The kidney function after the embolization was characterized by chronic renal insufficiency. The renal artery blood flow, volume, and weight of the remnant kidney increased significantly over time when compared to controls. At early time points, there was increased expression of MIF and MMP-1 followed by an increase in the expression of VEGF-A by day 37 (Pkidney revealed scarring in the tubulointerstitial space. Conclusions In this model, renal blood flow and volume increase as the remnant kidney hypertrophies and scars. There is increased expression of MIF, VEGF-A, and MMP-1 in the remnant kidney. PMID:20610182

  3. Low implant migration of the SIGMA® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppens, Daan; Stilling, Maiken; Munk, Stig


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate implant migration of the fixed-bearing Sigma® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). UKA is a regularly used treatment for patients with medial osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. UKA has a higher revision rate than total knee arthroplasty. Implant...... migration can be used as a predictor of implant loosening....

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Urinary Bladder: Comparison Between Cancerous, Adjacent Non-cancerous and Normal Cadaveric Tissue. (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, Mahmoud; Elsobky, Emad; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abd-Elhameed, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahim, Mona; Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir


    The role of heavy metals and trace elements (HMTE) in the development of some cancers has been previously reported. Bladder carcinoma is a frequent malignancy of the urinary tract. The most common risk factors for bladder cancer are exposure to industrial carcinogens, cigarette smoking, gender, and possibly diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate HTME concentrations in the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and compare them with those of normal cadaveric bladder. This prospective study included 102 paired samples of full-thickness cancer and adjacent non-cancerous bladder tissues of radical cystectomy (RC) specimens that were histologically proven as invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We used 17 matched controls of non-malignant bladder tissue samples from cadavers. All samples were processed and evaluated for the concentration of 22 HMTE by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Outcome analysis was made by the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. When compared with cadaveric control or cancerous, the adjacent non-cancerous tissue had higher levels of six elements (arsenic, lead, selenium, strontium, zinc, and aluminum), and when compared with the control alone, it had a higher concentration of calcium, cadmium, chromium, potassium, magnesium, and nickel. The cancerous tissue had a higher concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc than cadaveric control. Boron level was higher in cadaveric control than cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Cadmium level was higher in cancerous tissue with node-positive than node-negative cases. The high concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and zinc, in the cancerous together with arsenic in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues of RC specimens suggest a pathogenic role of these elements in BC. However, further work-up is needed to support this

  5. Critical Evaluation of an Intercalibration Project Focused on the Definition of New Multi-Element Soil Reference Materials (AMS-MO1 and AMS-ML1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari


    Full Text Available Soils are complex matrices and their geochemical investigation necessarily needs reliable Certified Reference Materials (CRMs, i.e. standards, to support analytical precision and accuracy. In particular, the definition of soil multi-element CRMs is particularly complex and involves an inter-laboratory program that employs numerous analytical techniques. In this study, we present the results of the inter-calibration experiment focused on the certification of two new soil standards named AMS-ML1 and AMS-MO1. The two soils developed on sandstone and serpentinite parent materials, respectively. The experiment involved numerous laboratories and focused on the evaluation of soil physicochemical parameters and geochemical analyses of major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Inductive Coupled Plasma techniques (ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The data was statistically elaborated. Three levels of repeatability and accuracy in function of the different analytical methods and instrumentation equipment was observed. The statistical evaluation of the results obtained by ICP-OES on Aqua Regia extracts (i.e., Lilliefors test for normally, Grubbs test for outliers, Cochran test for outliers in variances and ANOVA allowed to computed some certified values for the two proposed soil standards. This preliminary study will represent the first step of a more thorough intercalibration ring-test involving a higher number of laboratories, in order to propose the investigated matrices as CRMs.

  6. Evaluation of Thermodynamic Stable Phase and Microstructure of SA508 Gr.4N Model Alloys for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel with Variation of Alloying Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mim Chul; Lee, B. S


    In order to increase the strength and the fracture toughness of RPV(reactor pressure vessel) steels, an effective way is the change of material specification from Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel(SA508 Gr.3) into Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel(SA508 Gr.4N). In this study, we evaluate the effects of alloying elements on microstructural characteristics in Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel. The changes in stable phase of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with alloying elements were evaluated using a thermodynamic calculation by ThermoCalc software, and then compared with its microstructural observation results. From the calculation of Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steels, ferrite formation temperature were decreased with increasing Ni and Mn contents due to austenite stabilization effect. Consequently, in the microscopic observation, the microstructure became finer with increasing Ni and Mn contents. However, they does not affects the carbide phase such as M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. When the content of Cr is decreased, carbide phases became unstable and carbide coarsening is observed. With increase of Mo content, M{sub 2}C phase become stable instead of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and it also observed in the TEM.

  7. Evaluation of Effective Elastic, Piezoelectric, and Dielectric Properties of SU8/ZnO Nanocomposite for Vertically Integrated Nanogenerators Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mishra


    Full Text Available A nanogenerator is a nanodevice which converts ambient mechanical energy into electrical energy. A piezoelectric nanocomposite, composed of vertical arrays of piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires, encapsulated in a compliant polymeric matrix, is one of most common configurations of a nanogenerator. Knowledge of the effective elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric material properties of the piezoelectric nanocomposite is critical in the design of a nanogenerator. In this work, the effective material properties of a unidirectional, unimodal, continuous piezoelectric composite, consisting of SU8 photoresist as matrix and vertical array of ZnO nanowires as reinforcement, are systematically evaluated using finite element method (FEM. The FEM simulations were carried out on cubic representative volume elements (RVEs. Four different types of arrangements of ZnO nanowires and three sizes of RVEs have been considered. The volume fraction of ZnO nanowires is varied from 0 to a maximum of 0.7. Homogeneous displacement and electric potential are prescribed as boundary conditions. The material properties are evaluated as functions of reinforcement volume fraction. The values obtained through FEM simulations are compared with the results obtained via the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka micromechanics. The results demonstrate the significant effects of ZnO arrangement, ZnO volume fraction, and size of RVE on the material properties.

  8. Predicting rib fracture risk with whole-body finite element models: development and preliminary evaluation of a probabilistic analytical framework. (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Kent, Richard W; Mroz, Krystoffer; Pipkorn, Bengt; Bostrom, Ola; Segui-Gomez, Maria


    This study sought to develop a strain-based probabilistic method to predict rib fracture risk with whole-body finite element (FE) models, and to describe a method to combine the results with collision exposure information to predict injury risk and potential intervention effectiveness in the field. An age-adjusted ultimate strain distribution was used to estimate local rib fracture probabilities within an FE model. These local probabilities were combined to predict injury risk and severity within the whole ribcage. The ultimate strain distribution was developed from a literature dataset of 133 tests. Frontal collision simulations were performed with the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) model with four levels of delta-V and two restraints: a standard 3-point belt and a progressive 3.5-7 kN force-limited, pretensioned (FL+PT) belt. The results of three simulations (29 km/h standard, 48 km/h standard, and 48 km/h FL+PT) were compared to matched cadaver sled tests. The numbers of fractures predicted for the comparison cases were consistent with those observed experimentally. Combining these results with field exposure informantion (ΔV, NASS-CDS 1992-2002) suggests a 8.9% probability of incurring AIS3+ rib fractures for a 60 year-old restrained by a standard belt in a tow-away frontal collision with this restraint, vehicle, and occupant configuration, compared to 4.6% for the FL+PT belt. This is the first study to describe a probabilistic framework to predict rib fracture risk based on strains observed in human-body FE models. Using this analytical framework, future efforts may incorporate additional subject or collision factors for multi-variable probabilistic injury prediction.

  9. Evaluation of the influences of various force magnitudes and configurations on scoliotic curve correction using finite element analysis. (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi, Ali; McGarry, Anthony


    Scoliosis is a lateral curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine, and the curvature can be moderate to severe. Different treatment can be used based on severity and age of subjects, but most common treatment for this disease is using orthosis. To design orthosis types of force arrangement can be varied, from transverse loads to vertical loads or combination of them. But it is not well introduced how orthoses control scoliotic curve and how to achieve the maximum correction based on force configurations and magnitude. Therefore, it was aimed to determine the effect of various loads configurations and magnitudes on curve correction of a degenerative scoliotic subject. A scoliotic subject participated in this study. The CT-Scan of the subject was used to produce 3D model of spine. The 3D model of spine was produced by Mimics software and the finite element analysis and deformation of scoliotic curve of the spine under seven different forces and in three different conditions was determined by ABAQUS software. The Cobb angle in scoliosis curve decreased significantly by applying forces. In each condition depends on different forces, different corrections have been achieved. It can be concluded that the configurations of the force application mentioned in this study is effective to decrease the scoliosis curve. Although it is a case study, it can be used for a vast number of subjects to predict the correction of scoliosis curve before orthotic treatment. Moreover, it is recommended that this method and the outputs can be compared with clinical findings.

  10. The evaluation of the role of medial collateral ligament maintaining knee stability by a finite element analysis. (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Liu, Yueju; Zhang, Xianchao; Song, Zhaohui; Lu, Jian; Wang, Pengcheng


    A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the knee joint was established to analyze the biomechanical functions of the superficial and deep medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) of knee joints and to investigate the treatment of the knee medial collateral ligament injury. The right knee joint of a healthy male volunteer was subjected to CT and MRI scans in the extended position. The scanned data were imported into MIMICS, Geomagic, and ANSYS software to establish a three-dimensional FEM of the human knee joint. The anterior-posterior translation, valgus-varus rotation, and internal-external rotation of knee joints were simulated to observe tibial displacement or valgus angle. In addition, the magnitude and distribution of valgus stress in the superficial and deep layers of the intact MCL as well as the superficial, deep, and overall deficiencies of the MCL were investigated. In the extended position, the superficial medial collateral ligament (SMCL) would withstand maximum stresses of 48.63, 16.08, 17.23, and 16.08 MPa in resisting the valgus of knee joints, tibial forward displacement, internal rotation, and external rotation, respectively. Meanwhile, the maximum stress tolerated by the SMCL in various ranges of motion mainly focused on the femoral end point, which was located at the anterior and posterior parts of the femur in resisting valgus motion and external rotation, respectively. However, the deep medial collateral ligament could tolerate only minimum stress, which was mainly focused at the femoral start and end points. This model can effectively analyze the biomechanical functions of the superficial and deep layers of the MCLs of knee joints. The results show that the knee MCL II° injury is the indication of surgical repair.

  11. Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by the use of In Natura Biogas in Steam Generator Boilers of Carbon Steel Structural Elements


    Fontenelle, Marcellus; Alves, Helton José; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto; Higa, Silvia Midori; Rovere, Carlos Alberto Della; Pellizzer, Eder Luis; Fontenelle,Isaddora


    This work evaluates the corrosion process caused by the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the biogas in natura, in steels commonly used in the construction of steam generator boilers, simulating conditions close to those found on the real application of these materials, exposing the test bodies directly to biogas in natura, flame of combustion and gases resulting from the combustion of this biofuel, in chimney. After 314 hours of exposure under the specified conditions, the corroded surfaces of...

  12. From Migration Regime to Regional Citizenry: Migration and Identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine the East African common market, taken as a regional migration regime, and draw its implications for intra-regional migration and identity formation. Using desk research, I analyse the common market Protocol's provisions and envisage the implications of its implementation for intraregional migration and identity ...

  13. The International Organization for Migration in Global Migration Governance


    Poulsen, Sofie Havn; Andersen, Lise


    This project focuses on the IOM, the notion of global governance of migration and the interaction between these two. The point of departure has been an attempt to grasp the current global approach to migration and comprehend whether, or to what degree, there is governance of migration issues taking place at a global level.

  14. Globalization, Migration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George, Susan


    Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce

  15. Zimbabwe's Exodus Crisis, Migration, Survival

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Remittances, Informalisation and Dispossession in Urban Zimbabwe Sarah Bracking and Lloyd Sachikonye. 324. Chapter Fifteen Transnationalism and Undocumented Migration Between Rural Zimbabwe and South Africa France Maphosa. 346. Chapter Sixteen Metaphors of Migration: Zimbabwean Migrants in the South ...

  16. Migration of Asteroidal Dust Particles (United States)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.; Taylor, P. A.


