WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluating cumulative exposure

  1. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  2. EPA's SHEDS-multimedia model: children's cumulative pyrethroid exposure estimates and evaluation against NHANES biomarker data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's SHEDS-Multimedia model was applied to enhance the understanding of children's exposures and doses to multiple pyrethroid pesticides, including major contributing chemicals and pathways. This paper presents combined dietary and residential exposure estimates and cum...

  3. Evaluation of gamma radiation cumulative exposure monitoring system in the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) with thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Danieli S.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Siqueira, Gessilane M.; Oliveira, Eugênio M.; Silva, Robson L.; Belo, Luiz Cláudio M., E-mail: danielisilva@ymail.com, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: gessilane.siqueira@cdtn.br, E-mail: emo@cdtn.br, E-mail: rls@cdtn.br, E-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative exposure to gamma radiation is monitored at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, located on the campus of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte - MG, since 1986. This monitoring is part of the Institution's Environmental Monitoring Program. The measurement is carried out through the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), which are placed in the perimeter of the CDTN property, distanced approximately 50 m each other, and at the air sampling stations, totaling 36 sampling points. The TLDs are positioned one meter from the ground, inside a PVC pipe where they remain exposed for a period of approximately three months. The objective of this work is to present and evaluate the results of this monitoring by investigating the dose values of gamma radiation (Dose Equivalent to Photons) obtained. Another important issue presented is about some failures identified in certain periods. There were problems with the sampling methodology and changes were proposed in the shelters to avoid contact of TLDs with excess moisture, which can compromise the results and the equipment of measurement of the thermoluminescence of crystals. The change was made at a sampling point and the results were compared with the historical data in the last 30 years. (author)

  4. Evaluation of gamma radiation cumulative exposure monitoring system in the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) with thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Danieli S.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Siqueira, Gessilane M.; Oliveira, Eugênio M.; Silva, Robson L.; Belo, Luiz Cláudio M.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to gamma radiation is monitored at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, located on the campus of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte - MG, since 1986. This monitoring is part of the Institution's Environmental Monitoring Program. The measurement is carried out through the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), which are placed in the perimeter of the CDTN property, distanced approximately 50 m each other, and at the air sampling stations, totaling 36 sampling points. The TLDs are positioned one meter from the ground, inside a PVC pipe where they remain exposed for a period of approximately three months. The objective of this work is to present and evaluate the results of this monitoring by investigating the dose values of gamma radiation (Dose Equivalent to Photons) obtained. Another important issue presented is about some failures identified in certain periods. There were problems with the sampling methodology and changes were proposed in the shelters to avoid contact of TLDs with excess moisture, which can compromise the results and the equipment of measurement of the thermoluminescence of crystals. The change was made at a sampling point and the results were compared with the historical data in the last 30 years. (author)

  5. The Use of the Kurtosis-Adjusted Cumulative Noise Exposure Metric in Evaluating the Hearing Loss Risk for Complex Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Wei; Qiu, Wei; Heyer, Nicholas J; Zhang, Mei-Bian; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Hamernik, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    To test a kurtosis-adjusted cumulative noise exposure (CNE) metric for use in evaluating the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noises. Specifically, to evaluate whether the kurtosis-adjusted CNE (1) provides a better association with observed industrial noise-induced hearing loss, and (2) provides a single metric applicable to both complex (non-Gaussian [non-G]) and continuous or steady state (Gaussian [G]) noise exposures for predicting noise-induced hearing loss (dose-response curves). Audiometric and noise exposure data were acquired on a population of screened workers (N = 341) from two steel manufacturing plants located in Zhejiang province and a textile manufacturing plant located in Henan province, China. All the subjects from the two steel manufacturing plants (N = 178) were exposed to complex noise, whereas the subjects from textile manufacturing plant (N = 163) were exposed to a G continuous noise. Each subject was given an otologic examination to determine their pure-tone HTL and had their personal 8-hr equivalent A-weighted noise exposure (LAeq) and full-shift noise kurtosis statistic (which is sensitive to the peaks and temporal characteristics of noise exposures) measured. For each subject, an unadjusted and kurtosis-adjusted CNE index for the years worked was created. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for age was used to determine the relationship between CNE (unadjusted and kurtosis adjusted) and the mean HTL at 3, 4, and 6 kHz (HTL346) among the complex noise-exposed group. In addition, each subject's HTLs from 0.5 to 8.0 kHz were age and sex adjusted using Annex A (ISO-1999) to determine whether they had adjusted high-frequency noise-induced hearing loss (AHFNIHL), defined as an adjusted HTL shift of 30 dB or greater at 3.0, 4.0, or 6.0 kHz in either ear. Dose-response curves for AHFNIHL were developed separately for workers exposed to G and non-G noise using both unadjusted and adjusted CNE as the exposure

  6. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity...... pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9-235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian...

  7. Feasibility study for evaluating cumulative exposure of downstream migrant juvenile salmonids to total dissolved gas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abernethy, C.S.; Dauble, D.D.; Johnson, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  10. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  11. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  12. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  13. Cumulative exposure to phthalates from phthalate-containing drug products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    European regulatory limit of exposure ranging between 380-1710 mg/year throughout the study period. Lithium-products constituted the majority of dibutyl phthalate exposure. Diethyl phthalate exposure, mainly caused by erythromycin, theophylline and diclofenac products, did not exceed the EMA regulatory...... to quantify annual cumulated phthalate exposure from drug products among users of phthalate-containing oral medications in Denmark throughout the period of 2004-2016. METHODS: We conducted a Danish nationwide cohort study using The Danish National Prescription Registry and an internal database held...

  14. Cooperia punctata trickle infections: parasitological parameters and evaluation of a Cooperia recombinant 14.2 kDa protein ELISA for estimating cumulative exposure of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuda, A P; Kooyman, F N J; Ploeger, H W; Vieira-Bressan, M C R; de Vries, E; Eysker, M

    2002-04-30

    Three groups of four calves each were trickle infected with three different levels of Cooperia punctata: 310 (group A), 1250 (group B) and 5000 (group C) third stage infective larvae (L3) twice a week over a 17-week period. Group D was the non-infected control group. Parasitological parameters as faecal egg counts (epg), worm burdens, size of worms and number of eggs per female were collected and the differences between the groups compared. Serological analyses were also conducted to investigate the efficiency of a recombinant C. oncophora CoES 14.2kDa protein in an ELISA to detect C. punctata antibodies. Group C had higher faecal egg counts until week 9 when the values decreased to those in group B. Mean faecal egg counts in group A were always lower than in the two other infected groups. The worm burdens were highest in group C, and lowest in group A, although the number of worms as a percentage of total larval intake was higher for the lower group. The mean length of the worms was shorter and the number of eggs per female lower for group C than for both other groups. ELISA using the CoES 14.2kDa proved to be efficient in measuring C. punctata antibodies. For group C it took 4 weeks to get increased levels of antibodies and this was one and 2 months more for groups B and A, respectively. Overall, there was a congruent relation between C. punctata antibodies and the cumulative exposure to the three different levels of trickle infections.

  15. Cumulative exposure to carbon monoxide during the day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joumard, R. (INRETS, 69 - Bron (FR))

    The carbon monoxide, CO, has the advantage of being very easily and accurately measured under various conditions. In addition, it allows the translation of CO concentrations into their biological effects. The cumulative CO exposure should be considered according to current environment conditions during a given period of life, e.g. the day. In addition, the translation of concentrations and exposure times of CO fixed on blood haemoglobine (carboxyhaemoglobine) depends on physiological factors such as age, size, sex, or physical activity. This paper gives some examples of CO exposure translated into curves of carboxyhaemoglobine: case of 92 persons whose schedule was studied in details, of customs officers whose exposure was measured during one week, or other theoretical cases. In all the cases studied, smoking is by far the first factor of pollution by carbon monoxide. If not considering this case, the CO contents observed are preoccupying for sensitive subjects (in particular children) only in very rare cases. Furthermore, this approach allows the assessment of maximal allowable concentrations during specific exposures (work, e.g. in a tunnel) by integrating them into normal life conditions and population current exposure.

  16. The EPA's human exposure research program for assessing cumulative risk in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartarian, Valerie G; Schultz, Bradley D

    2010-06-01

    Communities are faced with challenges in identifying and prioritizing environmental issues, taking actions to reduce their exposures, and determining their effectiveness for reducing human health risks. Additional challenges include determining what scientific tools are available and most relevant, and understanding how to use those tools; given these barriers, community groups tend to rely more on risk perception than science. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and collaborators are developing and applying tools (models, data, methods) for enhancing cumulative risk assessments. The NERL's "Cumulative Communities Research Program" focuses on key science questions: (1) How to systematically identify and prioritize key chemical stressors within a given community?; (2) How to develop estimates of exposure to multiple stressors for individuals in epidemiologic studies?; and (3) What tools can be used to assess community-level distributions of exposures for the development and evaluation of the effectiveness of risk reduction strategies? This paper provides community partners and scientific researchers with an understanding of the NERL research program and other efforts to address cumulative community risks; and key research needs and opportunities. Some initial findings include the following: (1) Many useful tools exist for components of risk assessment, but need to be developed collaboratively with end users and made more comprehensive and user-friendly for practical application; (2) Tools for quantifying cumulative risks and impact of community risk reduction activities are also needed; (3) More data are needed to assess community- and individual-level exposures, and to link exposure-related information with health effects; and (4) Additional research is needed to incorporate risk-modifying factors ("non-chemical stressors") into cumulative risk assessments. The products of this

  17. Does the acute pulmonary response to ozone depend on the cumulative exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In experimental conditions, repeated ozone exposure induces adaptive phenomena that attenuate lung function and inflammatory responses. But this study did not find that lifetime cumulative exposure had a protective effect; indeed, it found the contrary. (author)

  18. Framework for Multi-Pathway Cumulative Exposure for Comparative Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Tom; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    in comparative risk assessment, life-cycle assessment (LCA), and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA), multimedia fate and exposure models synthesize information about partitioning, reaction, and intermedia-transport properties of chemicals in a representative (local to regional) or generic (continental...

  19. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  20. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim was to examine exposure-response relationships between cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), and to compare sex-specific exposure-response relationships. The secondary aim was to examine the time window of relevant exposures. We conducted a nationwide register study of all persons born in Denmark (1933-1977), who had at least 5 years of full-time employment. In the follow-up period (2003-2008), we identified first-time events of surgery for SIS. Cumulative exposure estimates for a 10-year exposure time window with a 1-year lag time were obtained by linking occupational codes with a job exposure matrix. The exposure estimates were expressed as, for example, arm-elevation-years in accordance with the pack-year concept of tobacco consumption. We used a multivariable logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis. The adjusted OR (ORadj) increased to a maximum of 2.1 for arm-elevation-years, repetition-years and force-years, and to 1.5 for hand-arm-vibration-years. Sex-specific exposure-response relationships were similar for men and women, when assessed using a relative risk scale. The ORadj increased gradually with the number of years contributing to the cumulative exposure estimates. The excess fraction was 24%. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures carried an increase in risk of surgery for SIS with similar exposure-response curves for men and women. The risk of surgery for SIS increased gradually, when the period of exposure assessment was extended. In the general working population, a substantial fraction of all first-time operations for SIS could be related to occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures......-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (P

  2. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  3. Quantitative assessment of cumulative damage from repetitive exposures to suberythemogenic doses of UVA in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavker, R.M.; Kaidbey, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    Daily exposures to relatively small suberythemogenic fluences of UVA (50-200 kJ/m 2 ) for 8 days resulted in cumulative morphological skin alterations indicative of early tissue injury. Histologically, irradiated skin revealed epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation and deposition of lysozyme along the dermal elastic fiber network. Sunburn cells were also present within the epidermis. These changes were quantified by image analysis and were found to be related to the cumulative UVA fluence. A long UVA waveband (UVAI, 340-400 nm) was as effective as a broad UVA band (320-400 nm), suggesting that these changes are induced by longer UVA wavelengths. (author)

  4. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-03-01

    To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989-2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20-31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure.

  5. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Human risk assessment of chemicals is traditionally presented as the ratio between the actual level of exposure and an acceptable level of exposure, with the acceptable level of exposure most often being estimated by appropriate authorities. This approach is generally sound when assessing the risk...... of individual chemicals. However, several chemicals may concurrently target the same receptor, work through the same mechanism or in other ways induce the same effect(s) in the body. In these cases, cumulative risk assessment should be applied. The present study uses biomonitoring data from 129 Danish children...... and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...

  6. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  7. Cumulative ionizing radiation exposure in patients with end stage kidney disease: a 6-year retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coyle, Joe

    2011-08-13

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). To investigate factors which may be independently associated with risk of high cumulative effective dose (CED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study had local institutional review board ethical approval. We conducted a retrospective study of 394 period prevalent ESKD patients attending a single tertiary referral centre between 2004 and 2009. Patient demographics were obtained from case records. Details of radiological investigations were obtained from the institutional radiology computerized database. CED was calculated using standard procedure specific radiation levels. High exposure was defined as CED > 50 mSv, an exposure which has been reported to increase cancer mortality by 5%. Data were compared using Pearson χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: 394 patients were followed for a median of 4 years (1518 patient years follow-up). Of these 63% were male. Seventeen percent of patients had a CED of >50 mSv. Computed tomography (CT) accounted for 9% of total radiological studies\\/procedures while contributing 61.4% of total study dose. Median cumulative dose and median dose per patient year were significantly higher in the hemodialysis (HD) group (15.13 and 5.79 mSv, respectively) compared to the post-transplant group (2.9 and 0.52 mSv, respectively) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ESKD patients are at risk of cumulative exposure to significant levels of diagnostic radiation. The majority of this exposure is imparted as a result of CT examinations to patients in the HD group.

  8. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    -regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods: This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging...... from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox...

  9. Cumulative effects of repeated exposure to pO2 = 200 kPa (2 atm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E

    2014-01-01

    Even asymptomatic exposures to elevated oxygen partial pressure (pO2) can influence subsequent exposures. Dry chamber dives of three hours' duration at pO2 of 200 kPa were conducted to examine cumulative effects. Experiments were single (n = 27), or paired exposures with surface intervals (SIs) 15 to 17 hours (n = 30), six hours (n = 33), or three hours (n = 36). Flow-volume loops, diffusing capacity, and symptoms were recorded before and after exposures. Immediately after surfacing from second exposures, some significant (p < 0.05) mean changes from baseline in pulmonary function indices occurred for all SIs and persisted for two days for three-hour SIs and for one day for 15-hour SIs. Incidences of symptoms were 15% immediately after one exposure and 28%, 38% and 31% immediately after a second exposure following 15-, six- , or three-hour SIs, respectively. Incidences of changes in pulmonary function indices (deltaPF) were 5%, 11%, 12% and 14% for single exposures or two with 15-, six-, or three-hour SIs, respectively. Two days following the second exposure, resolution of symptoms was incomplete after six- or 15-hour SIs, as was resolution of deltaPF after 15-hour SIs. The incidences indicate non-linear superposition of effects of a first and second exposure, and are not readily explained by delayed-onset injury.

  10. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  12. The injury and cumulative effects on human skin by UV exposure from artificial fluorescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Liu, Wei; Niu, TianHui; Dai, CaiHong; Li, Xiaoxin; Cui, Caijuan; Zhao, Xinyan; E, Yaping; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from fluorescence lamp were studied. UV intensity from fluorescence lamp was measured, and human skin samples (hips, 10 volunteers) were exposed to low-dose UV irradiation (three times per week for 13 consecutive weeks). Three groups were examined: control group without UV radiation; low-dose group with a cumulative dose of 50 J cm(-2) which was equivalent to irradiation of the face during indoor work for 1.5 years; and high-dose group with 1000 J cm(-2) cumulative dose equivalent to irradiation of the face during outdoor activities for 1 year. Specific indicators were measured before and after UVA irradiation. The findings showed that extending the low-dose UVA exposure decreased the skin moisture content and increased the transepidermal water loss as well as induced skin color changes (decreased L* value, increased M index). Furthermore, irradiated skin showed an increased thickness of cuticle and epidermis, skin edema, light color and unclear staining collagen fibers in the dermis, and elastic fiber fragmentation. In addition, MMP-1, p53 and SIRT1 expression was also increased. Long-term exposure of low-dose UVA radiation enhanced skin photoaging. The safety of the fluorescent lamp needs our attention. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. Estimating the distribution of lifetime cumulative radon exposures for California residents: a brief summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.-S.; Chang, Y.-L.; Hayward, S.B.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nero, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Data on residential radon concentrations in California, together with information on California residents' moving houses and time-activity patterns, have been used to estimate the distribution of lifetime cumulative exposures to 222 Rn. This distribution was constructed using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate the lifetime occupancy histories and associated radon exposures of 10,000 California residents. For standard male and female lifespans, the simulation sampled from transition probability matrices representing changes of residence within and between six regions of California, as well as into and out of the other United States, and then sampled from the appropriate regional (or national) distribution of indoor concentrations. The resulting distribution of lifetime cumulative exposures has a significantly narrower relative width than the distribution of California indoor concentrations, with only a small fraction (less than 0.2%) of the population having lifetime exposures equivalent to living their lifetimes in a single home with a radon concentration of 148 Bq.m -3 or more. (author)

  14. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  15. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-01-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne 222 Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee's work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of 210 Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of 210 Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring 210 Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished

  16. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; van der Beek, Allard J; Smid, Tjabe

    2017-01-11

    Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees) cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days) and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69). Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to be negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes, and

  17. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwin van Drongelen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. Methods This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. Results After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02–1.69. Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to

  18. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  19. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  20. Skin barrier integrity and natural moisturising factor levels after cumulative dermal exposure to alkaline agents in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Dapic, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Jakasa, Ivone; Fischer, Tobias W.; Zillikens, Detlef; Kezic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure to alkaline agents may lead to skin barrier damage and irritant contact dermatitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cumulative exposure to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 0.15% NaOH on the barrier function and natural moisturising factor (NMF)

  1. Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects on a time-to-event endpoint using structural cumulative survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Zucker, David M

    2017-12-01

    The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate elements of randomization, either by design or by nature (e.g., random inheritance of genes). Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects is well established for continuous outcomes and to some extent for binary outcomes. It is, however, largely lacking for time-to-event outcomes because of complications due to censoring and survivorship bias. In this article, we make a novel proposal under a class of structural cumulative survival models which parameterize time-varying effects of a point exposure directly on the scale of the survival function; these models are essentially equivalent with a semi-parametric variant of the instrumental variables additive hazards model. We propose a class of recursive instrumental variable estimators for these exposure effects, and derive their large sample properties along with inferential tools. We examine the performance of the proposed method in simulation studies and illustrate it in a Mendelian randomization study to evaluate the effect of diabetes on mortality using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We further use the proposed method to investigate potential benefit from breast cancer screening on subsequent breast cancer mortality based on the HIP-study. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and subsequent psychological distress. An analysis of US panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Burström, Bo; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that childhood stress increases the risk of poor mental health later in life. We examined the effect of childhood stressors on psychological distress and self-reported depression in young adulthood. Data were obtained from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a survey of US families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood (TA) data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18-23 years old. This study included data from participants in the CDS and the TA (n = 2128), children aged 4-13 at baseline. Data on current psychological distress was used as an outcome variable in logistic regressions, calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Latent Class Analyses were used to identify clusters based on the different childhood stressors. Associations were observed between cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and both psychological distress and self-reported depression. Individuals being exposed to three or more stressors had the highest risk (crude OR for psychological distress: 2.49 (95% CI: 1.16-5.33), crude OR for self-reported depression: 2.07 (95% CI: 1.15-3.71). However, a large part was explained by adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative exposure to childhood stress on psychological distress. The important role of adolescent depression in this association also needs to be taken into consideration in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  4. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kolassa, Stephan; Koslowski, Daniela; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  5. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wilker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. Methods: We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. Results: All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. Conclusions: As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  6. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, James O; Roggli, Victor L; Boelter, Fred W; Rasmuson, Eric J; Redinger, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff's answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff's discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed independent of specific asbestos

  7. Family Income, Cumulative Risk Exposure, and White Matter Structure in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Dufford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Family income is associated with gray matter morphometry in children, but little is known about the relationship between family income and white matter structure. In this paper, using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a whole brain, voxel-wise approach, we examined the relationship between family income (assessed by income-to-needs ratio and white matter organization in middle childhood (N = 27, M = 8.66 years. Results from a non-parametric, voxel-wise, multiple regression (threshold-free cluster enhancement, p < 0.05 FWE corrected indicated that lower family income was associated with lower white matter organization [assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA] for several clusters in white matter tracts involved in cognitive and emotional functions including fronto-limbic circuitry (uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle, association fibers (inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tracts. Further, we examined the possibility that cumulative risk (CR exposure might function as one of the potential pathways by which family income influences neural outcomes. Using multiple regressions, we found lower FA in portions of these tracts, including those found in the left cingulum bundle and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, was significantly related to greater exposure to CR (β = -0.47, p < 0.05 and β = -0.45, p < 0.05.

  8. Modeling the Cumulative Effects of Social Exposures on Health: Moving beyond Disease-Specific Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. White

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional explanatory models used in epidemiology are “disease specific”, identifying risk factors for specific health conditions. Yet social exposures lead to a generalized, cumulative health impact which may not be specific to one illness. Disease-specific models may therefore misestimate social factors’ effects on health. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada 2001 Census we construct and compare “disease-specific” and “generalized health impact” (GHI models to gauge the negative health effects of one social exposure: socioeconomic position (SEP. We use logistic and multinomial multilevel modeling with neighbourhood-level material deprivation, individual-level education and household income to compare and contrast the two approaches. In disease-specific models, the social determinants under study were each associated with the health conditions of interest. However, larger effect sizes were apparent when outcomes were modeled as compound health problems (0, 1, 2, or 3+ conditions using the GHI approach. To more accurately estimate social exposures’ impacts on population health, researchers should consider a GHI framework.

  9. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihal-Talantikite Wahida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects’ residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO2 following two steps: (i retrospective reconstitution of NO2 concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs.

  10. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida, Kihal-Talantikite; Padilla, Cindy M.; Denis, Zmirou-Navier; Olivier, Blanchard; Géraldine, Le Nir; Philippe, Quenel; Séverine, Deguen

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects’ residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO2 following two steps: (i) retrospective reconstitution of NO2 concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii) a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs. PMID:26999170

  11. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  12. Applicability of the tissue stem cell turnover concept on the validity of cumulative dose based radiation risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    The radiation protection system adopts the linear no-threshold model to achieve proper radiation protection for considering cancer risks resulting from radiation exposure. This model uses cumulative dose to a tissue for risk evaluation in which cumulative dose is related to the amount of DNA damage and consequential induction of gene mutation. In this concept, gene mutation accumulates in tissue stem cells, the putative target of carcinogenesis, with total dose given to the tissue. Unlike high-dose-rate exposure, epidemiological studies in high radiation background areas, such as Kerala in India, revealed that cancer risks is not elevated by the dose to the inhabitants, suggesting that there exists some mechanisms to eliminate the damage/mutation in the exposed tissue under extremely low-dose-rate exposure situations. In this report, the dynamics of tissue stem cell turnover is evaluated as a possible mechanism under extremely low-dose-rate exposure situations. To this end, we reviewed recent literatures studying tissue stem cell turnover, and found that great advances in stem cell research have made it possible to trace a fate of stem cells in tissues. Furthermore, turnover of tissue stem cells is found to occur after irradiation, due to competition of stem cells within tissues. This raises a possibility that radiation effects may not accumulate in a tissue depending on the dose-rate and duration of exposure period. (author)

  13. A Psychoneuroimmunologic Examination of Cumulative Perinatal Steroid Exposures and Preterm Infant Behavioral Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Isabell B.; Smith, Lynne; Wiley, Dorothy; Badr, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study’s aim was to explore relationships between preterm infant behavioral outcomes and maternal/infant glucocorticoid (dexamethasone [DEX]) treatments using a psychoneuroimmunologic approach. Research questions were (a) do relationships exist between infant cumulative perinatal steroid (PNS) exposure and child behavioral problems? and (b) do maternal/infant characteristics (e.g., immune markers and biophysiologic stressors) influence these relationships? Methods The convenience sample comprised 45 mother–child dyads in which the children (mean age 8 years ± 2.3) had been born at a mean postconceptional age of 28 weeks (± 4.2). We used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess behavior, the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) to score stress at birth, and retrospective record review to identify additional perinatal factors (PNS dosage, sepsis, and maternal and infant complete blood counts near delivery). Results Children were dichotomized into high (> 0.2mg/kg; n = 20) versus low–no (≤ 0.2 mg/kg; n = 25) PNS exposure groups. Significant relationships existed between CBCL Total Problems score and sepsis, PNS exposure, timing of initial PNS, and infant length percentile at discharge. Competence problems were significantly associated with PNS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant length percentile, CRIB score, sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, hearing deficit, and immunity markers (i.e., maternal lymphocyte percentage and infant band/seg ratio). Children in the higher PNS group exhibited more behavioral problems (e.g., withdrawn, attention, conduct, social, and rule breaking problems), but there were no significant differences. The findings are reassuring regarding long-term effects of this PNS dose on preterm infant behavioral outcomes. PMID:21900308

  14. Cumulative risk exposure moderates the association between parasympathetic reactivity and inhibitory control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Roos, Leslie E; Farrar, Jessica D; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC. For children with less risk, greater RSA withdrawal during IC tasks was associated with better IC. In contrast, greater risk was associated with poor IC, regardless of RSA withdrawal. Effects of risk were more pronounced for cumulative than individual measures. Results suggest that cumulative risk exposure disrupts connectivity between physiological and behavioral components of self-regulation in early childhood. Parasympathetic withdrawal to cognitive tasks may be less relevant for performance in developmental samples experiencing greater life stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  16. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms among Maltreated Youth Placed in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study…

  17. Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenigro, Philip H; Alosco, Michael L; Martin, Brett M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Mez, Jesse; Chaisson, Christine E; Nowinski, Christopher J; Au, Rhoda; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; McClean, Michael D; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2017-01-15

    The term "repetitive head impacts" (RHI) refers to the cumulative exposure to concussive and subconcussive events. Although RHI are believed to increase risk for later-life neurological consequences (including chronic traumatic encephalopathy), quantitative analysis of this relationship has not yet been examined because of the lack of validated tools to quantify lifetime RHI exposure. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a metric to quantify cumulative RHI exposure from football, which we term the "cumulative head impact index" (CHII); 2) to use the CHII to examine the association between RHI exposure and long-term clinical outcomes; and 3) to evaluate its predictive properties relative to other exposure metrics (i.e., duration of play, age of first exposure, concussion history). Participants included 93 former high school and collegiate football players who completed objective cognitive and self-reported behavioral/mood tests as part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study. Using established cutoff scores, we transformed continuous outcomes into dichotomous variables (normal vs. impaired). The CHII was computed for each participant and derived from a combination of self-reported athletic history (i.e., number of seasons, position[s], levels played), and impact frequencies reported in helmet accelerometer studies. A bivariate probit, instrumental variable model revealed a threshold dose-response relationship between the CHII and risk for later-life cognitive impairment (p < 0.0001), self-reported executive dysfunction (p < 0.0001), depression (p < 0.0001), apathy (p = 0.0161), and behavioral dysregulation (p < 0.0001). Ultimately, the CHII demonstrated greater predictive validity than other individual exposure metrics.

  18. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    children. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment based on Hazard Indices showed cause for concern mainly for children, as well as in rare cases for adults. Although phthalate exposure seems to have decreased in previous years, the wide distribution and existing exceedances of acceptable levels indicate that phthalate exposure should be further monitored in order to identify exposure sources and enable appropriate minimisation measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forecasting Ecosystem Exposure-- A Systems Approach to the Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater habitats provide fishable, swimmable and drinkable resources and are a nexus of geophysical and biological processes. These processes in turn influence the persistence and sustainability of populations, communities and ecosystems. Climate change and landuse change encompass numerous stressors of potential exposure, including the introduction of toxic contaminants, invasive species, and disease in addition to physical drivers such as temperature and hydrologic regime. A systems approach that includes the scientific and technologic basis of assessing the health of ecosystems is needed to effectively protect human health and the environment. The Integrated Environmental Modeling Framework 'iemWatersheds' has been developed as a consistent and coherent means of forecasting the cumulative impact of co-occurring stressors. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standardization of input data; the Framework for Risk Assessment of Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) that manages the flow of information between linked models; and the Supercomputer for Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (SuperMUSE) that provides post-processing and analysis of model outputs, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Five models are linked within the Framework to provide multimedia simulation capabilities for hydrology and water quality processes: the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) predicts surface water and sediment runoff and associated contaminants; the Watershed Mercury Model (WMM) predicts mercury runoff and loading to streams; the Water quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP) predicts water quality within the stream channel; the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model scores physicochemical habitat quality for individual fish species; and the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) predicts fish growth, population dynamics and bioaccumulation

  20. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results During the follow-up period, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (Ppension (HR 1.75 95% CI 1.01-3.04). Conclusions Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life - such as lifting and kneeling work - increased the risk of LTSA. Importantly, being exposed to lifting increased the risk of disability pension.

  1. Cumulative Radiation Exposure during Follow-Up after Curative Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; You, Je Sung

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the cumulative effective dose (cED) of radiation due to repeated CT and PET/CT examinations after curative resection of gastric cancer and to assess the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) estimates based on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII models. Patients who underwent a curative resection for gastric cancer between January 2006 and December 2006 and were followed-up until May 2010 were included in this study. The cED was calculated by using the dose-length product values and conversion factors for quantitative risk assessment of radiation exposure. cED and LAR were compared between early and advanced gastric cancer patients and among American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM stage groups (stage I, II, and III). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, followed by a post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment, were employed as part of the statistical analysis. The overall median cED was 57.8 mSv (interquartile range [IQR], 43.9-74.7). The cED was significantly higher in the advanced (median, 67.0; IQR, 49.1-102.3) than in the early gastric cancer group (median, 52.3; IQR, 41.5-67.9) (p < 0.001), and increased as the TNM stage increased. For radiation exposure, 62% of all patients received an estimated cED of over 50 mSv, while 11% of patients received over 100 mSv. The median LAR of cancer incidence was 0.28% (IQR, 0.20-0.40) and there were significant differences between the early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer group (p < 0.001) as well as among the three TNM stage groups (p = 0.015). The LAR of cancer incidence exceeded 1% in 2.4% of the patients. The cED increases proportionally along with tumor stage and, even in early gastric cancer or stage I patients, cED is much higher than that found among the general population. Considering the very good prognosis of early gastric cancer after curative surgery, the cED should be considered when designing a postoperative follow-up CT protocol.

  2. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  4. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    and methamidophos. RPF values derived from the literature were used in the calculations. We calculated the cumulative acute exposure to 1.8% and 0.8% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 100 mu g kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) of chlorpyrifos as an index compound at the 99.9th percentile (P99.5) for children...

  5. Psychotic-spectrum symptoms, cumulative adversity exposure and substance use among high-risk girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Golshan, Shahrokh; Beck, Audrey N

    2018-02-01

    Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors. We administered the Structured Clinical Interviews for Psychotic Spectrum, and Trauma and Loss Spectrum to 158 adolescent delinquent girls. Girls' psychotic-spectrum profiles were similar to previously reported adult psychotic patients and characterized by typical symptoms (hallucinations/delusions, reported largely SAU-independent), interpersonal sensitivity, schizoid traits and paranoia (over-interpretation, anger over-reactivity, hypervigilance). Auditory/visual hallucinations (55.7%), delusions (92.4%), ideas of reference (96.8%) and adversity (90.0% ≥10/24 C-TALE-types) were common. Mean loss (4) and trauma (8) onset-age occurred before SAU-onset (12). Significant positive correlations were found among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, stressor-reactivity, C-TALE, adversity-indicators; and number of SAU-types; and a negative correlation occurred between psychotic-spectrum symptoms and earlier alcohol use onset. After controlling for number of SAU-types, stressor-reactivity and adversity-related numbing individually had the largest associations with total psychotic-spectrum symptoms (b = 2.6-4.3). Girls averaged more than 4 maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., 24.8% attempted suicide) in response to adversity, amplifying potential health-disparities. No racial/ethnic differences emerged on psychotic-spectrum symptoms. This symptom constellation during adolescence likely interferes with social and academic

  6. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  7. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N.; Stark, A.; Ju, C.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ''above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210

  8. High cumulative insulin exposure: a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, Marian J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  9. High cumulative insulin exposure : a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, MJ; Bots, ML; Bilo, HJG; Hoogma, RPLM; Hoekstra, JBL; Grobbee, DE; Stolk, RP

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  10. Evaluation of a post-analysis method for cumulative dose distribution in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Saotome, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a post-analysis method for cumulative dose distribution in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). VMAT is capable of acquiring respiratory signals derived from projection images and machine parameters based on machine logs during VMAT delivery. Dose distributions were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and machine parameters in the condition where respiratory signals were without division, divided into 4 and 10 phases. The dose distribution of each respiratory phase was calculated on the planned four-dimensional CT (4DCT). Summation of the dose distributions was carried out using deformable image registration (DIR), and cumulative dose distributions were compared with those of the corresponding plans. Without division, dose differences between cumulative distribution and plan were not significant. In the condition Where respiratory signals were divided, dose differences were observed over dose in cranial region and under dose in caudal region of planning target volume (PTV). Differences between 4 and 10 phases were not significant. The present method Was feasible for evaluating cumulative dose distribution in VMAT-SBRT using 4DCT and DIR. (author)

  11. A Case Study Application of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Frameworks to Facilitate the Integration of Human Health and Ecological End Points for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...