    We numerically investigated the migration of dust particles with initial velocities and positions same as those of the numbered asteroids using the Bulirsh-Stoer method of integration and took into account the gravitational influence of 8 planets, radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag, for values of the ratio between the radiation pressure force and the gravitational force β equal to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of β correspond to diameters of 40, 9, 4, 1.6, and 1 microns, respectively. For each β >= 0.05 we considered N=500 particles (N=250 for β =0.01). In our runs, planets were considered as material points, but, based on orbital elements obtained with a step of probability of a collision of a particle with a terrestrial planet during the lifetime of the particle. For smaller particles, the ratio of the number of particles that collided with the Sun to the total number of simulated particles and the probability of collisions of particles with the terrestrial planets are smaller. The probability of a collision of a migrating dust particle with the Earth for β =0.01 is greater by a factor of 220 than for β =0.4. The mean time ta during which an asteroidal dust particle had a semi-major axis 'a' in intervals with a fixed width is greater for smaller β (for the same initial number of particles) at a3.5 AU than at 'a' between 1 and 3 AU, and are usually maximum at 'a' about 2.3 AU. For β =0.01 the local maxima of ta corresponding to the 5:6, 6:7, 3:4, and 2:3 resonances with the Earth are greater than the maximum at 2.4 AU. The peaks in distribution of migrating asteroidal dust particles with semi-major axis corresponding to the n/(n+1) resonances with Earth and Venus and the gaps associated with the 1:1 resonances with these planets are more pronounced for larger particles. The spatial density of a simulated dust cloud and its luminosity (as seen from outside) were greater for smaller distance

  17. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma injection for elemental mercury oxidation in a simulated flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jiutao; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China); Jiang, Yuze [Shandong Electric Power Research Institute, Jinan 250002 (China); Wang, Tiecheng [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Jie, E-mail: [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Yan [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The use of non-thermal plasma injection approach to oxidize Hg{sup 0} in simulated flue gas at 110 °C was studied. • A high Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO and HCl. • Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N{sub 2} metastable states and UV-light) contributed to Hg{sup 0} oxidation. • Mercury species mainly existed in the form of HgO(s) adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase. - Abstract: The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) injection approach to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in simulated flue gas at 110 °C was studied, where a surface discharge plasma reactor (SDPR) inserted in the simulated flue duct was used to generate and inject active species into the flue gas. Approximately 81% of the Hg{sup 0} was oxidized and 20.5 μg kJ{sup −1} of energy yield was obtained at a rate of 3.9 J L{sup −1}. A maximal Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency was found with a change in the NTP injection air flow rate. A high Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO and HCl. Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N{sub 2} metastable states and UV-light) were found to contribute to Hg{sup 0} oxidation, with ozone playing a dominant role. The deposited mercury species on the internal surface of the flue duct was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the deposit was identified as HgO. The mercury species is thought to primarily exist in the form of HgO(s) by adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase.

  18. [Migration processes in small towns]. (United States)

    Makowska, K


    Changing migration patterns in Poland and their impact on small towns are analysed with a focus on the period since the 1950s. The analysis shows that although migration previously benefited major urban areas at the expense of small towns, the migration situation of small towns has recently improved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU


    Full Text Available Romanian youth migration is an increasing phenomenon, due to subjective and objective factors as economical reasons, professional carrer and increasingly more international competition for talent. In these circumstances, the present article aims to evaluate determinant factors that contribute to the decision of Romanian graduates to return national labour market. We sustain that young Romanians consider carefully and hardly decide their professional future. A particular attention is given to their personal reasons and motivations as well as family and friends network. For designing returning factors we present the results of a questionnaire survey, asking young pupils and students about their future educational way and personal reasons underlying the decision to study in a foreign country and taking into consideration the returning decision. As far international student migration is seen as a first step to migration for work, our work desires to fight for returning home of Romanian well-educated graduates.

  20. Musei del migration heritage / Migration heritage museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dragoni


    Since the second half of the 1960s of the 20th century, a profound cultural innovation was accompanied to the radical change in the social, political and economic climate. The anthropological notion of culture as opposed to idealistic vision, the unusual and strong interest in material culture, the enunciation of the concept of cultural property by the Franceschini Commission, the luck of the Public History bring a change of the disciplinary statutes of historical sciences, which begin to attend to social history, focusing on the spontaneous sources of information and initiating experiences of oral history. To all this a remarkable transformation of the themes and of the social function of museums is added. This paper illustrates, in relation to this more general context, the foundation and the dissemination of museums dedicated to the history of migration in Italy and in the world, enunciates their possible social utility for the integration of present migrants in Italy and illustrates, by way of example, the museum recently opened in Recanati.

  1. Damage evaluation of laminated composite material using a new acoustic emission Lamb-based and finite element techniques (United States)

    Yousefi, Jalal; Najfabadi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Toudeshky, Hossein Hosseini; Akhlaghi, Mehdi


    In this paper, a very promising procedure is proposed to evaluate delamination using Acoustic Emission (AE) technique in composite laminates. First, a new procedure was developed to decompose the fundamental Lamb wave modes in small size specimens. The damage mechanisms in End Notched Flexure (ENF) in woven and unidirectional specimens were then discriminated using Fuzzy Clustering Method (FCM). Afterwards, the crack-arrest phenomenon was examined in each specimen. After that, experimental and Cohesive Zone Modeling (CZM) techniques were conducted to characterize the delamination using ENF specimens. The results showed how, it is possible to successfully decrease the effect of propagating media such as attenuation of AE signals using the new proposed methodology. As a final point, the results of this study could lead to efficiently distinguishing different damages in laminated composite using AE Lamb-based technique.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Different Masonry Infill Walls with Structural Fuse Elements Based on In-Plane Cyclic Load Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kauffman


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of a structural fuse concept developed for use as a seismic isolation system in the design and retrofit of masonry infill walls. An experimental program was developed and executed to study the behavior of the structural fuse system under cyclic loads, and to evaluate the performance of the system with various masonry materials. Cyclic tests were performed by applying displacement controlled loads at the first, second, and third stories of a two-bay, three-story steel test frame with brick infill walls; using a quasi-static loading protocol to create a first mode response in the structural system. A parametric study was also completed by replacing the brick infill panels with infill walls constructed of concrete masonry units and autoclaved aerated concrete blocks, and applying monotonically increasing, displacement controlled loads at the top story of the test frame.

  3. Development of the numerical model for evaluating the temperature field and thermal stresses in structural elements of aircrafts (United States)

    Shumaev, V. V.; Kuzenov, V. V.


    An approximate method for estimating the thermal stresses of the aircraft key components of the simple geometric shape (the edges of the hull and wings, the nose fairing) has been developed. The mathematical model of such estimates is based on the solution of the quasi-static thermoelasticity problem. The solution is evaluated in the area with curvilinear boundaries, and the shape of these boundaries changes under the influence of thermal and mechanical loads. Thus the computational domain is transformed to an area where the regular Cartesian (structured) grid can be introduced. The initial validation and verification of the developed numerical methodology was carried out. Numerical modeling of temperature fields and thermal stresses in the simplest components of aircraft structures (cylinder blunted over the sphere and the shell) is performed.

  4. [Medical genetics and migration]. (United States)

    Feingold, J


    Any migration results in the transfer of normal and pathological genes from one population to another. The frequency of pathological genes may vary according to the population, sickle cell anaemia, for instance, being frequent in Africa and cystic fibrosis in Europe. It follows that the hereditary pathology of migrants is not the same as that of the host population, at least during the immediate post-migration years; subsequently, all depends on the degree of cross-breeding. In epidemiological genetics the study of the frequency of some diseases in the original population, among migrants and in the host population enables the effects of genes and environment on the aetiology of these diseases to be investigated.

  5. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements...... were related to the yearly progression of an environmental surrogate for food availability along the course of migration. In one species, with multiple, different non-breeding staging sites, environmental conditions explain movements well and also how yearly differences explain differences in timing...

  6. Religion, migration og integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn


    Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i integrationss......Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i...

  7. Forced Migration: Refugee Populations (United States)

    Boyle, Joyceen S.


    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that manifests in various contexts. This article describes the impact of the movement of large numbers of people in several African countries, producing a unique type of migrant—the refugee. We describe issues that refugee movements create on fragile health care systems, situations that precipitate refugee movements, certain human rights violations that are of particular concern such as gender based violence (GBV) and child soldiers, and lastly, implications for nursing practice and policy. We use examples from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current literature, as well as the international experience of the authors, this article presents an overview of forced migration and discusses opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  8. Syrian Crisis and Migration


    Pinar Yazgan; Deniz Eroglu Utku; Ibrahim Sirkeci


    With the growing insurrections in Syria in 2011, an exodus in large numbers have emerged. The turmoil and violence have caused mass migration to destinations both within the region and beyond. The current "refugee crisis" has escalated sharply and its impact is widening from neighbouring countries toward Europe. Today, the Syrian crisis is the major cause for an increase in displacement and the resultant dire humanitarian situation in the region. Since the conflict shows no signs of abating i...

  9. Retrograde Gastrojejunostomy Tube Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke Adesina


    Full Text Available Percutaneous enteral feeding tubes are placed about 250,000 times each year in the United States. Although they are relatively safe, their placement may be complicated by perforation, infection, bleeding, vomiting, dislodgment, and obstruction. There have been numerous reports of antegrade migration of gastrojejunostomy (G-J tubes. We report a case of G-J tube regurgitation following protracted vomiting and discuss the management of this very rare entity.

  10. American Migration Controversies


    Milan Mesić


    The USA has been and has remained the world's most important immigration country. The last quarter of the 20th century has been marked by a new mass immigration wave that in absolute size of the immigration flow can be compared to the highest flows in the previous century. This recent migration, however, differs from traditional immigration to America in that it includes a greater ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. The vast majority of today's immigrants, both legal and clandestine, co...

  11. Enforcement and illegal migration


    Pia Orrenius


    Border enforcement of immigration laws attempts to raise the costs of illegal immigration, while interior enforcement also lowers the benefits. Border and interior enforcement therefore reduce the net benefits of illegal immigration and should lower the probability that an individual will decide to migrate. While some empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as significant deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries significant uni...

  12. Conservation physiology of animal migration (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.


    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  13. Migration Profile NIGERIA 1. Structural Migration Profile 2. Flash Migration Profile (January - March 2017)




    The new generation of Migration Profiles aims at collecting knowledge on migration and development at regular, short intervals (3/6 months) and with a sub-national coverage, providing tailored monitoring and ensuring comparability across countries. It links migration, developmental and humanitarian aspects as well as analyses on the EU strategic role vis-à-vis the third country, including its political, financial and humanitarian support. This publication reproduces the Migration Profile of N...

  14. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber


    We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.

  15. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik


    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  16. Evaluation of prebent miniplates in fixation of Le Fort I advancement osteotomy with the finite element method. (United States)

    Coskunses, Fatih Mehmet; Kan, Bahadir; Mutlu, Ibrahim; Cilasun, Ulkem; Celik, Talip


    The stability of segments after Le Fort I osteotomy first attracted the researcher's interest when the surgical concept was conceived. Prebent plates are the ultimate modification of plate systems in craniofacial surgery; they have two right angles and are available in different lengths for use in maxillary advancement surgery. For this research, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of a male patient were obtained and scanned, and a 3D maxillary bone was created. Conventional Le Fort I osteotomies with 5 and 10 mm advancements were performed on both the cortical and trabecular bone using the Surgical Simulation Module of Mimics software; 1.7 mm Leibinger standard orthognathic 5-hole L plates and 1.7 mm Leibinger orthognathic advancement 11-hole prebent plates were adapted to the fragments. Displacement of the segment, the von Mises (VM) stresses (on the titanium miniplates) and the maximum principal (MP) stresses (on the bone) were evaluated for each configuration. Prebent plates offer a good alternative to the conventional two plate system, except in operations where maxillary advancement exceeds 5 mm. Surgical procedures that include advancement exceeding 5 mm or vertical position changes remain controversial and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluations of sexual assault: perceptions of guilt and legal elements for male and female aggressors using various coercive strategies. (United States)

    Russell, Brenda L; Oswald, Debra L; Kraus, Shane W


    This study examines the extent to which verdict, guilt, and legal components associated with jury instructions of sexual assault differ as a function of aggressor gender, participant gender, and sexual strategy used (consensual, verbal coercion, alcohol, or physical aggression) to obtain sex. Participants (N = 423; 276 women and 147 men) read a vignette depicting either a couple having consensual sex (control), or a male or female aggressor who initiates sexual intercourse via verbal coercion, use of alcohol, or physical abuse. College students were provided with legal instructions of sexual assault then asked to provide a verdict, degree of guilt, and legal components. Female participants rated guilt and coercion higher than did male participants. Ratings of guilt were highest in the physical assault condition followed by the alcohol, verbal, and control conditions. Female aggressors were rated less guilty than male aggressors. Results are explained in relation to sexual scripts and legal decision making. Lack of significance in verdict decisions and interaction effects suggests male and female aggressors are evaluated similarly using coercive strategies; yet, consent for sex was assumed and attributions of guilt was lower when the aggressor was female. Implications for jury instructions and future research are discussed.

  18. Re-evaluation of interferences of doubly charged ions of heavy rare earth elements on Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Jin-Hui


    We re-evaluate the interference of doubly charged heavy rare earth elements during Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). A series of mixed solutions of standard reference material SRM 987, rare earth elements, and Sr separated from rock reference materials are measured to assess the influence of isobaric interferences on the MC-ICP-MS analysis of Sr isotopes. After sample dissolution, conventional cation-exchange chromatography is employed for Sr purification of rock reference materials prior to MC-ICP-MS measurement. It has been demonstrated that if the natural abundances of Er and Yb are used to correct for doubly charged ion interferences on Sr, an overcorrection results. In contrast, the use of measured doubly charged ion ratios results in an accurate and precise correction of isobaric interference. This finding is confirmed by analytical results for several certified reference materials from mafic (basaltic) to felsic (granitic) silicate rocks. It is noteworthy that, because Er is more prone to doubly charged ion formation, it dominates over Yb doubly charged ions as an interference source.

  19. A study to evaluate non-uniform phase maps in shape memory alloys using finite element method (United States)

    Motte, Naren

    The unique thermo-mechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), such as their ability to recover the original shape upon heating or being able to tolerate large deformations without undergoing plastic transformations, makes them a good choice for actuators. This work studies their application in the aerospace and defense industries where SMA components can serve as release mechanisms for gates of enclosures that have to be deployed remotely. This work provides a novel approach in evaluating the stress and heat induced change of phase in a SMA, in terms of the transformation strain tensor. In particular, the FEA tool ANSYS has been used to perform a 2-D analysis of a Cu-Al-Zn-Mn SMA specimen undergoing a nontraditional loading path in two steps with stress and heating loads. In the first load step, tensile displacement is applied, followed by the second load step in which the specimen is heated while the end displacements are held constant. A number of geometric configurations are examined under the two step loading path. Strain results are used to calculate transformation strain which provides a quantitative measure of phase at a material point; when transformation strain is zero, the material point is either twinned martensite, or austenite depending on the temperature. Transformation strain value of unity corresponds to detwinned martensite. A value between zero and one indicates mixed phase. In this study, through two step loading in conjunction with transformation strain calculations, a method for mapping transient non-uniform distribution of phases in an SMA is introduced. Ability to obtain drastically different phase distributions under same loading path by modifying the geometry is demonstrated. The failure behavior of SMAs can be designed such that the load level the crack initiates and the path it propagates can be customized.

  20. Physical Guidance of Cell Migration (United States)

    Losert, Wolfgang

    Cells migrate as individuals or groups, to perform critical functions in life from organ development to wound healing and the immune response. While directed migration of cells is often mediated by chemical or physical gradients, our recent work has demonstrated that the physical properties of the microenvironment can also control and guide migration. I will describe how an underlying wave-like process of the actin scaffolding drives persistent migration, and how such actin waves are nucleated and guided by the texture of the microenvironment. Based on this observation we design textures capable of guiding cells in a single preferred direction using local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales, or altering migration in other ways. This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of Dictyostelium cells and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  1. Evaluating top soil trace element pollution in the vicinity of a cement plant and a former open-cast uranium mine in central Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.A.; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (AR). Inst. Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV); Moreno, Monica; Invernizzi, Rodrigo; Pla, Rita [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAE), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares


    Heavy metals are especially dangerous because of their persistence and toxicity. Soil behaves as a sink of heavy metals by aerial deposition of particles emitted by different human activities. The aims of this work were to identify the levels and sources of heavy metal and trace elements in agricultural and residential areas in Argentina and to evaluate the enrichment of total and HCl-extracted heavy metals. Materials and methods: Ninety-four topsoil samples were collected in Cordoba, Argentina (0-10 cm). The majority of the samples were subject to agricultural practices. The possible metal pollution sources were a cement plant and an industrial waste incinerator, a former open-cast uranium mine, petrochemical, and mechanical and metallurgical industries among others. The elements As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn were measured by neutron activation analysis, and Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were partially extracted by 0.5-M HCl and measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Several nonparametric statistics were performed to the dataset in order to accomplish the objectives of the study. Results and discussion: The mean total Ba concentration exceeded soil quality guidelines for residential areas, with the maximum total As and Co concentrations surpassing the agricultural and residential limits stated in national and international legislations. The elements As and Ba were found to be controlled by parent factors, whereas Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were controlled by both anthropogenic and pedogenic factors. A cement plant was the main source of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, whereas lanthanides, Fe, K, U, and also Zn were associated with a former open-cast operation uranium mine. A correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter and pH had strong associations with 0.5-M HCl-extracted Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Conclusions: Fe-normalized enrichment factors calculated for

  2. Radioactive seed migration following parotid gland interstitial brachytherapy. (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Huang, Ming-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Jian-Guo


    To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of pulmonary seed migration after parotid brachytherapy using a novel migrated seed detection technique. Patients diagnosed with parotid cancer who underwent permanent parotid brachytherapy from January 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Head and neck CT scans and chest X-rays were evaluated during routine follow-up. Mimics software and Geomagic Studio software were used for seed reconstruction and migrated seed detection from the original implanted region, respectively. Postimplant dosimetry analysis was performed after seeds migration if the seeds were still in their emitting count. Adverse clinical sequelae from seed embolization to the lung were documented. The radioactive seed implants were identified on chest X-rays in 6 patients. The incidence rate of seed migration in 321 parotid brachytherapy patients was 1.87% (6/321) and that of individual seed migration was 0.04% (6/15218 seeds). All migrated seeds were originally from the retromandibular region. No adverse dosimetric consequences were found in the target region. Pulmonary symptoms were not reported by any patient in this study. In our patient set, migration of radioactive seeds with an initial radioactivity of 0.6-0.7 mCi to the chest following parotid brachytherapy was rare. Late migration of a single seed from the central target region did not affect the dosimetry significantly, and patients did not have severe short-term complications. This study proposed a novel technique to localize the anatomical origin of the migrated seeds during brachytherapy. Our evidence suggested that placement of seeds adjacent to blood vessels was associated with an increased likelihood of seed migration to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Use of a Vehicle Acceleration Exposure Limit Model and a Finite Element Crash Test Dummy Model to Evaluate the Risk of Injuries During Orion Crew Module Landings (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala; Brinkley, James W.; Shemwell, David M.


    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  4. A study on evaluation of center of resistance of maxillary four incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction: A finite element study. (United States)

    Aruna, J


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the center of resistance of maxillary incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction. In this study, the following steps were employed namely, (1) Preprocessing - the creation of geometric model, mesh generation and boundary conditions. (2) Postprocessing - the tooth movement and determination of center of resistance. The center of the mid-sagittal plane approximately 6 mm apical and 4 mm posterior to a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane from the labial alveolar crest of the central incisor resistance for the maxillary four incisors was located within the. Finite element is a sound mechanical method of analysis as it was sufficient enough to provide insight into interactions between orthodontic forces, and dental tissues and reliability of this study. Further by using this study clinically, the center of resistance can be precisely located in single rooted tooth during orthodontic treatment.

  5. A simple evaluation procedure of the TAN calibration and the influence of non-ideal calibration elements on VNA S-parameter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Stumper


    Full Text Available For the 7-term general TAN (Through-Attenuator-Network self-calibration method of a four-sampler vector network analyser (VNA, and for all derived calibration methods like TLN, TRL, TRM, TAR, or TMN, it is shown that a very simple evaluation procedure of the seven error terms is possible, even if the Through connection is replaced by a reflectionless network with known transmission. Expressions for the deviations of the measured S-parameters of two-port test objects (d.u.t.s from the true values, which are caused by deviations of the modeled S-parameters of non-ideal calibration elements ("standards" from their true values, are also presented. Additionally, it is shown that a TAN calibration is also possible in case of unequal reflections of the Network.

  6. Element 115


    Forsberg, Ulrika


    This thesis is devoted to detailed studies of element 115 decay chains using the highly efficient multi-coincidence alpha, electron, gamma and X-ray detector setup TASISpec at the gas-filled separator TASCA at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. In a three-week long experiment thirty new decay chains assumed to stem from element 115 isotopes were observed together with the very first detections of gamma rays and potential X-rays from these nuclei. Paper I describes preparations in terms of optimisations...

  7. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Leifsson, Pall S. [University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Bülowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Gustavson, Kim [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)


    other fish species carrying similar or higher Hg concentrations. Ignoring sex and size, specimens with hepatic cell infiltrates had the highest concentrations of most elements, a relation that was also found for gill telangiectasis and Hg (all p<0.05). When controlling for sex and size, the prevalence of vacuolar hepatocytes and endoparasites was significantly highest at the three most contaminated stations and similar differences were found for liver necrosis. We suggest that beside exposure to mining-related elements, other environmental factors, such as parasites, might be co-factors in the development of the observed liver and gill lesions. Therefore, sculpin liver and gill pathology are likely to be suitable health indicators when biomonitoring gradients of mining and other element related activity effects; while a larger study is required to fully evaluate the relationships. - Highlights: • Black Angel Pb–Zn mine in West Greenland has led to significant metal pollution. • Gill and liver morphology of common sculpins was evaluated as bioindicators. • Significant pathologies were found and were related to metal concentrations. • Sculpin pathology may be suitable health indicators for mining activity effects. • These should be enrolled in EIAs of raw material industrialization in the Arctic.

  8. Exploring the Role of Trade and Migrations in Nigeria-Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Of these facilitators of inter-group relations, the two most outstanding elements that defined their relations before and during the colonial period were trade and migrations. The basic ... Key words: Trade, Migration, Intergroup relations, Nigeria, Gold Coast ...

  9. ILO - International Migration Programme. (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam


    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  10. International Migration of Couples


    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu


    We analyze emigration and return decisions of Danish couples. Our main questions are how emigration and return migration decisions depend on education, earnings, and the number and age of children. We use register data on full population from 1982 to 2006, focusing on opposite-gender couples in which the female is aged 23 to 37, and the male 25 to 39. We find that power couples in which both are highly educated are most likely to emigrate, but also most likely to return. Couples in which only...

  11. Globalization, migration and health. (United States)

    Burnett, Angela


    The term 'globalization' describes the integration of economic systems through improved communication, but it also represents increased insecurity for those with few resources--particularly refugees. This article examines why people migrate, their numbers, constraints on their movement and their particular health care needs. Immigrants have much to contribute to their recipient countries, but at some loss to their homelands. Both economically and morally, more liberal immigration policies would be beneficial. Policies towards asylum seekers should not be more restrictive in the aftermath of 11 September 2001 and detention should be the exception rather than the rule. Globalization should be managed so as to improve people's lives throughout the world.

  12. [Obesity, migration and adolescence]. (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise


    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  13. Urbanization, Migration, Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin


    Full Text Available In the contemporary world urbanization becomes a large-scale process. Huge flows of people migrate from poorer districts to the cities with a higher level of consumption. It takes migrants about 15-25 years to give up their traditional ascetic way of life. In this period the ‘new citizens’ try to arrange compact settlements with an archaic way of life, insanitary conditions, high criminogenity and an authoritative local self-government. The processes of formation and decay of the ascetic enclave are viewed through the example of the ‘Shanghai’ trading neighborhood in Irkutsk.

  14. Migration and loving


    Gevrek, Deniz


    This paper explores the relationship between anti-miscegenation laws, interracial marriage and black males' geographical distribution in the U.S. during and after the Great Migration. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in the case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967, which forced the last 16 Southern states to strike down their anti-miscegenation laws, creates a unique opportunity to explore the impact of an exogenous change in a state's laws regulating interracial marriages. Analyzing the U.S. Census...