  12. Examining cumulative victimization, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to PTSD symptoms among high-risk young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    This study examines patterns of lifetime victimization within the family, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a sample of 198 high-risk young women who are pregnant or parenting. We used cluster analysis to identify 5 profiles of cumulative victimization, based on participants' levels of witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), physical abuse by an adult caregiver, and sexual victimization, all beginning by age 12. Hierarchical regression was used to examine these 5 clusters (ranging from a High All Victimization cluster characterized by high levels of all 3 forms of violence, to a Low All Victimization cluster characterized by low levels of all 3 forms), along with community violence exposure and stigma, as predictors of PTSD symptoms. We found that 3 of the cumulative victimization clusters, in comparison with Low All Victimization, were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms, as was stigma, while community violence exposure was not a significant predictor. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Current and historical individual data about exposure of workers in the rayon industry to carbon disulfide and their validity in calculating the cumulative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göen, Thomas; Schramm, Axel; Baumeister, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a rayon-manufacturing plant has changed within two decades and whether it is possible to calculate valid data for the individual cumulative exposure. The data for CS2 concentration in air and biological exposure monitoring (2-thio-1,3-thiaxolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine) from two cross-sectional studies, performed in 1992 (n = 362) and 2009 (n = 212) in a German rayon-manufacturing plant, were compared to data obtained from company-internal measurements between the studies. Using the data from the cross-sectional studies and company-internal data, cumulative external exposure and the cumulative internal exposure were calculated for each worker. External and internal CS2 exposure of the employees decreased from 1992 (medians 4.0 ppm and 1.63 mgTTCA/g creatinine) to 2009 (medians 2.5 ppm and 0.86 mg/g). However, company-internal CS2 data do not show a straight trend for this period. The annual medians of the company-internal measurement of external exposure to CS2 have varied between 2.7 and 8.4 ppm, in which median values exceeded 5 ppm generally since 2000. The annual medians for the company-internal biomonitoring assessment ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 mg/g creatinine. The cumulative CS2 exposure ranged from 8.5 to 869.5 ppm years for external exposure and between 1.30 and 176.2 mg/g creatinine years for the internal exposure. Significant correlations were found between the current air pollution and the internal exposure in 2009 but also between the cumulative external and internal CS2 exposure. Current exposure data, usually collected in cross-sectional studies, rarely allow a reliable statement on the cumulative dose, because of higher exposure in the past and of fluctuating courses of exposure. On the other hand, company-internal exposure data may be affected by non-representative measurement strategies. Some verification of the reliability of

  14. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-12-01

    Although surfactant-induced acute irritant dermatitis has been extensively studied, our understanding about the induction and repair of the clinically more relevant chronic form is limited. Our purpose was to investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from cumulative exposure to structurally unrelated surfactants and to compare the maximal irritant responses from this model with corresponding reactions noted in a previously reported acute irritation model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (7.5%) were applied for 20 minutes daily (for 8 consecutive days excluding the weekend) to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were repeatedly assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). Maximum irritant responses were compared with corresponding reactions from an acute irritation model. TEWL was increased by SLS and DTAB to the same extent, but erythema was significantly higher in DTAB-treated skin. Skin dryness, as demonstrated by decreased capacitance values and increased scores for scaling and fissuring, was significantly more pronounced than in an acute irritation model for SLS and DTAB, although no difference was detected between the two surfactants. Potassium soap led to a slight increase in TEWL, whereas the remaining features were not significantly changed. This chronic irritation model appears to represent the clinical situation of irritant contact dermatitis with pronounced skin dryness more closely than the acute irritation model. The present study confirms that an extended time is needed for complete healing of irritant skin reactions. We also demonstrated that the evaluation of the irritation potential of

  15. Radiotherapy verification film for estimating cumulative entrance skin exposure for fluoroscopic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geise, R.A.; Ansel, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of skin entrance exposures during fluoroscopic procedures is complicated by the use of automatic exposure control devices and the presence of contrast media. Due to variability in positioning spot films from patient to patient, standard dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent, cannot be properly placed on the skin prior to examination. Prepackaged film of the type used for portal verification in radiation therapy held next to the patient's skin in a specially modified patient examination gown was found to be useful for determining the entrance skin exposure from both fluoroscopy and spot films during air contrast barium enema exams. The usable sensitivity range of this film has been found satisfactory for exposure measurements at exposures and kVps typically used for gastrointestinal fluoroscopic procedures. Errors in exposure estimates due to changes in film speed and contrast with kVp are less than 5% for the range of kVps used. Errors from variations in beam quality due to the adjacency of scattering material are approximately 5%. Entrance exposures determined with film agreed with those determined from TLD measurements to within 21%, with an average difference of 9%

  16. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  17. Cumulative Exposure to Prior Collective Trauma and Acute Stress Responses to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Garfin, DR; Holman, EA; Silver, RC

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2015 The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metrop...

  18. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Gu, Jun-Ming; Huang, Yun; Duan, Yan-Ying; Huang, Rui-Xue; Hu, Jian-An

    2016-03-16

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China's existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs) were calculated. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between cumulative lead dust and lead fumes exposures and workplace seniority, blood lead, urinary lead and ZPP values. A dose-response relationship was observed between cumulative lead dust or lead fumes exposure and lead poisoning (p lead dust and fumes doses were 0.68 mg-year/m³ and 0.30 mg-year/m³ for lead poisoning, respectively. The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m³ and 0.01 mg/m³ for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. In conclusion, BMDLs for airborne lead were lower than occupational exposure limits, suggesting that the occupational lead exposure limits need re-examination and adjustment. Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs) should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning.

  19. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Rock, Thomas; Berndt, Peter; Viehmann, Anja; Reinders, Sabrina; Gesenhues, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for General Medicine, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Brix, Gunnar; Schegerer, Alexander [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  20. Community Engaged Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Inorganic Well Water Contaminants, Crow Reservation, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T.; Lefthand, Myra J.; Young, Sara L.; Kindness, Larry; Other Medicine, Roberta; Ford, Timothy E.; Dietrich, Eric; Parker, Albert E.; Hoover, Joseph H.; Camper, Anne K.

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices. Additive Hazard Index calculations show that the water in more than 39% of wells is unsafe due to uranium, manganese, nitrate, zinc and/or arsenic. Most families’ financial resources are limited, and 95% of participants do not employ water treatment technologies. Despite widespread high total dissolved solids, poor taste and odor, 80% of families consume their well water. Lack of environmental health literacy about well water safety, pre-existing health conditions and limited environmental enforcement also contribute to vulnerability. Ensuring access to safe drinking water and providing accompanying education are urgent public health priorities for Crow and other rural US families with low environmental health literacy and limited financial resources. PMID:29304032

  1. Weighted cumulative exposure models helped identify an association between early knee-pain consultations and future knee OA diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Peat, George; Bedson, John; Edwards, John J; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2016-08-01

    To establish the association between prior knee-pain consultations and early diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) by weighted cumulative exposure (WCE) models. Data were from an electronic health care record (EHR) database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive). WCE functions for modeling the cumulative effect of time-varying knee-pain consultations weighted by recency were derived as a predictive tool in a population-based case-control sample and validated in a prospective cohort sample. Two WCE functions ([i] weighting of the importance of past consultations determined a priori; [ii] flexible spline-based estimation) were comprehensively compared with two simpler models ([iii] time since most recent consultation; total number of past consultations) on model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration both in derivation and validation phases. People with the most recent and most frequent knee-pain consultations were more likely to have high WCE scores that were associated with increased risk of knee OA diagnosis both in derivation and validation phases. Better model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration were observed for flexible spline-based WCE models. WCE functions can be used to model prediagnostic symptoms within routine EHR data and provide novel low-cost predictive tools contributing to early diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion

  3. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents cumulative damage from repeated exposure to sub-erythemal solar ultraviolet radiation representative of temperate latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Christiaens, F; Bredoux, C; Compan, D; Zucchi, H; Lombard, D; Fourtanier, A; Young, A R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown the detrimental effects of 19 sub-erythemal exposures to daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR, which mimics non-extreme exposure conditions), delivered over 4 weeks to volunteers. This source had UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (290-320 nm) irradiance ratio of 25, instead of that close to 10 that is typically the case with solar-simulated radiation (SSR) that represents summer global sunlight with a clear sky and quasi-zenith solar irradiance. Here, we report on an extension of this previous study, in which we evaluated the photoprotection afforded by a broad-spectrum daily-care product with a low-sun protection factor (SPF 8, UVA-PF 7 and 3* rated UVA protection). We assessed cellular and molecular markers of photodamage that are relevant to skin cancer and photoageing. This study shows that biological effects of repeated exposure to DUVR can be prevented by a broad-spectrum daily-care product and that the level of protection afforded varies with the studied endpoint. Efficient daily UVR protection, as provided by a broad-spectrum daily-care product, is necessary to prevent the 'silent' sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  4. Cumulative exposure to disadvantage and the intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, L.; Manley, D.; Van Ham, M.; Östh, J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of neighbourhood effects typically investigate the instantaneous effect of point-in-time measures of neighbourhood poverty on individual outcomes. It has been suggested that it is not solely the current neighbourhood, but also the neigh-bourhood history of an individual that is important in determining an individual’s outcomes. The effect of long-term exposure to poverty neighbourhoods on adults has largely been ignored in the empirical literature, partly due to a lack of suitable dat...

  5. Childhood Violence Exposure: Cumulative and Specific Effects on Adult Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Carole; Nurius, Paula S.; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to violence and victimization is a significant public health problem, with potentially long-lasting, deleterious effects on adult mental health. Using a longitudinal study design, 123 young adults—identified in adolescence as at-risk for high school dropout—were examined for the effects of multi-domain childhood victimization on emotional distress and suicide risk, net of adolescent risk and protective factors, including family dysfunction. The hypothesis that higher levels...

  6. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  7. Evaluation of cumulative effects of MR imaging on pacemaker systems at 1.5 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naehle, Claas P; Zeijlemaker, Volkert; Thomas, Daniel; Meyer, Carsten; Strach, Katharina; Fimmers, Rolf; Schild, Hans; Sommer, Torsten

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible cumulative effects of repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations on pacemaker systems in patients with cardiac pacemakers. The records of pacemaker patients who underwent repetitive MRI examinations in our institution were reviewed to identify patients who underwent two or more MRI examinations at 1.5T of any anatomical region. Using these criteria, a total of 47 patients who underwent a total 171 MRI examinations were identified and included in this study. Institutional Review Board approval for all pacemaker investigations was obtained. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Pacemakers were interrogated immediately before and after MR imaging, and after 3 months, including measurement of pacing capture threshold (PCT), lead impedance (LI), and battery voltage (BV). PCT, LI, and BV were analyzed for changes dependant on the number of MRI exams performed. Mean changes over time and changes between first and last pacemaker interrogation of PCT, LI, and BV were calculated. A statistically significant (P < 0.05), but clinically irrelevant trend for decrease in PCT and BV was found. No significant or clinically relevant changes in LI were observed. In this first study, no clinically relevant, cumulative changes in PCT, LI, or BV could be detected in PM patients who underwent two or more MRI examinations. However, a careful benefit/risk evaluation, among other MRI- and pacemaker-related safety precautions, remains mandatory, as clinically relevant alterations to the PM system cannot be excluded by all means.

  8. Stochastic evaluation of the dynamic response and the cumulative damage of nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kohei; Aoki, Shigeru; Hanaoka, Masaaki

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with a fundamental study concerning an evaluation of uncertainties of the nuclear piping response and cumulative damage under excess-earthquake loadings. The main purposes of this study cover following several problems. (1) Experimental estimation analysis of the uncertainties concerning the dynamic response and the cumulative failure by using piping test model. (2) Numerical simulation analysis by Monte Carlo method under the assumption that relation between restoring force and deformation is characterized by perfectly elasto-plastic one. (Checking the mathematical model.) (3) Development of the conventional uncertainty estimating method by introducing a perturbation technique based on an appropriate equivalently linearized approach. (Checking the estimation technique.) (4) An application of this method to more realistical cases. Through above mentioned procedures some important results are obtained as follows; First, fundamental statistical properties of the natural frequencies and the number of cycle to failure crack initiation are evaluated. Second, the effect of the frequency fluctuation and the yielding fluctuation are estimated and examined through Monte Carlo simulation technique. It has become clear that the yielding fluctuation gives significant effect on the piping power response up to its failure initiation. Finally some results through proposed perturbation technique are discussed. Statistical properties estimated coincide fairly well with those through numerical simulation. (author)

  9. Evaluating Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Computational Models in Supporting Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Mei; Clewell, Harvey; Campbell, Jerry; Andersen, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous or sequential exposure to multiple chemicals may cause interactions in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or pharmacodynamics (PD) of the individual chemicals. Such interactions can cause modification of the internal or target dose/response of one chemical in the mixture by other chemical(s), resulting in a change in the toxicity from that predicted from the summation of the effects of the single chemicals using dose additivity. In such cases, conducting quantitative cumulative risk assessment for chemicals present as a mixture is difficult. The uncertainties that arise from PK interactions can be addressed by developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to describe the disposition of chemical mixtures. Further, PK models can be developed to describe mechanisms of action and tissue responses. In this article, PBPK/PD modeling efforts conducted to investigate chemical interactions at the PK and PD levels are reviewed to demonstrate the use of this predictive modeling framework in assessing health risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures. PMID:21655141

  10. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  11. Dietary sources of cumulative phthalates exposure among the U.S. general population in NHANES 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshavsky, Julia R; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Woodruff, Tracey J; Zota, Ami R

    2018-06-01

    Anti-androgenic phthalates are reproductive toxicants that may have additive effects on male development. Diet is the primary exposure source for most phthalates, which contaminate the food supply through food contact materials and industrialized production. To compare dietary sources of cumulative phthalates exposure between "food at home" (e.g. food consumed from a grocery store) and "food away from home" (e.g. food consumed from fast food/restaurants and cafeterias) in the U.S. general population. We estimated cumulative phthalates exposure by calculating daily intake from metabolite concentrations in urinary spot samples for 10,253 participants (≥6 years old) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2014) data. We constructed a biologically relevant metric of phthalates daily intake (∑androgen-disruptor, μg/kg/day) by converting phthalates into anti-androgen equivalent terms prior to their summation. Particular foods and the percent of total energy intake (TEI) consumed from multiple dining out sources were ascertained from 24-h recall surveys. Associations with ∑androgen-disruptor levels were estimated for children, adolescents, and adults using multivariable linear regression. We observed a consistent positive association between dining out and Σandrogen-disruptor levels across the study population (p-trend consumers of foods outside the home had 55% (95% CI: 35%, 78%) higher Σandrogen-disruptor levels compared to those who only consumed food at home. The contribution of specific dining out sources to Σandrogen-disruptor levels varied by age group. For example, cafeteria food was associated with 15% (95% CI: 4.0%, 28%) and 64% (95% CI: 40%, 92%) higher Σandrogen-disruptor levels in children and adults, respectively. Particular foods, especially sandwiches (i.e. cheeseburgers), were associated with increased Σandrogen-disruptor levels only if they were purchased away from home (p food supply in addition to the

  12. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  13. Cumulative trauma and midlife well-being in American women who served in Vietnam: effects of combat exposure and postdeployment social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Mager Stellman, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly demonstrates that trauma exposure can have cumulative effects, yet much remains to be learned about effects of cumulative trauma, particularly regarding longer term adjustment. One such trauma, combat exposure, is insufficiently understood, especially for women, who are increasingly engaged in professional combat activities. The study comprised a cross-sectional survey assessing multiple aspects of current well-being in women approximately 25 years after their service in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Participants were 1374 women (78% military and 22% nonmilitary; mean age = 59.7). This study investigated the relations between three separate categories of trauma exposure (childhood, adulthood, and combat) and well-being and examined whether perceived social support at return from Vietnam moderated the association between combat exposure and well-being. While both childhood and adulthood trauma exposure related to midlife well-being, combat exposure still uniquely predicted outcomes. Further, postdeployment perceived social support moderated the association of combat and well-being: recollected higher perceived social support at homecoming buffered participants from the links between combat exposure and well-being. These results may have important implications for interventions to reduce the impact of traumatic experiences, particularly in light of the increasing exposure of women to direct combat events.