  15. Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMSs): Are They Improving Drug Safety? A Critical Review of REMSs Requiring Elements to Assure Safe Use (ETASU). (United States)

    Boudes, Pol F


    Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMSs) with Elements to Assure Safe Use (ETASU) are requested for drugs with significant safety risks. We reviewed REMS programs issued since 2011 to evaluate their rationales, characteristics, and consistencies, and evaluated their impact on improving drug safety. We conducted a literature search and a survey of relevant websites (FDA, manufacturers, and REMSs). ETASU characteristics were summarized. REMS risks were compared with labeled risks, including black box warnings. Forty-two programs were analyzed. Seven incorporated drugs of the same class. Most drugs (57%) were indicated for an orphan disease. A single risk was mentioned in 24 REMSs, and multiple risks in 18. Embryo-fetal toxicity and abuse or misuse were the most frequent risks. All risks were identified during clinical development but some were hypothetical. Thirty-six drugs had a black box warning. REMS risks and black box risks differed for 11 drugs. A drug with multiple indications could have a REMS for one of them but not for another. Most REMSs required prescriber training and certification, half required dispenser certification and patient enrolment. REMSs were revised multiple times and only three (7%) were discontinued. No data were available to establish whether REMSs were effective in improving drug safety. Some REMSs were deemed inefficient. REMSs with ETASU continue to be implemented but their impact on improving drug safety is still not documented. Hence, one of the main requirements of the FDA Amendments Act of 2007 is not being addressed. In addition, REMSs are complex and their logic is inconsistent; we recommend a thorough re-evaluation of the REMS program.

  16. Migration Effects of Parallel Genetic Algorithms on Line Topologies of Heterogeneous Computing Resources (United States)

    Gong, Yiyuan; Guan, Senlin; Nakamura, Morikazu

    This paper investigates migration effects of parallel genetic algorithms (GAs) on the line topology of heterogeneous computing resources. Evolution process of parallel GAs is evaluated experimentally on two types of arrangements of heterogeneous computing resources: the ascending and descending order arrangements. Migration effects are evaluated from the viewpoints of scalability, chromosome diversity, migration frequency and solution quality. The results reveal that the performance of parallel GAs strongly depends on the design of the chromosome migration in which we need to consider the arrangement of heterogeneous computing resources, the migration frequency and so on. The results contribute to provide referential scheme of implementation of parallel GAs on heterogeneous computing resources.

  17. Data and methods in the environment-migration nexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Lina; Romankiewicz, Clemens; Brandt, Martin Stefan


    assessments. This review article introduces the concept of scale to environment-migration research as an important methodological issue for the reliability of conclusions drawn. The review of case studies shows that scale issues are highly present in environment-migration research but rarely discussed....... Several case studies base their results on data at very coarse resolutions that have undergone strong modifications and generalizations. We argue that scale-related shortcomings must be considered in all stages of environment-migration research.......The relationship between environment and migration has gained increased attention since the 1990s when the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projected climate change to become a major driver of human migration. Evaluations of this relationship include both quantitative and qualitative...

  18. Numerical Evaluation of Temperature Field and Residual Stresses in an API 5L X80 Steel Welded Joint Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson A. Da Nóbrega


    Full Text Available Metallic materials undergo many metallurgical changes when subjected to welding thermal cycles, and these changes have a considerable influence on the thermo-mechanical properties of welded structures. One method for evaluating the welding thermal cycle variables, while still in the project phase, would be simulation using computational methods. This paper presents an evaluation of the temperature field and residual stresses in a multipass weld of API 5L X80 steel, which is extensively used in oil and gas industry, using the Finite Element Method (FEM. In the simulation, the following complex phenomena were considered: the variation in physical and mechanical properties of the material as a function of the temperature, welding speed and convection and radiation mechanisms. Additionally, in order to characterize a multipass weld using the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process for the root pass and the Shielded Metal Arc Welding process for the filling passes, the analytical heat source proposed by Goldak and Chakravarti was used. In addition, we were able to analyze the influence of the mesh refinement in the simulation results. The findings indicated a significant variation of about 50% in the peak temperature values. Furthermore, changes were observed in terms of the level and profile of the welded joint residual stresses when more than one welding pass was considered.

  19. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  20. Network migration for printers

    CERN Multimedia


    Further to the recent General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation (as announced in the Bulletin - see here), please note that the majority of print devices will be automatically migrated to the new network IP address range on Tuesday 27 September.   This change should be transparent for these devices and therefore end-users, provided you have installed the printers from the Print Service website. A small number of devices will require manual intervention from the Printer Support team in order to migrate correctly. These devices will not change their IP address until the manual intervention, which will be carried out before Monday 3rd October. However, if you have mistakenly connected directly to the printer’s IP address, then your printing will be affected – please uninstall the printer (for help, see: KB3785), and re-install it from the Print Service website (or follow instructions for visitor machines). Please do this as soon as possible in order to avoid printing issues, t...

  1. Automation of CMOS technology migration illustrated by RGB to YCrCb analogue converter (United States)

    Naumowicz, M.; Melosik, M.; Katarzynski, P.; Handkiewicz, A.


    The paper illustrates a practical example of technology migration applied to the colour space converter realized in CMOS technology. The element has analogue excitation and response signals expressed in current mode. Such converter may be incorporated into an integrated vision sensor for preconditioning acquired image data. The idea of a computer software tool supporting the automated migration and design reuse is presented as the major contribution. The mentioned tools implement the Hooke-Jeeves direct search method for performing the multivariable optimization. Our purpose is to ensure transferring the circuit between usable fabrication technologies and preserving its functional properties. The colour space converter is treated as the case study for performance evaluation of the proposed tool in cooperation with HSPICE simulation software. The original CMOS technology files for Taiwan semiconductor (TSMC) plant were utilized for the research. The automated design migration from 180 nm into 90 nm resulted with obtaining compact IC layout characterized by a smaller area and lower power consumption. The paper is concluded with a brief summary that proves the usability of the proposed tool in designing CMOS cells dedicated for low power image processing.

  2. Process control migration towards LHC ventilation functionality

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, D


    The adaptation of the ventilation systems as well as the integration of equipment to fit with the new LHC ventilation requirements lead us to consider a global re-engineering of the existing control system. This, decade old process control structure is composed of elements which are mixed between industrial and home made devices. The proposed modifications are made in order to upgrade the present control system and to provide efficient and well adapted control architecture to integrate the LHC ventilation equipment of the injection tunnels. Moreover, we need a plan for the next fifteen years of the LHC life cycle. The document is to present the situation of the present control system of the LEP ventilation process and to propose a plan for the migration of the control architecture. This is done considering the fact that elements of the present control infrastructure could no longer be supported from 2003 and major components must be removed from the CERN communication infrastructure.

  3. Comparative evaluation of stresses in tooth implant connected fixed partial denture by varying the implant design and position: A 3D finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Pratheep


    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims at evaluating stresses generated in a fixed tooth to implant connected fixed partial denture (FPD by finite element method by varying implant design and position, in unilateral distal extension cases, i.e. for replacing mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars. Materials and Methods: Four models were created, Model 1-A finite element model (FEA model of a crestal implant-tooth connected metal ceramic FPD with pontic in 36 region. The 35 region simulated the second premolar. Model 2-A FEA model of a basal implant-tooth connected metal ceramic FPD. Model 3-A FEA model of a crestal implant in 36 region connected to tooth 35 and cantilevered posteriorly with pontic in 37 region, made of metal ceramic. Model 4-A FEA model of a basal implant in 36 region connected to tooth 35 and cantilevered posteriorly with pontic in 37 region, made of metal ceramic. A vertical force of 100N directed evenly on the nodes on the occlusal surface of each of the three crowns. The models displayed stress both numerically and by color coding. Results: On comparing models 1 and 2, the model 1 showed comparatively more stresses in crestal bone area of the implant. On comparing models 3 and 4, model 3 showed lesser von misses stress values. Conclusion: In case of tooth implant connected FPDs without any cantilevers, basal implants show better stress distribution when compared to crestal implants. In case of cantilever designs, crestal implant design showed lower stress values, but the difference in stresses were less.

  4. Circular Migration and Human Development


    Newland, Kathleen


    This paper explores the human development implications of circular migration — both where it occurs naturally and where governments work to create it. The paper discusses various conceptions and definitions of circular migration, and concludes that circular migration is not intrinsically positive or negative in relation to human development; its impact depends upon the circumstances in which it occurs, the constraints that surround it and—above all—the degree of choice that individuals can ex...

  5. The challenges of managing migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia


    Migration and urbanisation are driven by economic growth and social change, but also by deepening inequalities. Managing migration should not be equated with curbing it, as this inevitably reduces migrants' rights. But managing population movement whilst respecting the rights of migrants and nonmigrants, supporting the contribution of migration to poverty reduction and economic growth in sending and receiving areas and reducing the human and material costs of movement means that fundamental challenges need to be addressed.

  6. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Cross, Paul C.


    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  7. Macrostabilization of the Migration Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea


    Full Text Available MacLabour migration is a present phenomenon in the European Union. This phenomenon takes over the entire European continent, but especially in the EU countries. The labor market in Europe is increasingly affected by population aging. Economic differences between European countries make workforce in developing countries to move to developed countries where they find it easier to work and receive higher remuneration than in their home countries. This article tracks labor migration from/to EU, employment in Romania and Romanian migration towards the countries of Western Europe. It also presents statistics on labor migration in the EU and its impact on the labor market

  8. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration. (United States)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi


    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  9. The possibilities of compressed-sensing-based Kirchhoff prestack migration

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    An approximate subsurface reflectivity distribution of the earth is usually obtained through the migration process. However, conventional migration algorithms, including those based on the least-squares approach, yield structure descriptions that are slightly smeared and of low resolution caused by the common migration artifacts due to limited aperture, coarse sampling, band-limited source, and low subsurface illumination. To alleviate this problem, we use the fact that minimizing the L1-norm of a signal promotes its sparsity. Thus, we formulated the Kirchhoff migration problem as a compressed-sensing (CS) basis pursuit denoise problem to solve for highly focused migrated images compared with those obtained by standard and least-squares migration algorithms. The results of various subsurface reflectivity models revealed that solutions computed using the CS based migration provide a more accurate subsurface reflectivity location and amplitude. We applied the CS algorithm to image synthetic data from a fault model using dense and sparse acquisition geometries. Our results suggest that the proposed approach may still provide highly resolved images with a relatively small number of measurements. We also evaluated the robustness of the basis pursuit denoise algorithm in the presence of Gaussian random observational noise and in the case of imaging the recorded data with inaccurate migration velocities.

  10. Clara cell adhesion and migration to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deMello Daphne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clara cells are the epithelial progenitor cell of the small airways, a location known to be important in many lung disorders. Although migration of alveolar type II and bronchiolar ciliated epithelial cells has been examined, the migratory response of Clara cells has received little attention. Methods Using a modification of existing procedures for Clara cell isolation, we examined mouse Clara cells and a mouse Clara-like cell line (C22 for adhesion to and migration toward matrix substrate gradients, to establish the nature and integrin dependence of migration in Clara cells. Results We observed that Clara cells adhere preferentially to fibronectin (Fn and type I collagen (Col I similar to previous reports. Migration of Clara cells can be directed by a fixed gradient of matrix substrates (haptotaxis. Migration of the C22 cell line was similar to the Clara cells so integrin dependence of migration was evaluated with this cell line. As determined by competition with an RGD containing-peptide, migration of C22 cells toward Fn and laminin (Lm 511 (formerly laminin 10 was significantly RGD integrin dependent, but migration toward Col I was RGD integrin independent, suggesting that Clara cells utilize different receptors for these different matrices. Conclusion Thus, Clara cells resemble alveolar type II and bronchiolar ciliated epithelial cells by showing integrin mediated pro-migratory changes to extracellular matrix components that are present in tissues after injury.

  11. Assessment of gold grains implanted in the prostate during an external radiotherapy; Evaluation de la migration des grains d'or implantes dans la prostate au cours d'une radiotherapie externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udrescu, C.; De Bari, B.; Chapet, O. [Service de radiotherapie-oncologie, centre hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Udrescu, C.; Jalade, P.; Michel-Amadry, G. [Service de physique medicale, centre hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Rouviere, O. [Service de radiologie urologique, hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France); Ruffion, A. [Service d' urologie, centre hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)


    Gold grains are frequently implanted in the prostate for a better localization of this organ during each irradiation session. However, the prostate repositioning can be influenced by a migration of these markers over weeks of treatment. Therefore the authors studied whether these gold grains might migrate between the first and last treatment sessions. Images have been acquired every day and marker coordinates have been recorded. The authors observed a low and almost constant reduction of distances between the three markers which would mean a prostate volume reduction rather than a marker migration. Short communication

  12. Probabilistic migration modelling focused on functional barrier efficiency and low migration concepts in support of risk assessment. (United States)

    Brandsch, Rainer


    Migration modelling provides reliable migration estimates from food-contact materials (FCM) to food or food simulants based on mass-transfer parameters like diffusion and partition coefficients related to individual materials. In most cases, mass-transfer parameters are not readily available from the literature and for this reason are estimated with a given uncertainty. Historically, uncertainty was accounted for by introducing upper limit concepts first, turning out to be of limited applicability due to highly overestimated migration results. Probabilistic migration modelling gives the possibility to consider uncertainty of the mass-transfer parameters as well as other model inputs. With respect to a functional barrier, the most important parameters among others are the diffusion properties of the functional barrier and its thickness. A software tool that accepts distribution as inputs and is capable of applying Monte Carlo methods, i.e., random sampling from the input distributions of the relevant parameters (i.e., diffusion coefficient and layer thickness), predicts migration results with related uncertainty and confidence intervals. The capabilities of probabilistic migration modelling are presented in the view of three case studies (1) sensitivity analysis, (2) functional barrier efficiency and (3) validation by experimental testing. Based on the predicted migration by probabilistic migration modelling and related exposure estimates, safety evaluation of new materials in the context of existing or new packaging concepts is possible. Identifying associated migration risk and potential safety concerns in the early stage of packaging development is possible. Furthermore, dedicated material selection exhibiting required functional barrier efficiency under application conditions becomes feasible. Validation of the migration risk assessment by probabilistic migration modelling through a minimum of dedicated experimental testing is strongly recommended.

  13. International migration, international relations and foreign policy. (United States)

    Mitchell, C


    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  14. Les questions de migrations internationales (Questions of International Migrations). (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane


    Education about international migration should (1) utilize a framework of historical evolution; (2) stress the growing interdependence of nations; (3) emphasize universal moral values and the role of the individual in human rights; and (4) consider the complementary or competing portraits of international migration presented by the media. (DMM)

  15. Countering inbreeding with migration 1. Migration from unrelated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The eff'ect of migration on inbreeding is moclelled fbr small populations with immigrants from a large unrelated population. Different migration rates and numbers fbr the two sexes are assumed, and a general recursion equation for inbreeding progress derived, which can be shown to lead to an equilibrium inbreeding ...

  16. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  17. Patterns of East to West migration in the context of European migration systems possibilities and limits of migration control


    Irina Molodikova


    This paper gives an overview of the main migration trends of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) migration system in the context of the development of EU migration and migration control and seeks to explain the peculiarities of the CIS migration system’s development.

  18. Selenium-binding protein 1 may decrease gastric cellular proliferation and migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... Using cell proliferation assays, immunochemical staining and immunoblotting and flow cytometry methods and in a xenograft model, we evaluated the role of SBP1 in proliferation, migration, senescence...

  19. Migration - utopia or myopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Osborne


    Full Text Available Peter Osborne spent a sabbatical in northern America and was surprised that so many scientists and students stated that caribou migration was largely the result of mosquito pressure. He failed however to find any documented evidence of this claim although he was constantly confronted by the well known «facts» that mosquitoes had been observed to drive caribou crazy and even kill juveniles. The issue Osborne wishes to focus is that an experimentally unsubstantiated anthropomorphism appears to have become critical evidence in support of a theory. A recent article in Nature (393, 511-513, 1998 devoted to the uses of 'science in fiction' to stimulate thought and discussion about aspects of academia encouraged him to write the following comment in the form of a parody of ancient Greek dialogues.

  20. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin


    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  1. Migration issues important -- Mongolia. (United States)


    Migration and urbanization are issues that require increasing attention in Mongolia. Mr. Sodov Sonin, Minister of Health and Social Welfare, stated at the Forum that fertility has declined, but mortality, in particular the mortality of children and mothers, is still too high. In addition, there is a significant gap between the knowledge of and behaviors concerning reproductive health, which is one of the causes of the country's high abortion rates. However, on the positive side, literacy is high among women--70% of the students in Mongolia's higher educational institutions are female and the State recognizes equal rights for women. Moreover, programs that promote health and education, including the National Program on Reproductive Health, are being implemented; but despite all these, Mongolia still lacks the human and financial resources to implement the ICPD Program of Action satisfactorily. The country also needs dramatic changes in mind-set and in terms of capacity building, given its ongoing socioeconomic transition.

  2. Requirements for Radial Migration: How Does the Migrating Fraction Depend on Stellar Velocity Dispersion? (United States)

    Tolfree, K. J. D.; Wyse, R. F. G.


    Radial migration is a mechanism that can rearrange the orbital angular momentum of stars in a spiral disk without inducing kinematic heating. When radial migration is very efficient, a large fraction of disk stars experience significant changes in their orbital angular momenta over a short period of time. Such scenarios have strong implications for the chemical and kinematic evolution of disk galaxies. We have undertaken an investigation of the physical dependencies of the efficiency of radial migration on stellar kinematics and spiral structure by deriving the fraction of stars that can migrate radially. In order for a star in a spiral disk to migrate radially, it must first be “captured” in a family of resonant orbits near the radius of corotation with a transient spiral pattern. To date, the only analytic criterion for capture has been for stars in circular orbits. We present the capture criterion for disk stars on non-circular orbits. We then use our analytically derived capture criterion to model the radial distribution of the captured fraction in an exponential disk with a flat rotation curve. Further, we derive the dependence of the total captured fraction in the disk on the radial component of the stellar velocity dispersion (σR) and the amplitude of the spiral perturbation to the underlying potential evaluated at corotation (|Φs|CR). We find that within an annulus centered around corotation where σR is constant, the captured fraction goes as e-σR2/|Φs|CR.

  3. Migration: the trends converge. (United States)


    Formerly, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the US have served as permanent destinations for immigrants, while Europe's migrants have moved to more northerly countries to work for a time and then returned home. From 1973-1975 Europe's recruitment of foreign workers virtually ended, although family reunion for those immigrants allowed in was encouraged. Problems resulting from this new settlement migration include low paying jobs for immigrant women, high unemployment, and inadequate education for immigrant children. Illegal migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean enter the US and Canada each year while illegal North African immigrants enter Italy, Spain, and Greece. North America, Australia, and Europe have all received political refugees from Asia and Latin America. Increasingly, these foreigners compete in the labor market rather than simply fill jobs the native workers do not want. All the receiving countries have similar policy priorities: 1) more effective ways for controlling and monitoring inflows and checking illegal immigration; 2) encouraging normal living patterns and accepting refugees; and 3) integrating permanent migrants into the host country. Europe's public immigration encouragement prior to the first oil shock, has left some countries with a labor force that is reluctant to return home. It is unlikely that Europe will welcome foreign labor again in this decade, since unemployment among young people and women is high and family reunion programs may still bring in many immigrants. Less immigration pattern change will probably occur in North America, Australia, and New Zealand since these countries' populations are still growing and wages are more flexible. Immigration, regulated by policy, and emigration, determined by market forces, now are working in the same direction and will likely reduce future migration flows.

  4. Family migration and migrant integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.; Triandafyllidou, A.


    Family migration and integration are intimately related concepts in contemporary policy discourses in major migrant receiving countries. In these discourses, both family related migration as such and the migrant family as an institution are problematised with regard to their relation to integration.

  5. Migration Decisions of Skilled Migrants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eskelä, Elina


    ...-speaking destination countries such as the United States. This paper enhances the understanding of student mobility in exploring the migration motives of international students in the case of a less common destination. Keywords International students skilled migration immigration Helsinki Finland Elina Eskel* University of Helsinki, Finland Received 24 Oc...

  6. Challenged by migration: Europe's options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Amelie F.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.


    This paper examines the migration and labour mobility in the European Union and elaborates on their importance for the existence of the EU. Against all measures of success, the current public debate seems to suggest that the political consensus that migration is beneficial is broken. This comes with


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    179 imbues them with less international profile. More recently, the refuges problem could in some sense be seen as a form of forced migration, but these are also largely within the continent. The Migration that engages our attention in this paper specifically relates to the voluntary movement of people from one continent to ...

  8. Africa: Setting for Human Migration (United States)

    Buuba, Babacar Diop


    Analysis of African migrations can help to understand prehistoric, historical, ancient modern and contemporaneous migrations. Movements of populations were and continue to be so intense that, for some analysts, they constitute one of the dominant trends of the history and destiny of the very old continent. African and non-African states, whether…

  9. International migration and its regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baganha, M.I.; Doomernik, J.M.J.; Gsir, S.; Hofmann, M.; Kraler, A.; Penninx, R; Kraal, K.; Berger, M.


    A fundamental issue in society today, migration has been undergoing a new dynamic transformation, calling for new policy approaches. This new dynamic is not yet understood clearly, let alone that adequate policy answers for ‘the managing’ of these new migration processes and the consequences for

  10. [Preliminary evaluation of the antioxidant trace elements in an Algerian patient with type 2 diabetes: special role of manganese and chromium]. (United States)

    Harani, Hassiba; Otmane, Amel; Makrelouf, Mohamed; Ouadahi, Nacer; Abdi, Arezki; Berrah, Abdelkrim; Zenati, Akila; Alamir, Barkahoum; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed


    In type 2 diabetes, the relationship between antioxidants and insuline-like trace elements is very complex during oxidative stress, being mediated by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and inflammation. We investigated the antioxidant status, particularly Mn and Cr on the diabetes metabolic control, and their interaction with the metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters. The study was undertaken on 278 Algerian diabetic subjects who were divided in 2 groups according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) 7% value, attesting for a good or poor metabolic control of diabetes, respectively. The MS was defined according to NCEP-ATPIII. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR model. The plasma manganese concentrations was significantly increased in both diabetics groups, independently of metabolic control. However, chromium (Cr) seems to play a determinant action in metabolic control, as shown by better values of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HbA(1c). The selenium status was positively correlated with glutathion peroxidase activity. Copper and zinc plasma levels in the diabetic patients were similar to those of control subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest that Mn play a crucial role in antioxidant capacity and we hypothesize that antioxidant defense is preserved in the cytosol (superoxide dismutase Cu/Zn -SOD), whereas it is impaired in mitochondria (Mn-SOD), which makes this cell organelle a true therapeutic target in diabetes.

  11. Evaluation of serum levels of essential trace elements in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before and after treatment by age and gender. (United States)

    Pourfallah, F; Javadian, S; Zamani, Z; Saghiri, R; Sadeghi, S; Zarea, B; Mirkhani, F; Fatemi, N; Kordi, T


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of Zinc, Copper, Iron and Copper/Zinc ratio in the serum of adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran. Serum levels of Zinc and Copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and scrum iron concentration was measured by using an Auto Analyzer. The study group consisted of 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients before treatment and after 6 months of anti-tubercular therapy. Levels of scrum Zn (p < 0.001) and Fe (p < 0.001) in TB patients were significantly increased after 6 months of anti-tubercular therapy. However, serum Cu concentration (p < 0.01) and Cu/Zn ratio (p < 0.05) were decreased after 6 months of anti-tubercular therapy. Some studies indicated a strong association of Zn, Cu, Fe and the Cu/Zn ratio with TB. In this study, we found remarkable change in Cu/Zn ratio. Some researchers mentioned that serum Cu/Zn ratio could be used as an important laboratory marker for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. They also mentioned that trace element levels must be closely monitored during the process of disease.

  12. A robust detector for rolling element bearing condition monitoring based on the modulation signal bispectrum and its performance evaluation against the Kurtogram (United States)

    Tian, Xiange; Xi Gu, James; Rehab, Ibrahim; Abdalla, Gaballa M.; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, A. D.