  14. The cumulative verification image analysis tool for offline evaluation of portal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John; Yan Di; Michalski, Jeff; Graham, Mary; Halverson, Karen; Harms, William; Purdy, James

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Daily portal images acquired using electronic portal imaging devices contain important information about the setup variation of the individual patient. The data can be used to evaluate the treatment and to derive correction for the individual patient. The large volume of images also require software tools for efficient analysis. This article describes the approach of cumulative verification image analysis (CVIA) specifically designed as an offline tool to extract quantitative information from daily portal images. Methods and Materials: The user interface, image and graphics display, and algorithms of the CVIA tool have been implemented in ANSCI C using the X Window graphics standards. The tool consists of three major components: (a) definition of treatment geometry and anatomical information; (b) registration of portal images with a reference image to determine setup variation; and (c) quantitative analysis of all setup variation measurements. The CVIA tool is not automated. User interaction is required and preferred. Successful alignment of anatomies on portal images at present remains mostly dependent on clinical judgment. Predefined templates of block shapes and anatomies are used for image registration to enhance efficiency, taking advantage of the fact that much of the tool's operation is repeated in the analysis of daily portal images. Results: The CVIA tool is portable and has been implemented on workstations with different operating systems. Analysis of 20 sequential daily portal images can be completed in less than 1 h. The temporal information is used to characterize setup variation in terms of its systematic, random and time-dependent components. The cumulative information is used to derive block overlap isofrequency distributions (BOIDs), which quantify the effective coverage of the prescribed treatment area throughout the course of treatment. Finally, a set of software utilities is available to facilitate feedback of the information for

  15. Evaluation of environmental radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The environmental radiation exposure due to radioactive rare gases is most important both at the time of reactor accidents and also in the long-term normal operation of reactor plants. The exposure dose is usually calculated by means of computers. The procedure of the calculation on environmental exposure dose is divided in several consecutive steps. The calculational formulae frequently used and those proposed recently are given with the explanation on released radionuclides, release to the atmosphere, concentration in the atmosphere, β-ray exposure, γ-ray exposure, and calculation of long-term exposure dose. (Mori, K.)

  16. Evaluation of the learning curve for external cephalic version using cumulative sum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yun; Han, Jung Yeol; Chang, Eun Hye; Kwak, Dong Wook; Ahn, Hyun Kyung; Ryu, Hyun Mi; Kim, Moon Young

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the learning curve for external cephalic version (ECV) using learning curve-cumulative sum (LC-CUSUM) analysis. This was a retrospective study involving 290 consecutive cases between October 2013 and March 2017. We evaluated the learning curve for ECV on nulli and over para 1 group using LC-CUSUM analysis on the assumption that 50% and 70% of ECV procedures succeeded by description a trend-line of quadratic function with reliable R 2 values. The overall success rate for ECV was 64.8% (188/290), while the success rate for nullipara and over para 1 groups was 56.2% (100/178) and 78.6% (88/112), respectively. 'H' value, that the actual failure rate does not differ from the acceptable failure rate, was -3.27 and -1.635 when considering ECV success rates of 50% and 70%, respectively. Consequently, in order to obtain a consistent 50% success rate, we would require 57 nullipara cases, and in order to obtain a consistent 70% success rate, we would require 130 nullipara cases. In contrast, 8 to 10 over para 1 cases would be required for an expected success rate of 50% and 70% on over para 1 group. Even a relatively inexperienced physician can experience success with multipara and after accumulating experience, they will manage nullipara cases. Further research is required for LC-CUSUM involving several practitioners instead of a single practitioner. This will lead to the gradual implementation of standard learning curve guidelines for ECV.

  17. An Analysis of Cumulative Risks Indicated by Biomonitoring Data of Six Phthalates Using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single component of a chemical mixture drives the cumulative risk of a receptor.1 This study used the MCR, the Hazard Index (HI) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) to evaluate co-exposures to six phthalates using biomonito...

  18. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaznik, Urška; Yngve, Agneta; Eržen, Ivan; Hlastan Ribič, Cirila

    2016-02-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health. Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied. Slovenia, primary schools. Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries. The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8.3 (95% CI 7.7, 10.6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99.9th percentile for daily intake and to 4.5 (95% CI 3.5, 4.7) % of the ARfD at the 99.9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake. The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  19. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  20. The cumulative ash curve: a best tool to evaluate complete mill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2014-04-01

    Slick test is carried out by a flour miller to qualitatively segregate the flour from different streams in a roller flour mill. This test is done manually by pressing flour samples on tray using thin bladed paddle (the slick) and inspecting color or dress of the sample. However, the test is subjective and totally depends on human judgment. Cumulative ash curve relates to cumulative flour ash content and cumulative flour yield, which could help a flour miller to be more precise while selecting flour streams for different needs. In this study, cleaning and conditioning of wheat was carried out in the pilot plant of International School of Milling Technology (ISMT). Further, roller flour milling of wheat was done. Flour from different streams (four breaks, five reductions) was collected. Each flour stream was analyzed for ash content using standard AACC methods. The analytical values of ash content were used to plot the cumulative ash curve. It was found that ash content increased in the break passages from first to last break, with exception of first break (ash content 0.71%). An increase in percentage of ash was observed in the reduction passages (C1 to C5), however, C3 ash (0.76%) was slightly higher than that of C4 (0.65%). Higher yield of flour with minimum ash content was obtained from the front reduction passages C1 and C2; whereas, the break passages and the tail end reduction passages produce less flour with higher ash content.

  1. Evaluating long-term cumulative hydrologic effects of forest management: a conceptual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1992-01-01

    It is impractical to address experimentally many aspects of cumulative hydrologic effects, since to do so would require studying large watersheds for a century or more. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using three hypothetical 10,000-ha fifth-order forested watersheds. Most of the physical processes expressed by the model are transferable from temperate to...

  2. Parenting intervention and the caregiving environment : cumulative risk and process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Mirjam Neeltje

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to study single and cumulative family risk in relation to early childhood externalizing problems and the effectiveness of a parenting intervention program. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive

  3. A case study to illustrate the utility of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway and Adverse Outcome Pathway frameworks for integrating human health and ecological data into cumulative risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods, which evaluate the risk of multiple adverse outcomes (AOs) from multiple chemicals, promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to integrate risk from relevant stressors. The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework can inform these r...

  4. Repeated exposure to high-frequency spanking and child externalizing behavior across the first decade: a moderating role for cumulative risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-12-01

    This study used the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to examine the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting on child externalizing behavior across the first decade of life, and a moderating role for cumulative ecological risk. Maternal report of harsh parenting, defined as high frequency spanking, was assessed at age 1, 3, 5, and 9, along with child externalizing at age 9 (N=2,768). Controlling for gender, race, maternal nativity, and city of residence, we found a cumulative risk index to significantly moderate the effects of repeated harsh parenting on child behavior, with the effects of repeated high-frequency spanking being amplified for those experiencing greater levels of cumulative risk. Harsh parenting, in the form of high frequency spanking, remains a too common experience for children, and results demonstrate that the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting across the first decade are amplified for those children already facing the most burden. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Perspectives on cumulative risks and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, John B

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative risks and impacts have taken on different meanings in different regulatory and programmatic contexts at federal and state government levels. Traditional risk assessment methodologies, with considerable limitations, can provide a framework for the evaluation of cumulative risks from chemicals. Under an environmental justice program in California, cumulative impacts are defined to include exposures, public health effects, or environmental effects in a geographic area from the emission or discharge of environmental pollution from all sources, through all media. Furthermore, the evaluation of these effects should take into account sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors where possible and to the extent data are available. Key aspects to this potential approach include the consideration of exposures (versus risk), socioeconomic factors, the geographic or community-level assessment scale, and the inclusion of not only health effects but also environmental effects as contributors to impact. Assessments of this type extend the boundaries of the types of information that toxicologists generally provide for risk management decisions.

  6. An exposure-based framework for grouping pollutants for a cumulative risk assessment approach: case study of indoor semi-volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kevin; Glorennec, Philippe; Bonvallot, Nathalie

    2014-04-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of contaminants, many of which may have similar health effects. This paper presents a framework for identifying pollutants to be included in a cumulative risk assessment approach. To account for the possibility of simultaneous exposure to chemicals with common toxic modes of action, the first step of the traditional risk assessment process, i.e. hazard identification, is structured in three sub-steps: (1a) Identification of pollutants people are exposed to, (1b) identification of effects and mechanisms of action of these pollutants, (1c) grouping of pollutants according to similarity of their mechanism of action and health effects. Based on this exposure-based grouping we can derive "multi-pollutant" toxicity reference values, in the "dose-response assessment" step. The approach proposed in this work is original in that it is based on real exposures instead of a limited number of pollutants from a unique chemical family, as traditionally performed. This framework is illustrated by the case study of semi-volatile organic compounds in French dwellings, providing insights into practical considerations regarding the accuracy of the available toxicological information. This case study illustrates the value of the exposure-based approach as opposed to the traditional cumulative framework, in which chemicals with similar health effects were not always included in the same chemical class. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  8. Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

  9. Cumulated Ambulation Score to evaluate mobility is feasible in geriatric patients and in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Nielsen, Jesper Westphal

    2012-01-01

    Regaining basic mobility independence is considered important for elderly hospitalised patients. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a valid tool for evaluating these patients' basic mobility (getting in and out of bed, sit-to-stand from a chair and walking) in orthopaedic wards, and its use ...... is recommended in Denmark for patients with hip fracture. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the feasibility of the CAS in a geriatric ward and to describe its use after hip fracture in Denmark....

  10. Patient exposure: description of cumulative irradiation of patients treated in interventional cardiology; Exposition des patients: description de l'irradiation cumulee des patients traites en cardiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odile Bernier, M.O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire d ' Epidemiologie, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its clinical benefits, interventional cardiology induces cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation and may entail an important irradiation of the patient at the cutaneous level as well as for organs at the vicinity of the heart. The author briefly reports a study performed on a sample of 1591 patients who have been submitted to at least one corono-graphy or one angioplasty during 2005. Based on clinical characteristics and dose-area-product measurements, the doses received by lung, oesophagus, bone medulla and breast have been computed

  11. Evaluation of Technical Efficiency in Indian Sugar Industry: An Application of Full Cumulative Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil KUMAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the inter-temporal and inter-state variations in technical and scale efficiency levels of Indian sugar industry. In the first stage, full cumulative data envelopment analysis (FCDEA is used to derive efficiency scores for 12 major sugar producing states. The panel data truncated regression is employed in the second stage to assess the key factors explaining the observed variations in the efficiency levels. The results suggest that the extent of technical inefficiency in Indian sugar industry is about 35.5 percent per annum, and the observed technical inefficiency stems primarily due to managerial inefficiency rather scale inefficiency. Also, a precipitous decline in the level of technical efficiency has been noticed in the postreforms period relative to the level observed in the pre-reforms period. The availability of skilled labour and profitability have been found to be most significant determinants of technical efficiency in Indian sugar industry.

  12. A non-linear relationship between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout and the potentially emotion regulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Li, Jia-Huan; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-10-08

    Stressful situations can increase the likelihood of nurses experiencing negative emotions, especially burnout. To explore the association of cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and emotion regulation strategies with nurses' burnout. Participants were 602 nurses from three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Social demographic characteristics, occupational stress, burnout, and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination), were assessed. Nearly 70% of nurses reported that they were burnt out. Those with a moderate level and high level of stressors were 3.203 times and 26.444 times more likely to have burnout, respectively (x 2 trend = 62.732). Logistic regression revealed that nurses had higher cognitive reappraisal score (odds ratios (OR) = 0.941), scored lower for burnout. Those who had higher expressive suppression score (OR = 1.054), higher rumination score (OR = 1.037), and a higher level of stressors (OR = 2.779-18.259) scored higher for burnout. The results of sensitivity analysis were similar. A non-linear relationship exists between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout. Those who less frequently use cognitive reappraisal, more frequently use rumination and expressive suppression, and have a high level of stressors may be more likely to experience burnout.

  13. A preliminary estimate of the EUVE cumulative distribution of exposure time on the unit sphere. [Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary study of an all-sky coverage of the EUVE mission is given. Algorithms are provided to compute the exposure of the celestial sphere under the spinning telescopes, taking into account that during part of the exposure time the telescopes are blocked by the earth. The algorithms are used to give an estimate of exposure time at different ecliptic latitudes as a function of the angle of field of view of the telescope. Sample coverage patterns are also given for a 6-month mission.

  14. Dose monitoring using the DICOM structured report: assessment of the relationship between cumulative radiation exposure and BMI in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Lanzman, R.S.; Meineke, A.; Heusch, P.; Sawicki, L.M.; Antoch, G.; Kröpil, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To perform a systematic, large-scale analysis using the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine structured report (DICOM-SR) to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and radiation exposure in abdominal CT. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of DICOM-SR of 3121 abdominal CT examinations between April 2013 and March 2014 was performed. All examinations were conducted using a 128 row CT system. Patients (mean age 61 ± 15 years) were divided into five groups according to their BMI: group A <20 kg/m 2 (underweight), group B 20–25 kg/m 2 (normal weight), group C 25–30 kg/m 2 (overweight), group D 30–35 kg/m 2 (obese), and group E > 35 kg/m 2 (extremely obese). CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose–length product (DLP) were compared between all groups and matched to national diagnostic reference values. Results: The mean CTDI vol and DLP were 5.4 ± 2.9 mGy and 243 ± 153 mGy·cm in group A, 6 ± 3.6 mGy and 264 ± 179 mGy• cm in group B, 7 ± 3.6 mGy and 320 ± 180 mGy• cm in group C, 8.1 ± 5.2 mGy and 375 ± 306 mGy• cm in group D, and 10 ± 8 mGy and 476 ± 403 mGy• cm in group E, respectively. Except for group A versus group B, CTDI vol and DLP differed significantly between all groups (p<0.05). Significantly more CTDI vol values exceeded national diagnostic reference values in groups D and E (2.1% and 6.3%) compared to group B (0.5%, p<0.05). Conclusion: DICOM-SR is a comprehensive, fast, and reproducible way to analyse dose-related data at CT. It allows for automated evaluation of radiation dose in a large study population. Dose exposition is related to the patient's BMI and is increased by up to 96% for extremely obese patients undergoing abdominal CT. - Highlights: • DICOM-SR was used to implement automatic CT-dose monitoring. • DICOM-SR allowed for a fast and comprehensive analysis of CT dose data. • Radiation exposure for abdominal CT was increased by up to 96% for

  15. Evaluation of pain relief sufficiency using the Cumulative Analgesic Consumption Score (CACS) and its modification (MACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Alexander Harald Ralf; Groene, Philipp; von Ehrlich-Treuenstätt, Viktor; Heiliger, Christian; Werner, Jens; Karcz, Konrad

    2017-12-01

    Postoperative pain is one of the major complications in general and bariatric surgery, associated with ongoing problems such as ileus, pneumonia and prolonged mobilization. In this study, patients undergoing bariatric surgery were analyzed according to their postoperative pain relief regime. In one group patients were treated with a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device, while the other group was treated with oral and intravenous analgesic medication. The aim of this study was to analyze which postoperative pain relief therapy would be more appropriate. We chose the Cumulative Analgesic Consumption Score (CACS) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain measurement. For better comparison, we performed a modification of CACS according to PCA treatment. We observed better pain relief in the PCA group. Furthermore, we observed an advantage of treatment with laxatives in patients treated with PCA. In conclusion, PCA devices are appropriate instruments for postoperative pain relief in bariatric patients. CACS is a practical tool for postoperative pain measurement, describing individual pain sensation more objectively, although holding further potential in modification.

  16. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  17. Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects on a time-to-event endpoint using structural cumulative survival models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate elem...

  18. Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between duration...... of exposure to antiretrovirals and the development of chronic kidney disease in people with initially normal renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: In this prospective international cohort study, HIV-positive adult participants (aged ≥16 years) from the D......:A:D study (based in Europe, the USA, and Australia) with first eGFR greater than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) were followed from baseline (first eGFR measurement after Jan 1, 2004) until the occurrence of one of the following: chronic kidney disease; last eGFR measurement; Feb 1, 2014; or final visit plus 6...