    Envelope analysis is a widely used method for rolling element bearing fault detection. To obtain high detection accuracy, it is critical to determine an optimal frequency narrowband for the envelope demodulation. However, many of the schemes which are used for the narrowband selection, such as the Kurtogram, can produce poor detection results because they are sensitive to random noise and aperiodic impulses which normally occur in practical applications. To achieve the purposes of denoising and frequency band optimisation, this paper proposes a novel modulation signal bispectrum (MSB) based robust detector for bearing fault detection. Because of its inherent noise suppression capability, the MSB allows effective suppression of both stationary random noise and discrete aperiodic noise. The high magnitude features that result from the use of the MSB also enhance the modulation effects of a bearing fault and can be used to provide optimal frequency bands for fault detection. The Kurtogram is generally accepted as a powerful means of selecting the most appropriate frequency band for envelope analysis, and as such it has been used as the benchmark comparator for performance evaluation in this paper. Both simulated and experimental data analysis results show that the proposed method produces more accurate and robust detection results than Kurtogram based approaches for common bearing faults under a range of representative scenarios.

  13. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen


    Full Text Available Elemental Carbon (EC has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2–10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10–30 % for Russia and 5–10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus. This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20–40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  14. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage, polymerization shrinkage stress, wear resistance, and compressive strength of a silorane-based composite: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mitthra


    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the mechanical properties is important in predicting the clinical behavior of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA evaluates properties of materials replicating clinical scenario. Aim: This study evaluated polymerization shrinkage and stress, wear resistance (WR, and compressive strength (CS of silorane in comparison with two methacrylate resins. Settings and Design: This study design was a numerical study using FEA. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D models of maxillary premolar with Class I cavities (2 mm depth, 4 mm length, and 2.5 mm width created and restored with silorane, nanohybrid, and microhybrid; Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Loads of 200–600 N were applied. Polymerization shrinkage was first determined by displacement produced in the X, Y, and Z planes. Maximum stress distribution due to shrinkage was calculated using AN SYS software. 3D cube models of composite resins were simulated with varying filler particle size. Similar loads were applied. WR and compressive stress were calculated: K W L/H and load/cross-sectional area, respectively. Statistical analysis done using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P < 0.05. Results: Polymerization shrinkage (0.99% and shrinkage stress (233.21 Mpa of silorane were less compared to microhybrid (2.14% and 472.43 Mpa and nanohybrid (2.32% and 464.88 Mpa. Silorane (7.92×/1011 μm/mm3 and nanohybrid (7.79×/1011 showed superior WR than microhybrid (1.113×/1017. There was no significant difference in compressive stress among the groups. Conclusion: Silorane exhibited less polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress compared to methacrylates. Silorane and nanohybrid showed greater WR compared to microhybrid. CS of all groups was similar.

  15. Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and Microcomputed Tomography Evaluation of Microgap Formation in a Dental Implant Under Oblique Loading. (United States)

    Jörn, Daniela; Kohorst, Philipp; Besdo, Silke; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike


    Since bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface may be responsible for peri-implant infections, a realistic estimation of the interface gap width during function is important for risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for investigating microgap formation in a loaded dental implant, namely, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA); additionally, stresses to be expected during loading were also evaluated by FEA. An implant-abutment complex was inspected for microgaps between the abutment and implant in a micro-CT scanner under an oblique load of 200 N. A numerical model of the situation was constructed; boundary conditions and external load were defined according to the experiment. The model was refined stepwise until its load-displacement behavior corresponded sufficiently to data from previous load experiments. FEA of the final, validated model was used to determine microgap widths. These were compared with the widths as measured in micro-CT inspection. Finally, stress distributions were evaluated in selected regions. No microgaps wider than 13 μm could be detected by micro-CT for the loaded implant. FEA revealed gap widths up to 10 μm between the implant and abutment at the side of load application. Furthermore, FEA predicted plastic deformation in a limited area at the implant collar. FEA proved to be an adequate method for studying microgap formation in dental implant-abutment complexes. FEA is not limited in gap width resolution as are radiologic techniques and can also provide insight into stress distributions within the loaded complex.

  16. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel


    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  17. A critical survey of live virtual machine migration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary


    Full Text Available Abstract Virtualization techniques effectively handle the growing demand for computing, storage, and communication resources in large-scale Cloud Data Centers (CDC. It helps to achieve different resource management objectives like load balancing, online system maintenance, proactive fault tolerance, power management, and resource sharing through Virtual Machine (VM migration. VM migration is a resource-intensive procedure as VM’s continuously demand appropriate CPU cycles, cache memory, memory capacity, and communication bandwidth. Therefore, this process degrades the performance of running applications and adversely affects efficiency of the data centers, particularly when Service Level Agreements (SLA and critical business objectives are to be met. Live VM migration is frequently used because it allows the availability of application service, while migration is performed. In this paper, we make an exhaustive survey of the literature on live VM migration and analyze the various proposed mechanisms. We first classify the types of Live VM migration (single, multiple and hybrid. Next, we categorize VM migration techniques based on duplication mechanisms (replication, de-duplication, redundancy, and compression and awareness of context (dependency, soft page, dirty page, and page fault and evaluate the various Live VM migration techniques. We discuss various performance metrics like application service downtime, total migration time and amount of data transferred. CPU, memory and storage data is transferred during the process of VM migration and we identify the category of data that needs to be transferred in each case. We present a brief discussion on security threats in live VM migration and categories them in three different classes (control plane, data plane, and migration module. We also explain the security requirements and existing solutions to mitigate possible attacks. Specific gaps are identified and the research challenges in improving

  18. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America]. (United States)

    Marmora, L


    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  19. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter


    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  20. Anisotropy signature in extended images from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul


    Reverse-time migration can accurately image complex geologic structures in anisotropic media. Extended images at selected locations in the earth, i.e. at common-image-point gathers (CIPs), carry enough information to characterize the angle-dependent illumination and to provide measurements for migration velocity analysis. Furthermore, inaccurate anisotropy leaves a distinctive signature in CIPs, which can be used to evaluate anisotropy through techniques similar to the ones used in conventional wavefield tomography.

  1. The challenge of migration and health. (United States)

    Carballo, Manuel


    Dr Manuel Carballo of the International Centre for Migration and Health provides the background to migration and its impact on the health of migrating peoples and the health care systems that treat them.

  2. Microfluidics to define leukocyte migration patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boneschansker, Johan


    Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. In this thesis, we design and validate microfluidic devices that allow for precise quantification of leukocyte migration patterns. Our microfluidic platform can quantify migration patterns using single-cell quantitative metrics that

  3. Migration process control in the modern society


    A R Dimaev


    The sociological way of the migration phenomenon can be considered only in complex. As a social science of migration we should understand the social science control, which is based on direct and indirect control of migration process.

  4. Internal and international migration in Nepal. (United States)

    Kc, B K


    Internal and international migration trends in Nepal are reviewed using data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The causes and consequences of migration are considered. The need for policies to control migration of all kinds is stressed.

  5. [Distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profiles by high-resolution sampling]. (United States)

    Ruan, Xin-ling; Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhao, Yu-guo; Yuan, Da-gang; Wu, Yun-jin


    The vertical distribution of heavy metals in soils profiles is a result of heavy metals accumulation and migration under combining influence of edaphic factors and environmental conditions. It's an important basis for evaluation of heavy metals pollution and remediation of contaminated soils. By traditional sampling methods, i.e., soils were sampled according to pedogenetic horizons, only very general information about element migration can be learned. In the current study, three sites near a steel factory were selected to represent three types of land use, i.e. forest, dry land for vegetable cultivation and rice paddy field. Soils were sampled horizontally by high-resolution sampling method. In the top of 40 cm soils were sectioned in 2 cm intervals, then 5 cm intervals in next 40 cm, and 10 cm intervals in the last 20 cm of profile. Total content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were determined, and the vertical distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd in every profile was analyzed. The results indicated that enrichment of heavy metals appeared in the upper most layer of the natural forest soil that without any anthropic disturbance, and this phenomenon proved that heavy metals were coming from atmospheric deposition. We found that Cu, Zn and Pb moved downward in a short distance, Cd migrated relatively faster than Cu, Zn and Pb, while Cr had no recognizable location of migration front. In the soil profiles of dry land and paddy field, there were influences of agricultural practice, the distribution and movement of metals were thus different form those of the forest soil. In cultivated layer heavy metals were evenly distributed because soils in the upper layer were mixed by cultivation, however, bellow the cultivated layer obvious migration took place again. It is concluded that different heavy metals have different mobility and there is such a relative order: Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb. The study shows that the distribution pattern can be obtained with the currently adopted high

  6. Türkiye’de Kentten - Köye Göç Olgusu = The Phenomenon of the Urban - Rural Migration in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul GÜREŞÇİ


    Full Text Available In this study, causes and results of the urban-rural migration phenomena were evaluated. The relationship between urban-rural migration and rural-urban migration were determined taking them simultaneously. The significant result of study was that that the urban-rural migration stemmed from social changes taking part in Turkey.

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume IX : Evaluation of the 2001 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Migrant Salmon and Steelhead Trout Migrating to Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.


    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2001 inseason outmigration via the internet for eighteen PIT-tagged stocks of wild salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams and eleven passage-indexed stocks to Rock Island, McNary, or John Day dams. Nine of the PIT-tagged stocks tracked this year were new to the project. Thirteen ESUs of wild subyearling and yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and one ESU of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon were tracked and forecasted to Lower Granite Dam. Eight wild ESUs of subyearling and yearling chinook salmon, sockeye salmon and steelhead were tracked to McNary Dam for the first time this year. Wild PIT-tagged ESUs tracked to Lower Granite Dam included yearling spring/summer chinook salmon release-recovery stocks (from Bear Valley Creek, Catherine Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek, Lostine River, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, and Valley Creek), PIT-tagged wild runs-at-large of yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and a PIT-tagged stock of subyearling fall chinook salmon. The stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon smolts outmigrating to Lower Granite Dam, consisted this year of a new stock of fish from Alturas Lake Creek, Redfish Lake Creek Trap and Sawtooth Trap. The passage-indexed stocks, counted using FPC passage indices, included combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead migrating to Rock Island and McNary dams, and, new this year, combined wild and hatchery subyearling chinook salmon to John Day Dam. Unusual run-timing and fish passage characteristics were observed in this low-flow, negligible-spill migration year. The period for the middle 80% of fish passage (i.e., progress from the 10th to the 90th percentiles) was unusually short for nine out of ten PIT-tagged yearling spring/summer chinook salmon stocks tracked to Lower Granite Dam. It was the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia COJOCARU


    Full Text Available This paper presents recent trends and flows of labor migration and its impact on economic and social life. Main aim of this research sets up the influence of the migration on the European economics and its competitiveness. Methods of research are: method of comparison, analysis method, method of deduction, method of statistics, modeling method. The economic impact of migration has been intensively studied but is still often driven by ill-informed perceptions, which, in turn, can lead to public antagonism towards migration. These negative views risk jeopardising efforts to adapt migration policies to the new economic and demographic challenges facing many countries. Migration Policy looks at the evidence for how immigrants affect the economy in three main areas: The labour market, public purse and economic growth. In Europe, the scope of labour mobility greatly increased within the EU/EFTA zones following the EU enlargements of 2004, 2007 and 2014-2015. This added to labour markets’ adjustment capacity. Recent estimates suggest that as much as a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock – that is occurring at different times and with different intensities across countries – may have been absorbed by migration within a year.

  9. On the concept of migration policy




    The article analyzes existing in the different sources of non-fiction variety of interpretations of the term “migration policy”. The variety of approaches to the concept of “politics” and “the migration process” gives rise to different points of view on the vision of migration policy. Contradictions are clearly seen in the difference in definitions of migration policy. Migration policy a purposeful activity of political institutions, aimed at streamlining and regulation of migration processes...

  10. Migration in two directions. (United States)

    Slim, Rita; Koussa, Salam; Awada, Hassan; Yaghi, Cesar; Honein, Khalil; Sayegh, Raymond


    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), the modality of choice for long-term enteral access, is generally a safe procedure but can be associated with many potential complications. Report two different and late complications of PEG in two patients fed at home, leading them to the emergency department. A 75-year-old man and a 14-year-old young man with PEG presented to the emergency department with two different complications related to the gastrostomy tube. The first patient developed fever and deterioration in mental status due to parietal abscess which developed secondary to the migration of the internal button of the gastrostomy tube in the abdominal wall. He was treated with antibiotics and the gastrostomy tube was extracted. The second one presented upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to intestinal perforation at the level of the internal button of the gastrostomy tube. Bleeding and perforation were treated conservatively and he had a good evolution. Persons taking care of patients with PEG tube must be aware of potential complications. The position and the permeability of the tube must be systematically checked before feeding and medical advice should immediately be asked for in case of doubt or in the presence of any alarming sign.

  11. Population commission discusses international migration. (United States)


    At the 30th session of the Commission on Population and Development during February 24-28, 1997, international migration was the main topic, with special linkages between migration and development and on gender issues and the family. New and emerging issues were also considered. Members stressed the need for more reliable data on migration, the direction of migrants flows, and the characteristics of migrants. The Commission requested a task force on basic social services to hold a technical symposium of experts on international migration in 1998. Its chair, Dr. Nafis Sadik, said that migration issues should based on the reality of choice not on coercive measures or quotas. Almost half of the migrants globally are women. The Commission was given a new impetus by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. Migration pressures intensified in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, creating areas of concern: the negative impact of short-term migration on working conditions in host countries; migration pressures emanating from climatic change; the protection of migrant women and their children; the right of receiving countries to regulate access to their territory; the adverse consequences of forced migration; the situation of persons whose asylum claims have been rejected; the trafficking in women and children, prostitution and coercive adoption; and the sudden and massive arrival of refugees in need of international protection. The 1998 session of the Commission will feature the theme of health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age.

  12. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo


    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  13. Trace element content in tea brewed in traditional metallic and stainless steel teapots. (United States)

    Petit, D; El Houari, W; Jacobs, K; Baeyens, W; Leermakers, M


    The migration of metals in tea brewed in metallic teapots was investigated. The teapots were obtained from North Africa stores in Brussels in 2005-2006 and in 2011. Chinese gunpowder green tea, the most commonly used tea in the Moroccan community, was used to prepare the tea. Tea brewed in metallic teapots was compared to tea brewed in a glass vessel in order to evaluate the contribution of the tea and the teapots to the metal concentrations in the brewed tea. Tea samples were also collected in Moroccan households and in tearooms in Brussels. The elements As, Cd, Pb, Sn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Al were analyzed by high-resolution sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The relationship between the metal composition of the alloy of the teapot and the metal concentration in tea was also investigated. Migration of Pb and to a lesser amount Ni, Cu, and Zn was observed in brass teapots and migration of Cd from a number of stainless steel teapots was observed. The soldering connecting the sprout to the teapot was shown to be an important source of Pb to the tea. High levels of Mn and Al were also observed in the brewed tea and these elements where shown to originate from the tea itself. Metal exposure from tea drinking was calculated for different tea consumption levels and different metal concentration levels and compared to toxicological reference values.

  14. Incidence and prediction of seed migration to the chest after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Lin, Junqing; Yang, Weizhu; Jiang, Na; Zheng, Qubin; Huang, Jingyao; Huang, Ning; Li, Ang; Jiang, Han


    The aims were to determine the incidence of seed migration to the chest and to analyze the predictive factors after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Three hundred ninety-nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent iodine-125 seed brachytherapy. After seed implantation, chest X-ray radiograph or computerized tomography were undertaken to assess the occurrence and location of seed migration at 3 months after brachytherapy. The incidence of seed migration to the lung and heart was calculated. A statistical analysis of the influences of seed loss to the chest was performed between patients with and without seed migration. A total of 13,977 seeds were implanted in 399 patients. One hundred fifty of the 13,977 (1.07%) seeds migrated to the chest in 81 of the 399 (20.30%) patients. Of all the migrated seeds, 112 (74.67%) migrated to the lungs in 59 (67.82%) patients, and 38 (25.33%) seeds migrated to the heart in 28 (47.46%) patients. No case exhibited clinical symptoms related to the migrated seeds. The number of seeds implanted and the number of seed implantations were significantly associated with seed migration. The occurrence of seed migration to the lungs and heart was evaluated. Furthermore, the number of seeds implanted and the number of seed implantation procedures are significant predictors of seed migration. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of microbial transformations of dissolved organic matter - what information can be extracted from high-field FTICR-MS elemental formula data sets? (United States)

    Herzsprung, Peter; von Tümpling, Wolf; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Norf, Helge; Weitere, Markus; Kamjunke, Norbert


    Transformation of DOC and DOM was and is widespread investigated (1-3). Due to the complex composition of DOC increased attention was payed to DOM quality change during degradation processes. In order to get a better insight in DOM transformation processes both resolution as a function of time and on a molecular level are promising. The observation of DOM quality changes requires sophisticated evaluation techniques. A new evaluation strategy of FTICR-MS elemental formula data sets is introduced. An experiment with seven flumes and leaf leachate was performed. All flumes were sampled on five dates (within 7 days) and the SPEDOM was characterized using high-field FTICR-MS analysis, resulting in together 35 elemental formula data sets. The time dependent change of components abundance was fitted by a simple linear regression model after normalization of mass peak intensities. All components were categorized by calculation of the slope (change of percent intensity per day) in all seven flumes. A positive slope means product formation, a negative slope means degradation of components. Specific data filtration was developed to find out components with relevant change of relative intensity. About 7000 different components were present in at least one of the 35 samples. Of those about 1800 components were present in all of the 35 samples. About 300 components with significant increase of intensity were identified. They were mainly unsaturated and oxygen-rich components (lignin-like or tannin-like) and had molecular masses less than 450 Dalton. A group of about 70 components was partially degraded (significant negative slope, present in all samples). These components were more saturated and less oxygen-rich compared to the product group and had molecular masses > 450 Dalton. A third group of about 150 components was identified with a tendency to total degradation (significant negative slope, not present in all samples, reduced or no abundance at the end of the experiment

  16. Evaluation of Sources and Patterns of Elemental Composition of PM2.5 at Three Low-Income Neighborhood Schools and Residences in Quito, Ecuador. (United States)

    Raysoni, Amit U; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, M Margaret; Echanique, Patricia; Racines, Marcia; Pingitore, Nicholas E; Li, Wen-Whai


    Elemental characterization of fine particulate matter was undertaken at schools and residences in three low income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. The three zones were located in the northern (Cotocollao), south central (El Camal), and south east (Los Chillos) neighborhoods and were classified as zones 1-3, respectively. Forty elements were quantified via ICP-MS analysis. Amongst the geogenic elements, the concentration of Si was the most abundant followed by S, Al, and Ca. Elements with predominantly anthropogenic sources such as Zn, V, and Ni were higher in zone 3 school followed by zone 2 and zone 1 schools. Enrichment factors were calculated to study the role of crustal sources in the elemental concentrations. Geogenic elements, except K, all had values elements such as Ni, V, Zn, Pb, As, Cr had >10. Principal Component Analysis suggested that Ni and V concentrations were strongly attributable to pet coke and heavy oil combustion. Strong associations between As and Pb could be attributed to traffic and other industrial emissions. Resuspended dust, soil erosion, vehicular emissions (tailpipe, brake and tire wear, and engine abrasion), pet coke, heavy oil combustion, and heavy industrial operations were major contributors to air pollution.

  17. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  18. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...

  19. Countering inbreeding with migration 1. Migration from unrelated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l2-(1 -rn)(t -m)l|,. (1.14) with all terms as defined fbr (1.5). Equation (1.14) does not appear to be directly amenable to the development of general rules for the limitation ... effects of migration and restricted population size with equal numbers of the two sexes and with only male migration. N'lale rnigrant number. Herd size l1 .'l.

  20. The nature and scope of international migration data in Nigeria. (United States)

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P


    Nigeria, the largest country in Western Africa, has been attracting migrants from neighboring countries for the past decade or so. Although most of the movement of African migrants has occurred outside the regulatory framework set up to control migration, it is important to know the main elements of the latter to understand the likely limitations of the data collection systems currently in operation. Sources of data on international migration include censuses, arrival and departure statistics, work and resident permits, and sample surveys. The author concludes that, with the exception of information on residence and work permits, the relationship between Nigeria's data sources and the laws regulating migration is weak. Arrival and departure statistics, in particular, are not designed to distinguish migrants from all other international travellers. Lacking the political will to modify the system in accordance with internationally accepted recommendations, the prospects for increasing the usefulness of available data are grim.

  1. Evaluation of piezoelectric material properties for a higher power output from energy harvesters with insight into material selection using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit-finite element method. (United States)

    Daniels, Alice; Zhu, Meiling; Tiwari, Ashutosh


    Piezoelectric material properties have substantial influence on electrical power output from piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs). Understanding their influences is the first step in designing effective PEHs to generate higher power outputs. This paper uses a coupled piezoelectric-circuit-finite element method to study the power outputs of different types of piezoelectric materials, including single crystal, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and soft and hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials. The purpose of this study is to try to gain an understanding of which piezoelectric material property--the elastic compliance s11, the piezoelectric strain constant d31, the piezoelectric stress constant g31, and the relative dielectric constant ϵ(T)r33, and the associated material properties of the d31 × g31, called the figure of merit (FOM), and the coupling coefficient k31--dominates the power output. A rectangular piezoelectric plate under a low-frequency excitation is used to evaluate piezoelectric material properties for a higher power output. It was found that 1) d31 is a more dominant material property over other material properties for higher power output; 2) FOM was more linearly related to the power output than either the k31 or the d31; and 3) ϵ(T)r33 had some role; when the materials have an identical d31; a lower ϵ(T)r33 was preferred. Because of unexplained outliers, no single material parameter was able to be recommended as selection criteria, but combined FOM with d31 parameters is recommended for selection of piezoelectric material for a higher power output from PEHs.

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of implant-supported prosthesis with various tilting implant angles and bone types in atrophic maxilla: A finite element study. (United States)

    Gümrükçü, Zeynep; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare bone stress that occurs as a result of using vertical implants with simultaneous sinus augmentation with bone stress generated from oblique implants without sinus augmentation in atrophic maxilla. Six, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of atrophic maxilla were generated with SolidWorks software. The maxilla models were varied for two different bone types. Models 2a, 2b and 2c represent maxilla models with D2 bone type. Models 3a, 3b and 3c represent maxilla models with D3 bone type. Five implants were embedded in each model with different configurations for vertical implant insertion with sinus augmentation: Model 2a/Model 3a, 30° tilted insertion; Model 2b/Model 3b and 45° tilted insertion; Model 2c/Model 3c. A 150 N load was applied obliquely on the hybrid prosthesis. The maximum von Mises stress values were comparatively evaluated using color scales. The von Mises stress values predicted by the FE models were higher for all D3 bone models in both cortical and cancellous bone. For the vertical implant models, lower stress values were found in cortical bone. Tilting of the distal implants by 30° increased the stress in the cortical layer compared to vertical implant models. Tilting of the distal implant by 45° decreased the stress in the cortical bone compared to the 30° models, but higher stress values were detected in the 45° models compared to the vertical implant models. Augmentation should be the first treatment option in atrophic maxilla in terms of biomechanics. Tilted posterior implants can create higher stress values than vertical posterior implants. During tilting implant planning, the use of a 45° tilted implant results in better biomechanical performance in peri-implant bone than 30° tilted implant due to the decrease in cantilever length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device (Awesome Rod System)--a finite element analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Hung; Shih, Shih-Liang


    Pedicle-screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization devices are designed to alleviate the rate of accelerated degeneration of the vertebral level adjacent to the level of spinal fusion. A new pedicle-screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device- the Awesome Dynamic Rod System was designed with curve cuts on the rods to provide flexibility. The current study was conducted to evaluate the biomechanical properties of this new device. Finite element models were developed for the intact spine (INT), the Awesome Dynamic Rod Implanted at L4-L5 (AWE), a traditional rigid rod system implanted at L4-L5 along with an interbody cage (FUS), and the Awesome Dynamic Rod System implanted at L4-L5 along with an interbody cage as an adjunct to fusion procedures and extension of dynamic fixation to L3-L4 (AWEFUS). The models were subjected to axial loads and pure moments and evaluated by a hybrid method on range of motion (ROM)s, disc stresses, pedicle screws stresses, and facet joint contact forces. FUS sustained the lowest L4-L5 ROM decrement in flexion and torsion. AWE demonstrated the lowest adjacent level ROM increment in all moments except for extension at L3-L4, and AWEFUS showed the greatest ROM increment at L2-L3. AWE demonstrated lowest adjacent segment disc stress in flexion, lateral bending and torsion at L3-L4. AWEFUS showed the highest disc stress increment in flexion, extension, and lateral bending, and the lowest disc stress decrement in torsion at L2-L3. AWE sustained greater adjacent facet joint contact forces than did FUS in extension and lateral bending at L3-L4, and AWEFUS demonstrated the greatest contact forces concentrating at L2-L3. The results demonstrate that the Awesome Dynamic Rod System preserved more bridged segment motion than did the traditional rigid rod fixation system except in extension. However, the Awesome Dynamic Rod System bore a greater facet joint contact force in extension. The Awesome Dynamic Rod System did protect the adjacent level

  4. NASTRAN migration to UNIX (United States)

    Chan, Gordon C.; Turner, Horace Q.