  19. Cumulative effects of heat exposure and storage conditions of Oxytocin-in-Uniject in rural Ghana: implications for scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Luke C; Newton, Sam; Afari-Asiedu, Samuel; Adiibokah, Edward; Agyemang, Charlotte T; Cofie, Patience; Brooke, Steve; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Stanton, Cynthia K

    2014-08-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage can be reduced substantially in home deliveries attended by community-based workers by using Oxytocin-in-Uniject (OIU) devices affixed with temperature-time indicators. We characterized the distribution of time to discard of these devices when stored under normal field conditions in Ghana. Two drug storage simulation studies were conducted in rural Ghana in 2011 and 2012. Devices were transported under refrigeration from manufacture (Argentina) to storage at the study site. Twenty-three field workers each stored at home (unrefrigerated) 25 OIU devices and monitored them daily to record: (1) time to transition from usable to unusable, and (2) continuous digital ambient temperature to determine heat exposure over the simulation period. Time to discard was estimated and compared with mean kinetic temperature exposure of the devices during the shipment and storage phases and with characteristics of the storage locations using Weibull regression models. We used the time to discard distributions in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate wastage rates in a hypothetical program setting. Time for shipment and transfer to long-term refrigerated storage and mean kinetic temperature during the shipment phase was 8.6 days/10.3°C and 13.4 days/12.1°C, for the first and second simulation studies, respectively. Median (range) time to discard when stored under field conditions (unrefrigerated) was 43 (6 to 59) days and 33 (14 to 50) days, respectively. Mean time to discard was 10.0 days shorter in the second simulation, during which mean kinetic temperature exposure was 3.9°C higher. Simulating a monthly distribution system and assuming typical usage, predicted wastage of product was less than 10%. The time to discard of devices was highly sensitive to small changes in temperature exposure. Under field conditions typical in rural Ghana, OIU packages will have a half-life of approximately 30 to 40 days based on the temperature monitor used during the study

  20. Cumulative response of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks to chronic CO2 exposure in a subtropical oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Bruce A; Dijkstra, Paul; Wu, Zhuoting; Duval, Benjamin D; Day, Frank P; Johnson, Dale W; Megonigal, J Patrick; Brown, Alisha L P; Garland, Jay L

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could alter the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of ecosystems, yet the magnitude of these effects are not well known. We examined C and N budgets of a subtropical woodland after 11 yr of exposure to elevated CO2. We used open-top chambers to manipulate CO2 during regrowth after fire, and measured C, N and tracer 15N in ecosystem components throughout the experiment. Elevated CO2 increased plant C and tended to increase plant N but did not significantly increase whole-system C or N. Elevated CO2 increased soil microbial activity and labile soil C, but more slowly cycling soil C pools tended to decline. Recovery of a long-term 15N tracer indicated that CO2 exposure increased N losses and altered N distribution, with no effect on N inputs. Increased plant C accrual was accompanied by higher soil microbial activity and increased C losses from soil, yielding no statistically detectable effect of elevated CO2 on net ecosystem C uptake. These findings challenge the treatment of terrestrial ecosystems responses to elevated CO2 in current biogeochemical models, where the effect of elevated CO2 on ecosystem C balance is described as enhanced photosynthesis and plant growth with decomposition as a first-order response. PMID:23718224

  1. Cumulative response of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks to chronic CO₂ exposure in a subtropical oak woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Bruce A; Dijkstra, Paul; Wu, Zhuoting; Duval, Benjamin D; Day, Frank P; Johnson, Dale W; Megonigal, J Patrick; Brown, Alisha L P; Garland, Jay L

    2013-11-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) could alter the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of ecosystems, yet the magnitude of these effects are not well known. We examined C and N budgets of a subtropical woodland after 11 yr of exposure to elevated CO₂. We used open-top chambers to manipulate CO₂ during regrowth after fire, and measured C, N and tracer (15) N in ecosystem components throughout the experiment. Elevated CO₂ increased plant C and tended to increase plant N but did not significantly increase whole-system C or N. Elevated CO₂ increased soil microbial activity and labile soil C, but more slowly cycling soil C pools tended to decline. Recovery of a long-term (15) N tracer indicated that CO₂ exposure increased N losses and altered N distribution, with no effect on N inputs. Increased plant C accrual was accompanied by higher soil microbial activity and increased C losses from soil, yielding no statistically detectable effect of elevated CO₂ on net ecosystem C uptake. These findings challenge the treatment of terrestrial ecosystems responses to elevated CO₂ in current biogeochemical models, where the effect of elevated CO₂ on ecosystem C balance is described as enhanced photosynthesis and plant growth with decomposition as a first-order response. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Information exposure, opportunity evaluation and entrepreneurial action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, E.; Dahlander, L.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We study how an individual's exposure to external information regulates the evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurial action. Combining data from interviews, a survey, and a comprehensive web log of an online user community spanning eight years, we find that technical inform...

  3. Joint Vision 2010 and Accelerated Cumulative Warfare: The Masters of War Evaluate a Future Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    red real-tvne satellite video lvlth the Llnued Nations shotzllng the preparations of the combrned Arab a?mles Despite v30rld and fellow Arab ...flo-rvrng into theater U S -based srrategx and theater tactical an-forces assisted Turkey’s arm? to slow the Arab offense and establish command of...generals did not halye time to display, let alone evaluate, the hundreds of engagement reports received porn the front and throughout their te? rzto?y

  4. Rational Arithmetic Mathematica Functions to Evaluate the Two-Sided One Sample K-S Cumulative Sampling Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Randall Brown

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most widely used goodness-of-fit tests is the two-sided one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test which has been implemented by many computer statistical software packages. To calculate a two-sided p value (evaluate the cumulative sampling distribution, these packages use various methods including recursion formulae, limiting distributions, and approximations of unknown accuracy developed over thirty years ago. Based on an extensive literature search for the two-sided one sample K-S test, this paper identifies an exact formula for sample sizes up to 31, six recursion formulae, and one matrix formula that can be used to calculate a p value. To ensure accurate calculation by avoiding catastrophic cancelation and eliminating rounding error, each of these formulae is implemented in rational arithmetic. For the six recursion formulae and the matrix formula, computational experience for sample sizes up to 500 shows that computational times are increasing functions of both the sample size and the number of digits in the numerator and denominator integers of the rational number test statistic. The computational times of the seven formulae vary immensely but the Durbin recursion formula is almost always the fastest. Linear search is used to calculate the inverse of the cumulative sampling distribution (find the confidence interval half-width and tables of calculated half-widths are presented for sample sizes up to 500. Using calculated half-widths as input, computational times for the fastest formula, the Durbin recursion formula, are given for sample sizes up to two thousand.

  5. The association between osteoporotic hip fractures and actinic lesions as a biomarker for cumulative sun exposure in older people-a retrospective case-control study in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, H A; Dagatti, M S; Amigot, B; Levit, G P; Tomat, M F; Morosano, M E; Masoni, A M; Pezzotto, S M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the presence of actinic lesions (solar keratosis and non-melanoma skin cancer) and osteoporotic hip fractures in older patients. Both pathologies are common conditions in this age group. Since cumulative sun exposure is difficult to quantify, the presence of actinic lesions can be used to indirectly analyze the association between ultraviolet radiation and osteoporotic hip fractures. This was an observational case-control study. We reviewed the centralized medical records of patients with hip fracture (cases, n = 51) and patients with other diseases hospitalized in the same institution and period (controls, n = 59). The mean age of the patients was 80 ± 8.3 years (range 50-103 years). Differences in maternal hip fracture history were found between cases and controls (14.8 and 8 %, respectively; p = 0.047). Falls history in the past year was higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Actinic lesions were observed in 32.7 % of patients (prevalence rate 23.5 % in cases, 40.7 % in controls; p = 0.04). When considering patients with actinic lesions, controls have a higher FRAX score compared with cases. Although sun exposure is recommended for bone health, it represents a risk factor for actinic lesions. The presence of actinic lesions may indicate a lower osteoporotic hip fracture risk. A balance between adequate lifetime sun exposure and protection against its adverse effects is required for each patient, in the context of geographic location.

  6. An application of the learning curve-cumulative summation test to evaluate training for endotracheal intubation in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sangmo; Cho, Youngsuk; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Kang, Boseung; Lim, Taeho; Kang, Hyunggoo

    2015-04-01

    The learning curve-cumulative summation (LC-CUSUM) test allows for quantitative and individual assessments of the learning process. In this study, we evaluated the process of skill acquisition for performing endotracheal intubation (ETI) in three emergency medicine (EM) residents over a 2 year period in their first 2 years of their EM residency. We evaluated 342 ETI cases performed by three EM residents using the LC-CUSUM test according to their rate of success or failure of ETI. A 90% success rate (SR) was chosen to define adequate performance and an SR of 80% was considered inadequate. After the learning phase, the standard CUSUM test was applied to ensure that performance was maintained. The mean number of ETI cases required to reach the predefined level of performance was 74.7 (95% CI 62.0 to 87.3). CUSUM tests confirmed that performance was maintained after the learning phase. By using the LC-CUSUM test, we were able to quantitatively monitor the acquisition of the skill of ETI by EM residents. The LC-CUSUM could be useful for monitoring the learning process for the training of airway management in the practice of EM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  8. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  9. An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Cumulative Effects of Tidal Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystem Restoration on Endangered Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weitkamp, Laurie A. [Marine Sciences lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Buenau, Kate E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kropp, Roy K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    measurements, data analyses, modeling, meta-analysis, and reanalysis of previously collected data sets. We identified a set of 12 ancillary hypotheses regarding habitat and salmon response. Each ancillary hypothesis states that the response metric will trend toward conditions at relatively undisturbed reference sites. We synthesized the evidence for and against the two necessary conditions by using eleven causal criteria: strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, complete exposure pathway, and predictive performance. Our final evaluation included cumulative effects assessment because restoration is occurring at multiple sites and the collective effect is important to salmon recovery. We concluded that all five lines of evidence from the LCRE indicated positive habitat-based and fish-based responses to the restoration performed under the CEERP, although tide gate replacements on small sloughs were an exception. Our analyses suggested that hydrologic reconnections restore access for fish to move into a site to find prey produced there. Reconnections also restore the potential for the flux of prey from the site to the main stem river, where our data show that they are consumed by salmon. We infer that LCRE ecosystem restoration supports increased juvenile salmon growth and enhanced fitness (condition), thereby potentially improving survival rates during the early ocean stage.

  10. Integrating LANDIS model and a multi-criteria decision-making approach to evaluate cumulative effects of forest management in the Missouri Ozarks, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong Bo Shang; Hong S. He; Weimin Xi; Stephen R. Shifley; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Public forest management requires consideration of numerous objectives including protecting ecosystem health, sustaining habitats for native communities, providing sustainable forest products, and providing noncommodity ecosystem services. It is difficult to evaluate the long-term, cumulative effects and tradeoffs these and other associated management objectives. To...

  11. Impact of occupational mechanical exposures on risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia requiring surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair.......We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair....

  12. Cumulative effects of prenatal-exposure to exogenous chemicals and psychosocial stress on fetal growth: Systematic-review of the human and animal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Hanna M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Sen, Saunak; Zeise, Lauren; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2017-01-01

    Adverse effects of prenatal stress or environmental chemical exposures on fetal growth are well described, yet their combined effect remains unclear. To conduct a systematic review on the combined impact and interaction of prenatal exposure to stress and chemicals on developmental outcomes. We used the first three steps of the Navigation Guide systematic review. We wrote a protocol, performed a robust literature search to identify relevant animal and human studies and extracted data on developmental outcomes. For the most common outcome (fetal growth), we evaluated risk of bias, calculated effect sizes for main effects of individual and combined exposures, and performed a random effects meta-analysis of those studies reporting on odds of low birthweight (LBW) by smoking and socioeconomic status (SES). We identified 17 human- and 22 animal-studies of combined chemical and stress exposures and fetal growth. Human studies tended to have a lower risk of bias across nine domains. Generally, we found stronger effects for chemicals than stress, and these exposures were associated with reduced fetal growth in the low-stress group and the association was often greater in high stress groups, with limited evidence of effect modification. We found smoking associated with significantly increased odds of LBW, with a greater effect for high stress (low SES; OR 4.75 (2.46-9.16)) compared to low stress (high SES; OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.53-2.48)). Animal studies generally had a high risk of bias with no significant combined effect or effect modification. We found that despite concern for the combined effects of environmental chemicals and stress, this is still an under-studied topic, though limited available human studies indicate chemical exposures exert stronger effects than stress, and this effect is generally larger in the presence of stress.

  13. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are cu...

  14. Patient exposure evaluation in Romanian radiological departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girjoaba, O.; Cucu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A nation-wide evaluation of ionizing radiation exposure of the Romanian population due to the radiological examinations is performed in accordance with European Directive 97/43 EURATOM implemented in national regulations. Method: The study is applied to the collected data from radiological departments from Romanian hospitals during 2010. The radiological examinations were grouped in three categories: conventional diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology and computed tomography. The annual collective dose was determined from the reported data about the mean effective doses and the frequency for each type of radiological examination, in conformity with the national regulations. Regarding the frequency aspects, the results include the age and gender distributions. Major results: More then 6 million radiological examinations were performed in 2010, Romania having a population about of 20.3 million inhabitants. The collective effective dose for 2010 resulted from the study is 152 mSv per 1000 inhabitants. Conclusions: Medical practitioners must select the best medical imaging investigation for each clinical case taking into account the importance of keeping the patient dose as low as possible. Medical physicists should be strongly involved in the establishing of the dosimetry procedures. (author)

  15. Outdoor work and solar radiation exposure: Evaluation method for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenese, Alberto; Bisegna, Fabio; Borra, Massimo; Grandi, Carlo; Gugliermetti, Franco; Militello, Andrea; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    The health risk related to an excessive exposure to solar radiation (SR) is well known. The Sun represents the main exposure source for all the frequency bands of optical radiation, that is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging between 100 nm and 1 mm, including infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) and visible radiation. According to recent studies, outdoor workers have a relevant exposure to SR but few studies available in scientific literature have attempted to retrace a detailed history of individual exposure. We propose a new method for the evaluation of SR cumulative exposure both during work and leisure time, integrating subjective and objective data. The former is collected by means of an interviewer administrated questionnaire. The latter is available through the Internet databases for many geographical regions and through individual exposure measurements. The data is integrated into a mathematical algorithm, in order to obtain an esteem of the individual total amount of SR the subjects have been exposed to during their lives. The questionnaire has been tested for 58 voluntary subjects. Environmental exposure data through online databases has been collected for 3 different places in Italy in 2012. Individual exposure by electronic UV dosimeter has been measured in 6 fishermen. A mathematical algorithm integrating subjective and objective data has been elaborated. The method proposed may be used in epidemiological studies to evaluate specific correlations with biological effects of SR and to weigh the role of the personal and environmental factors that may increase or reduce SR exposure. Med Pr 2016;67(5):577-587. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. CUMBIN - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CUMBIN, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. CUMBIN can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CUMBIN calculates the probability that a system of n components has at least k operating if the probability that any one operating is p and the components are independent. Equivalently, this is the reliability of a k-out-of-n system having independent components with common reliability p. CUMBIN can evaluate the incomplete beta distribution for two positive integer arguments. CUMBIN can also evaluate the cumulative F distribution and the negative binomial distribution, and can determine the sample size in a test design. CUMBIN is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. The CUMBIN program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMBIN was developed in 1988.

  17. High intertester reliability of the cumulated ambulation score for the evaluation of basic mobility in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Lene; Bech-Jensen, Rie

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the intertester reliability of the three activities of the Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) and the total CAS, and to define limits for the smallest change in basic mobility that indicates a real change in patients with hip fracture. DESIGN: An intertester reliability study....... SETTING: An acute 20-bed orthopaedic hip fracture unit. SUBJECTS: Fifty consecutive patients with a median age of 83 (25-75% quartile, 68-86) years. INTERVENTIONS: The CAS, which describes the patient's independency in three activities - (1) getting in and out of bed, (2) sit to stand from a chair, and (3...