    COSMIC/NASTRAN, as it is supported and maintained by COSMIC, runs on four main-frame computers - CDC, VAX, IBM and UNIVAC. COSMIC/NASTRAN on other computers, such as CRAY, AMDAHL, PRIME, CONVEX, etc., is available commercially from a number of third party organizations. All these computers, with their own one-of-a-kind operating systems, make NASTRAN machine dependent. The job control language (JCL), the file management, and the program execution procedure of these computers are vastly different, although 95 percent of NASTRAN source code was written in standard ANSI FORTRAN 77. The advantage of the UNIX operating system is that it has no machine boundary. UNIX is becoming widely used in many workstations, mini's, super-PC's, and even some main-frame computers. NASTRAN for the UNIX operating system is definitely the way to go in the future, and makes NASTRAN available to a host of computers, big and small. Since 1985, many NASTRAN improvements and enhancements were made to conform to the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standards. A major UNIX migration effort was incorporated into COSMIC NASTRAN 1990 release. As a pioneer work for the UNIX environment, a version of COSMIC 89 NASTRAN was officially released in October 1989 for DEC ULTRIX VAXstation 3100 (with VMS extensions). A COSMIC 90 NASTRAN version for DEC ULTRIX DECstation 3100 (with RISC) is planned for April 1990 release. Both workstations are UNIX based computers. The COSMIC 90 NASTRAN will be made available on a TK50 tape for the DEC ULTRIX workstations. Previously in 1988, an 88 NASTRAN version was tested successfully on a SiliconGraphics workstation.

  5. [International migration: 1979]. (United States)


    Statistics on international migration in Panama in 1979 are provided for the 3 airports, 6 seaports, and 2 border crossings used by international travelers. The categories of visitors, temporary visitors, immigrants, and residents among those entering and leaving the country are defined and the data collection procedures are briefly specified. Between 1975-79, the number of persons entering the country through all points increased from 392,449 to 520,454, while the number departing increased from 397,759 to a figure provisionally estimated at 514,250. In 1979, 317,303 men and 203,151 women entered the country, 427,527 by air, 89,764 by land, and 3,163 by sea. 473 men and 355 women immigrated, all arriving by air. 391,502 of those entering were visitors, 2,407 were temporary visitors, and 98,589 were residents, of whom 81,462 were Panamanian and 17,127 foreign. Another table indicates the number of persons by category entering at each point by month; December had the highest number of arrivals, 56,070, followed by July, with 47,889. Other tables indicate the number of arrivals by category according to country of nationality and country of permanent residence; the number of arrivals by sex and category in 5-year age groups; the number of visitors entering for motives related to travel according to nationality and country of residence; the number entering by duration of stay, according to reasons for travel and country of residence; the number entering through the airport at Tocumen or the border crossing at Paso de Canoa, by motives for travel, according to country of residence, and by sex and age; and the number of returning Panamanian residents by port of entry and nationality, according to point of origin. Data are also provided on the number leaving by category for each point of departure and month of departure.

  6. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011. (United States)

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong


    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables.

  7. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring (United States)

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark


    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  8. [Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province and evaluation of its ecological risk]. (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Lan; Huang, Yi-Zong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Zhu; Hu, Ying; Qiao Min; Li, Jin; Xiang, Meng


    Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province was studied. The results showed that copper mining and smelting could increase the content of rare earth elements in soils and crops. Rare earth elements content in farmland soils of the surrounding Yinshan Lead Zinc Copper Mine and Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 112.42 to 397.02 mg x kg(-1) and 48.81 to 250.06 mg x kg(-1), and the average content was 254.84 mg x kg(-1) and 144.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average contents of rare earth elements in soils in these two areas were 1.21 times and 0.68 times of the background value in Jiangxi province, 1.36 times and 0.77 times of the domestic background value, 3.59 times and 2.03 times of the control samples, respectively. Rare earth elements content in 10 crops of the surrounding Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 0.35 to 2.87 mg x kg(-1). The contents of rare earth elements in the leaves of crops were higher than those in stem and root. The contents of rare earth elements in Tomato, lettuce leaves and radish leaves were respectively 2.87 mg x kg(-1), 1.58 mg x kg(-1) and 0.80 mg x kg(-1), which were well above the hygienic standard limit of rare earth elements in vegetables and fruits (0.70 mg x kg(-1)). According to the health risk assessment method recommended by America Environmental Protection Bureau (USEPA), we found that the residents' lifelong average daily intake of rare earth elements was 17.72 mg x (kg x d)(-1), lower than the critical value of rare earth elements damage to human health. The results suggested that people must pay attention to the impact of rare earth elements on the surrounding environment when they mine and smelt copper ore in Jiangxi.

  9. The migration challenge for PAYG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanyan, Gurgen


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2014), s. 1023-1038 ISSN 0933-1433 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : public pension s * PAYG * unskilled migration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2014

  10. The migration challenge for PAYG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanyan, Gurgen


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2014), s. 1023-1038 ISSN 0933-1433 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : public pension s * PAYG * unskilled migration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2014

  11. Migration, distress and cultural identity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhugra, Dinesh


    ...; they also attempt to settle down by either assimilation or biculturalism. In this paper, various hypotheses explaining the act of migration and its relationship with mental distress are described...

  12. Security Enhancement for Data Migration in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Raphael Ngnie Sighom


    Full Text Available In today’s society, cloud computing has significantly impacted nearly every section of our lives and business structures. Cloud computing is, without any doubt, one of the strategic directions for many companies and the most dominating infrastructure for enterprises as long as end users. Instead of buying IT equipment (hardware and/or software and managing it themselves, many organizations today prefer to buy services from IT service providers. The number of service providers increase dramatically and the cloud is becoming the tools of choice for more cloud storage services. However, as more personal information and data are moved to the cloud, into social media sites, DropBox, Baidu WangPan, etc., data security and privacy issues are questioned. Daily, academia and industry seek to find an efficient way to secure data migration in the cloud. Various solution approaches and encryption techniques have been implemented. In this work, we will discuss some of these approaches and evaluate the popular ones in order to find the elements that affect system performance. Finally, we will propose a model that enhances data security and privacy by combining Advanced Encryption Standard-256, Information Dispersal Algorithms and Secure Hash Algorithm-512. Our protocol achieves provable security assessments and fast execution times for medium thresholds.

  13. Migration selectivity and the effects of public programs. (United States)

    Rosenzweig, M R; Wolpin, K I


    "A model of the spatial distribution of mobile heterogeneous agents is formulated to assess how a price change or program subsidy that is location-specific affects the composition of local residents via selective migration and thus biases evaluations of the effectiveness of the program based on its local consequences. Longitudinal data from Colombia are used to test the implications of migration selectivity. The findings confirm the existence of selective migration, suggesting that local subsidies to human capital attract high-income but, within income groups, low-fertility households and those with low human capital endowments. These migration patterns are shown to be consistent with the dominance of endowment over tastes heterogeneity in the population under plausible behavioral assumptions." excerpt

  14. Evaluation of Sources and Patterns of Elemental Composition of PM2.5 at Three Low-Income Neighborhood Schools and Residences in Quito, Ecuador (United States)

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Weigel, M. Margaret; Echanique, Patricia; Racines, Marcia; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Li, Wen-Whai


    Elemental characterization of fine particulate matter was undertaken at schools and residences in three low income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. The three zones were located in the northern (Cotocollao), south central (El Camal), and south east (Los Chillos) neighborhoods and were classified as zones 1–3, respectively. Forty elements were quantified via ICP-MS analysis. Amongst the geogenic elements, the concentration of Si was the most abundant followed by S, Al, and Ca. Elements with predominantly anthropogenic sources such as Zn, V, and Ni were higher in zone 3 school followed by zone 2 and zone 1 schools. Enrichment factors were calculated to study the role of crustal sources in the elemental concentrations. Geogenic elements, except K, all had values 10. Principal Component Analysis suggested that Ni and V concentrations were strongly attributable to pet coke and heavy oil combustion. Strong associations between As and Pb could be attributed to traffic and other industrial emissions. Resuspended dust, soil erosion, vehicular emissions (tailpipe, brake and tire wear, and engine abrasion), pet coke, heavy oil combustion, and heavy industrial operations were major contributors to air pollution. PMID:28644400

  15. Migration of the Nellix endoprosthesis. (United States)

    England, Andrew; Torella, Francesco; Fisher, Robert K; McWilliams, Richard G


    This study reports the incidence and sequelae of migration of the Nellix (Endologix Inc, Irvine, Calif) endoprosthesis after endovascular aneurysm sealing. A review was performed of the follow-up imaging of all endovascular aneurysm sealing patients in a university hospital endovascular program who had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. The first postoperative and latest follow-up computed tomography scans were used to measure the distances between the proximal and distal borders of the stent grafts relative to reference vessels using a previously validated technique. Device migration was based on previously established criteria and defined as any stent graft movement of ≥4 mm related to a predefined reference vessel. Device movement in a caudal direction was given a positive value, and movement in a cranial direction was denoted by a negative value. Eighteen patients (35 stent grafts) were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective review. The mean preoperative abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter was 57 mm (standard deviation [SD], 5; range, 50-67 mm) and aortic neck length was 30 mm (SD, 16; range, 6-62 mm). Proximal migration, according to study definitions, was identified in six stent grafts (17%), all in a caudal direction. At 1 year the mean proximal migration distance was +6.6 mm (SD, 1.6; range, +4.7-+9.2 mm). Migration occurred in a single stent graft in four patients and bilaterally in one. No distal migration occurred. Proximal migration of the Nellix endoprosthesis does occur and was without any sequelae in our series. Further investigations into the long-term positional stability of the Nellix device, together with a more thorough understanding of the etiology and consequences of migration, are required. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metallicity, planetary formation and migration


    Livio, M.; Pringle, J. E.


    Recent observations show a clear correlation between the probability of hosting a planet and the metallicity of the parent star. Since radial velocity surveys are biased, however, towards detecting planets with short orbital periods, the probability-metallicity correlation could merely reflect a dependence of migration rates on metallicity. We investigated the possibility, but find no basis to suggest that the migration process is sensitive to the metallicity. The indication is, therefore, th...

  17. Computational Economic Modeling of Migration


    Klabunde, Anna


    In this paper an agent-based model of endogenously evolving migrant networks is developed to identify the determinants of migration and return decisions. Individuals are connected by links, the strength of which declines over time and distance. Methodologically, this paper combines parameterization using data from the Mexican Migration Project with calibration. It is shown that expected earnings, an idiosyncratic home bias, network ties to other migrants, strength of links to the home country...

  18. Media and migration. Layers of knowledge in Romanian written press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefania Matei


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to discuss the image that the media build around the phenomenon of migration in present-day Romanian society. I rely on a content analysis of newspaper articles on migration in order to explore layers of knowledge (understood as evidence which forms the basis of the representation about an issue by identifying specific elements in each and every piece of news, such as: the current state of migration, the demographic profile of the migrant, geographical location, the orientation of the newspaper, the situation of migrants, the causes and effects of this phenomenon, and the policies implemented in the communities of origin and destination, respectively. All these elements are examined along the lines of emigration and immigration in order to reconstruct strategies of framing external migration within the journalistic discourse, and to identify the information which constitutes a reference point in shaping the attribute agenda on this topic. The discussion relies on the analysis of 473 articles in Romanian newspapers, published between 2007 and 2009, using as a sampling frame the archive of articles available on the website

  19. Understanding gendered aspects of migration aspiration and motives of university students by multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đula Borozan


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.

  20. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte


    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.