  18. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    2014-01-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  19. Barrier function and natural moisturizing factor levels after cumulative exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent: different outcomes in atopic and healthy skin and relevance for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Dapic, Irena; Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Fischer, Tobias W; Zillikens, Detlef

    2015-12-01

    Fruit-derived organic compounds and detergents are relevant exposure factors for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry. Although individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are at risk for development of occupational contact dermatitis, there have been no controlled studies on the effects of repeated exposure to multiple irritants, relevant for the food industry, in atopic skin. The aim of the study was to investigate the outcomes of repeated exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent in AD compared to healthy volunteers. The volunteers were exposed to 2.0% acetic acid (AcA) and/or 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in controlled tandem repeated irritation test. The outcomes were assessed by measurements of erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) levels. In the AD volunteers, repeated AcA exposure led to barrier disruption and significant TEWL increase; no significant differences after the same exposure in the healthy controls were found. Repeated exposure to SLS and the irritant tandems enhanced the reactions and resulted in a significantly higher increase in TEWL in the AD compared to the control group. Cumulative irritant exposure reduced the NMF levels in both groups. Differences in the severity of irritant-induced barrier impairment in atopic individuals contribute to the risk for occupational contact dermatitis in result of multiple exposures to food-derived irritants and detergents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pediatric cleft palate patients show a 3- to 5-fold increase in cumulative radiation exposure from dental radiology compared with an age- and gender-matched population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Pauwels, Ruben; Scarfe, William C; De Cock, Carl; Dula, Karl; Willems, Guy; Verdonck, An; Politis, Constantinus

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare estimates of pediatric cumulative exposure and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of radiation-induced cancer from dental radiology between cleft palate (CP) subjects and age- and gender-matched controls (non-CP), with and without orthodontic treatment. The radiation exposure frequency of CP subjects and non-CP controls with and without orthodontic treatment was compared for two-dimensional radiography (intra-oral, panoramic and cephalometric radiography), computed tomography (CT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using cumulative radiation dose as an estimate. From this dose estimate, the age- and gender-dependent risk for radiation-induced stochastic effects was calculated for each patient group. CP patients received more radiographic examinations than non-CP controls, with the exception of intra-oral radiographs. The cumulative dose to CP patients was considerably higher (1963 μSv at the age of 20 years) than non-CP patients with (597 μSv) and without (383 μSv) orthodontic treatment, primarily due to the higher frequency of CT scanning. Accordingly, CP patients had a three to five times higher LAR than non-CP patients. This study suggests a significantly higher lifetime radiation exposure to CP patients than non-CP controls from dental radiographic procedures. Diagnostic benefits from the use of CT and CBCT in children must be justified and appropriate dose optimization strategies implemented. The present study indicates the need for proper justification and optimization of pediatric exposures in dentistry, with a special focus on high-risk groups.

  1. Attempt to evaluate the cumulative deposit of strontium 90 in several French centres; Essai d'evaluation du depot cumulatif de strontium 90 dans plusieurs stations francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In order to be able to interpret results of radioactivity controls of the ambient atmosphere and of the supply chain carried out in several French centres, it is necessary to know the value of the cumulative strontium-90 deposit resulting from fall-out. The estimation of the fall-out which occurred locally in the years before systematic controls were established can be made by assuming that the {sup 90}Sr concentration in rain varies little from one place to another (if they are fairly close) and that the deposit can be deduced from that measured in a single station by making corrections for differences in the rainfall. This assumption is confirmed by applying the method to the calculation of {sup 90}Sr fall-out at Ispra, Mol and at several French centres: the values calculated are compared to those obtained by measurements carried out since 1958 in some cases, and since 1960 in others. The results show that the method is valid for calculating fall-out prior to 1960 (in the absence of information) and to deduce with sufficient approximation the subsequent cumulative deposits in the French centres under consideration. (author) [French] L'evaluation du depot cumulatif de Sr 90 consecutif aux retombees est necessaire a l'interpretation des resultats du controle de la radioactivite du milieu ambiant et de la cha e alimentaire effectue en plusieurs stations francaises. L'estimation des retombees locale des annees anterieures a la mise en oeuvre systematique des moyens de surveillance peut etre faite en admettant que la concentration de Sr 90 dans la pluie varie peu d'un endroit a l'autre (dans des regions assez rapprochees) et que le depot peut etre deduit de celui mesure en une station gr e a des corrections tenant compte de la variation de pluviosite. Cette hypothese est verifiee en appliquant la methode au calcul des retombees de Sr 90 a Ispra, a Mol, et en plusieurs stations francaises: les valeurs calculees sont comparees a celles obtenues par les mesures

  2. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Nolen, Alexandra B; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society.

  3. Development and evaluation of an Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Schinkel, J.; Meijster, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Tielemans, E.; Goede, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes the development and evaluation of an evidence database on the effectiveness of risk management measures (RMMs) to control inhalation exposure. This database is referred to as Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL). Methods: A comprehensive review of scientific

  4. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  5. Overview of UNSCEAR re-evaluation of public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has re-evaluated the levels of public radiation exposure for four broad categories of sources: natural sources of radiation, enhanced exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), man-made sources used for peaceful purposes and man-made sources used for military purposes. Regarding natural radiation sources, recent data confirmed former results from 2000 Report, but with a more wide range. Very few information is available for public exposure from NORM. Most works describes concentration levels but dose assessments are usually restricted to occupational exposures. The use of source and by-product materials may however lead to doses up to a few milisieverts to members of the public. The nuclear fuel cycle and electric energy generation have very small contributions to public exposure. Uranium mining contributes with the largest individual doses, mainly due to radon from tailings. Most relevant military use of nuclear energy were the atmospheric nuclear tests, interrupted in the 60's. Residual radioactivity deposited worldwide is now responsible for a very small contribution to worldwide exposures. However, they left a legacy of several contaminated sites. The use of depleted uranium in munitions in Kuwait, Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina, has led to great public concern, although not usually associated to any major consequence regarding public exposure. Some accidents resulted in environmental contamination and exposures of members of the public. Except for the Chernobyl accident, the areas affected were usually small and the exposure restricted to small number of persons, up to a few hundred, without any significant contribution to worldwide exposures. The exposure to natural sources of radiation is still the major component of worldwide exposure to ionizing radiation although for some highly developed countries, medical exposure has surpassed the

  6. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Wu; Jun-Ming Gu; Yun Huang; Yan-Ying Duan; Rui-Xue Huang; Jian-An Hu

    2016-01-01

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China’s existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between o...

  7. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, W.-K.; Oh, J.-W.; Dong, J.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  8. Evaluation of occupational exposures in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouza, Z.; Petrova, K.

    1996-01-01

    The recent situation in the Czech Republic (CZ) concerning the evaluation and recording of occupational radiation exposures is described. The individual monitoring is based on the interpretation of the personal dosemeters responses and the evaluation of the other special dosimetric methods (measurement of excrete, whole body counting, etc.). The evaluation of occupational radiation exposures is carried out by five approved dosimetric services, which control about 20,000 workers. Record keeping of overexposures is based on two systems, which principles are explained. Based on long time analysis of occupational radiation exposures in CZ it can be present that the average values and trends of individual and collective effective dose equivalents are comparable with those in developed countries. The distributions of the radiation exposures for the important occupational groups of workers are presented. (author)

  9. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg body weight (bw) from gestation day (GD) 1 — 17. At weaning, pups were fed a high fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet. Body composition, blood pressure (bp), and gene expression in tissues of offspring were examined. Male- BW increased, in 0 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0 m PFOA+CD and 0.01 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.01 mg PFOA+CD. In HFD, bw decreased in 0.3 vs 0 mg PFOA. There were no effects on percent of body fat. At postnatal day (PND) 90, diastolic bp was decreased in 0.1 and 0.3 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0 mg PFOA+HFD and increased in 0.3 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.3 mg PFOA+CD. The bp effects of 0.1 mg PFOA+HFD persisted to PND 180. Female- At 0 and 0.001 mg PFOA+HFD had increased weight gain vs CD. The %fat increased in 0.001 vs 0 mg PFOA+HFD. At PND 180, diastolic bp decreased in 0.01 and 0.3 mg PFOA+CD vs 0 mg PFOA+CD. Differential gene regulation was produced by HFD and PFOA in white fat and liver at 52 weeks of age. At 0.001 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.001 mg PFOA+CD, 3 genes in white fat and liver were under-expressed while 14 genes in white fat and 19 in liver were over expressed. At 0.01 mg PFOA+HFD vs 0.01 mg PFOA+CD, 3 genes in white fat and 4 genes in liver were under-expressed while 14 genes in white fat an

  10. Evaluation of medical radiation exposure in pediatric interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Valeria Coelho Costa; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira; Oliveira, Aline da Silva Pacheco, E-mail: vccnavarro@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Adriano Dias Dourado [Sociedade Brasileira de Hemodinamica e Cardiologia Intervencionista, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate pediatric radiation exposure in procedures of interventional radiology in two hospitals in the Bahia state, aiming at contributing to delineate the scenario at the state and national levels. The knowledge of exposure levels will allow an evaluation of the necessity of doses optimization, considering that peculiarities of radiology and pediatrics become even more significant in interventional radiology procedures which involve exposure to higher radiation doses. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 procedures were evaluated in four rooms of the two main hospitals performing pediatric interventional radiology procedures in the Bahia state. Air kerma rate and kerma-area product were evaluated in 27 interventional cardiac and 5 interventional brain procedures. Results: Maximum values for air kerma rate and kerma-area product and air kerma obtained in cardiac procedures were, respectively, 129.9 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 947.0 mGy; and, for brain procedures were 83.3 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 961.0 mGy. Conclusion: The present study results showed exposure values up to 14 times higher than those found in other foreign studies, and approximating those found for procedures in adults. Such results demonstrate excessive exposure to radiation, indicating the need for constant procedures optimization and evaluation of exposure rates. (author)

  11. Evaluation of radiofrequency dielectric heaters workers exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, M.; Del Frate, S.; Villalta, R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RFDH) are widely used in the woodworking industry for gluing laminates by applying pressure and RF heating. The workers operating such equipment remain in the vicinity of the machinery all day and can therefore be exposed to considerable levels of electric and magnetic field at RFs. This work describes the method used to measure the strength of fields generated by this particular machinery. This procedure is based on current methods cited in the literature and introduces the necessary modifications to meet this specific case. In particular, as there is often a scarcity of technical data available relating to such heaters, it is suggested that a spectrum analyser be used for measurements in the frequencies domain. On the basis of the data obtained the norms of reference are established, the instrumentation to be used in successive stages determined as well as the identification of possible sources of interference from spurious signals. Furthermore, a mapping of the field strengths is presented and the means of determining the decay curve as a function of distance. This last type of measurement is done to estimate the effectiveness of grounding the machinery. The report ends with an estimate of the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields and also some recommendations for reducing risk. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of natural radiation exposure of the French population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, S.; Morin, A.; Baysson, H.; Gambard, J.P.; Rannou, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of the French population to ionising radiation is mainly due to natural radiation (i.e. exposure through: inhalation of radon decay products, external radiation of terrestrial and cosmic origin and water and food ingestion). In an epidemiological context, it is necessary to estimate as precisely as possible the population exposure, in order to study its influence on health indicators. In this aim, indicators of population exposure should be created taking into account results of environmental measurements by controlling the different factors that may influence these measurements (dwelling characteristics, seasonal variations, population density). The distribution of these exposures should also be studied at different geographical levels (department, job area). This work updates the estimation of the French population exposure to natural radiation. Radon exposure indicators have been based on concentrations measured in dwellings, corrected on season and dwelling characteristics (departmental range: 19-297 Bq/m 3 ). Indicators of terrestrial gamma ray exposure have been based on measured indoor and outdoor dose rates adjusted on dwelling characteristics (22-95 nSv/h). Cosmic ray exposure has been evaluated from altitude and weighted by population density (0.27-0.38 mSv/yr). Due to these three components, the effective annual dose was estimated to be at 2.2 mSv. (author)

  13. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO/sub 2/ exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  15. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis YouTube Videos: Content Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Basch, Corey; Basch, Charles; Kernan, William

    2018-02-16

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medicines reduce the risk of transmitting the HIV virus and are recommended as daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in combination with safer sex practices for HIV-negative individuals at a high risk for infection, but are underused in HIV prevention. Previous literature suggests that YouTube is extensively used to share health information. While pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel and promising approach to HIV prevention, there is limited understanding of YouTube videos as a source of information on PrEP. The objective of this study was to describe the sources, characteristics, and content of the most widely viewed PrEP YouTube videos published up to October 1, 2016. The keywords "pre-exposure prophylaxis" and "Truvada" were used to find 217 videos with a view count >100. Videos were coded for source, view count, length, number of comments, and selected aspects of content. Videos were also assessed for the most likely target audience. The total cumulative number of views was >2.3 million, however, a single Centers for Disease Control and Prevention video accounted for >1.2 million of the total cumulative views. A great majority (181/217, 83.4%) of the videos promoted the use of PrEP, whereas 60.8% (132/217) identified the specific target audience. In contrast, only 35.9% (78/217) of the videos mentioned how to obtain PrEP, whereas less than one third addressed the costs, side effects, and safety aspects relating to PrEP. Medical and academic institutions were the sources of the largest number of videos (66/217, 30.4%), followed by consumers (63/217, 29.0%), community-based organizations (CBO; 48/217, 22.1%), and media (40/217, 18.4%). Videos uploaded by the media sources were more likely to discuss the cost of PrEP (PYouTube videos can be used to share reliable PrEP information with individuals. Further research is needed to identify the best practices for using this medium to promote and increase PrEP uptake. ©Aleksandar Kecojevic

  16. SU-E-J-106: The Use of Deformable Image Registration with Cone-Beam CT for a Better Evaluation of Cumulative Dose to Organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion, O; Gingras, L; Archambault, L [Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Centre de recherche du CHU de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The knowledge of dose accumulation in the patient tissues in radiotherapy helps in determining the treatment outcomes. This project aims at providing a workflow to map cumulative doses that takes into account interfraction organ motion without the need for manual re-contouring. Methods: Five prostate cancer patients were studied. Each patient had a planning CT (pCT) and 5 to 13 CBCT scans. On each series, a physician contoured the prostate, rectum, bladder, seminal vesicles and the intestine. First, a deformable image registration (DIR) of the pCTs onto the daily CBCTs yielded registered CTs (rCT) . This rCT combined the accurate CT numbers of the pCT with the daily anatomy of the CBCT. Second, the original plans (220 cGy per fraction for 25 fractions) were copied on the rCT for dose re-calculation. Third, the DIR software Elastix was used to find the inverse transform from the rCT to the pCT. This transformation was then applied to the rCT dose grid to map the dose voxels back to their pCT location. Finally, the sum of these deformed dose grids for each patient was applied on the pCT to calculate the actual dose delivered to organs. Results: The discrepancy between the planned D98 and D2 and these indices re-calculated on the rCT, are, on average, of −1 ± 1 cGy and 1 ± 2 cGy per fraction, respectively. For fractions with large anatomical motion, the D98 discrepancy on the re-calculated dose grid mapped onto the pCT can raise to −17 ± 4 cGy. The obtained cumulative dose distributions illustrate the same behavior. Conclusion: This approach allowed the evaluation of cumulative doses to organs with the help of uncontoured daily CBCT scans. With this workflow, the easy evaluation of doses delivered for EBRT treatments could ultimately lead to a better follow-up of prostate cancer patients.

  17. SU-E-J-106: The Use of Deformable Image Registration with Cone-Beam CT for a Better Evaluation of Cumulative Dose to Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillion, O; Gingras, L; Archambault, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The knowledge of dose accumulation in the patient tissues in radiotherapy helps in determining the treatment outcomes. This project aims at providing a workflow to map cumulative doses that takes into account interfraction organ motion without the need for manual re-contouring. Methods: Five prostate cancer patients were studied. Each patient had a planning CT (pCT) and 5 to 13 CBCT scans. On each series, a physician contoured the prostate, rectum, bladder, seminal vesicles and the intestine. First, a deformable image registration (DIR) of the pCTs onto the daily CBCTs yielded registered CTs (rCT) . This rCT combined the accurate CT numbers of the pCT with the daily anatomy of the CBCT. Second, the original plans (220 cGy per fraction for 25 fractions) were copied on the rCT for dose re-calculation. Third, the DIR software Elastix was used to find the inverse transform from the rCT to the pCT. This transformation was then applied to the rCT dose grid to map the dose voxels back to their pCT location. Finally, the sum of these deformed dose grids for each patient was applied on the pCT to calculate the actual dose delivered to organs. Results: The discrepancy between the planned D98 and D2 and these indices re-calculated on the rCT, are, on average, of −1 ± 1 cGy and 1 ± 2 cGy per fraction, respectively. For fractions with large anatomical motion, the D98 discrepancy on the re-calculated dose grid mapped onto the pCT can raise to −17 ± 4 cGy. The obtained cumulative dose distributions illustrate the same behavior. Conclusion: This approach allowed the evaluation of cumulative doses to organs with the help of uncontoured daily CBCT scans. With this workflow, the easy evaluation of doses delivered for EBRT treatments could ultimately lead to a better follow-up of prostate cancer patients

  18. Cumulative Antiretroviral Exposure Measured in Hair Is Not Associated With Measures of HIV Persistence or Inflammation Among Individuals on Suppressive ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Stefanescu, Andrei; Bosch, Ronald J; Cyktor, Joshua C; Horng, Howard; Louie, Alexander; Phung, Nhi; Eron, Joseph J; Hogg, Evelyn; Macatangay, Bernard J C; Hensel, Christopher; Fletcher, Courtney V; Mellors, John W; McMahon, Deborah K

    2018-06-20

    Data on the relationship of antiretroviral exposure to measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence are limited. To address this gap, multiple viral, immunologic, and pharmacologic measures were analyzed from individuals with sustained virologic suppression on therapy (median 7 years) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5321 cohort. Among 110 participants on tenofovir-(TFV)-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)-containing regimens, we found no significant correlation between hair concentrations of individual antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the regimen and measures of HIV persistence (plasma HIV-1 RNA by single copy assay, cell-associated-DNA, cell-associated RNA) or soluble markers of inflammation. These findings suggest that higher systemic ARV exposure may not impact HIV persistence or inflammation.

  19. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  20. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  1. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  2. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5 on Cardiopulmonary Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. C. Malecki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21–74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM2.5 μg/m3. Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM2.5. Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L in one second FEV1 (β = −0.40 μg/L; 95% CI −0.45, −0.06. Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM2.5 and lung function (FEV1 only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who

  3. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5) on Cardiopulmonary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Bergmans, Rachel S

    2018-01-06

    Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21-74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM 2.5 μg/m³). Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio) were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM 2.5 . Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM 2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L) in one second FEV1 (β = -0.40 μg/L; 95% CI -0.45, -0.06). Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM 2.5 and lung function (FEV1) only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who felt their

  4. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  5. A practical method to evaluate radiofrequency exposure of mast workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanko, T.; Hietanen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in telecommunication transmitter masts is a challenging task. For conventional field strength measurements using manually operated instruments, it is difficult to document the locations of measurements while climbing up a mast. Logging RF dosemeters worn by the workers, on the other hand, do not give any information about the location of the exposure. In this study, a practical method was developed and applied to assess mast workers' exposure to RF fields and the corresponding location. This method uses a logging dosemeter for personal RF exposure evaluation and two logging barometers to determine the corresponding height of the worker's position on the mast. The procedure is not intended to be used for compliance assessments, but to indicate locations where stricter assessments are needed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by making measurements in a TV and radio transmitting mast. (authors)

  6. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of a...... of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.......Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age....... For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  7. [Evaluation and cumulative characteristics of heavy metals in soil-Uncaria rhynchophylla system of different functional areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Chun; Zeng, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Zhen-Ming; Lin, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Lin, Chang-Hu

    2016-10-01

    Soil and Uncaria rhynchophylla in different functional areas were selected for the study,the content of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Hg in soil and U. rhynchophylla was discussed, the characteristics of their accumulation in the U.rhynchophylla was analyzed, the contamination levels of heavy metals in soil in different functional areas was evaluated. The results showed that content of Cu, As, Pb and Cr in soil was being cropland>woodland>wasteland, content of Cd was being woodland>cropland>wasteland, content of Hg was being cropland>woodland>wasteland. According to quality standard of soil environment, soil Cd in woodland, cropland and wasteland all exceeded the state-level standards, soil Cd in woodland exceeded the secondary standard, soil Hg in cropland and wasteland all exceeded the state-level standards. According to technical conditions of green food producing area, soil Cd in woodland exceeded the limit value of standard. According to Green Trade Standards of Importing Exporting Medicinal Plants Preparations,the content of heavy metals of U.rhynchophylla in cropland,woodland and wasteland were correspond to the specification. From the single factor pollution index, the soil in woodland was polluted by Cd. From the comprehensive pollution index, the soils in different functional areas were not contaminated by heavy metals. The enrichment coefficient of heavy metals such as As, Cu, Cr, and Pb in hook of U.rhynchophylla was being wasteland>woodland>cropland, the enrichment coefficient of Cu in hook of U. rhynchophylla in wasteland was more than 1. Except Cu, the enrichment coefficient of other heavy metals was low. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Cumulative alkylating agent exposure and semen parameters in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel M; Liu, Wei; Kutteh, William H; Ke, Raymond W; Shelton, Kyla C; Sklar, Charles A; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Pui, Ching-Hon; Klosky, James L; Spunt, Sheri L; Metzger, Monika L; Srivastava, DeoKumar; Ness, Kirsten K; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2014-10-01

    Few data define the dose-specific relation between alkylating agent exposure and semen variables in adult survivors of childhood cancer. We undertook this study to test the hypothesis that increased exposure to alkylating agents would be associated with decreased sperm concentration in a cohort of adult male survivors of childhood cancer who were not exposed to radiation therapy for their childhood cancer. We did semen analysis on 214 adult male survivors of childhood cancer (median age 7·7 years [range 0·01-20·3] at diagnosis, 29·0 years [18·4-56·1] at assessment, and a median of 21·0 years [10·5-41·6] since diagnosis) who had received alkylating agent chemotherapy but no radiation therapy. Alkylating agent exposure was estimated using the cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for oligospermia (sperm concentration >0 and <15 million per mL) and azoospermia were calculated with logistic regression modelling. Azoospermia was noted in 53 (25%) of 214 participants, oligospermia in 59 (28%), and normospermia (sperm concentration ≥15 million per mL) in 102 (48%) participants. 31 (89%) of 35 participants who received CED less than 4000 mg/m(2) were normospermic. CED was negatively correlated with sperm concentration (correlation coefficient=-0·37, p<0·0001). Mean CED was 10 830 mg/m(2) (SD 7274) in patients with azoospermia, 8480 mg/m(2) (4264) in patients with oligospermia, and 6626 mg/m(2) (3576) in patients with normospermia. In multivariable analysis, CED was significantly associated with an increased risk per 1000 mg/m(2) CED for azoospermia (OR 1·22, 95% CI 1·11-1·34), and for oligospermia (1·14, 1·04-1·25), but age at diagnosis and age at assessment were not. Impaired spermatogenesis was unlikely when the CED was less than 4000 mg/m(2). Although sperm concentration decreases with increasing CED, there was substantial overlap of CED associated with normospermia, oligospermia, and azoospermia. These data can

  9. Evaluation of radiological exposure from Plowshare applications, 1967--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.J.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-08-01

    A review of the highlights and accomplishments of the nine-year program, FY 1967-75, at ORNL on the evaluation of the radiological exposure from Plowshare applications is presented. Conclusions based on the studies summarized are given. Chronological lists of presentations, reports and open literature publications on the various investigations of the program are appended to the report. (auth)

  10. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  11. Overview of UNSCEAR re-evaluation of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Dunstana

    2008-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has re-evaluated the levels of occupational radiation exposure for two broad categories of sources: natural sources of radiation and man-made source of radiation. The latter one includes the practices from the nuclear fuel cycle, medical uses of radiation, industrial uses, military activities, and miscellaneous sources. The evaluation has been performed based on the data provided in response to the UNSCEAR Survey of Occupational Radiation Exposures and also data from the literature. In general, the reporting of exposures arising in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle is more complete than that of exposures arising from other uses of radiation. The figure for occupational exposure, for the periods 1995-1999 and 2000-2002, has changed compared to the estimates in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The collective effective dose resulting from exposures to natural sources (in excess of average levels of natural background) is estimated to be about 37 260 man Sv, about 3 times higher than the value estimated in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The worldwide average annual collective effective dose for the workers involved in the use of man-made sources of radiation is around 4 730 man Sv, about 2 times higher than the value estimated in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The medical uses of radiation contributes with about 75% of the collective effective dose; nuclear fuel cycles contributes with about 17% and industrial uses, military activities and all other categories of worker contribute with about 8% of the collective dose for man-made sources of radiation. In general the levels of occupational exposure have decreased: the average effective doses are decreasing over time for all practices, the collective effective doses have fallen for most of the practices; except for medical uses which is now estimated based on more realistic data of number of monitored workers. (author)

  12. Integrated toxic evaluation of sulfamethazine on zebrafish: Including two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Yang, Qiulian; Jiang, Weili; Lu, Jilai; Xiang, Zhongrun; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu

    2018-03-01

    Persistence of antibiotics in aquatic environment may pose a risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. This study provided an integrated evaluation to analyze the toxic stress of sulfamethazine (SMZ) on zebrafish in two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure). Zebrafish embryos and adult zebrafish were exposed to SMZ at 0.2, 20 and 2000 μg/L, respectively. The results showed that SMZ at any given concentration inhibited the hatching of embryos at 58-96 hpf (hours post-fertilization). Our result also indicated that two major kinds of the malformation, which was induced by the antibiotic, were edema and spinal curvature. Additionally, the antibiotic stimulated the heartbeat while reduced the body length of the embryo at 72 hpf. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased at 120 hpf when the embryos were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.2 μg/L) of the antibiotic. On the other hand, the antibiotic induced SOD activities and MDA contents in adult zebrafish in the exposure and re-exposure periods. The MDA contents could recover while SOD activities still increased in 2 d after the exposure. Both SOD activities and MDA contents could recover in 7 d after the exposure. Levels of SOD and MDA in the re-exposure were higher than those in the first exposure. Our results suggested that SMZ had toxic effects on both embryos and adult zebrafish, and provided an integrated evaluation of the toxic effects of SMZ on zebrafish at a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of occupational exposure in a underground coal mine by environmental measures of 222Rn and in vivo measurements of 210Pb in bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, A.L.A.; Veiga, L.H.S.; Dantas, B.M.; Melo, V.P.

    2005-01-01

    A radiological survey performed in an underground coal mining in the State of Parana, southern Brazil, has indicated the occurrence of high levels of concentration of radon and its decay products. The levels of 222 Rn concentration measured in the basement of this mine, in the period from 1999 to 2003 ranged from 2000 to 7000 Bq m -3 . It is estimated, for these workers, an average annual exposure of 2.1 WLM ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 WLM. A retrospective mortality study conducted with 2856 miners of this mining indicated a risk of lung cancer mortality greater than the one expected for the male population of the State. In this study the cumulative exposure to radon cannot be estimated since there was no radon measures in other periods. In this way, the cumulative exposure can be evaluated by through 210 Pb activities monitored in the skeleton. The measures of 210 Pb in skeleton ranged from 83 to 164 Bq, indicating that these workers were significantly exposed to 222 Rn. These results show that cumulative exposure to radon has been higher than estimated based on recent measures of the activity concentration of radon in the workplace and is compatible with the risk determined in the epidemiological study

  14. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  15. Investigation of practical approaches to evaluating cumulative dose for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) from standard CT dosimetry measurements: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaimed, Abdullah; Martin, Colin J; Sankaralingam, Marimuthu; Gentle, David J

    2015-07-21

    A function called Gx(L) was introduced by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report-87 to facilitate measurement of cumulative dose for CT scans within long phantoms as recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG-111. The Gx(L) function is equal to the ratio of the cumulative dose at the middle of a CT scan to the volume weighted CTDI (CTDIvol), and was investigated for conventional multi-slice CT scanners operating with a moving table. As the stationary table mode, which is the basis for cone beam CT (CBCT) scans, differs from that used for conventional CT scans, the aim of this study was to investigate the extension of the Gx(L) function to CBCT scans. An On-Board Imager (OBI) system integrated with a TrueBeam linac was simulated with Monte Carlo EGSnrc/BEAMnrc, and the absorbed dose was calculated within PMMA, polyethylene (PE), and water head and body phantoms using EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, where the body PE body phantom emulated the ICRU/AAPM phantom. Beams of width 40-500 mm and beam qualities at tube potentials of 80-140 kV were studied. Application of a modified function of beam width (W) termed Gx(W), for which the cumulative dose for CBCT scans f (0) is normalized to the weighted CTDI (CTDIw) for a reference beam of width 40 mm, was investigated as a possible option. However, differences were found in Gx(W) with tube potential, especially for body phantoms, and these were considered to be due to differences in geometry between wide beams used for CBCT scans and those for conventional CT. Therefore, a modified function Gx(W)100 has been proposed, taking the form of values of f (0) at each position in a long phantom, normalized with respect to dose indices f 100(150)x measured with a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber within standard 150 mm PMMA phantoms, using the same scanning parameters, beam widths and positions within the phantom. f 100(150)x averages the dose resulting from

  16. Patient radiation exposure dose evaluation of whole spine scanography due to exposure direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Deok Nam [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Graduate School of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Mu [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Whole spine scanography (WSS) is a radiological examination that exposes the whole body of the individual being examined to x-ray radiation. WSS is often repeated during the treatment period, which results in a much greater radiation exposure than that in routine x-ray examinations. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the patient dose of WSS using computer simulation, image magnification and angulation of phantom image using different patient position. We evaluated the effective dose(ED) of 23 consecutive patients (M : F = 13:10) who underwent WSS, based on the automatic image pasting method for multiple exposure digital radiography. The Anterior-Posterior position(AP) and Posterior-Anterior position( PA) projection EDs were evaluated based on the PC based Monte Carlo simulation. We measured spine transverse process distance and angulation using DICOM measurement. For all patient, the average ED was 0.069 mSv for AP position and 0.0361 mSv for PA position. AP position calculated double exposure then PA position. For male patient, the average ED was 0.089 mSv(AP) and 0.050 mSv(PA). For female patient, the average ED was 0.0431 mSv(AP) and 0.026 mSv(PA). The transverse process of PA spine image measured 5% higher than AP but angulation of transverse process was no significant differences. In clinical practice, just by change the patient position was conformed to reduce the ED of patient. Therefore we need to redefine of protocol for digital radiography such as WSS, whole spine scanography, effective dose, patient exposure dose, exposure direction, protocol optimization.

  17. Family Resources and Effects on Child Behavior Problem Interventions: A Cumulative Risk Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tømmerås, Truls; Kjøbli, John

    2017-01-01

    Family resources have been associated with health care inequality in general and with social gradients in treatment outcomes for children with behavior problems. However, there is limited evidence concerning cumulative risk-the accumulation of social and economic disadvantages in a family-and whether cumulative risk moderates the outcomes of evidence-based parent training interventions. We used data from two randomized controlled trials evaluating high-intensity ( n  = 137) and low-intensity ( n  = 216) versions of Parent Management Training-Oregon (PMTO) with a 50:50 allocation between participants receiving PMTO interventions or regular care. A nine-item family cumulative risk index tapping socioeconomic resources and parental health was constructed to assess the family's exposure to risk. Autoregressive structured equation models (SEM) were run to investigate whether cumulative risk moderated child behaviors at post-treatment and follow-up (6 months). Our results showed opposite social gradients for the treatment conditions: the children exposed to cumulative risk in a pooled sample of both PMTO groups displayed lower levels of behavior problems, whereas children with identical risk exposures who received regular care experienced more problems. Furthermore, our results indicated that the social gradients differed between PMTO interventions: children exposed to cumulative risk in the low-intensity (five sessions) Brief Parent Training fared equally well as their high-resource counterparts, whereas children exposed to cumulative risk in the high-intensity PMTO (12 sessions) experienced vastly better treatment effects. Providing evidence-based parent training seem to be an effective way to counteract health care inequality, and the more intensive PMTO treatment seemed to be a particularly effective way to help families with cumulative risk.

  18. Cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhikang; Sun Jianzhong; Zhao Zudan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization and to analyze the dose influence factors. Methods: The DLP for CT and DR were retrospectively collected from the patients during June, 2009 and April, 2011 at a university affiliated hospital. The cumulative radiation doses were calculated by summing typical effective doses of the anatomic regions scanned. Results: The cumulative radiation doses of 113 patients were collected. The maximum,minimum and the mean values of cumulative effective doses were 153.3, 16.48 mSv and (52.3 ± 26.6) mSv. Conclusions: Multiple trauma patients have high cumulative radiation exposure. Therefore, the management of cumulative radiation doses should be enhanced. To establish the individualized radiation exposure archives will be helpful for the clinicians and technicians to make decision whether to image again and how to select the imaging parameters. (authors)

  19. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS and EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors

  20. Evaluation of the non-Gaussianity of two-mode entangled states over a bosonic memory channel via cumulant theory and quadrature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shao-Hua; Wen, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Jing; Song, Ke-Hui

    2018-04-01

    We study the properties of the cumulants of multimode boson operators and introduce the phase-averaged quadrature cumulants as the measure of the non-Gaussianity of multimode quantum states. Using this measure, we investigate the non-Gaussianity of two classes of two-mode non-Gaussian states: photon-number entangled states and entangled coherent states traveling in a bosonic memory quantum channel. We show that such a channel can skew the distribution of two-mode quadrature variables, giving rise to a strongly non-Gaussian correlation. In addition, we provide a criterion to determine whether the distributions of these states are super- or sub-Gaussian.

  1. An analysis of cumulative risks based on biomonitoring data for six phthalates using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative risk of an individual exposed to multiple chemicals. Phthalates are a class of chemicals with ubiquitous exposures in the general population that have the potential to cause ...

  2. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  3. Cumulation of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Bondarev, V.K.; Golovanov, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    Limit fragmentation of light nuclei (deuterium, helium) bombarded with 8,6 GeV/c protons was investigated. Fragments (pions, protons and deuterons) were detected within the emission angle 50-150 deg with regard to primary protons and within the pulse range 150-180 MeV/c. By the kinematics of collision of a primary proton with a target at rest the fragments observed correspond to a target mass upto 3 GeV. Thus, the data obtained correspond to teh cumulation upto the third order

  4. Evaluation of neutron exposure conditions for the Buffalo Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; Kellogg, L.S.; McElroy, W.N.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    The light water test reactor at the Nuclear Science and Technology Facility of the State University of New York at Buffalo is currently being used to irradiate specimens in in-core positions for NRC-sponsored metallurgical tests. It is important that the neutron exposures for these Buffalo tests be consistent with those determined for related irradiations in the BSR and ORR reactor at ORNL. Therefore, HEDL National Reactor Dosimetry Center dosimetry procedures and ORNL calculational procedures were used for an evaluation of typical test conditions

  5. The evaluation of diagnostic medical exposures in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Klener, V.; Heribanova, A.; Husak, V.; Masopust, J.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys were performed in the Czech Republic to evaluate diagnostic medical exposures. The results are presented in 4 tables: (i) burden from the use of radiopharmaceuticals (examination, radiopharmaceutical, no. of procedures, average administered activity, conversion factor, collective effective dose); (ii) use of radiopharmaceuticals at nuclear medicine departments (type of examination, type of radiopharmaceutical, no. of departments, average administered activity); (iii) reference levels of administered activity specified for some diagnostic procedures for the adult patient (examination, radionuclide, chemical form, administered activity); and (iv) X-ray examinations (examination, annual no. of procedures, effective dose, age distribution, sex distribution). (P.A.)

  6. CROSSER - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CROSSER, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), can be used independently of one another. CROSSER can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CROSSER calculates the point at which the reliability of a k-out-of-n system equals the common reliability of the n components. It is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The CROSSER program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CROSSER was developed in 1988.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Antibiotic Exposures as Time-Dependent Variables on the Acquisition of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Rosa, Rossana; Castro, Jose G; Laowansiri, Panthipa; Latibeaudiere, Rachel; Namias, Nicholas; Tarima, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    To determine the time-dependent effect of antibiotics on the initial acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Retrospective cohort study. Forty-bed trauma ICU in Miami, FL. All consecutive patients admitted to the unit from November 1, 2010, to November 30, 2011. None. Patients underwent surveillance cultures at admission to the unit and weekly thereafter. The primary outcome was the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii on surveillance cultures. Daily antibiotic exposures during the time of observation were used to construct time-dependent variables, including cumulative exposures (in grams and daily observed doses [defined daily doses]). Among 360 patients, 45 (12.5%) became colonized with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Adjusted Cox models showed that each additional point in the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation score increased the hazard by 4.8% (hazard ratio, 1.048; 95% CI, 1.010-1.087; p = 0.0124) and time-dependent exposure to carbapenems quadrupled the hazard (hazard ratio, 4.087; 95% CI, 1.873-8.920; p = 0.0004) of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Additionally, adjusted Cox models determined that every additional carbapenem defined daily dose increased the hazard of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii by 5.1% (hazard ratio, 1.051; 95% CI, 1.007-1.093; p = 0.0243). Carbapenem exposure quadrupled the hazards of acquiring A. baumannii even after controlling for severity of illness.

  8. Realistic evaluation of tester exposure based on Florida testing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a radon decay product exposure model for Florida Certified Radon Measurement Technicians that has been formulated based on the guidance of 10CFR20. This model was used to estimate the exposure of 44 Florida measurement technicians from January through November of 1989. Comparing estimated testing and home exposure shows that 100% of the technicians observed received more exposure in the home than during testing activities. Exposure during normal office hours also exceed testing exposure in 86% of the technicians observed. Health and safety exposure data for radon measurement technicians does not follow the standard concepts of occupational radiation exposure normally accepted in 10CFR20

  9. The radon in Corsica: evaluation of exposure and associated risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The average level found in Corsica is superior to that one found in France. On the basis of the results of it campaign I.R.S.N.-D.G.S., the French average is of 90 Bq.m 3 against 197 Bq.m 3 for Corsica. The risk of dying from a lung cancer attributable to the radon was estimated at 13 % in France. The evaluation of risk led on Corsica shows a risk attributable to the radon included between 21.5 and 28 %.This evaluation of risk is only a stage. It is important to arrest better the exposure to the radon of the Corsican population. For a good estimation of the levels of radon and thus the impact of this one, additional measures are necessary. The results of the data analysis of exposure allow to guide the choice of the new measures: a campaign on the season effect in Corsica and a completion of the measures in housing are two main axes.Seen the importance of the interaction between the tobacco and the radon, a good estimation of the tobacco customs in Corsica and its evolution in the time seems essential to estimate indeed the impact of the radon in this region. (N.C.)

  10. Developmental exposure to fenproporex: reproductive and morphological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, C Q; Faria, M J S S; Baroneza, J E; Oliveira, R J; Moreira, E G

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the maternal toxicity and teratogenicity of fenproporex, one of the most widely-used anorectic drugs in many countries, including Brazil. Three periods of exposure were evaluated: (a) 30 days before mating; (b) from gestational day (GD) 0 to 14; and (c) 30 days before mating and during pregnancy, until GD 14. Female mice from experimental groups received, by gavage, 15 mg/kg of fenproporex. Treatment with fenproporex increased ambulation of dams in the open-field test and did not influence the mobility in the forced-swimming test. There was no significant difference in maternal weight gain between the controls and fenproporex-treated groups, although fenproporex treatment reduced the gravid uterus weight. No significant difference was observed in postimplantation loss, fetal viability and sex ratio. In addition, this compound did not impair intra-uterine growth. The reduction in the number of implantations in the groups receiving fenproporex indicates that this drug may have an adverse effect on implantation. Fenproporex treatment also increased the number of fetuses presenting small kidneys and cervical ribs. The present results indicate that fenproporex, in the dose and exposure periods tested, appears to exhibit a low maternal toxicity and teratogenic potential in mice.

  11. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including......Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases...

  12. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  13. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  14. NEWTONP - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, NEWTONP, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. NEWTONP can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. NEWTONP calculates the probably p required to yield a given system reliability V for a k-out-of-n system. It can also be used to determine the Clopper-Pearson confidence limits (either one-sided or two-sided) for the parameter p of a Bernoulli distribution. NEWTONP can determine Bayesian probability limits for a proportion (if the beta prior has positive integer parameters). It can determine the percentiles of incomplete beta distributions with positive integer parameters. It can also determine the percentiles of F distributions and the midian plotting positions in probability plotting. NEWTONP is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. NEWTONP is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The NEWTONP program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. NEWTONP was developed in 1988.

  15. Developing and evaluating distributions for probabilistic human exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-08-01

    This report describes research carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assist the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing a consistent yet flexible approach for evaluating the inputs to probabilistic risk assessments. The U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) recently released Volume 3 Part A of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), as an update to the existing two-volume set of RAGS. The update provides policy and technical guidance on performing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consequently, EPA risk managers and decision-makers need to review and evaluate the adequacy of PRAs for supporting regulatory decisions. A critical part of evaluating a PRA is the problem of evaluating or judging the adequacy of input distributions PRA. Although the overarching theme of this report is the need to improve the ease and consistency of the regulatory review process, the specific objectives are presented in two parts. The objective of Part 1 is to develop a consistent yet flexible process for evaluating distributions in a PRA by identifying the critical attributes of an exposure factor distribution and discussing how these attributes relate to the task-specific adequacy of the input. This objective is carried out with emphasis on the perspective of a risk manager or decision-maker. The proposed evaluation procedure provides consistency to the review process without a loss of flexibility. As a result, the approach described in Part 1 provides an opportunity to apply a single review framework for all EPA regions and yet provide the regional risk manager with the flexibility to deal with site- and case-specific issues in the PRA process. However, as the number of inputs to a PRA increases, so does the complexity of the process for calculating, communicating and managing risk. As a result, there is increasing effort required of both the risk professionals performing the analysis and the risk manager

  16. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  17. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs

  18. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Evaluation of dose exposure in 64-slice CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, O.; Trabold, T.; Kopp, A.F.; Claussen, C.D.; Heuschmid, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M.; Klabunde, M. [University of Tuebingen, Institute of Medical Physics, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The radiation exposure of four different 64-slice MDCT-colonography (CTC) protocols was evaluated using an Alderson-Rando phantom. Protocols using 30 mAs (collimation 20 x 1.2mm), 50 mAs (collimation 20 x 1.2 and 64 x 0.6mm) and 80 mAs (20 x 1.2 mm) representing screening low-dose, routine, narrow collimation and oncologic staging setups were measured with an Alderson-Rando phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc.). Scans were performed on a 64-row MDCT (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens) simulating the prone and supine positions with a constant voltage of 120 kV. Dose values (male/female) were 2.5/2.9, 3.8/4.2, 4.2/4.5 and 5.7/6.4 mSv for 30, 50 (20 x 1.2 and 64 x 0.6 mm) and 80 mAs, respectively. Measurements showed an elevated dose for females (11.5% mean; compared to males). Use of narrow collimation combined with 50 mAs resulted in a small increase of dose exposure of 10.5 (male) and 7.1% (female). Gonad doses ranged from 0.9 to 2.6 mSv (male) and from 1.5 to 3.5 mSv (female). In all protocols, the stomach wall, lower colon, urinary bladder and liver were slightly more highly exposed (all <2.3 mSv) than the other organs, and the breast dose was <0.3 mSv in every setup. Values of radiation exposure in 64- and 16-slice CTC differ only marginally when using the narrow collimation. In 64-slice CTC, the use of narrow (64 x 0.6 mm) collimation shows slightly elevated dose values compared to wider (20 x 1.2 mm) collimation. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of dose exposure in 64-slice CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, O.; Trabold, T.; Kopp, A.F.; Claussen, C.D.; Heuschmid, M.; Buchgeister, M.; Klabunde, M.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation exposure of four different 64-slice MDCT-colonography (CTC) protocols was evaluated using an Alderson-Rando phantom. Protocols using 30 mAs (collimation 20 x 1.2mm), 50 mAs (collimation 20 x 1.2 and 64 x 0.6mm) and 80 mAs (20 x 1.2 mm) representing screening low-dose, routine, narrow collimation and oncologic staging setups were measured with an Alderson-Rando phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Inc.). Scans were performed on a 64-row MDCT (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens) simulating the prone and supine positions with a constant voltage of 120 kV. Dose values (male/female) were 2.5/2.9, 3.8/4.2, 4.2/4.5 and 5.7/6.4 mSv for 30, 50 (20 x 1.2 and 64 x 0.6 mm) and 80 mAs, respectively. Measurements showed an elevated dose for females (11.5% mean; compared to males). Use of narrow collimation combined with 50 mAs resulted in a small increase of dose exposure of 10.5 (male) and 7.1% (female). Gonad doses ranged from 0.9 to 2.6 mSv (male) and from 1.5 to 3.5 mSv (female). In all protocols, the stomach wall, lower colon, urinary bladder and liver were slightly more highly exposed (all <2.3 mSv) than the other organs, and the breast dose was <0.3 mSv in every setup. Values of radiation exposure in 64- and 16-slice CTC differ only marginally when using the narrow collimation. In 64-slice CTC, the use of narrow (64 x 0.6 mm) collimation shows slightly elevated dose values compared to wider (20 x 1.2 mm) collimation. (orig.)

  1. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-03-01

    To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen's κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19-0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Irmeli, Pehkonen; Forsman, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    by sorting the methods according to the several items evaluated.   Numerous methods have been developed to assess physical workload (biomechanical exposures) in order to identify hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders, to monitor the effects of ergonomic changes, and for research. No indvidual method...... between observers Potential users NIOSH Lifting Eq. NA X - O, R Arbouw M - - O ACGIH Lifting TLV M - - O MAC - - M O, W(?) ManTRA - - - O, R(?),W(?) NZ Code for MH - - - O, W(?) Washington state ergonomic rule M X M O, W(?) BackEST ML - M R   Correspondence with valid reference: HM = High to moderate, L......), and Washington state model. MAC (UK), ManTRA (Australia), and New Zealand code are widely used for the assessment of risks in MMH but we did not found formal studies on validity of these methods. The inter-observer repeatability of MAC and the Washington state model has been found to be moderate. Back...

  3. The basic approaches to evaluation of effects of the long-therm radiation exposure in a range of 'low' doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhauov, R.M.; Karpov, A.B.; Litvyakov, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    The previously performed research allowed forming the main concepts about deterministic effects of radiation impact and defining the main postulates of radiation medicine with respect to average and high levels of exposure. At the same time the research performed to evaluate stochastic effects caused by 'low' doses of ionizing radiation influence failed to find a single-valued answer relating both to dose impact inducing the effect development and to the spectrum of recorded pathologic processes or diseases. In this connection on our opinion the most prospective decision of present problem are studies in follow directions: 1. The evaluation of radiation productions personal and residents of nearby territories mortality and morbidity structure and dynamics. 2. The estimation of risk main diseases development with long-term radiation exposure and analysis of radiation factor role in its pathogenesis. 3. The study of genetic disturbances of persons and their descendants exposed long-term ionizing radiation in 'low' doses. 4. The study of individual radio sensitivity genetic markers. 5. The evaluation of structural and functional homeostasis disturbances inducing the radiation exposure in 'low' doses. The object of study is the Close administrative territorial formation Seversk population and mainly Siberian Group Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personal - the largest complex productions of atomic industry in the world. The Regional Medico-Dosimetric Register (RMDR), creating since 2001 is the basis for epidemiological studies. The register database contain the information concerning to about 66 000 SGCE workers (it is a whole number of workers in all years of SGCE existence from 1950 to now day). The 35 000 from 66 000 workers are the workers of so-called main productions. About 96% workers exposed external radiation has cumulative dose less 500 mSv. On the base of laboratory of genomic medicine it was created and constantly enriched the bank DNA and biological material

  4. Childhood cumulative risk and obesity: the mediating role of self-regulatory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Doan, Stacey N

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether early childhood risk exposures are related to weight gain in adolescence and evaluate an underlying mechanism, self-regulatory behavior, for the risk-obesity link. Cumulative risk exposure to 9 sociodemographic (eg, poverty), physical (eg, substandard housing), and psychosocial (eg, family turmoil) stressors was assessed in 244 nine-year-old children. BMI was calculated at age 9 and then 4 years later. At age 9, children's ability to delay gratification as an index of self-regulatory behavior was assessed. Path analyses were then estimated to evaluate our mediational model (Cumulative risk → Self-regulation → BMI) over a 4-year period in a prospective, longitudinal design. Nine-year-old children exposed to a greater accumulation of multiple risk factors show larger gains in adiposity over the next four year period, net of their initial BMI. These gains in BMI during early adolescence are largely accounted for by deteriorated self-regulatory abilities among children facing more cumulative risks. Early childhood risk exposure leads to larger gains in BMI in adolescence. Given the importance of childhood adiposity to the development of obesity later in life, understanding the underlying mechanisms that link early experience to weight gain is an essential task. Deficiencies in self-regulation in response to chronic stress appears to be an important agent in the obesity epidemic.

  5. Comparison of two dose-response relationship of noise exposure evaluation results with high frequency hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Nan; Yang, Qiu-Ling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Tao, Li-Yuan; Davis, Robert I; Heyer, Nicholas; Zhao, Yi-Ming

    2015-03-20

    Complex noise and its relation to hearing loss are difficult to measure and evaluate. In complex noise measurement, individual exposure results may not accurately represent lifetime noise exposure. Thus, the mean L Aeq,8 h values of individuals in the same workgroup were also used to represent L Aeq,8 h in our study. Our study aimed to explore whether the mean exposure levels of workers in the same workgroup represented real noise exposure better than individual exposure levels did. A cross-sectional study was conducted to establish a model for cumulative noise exposure (CNE) and hearing loss in 205 occupational noise-exposed workers who were recruited from two large automobile manufacturers in China. We used a personal noise dosimeter and a questionnaire to determine the workers' occupational noise exposure levels and exposure times, respectively. A qualified audiologist used standardized audiometric procedures to assess hearing acuity after at least 16 h of noise avoidance. We observed that 88.3% of workers were exposed to more than 85 dB(A) of occupational noise (mean: 89.3 ± 4.2 dB(A)). The personal CNE (CNEp) and workgroup CNE (CNEg) were 100.5 ± 4.7 dB(A) and 100.5 ± 2.9 dB(A), respectively. In the binary logistic regression analysis, we established a regression model with high-frequency hearing loss as the dependent variable and CNE as the independent variable. The Wald value was 5.014 with CNEp as the independent variable and 8.653 with CNEg as the independent variable. Furthermore, we found that the figure for CNEg was more similar to the stationary noise reference than CNEp was. The CNEg model was better than the CNEp model. In this circumstance, we can measure some subjects instead of the whole workgroup and save manpower. In a complex noise environment, the measurements of average noise exposure level of the workgroup can improve the accuracy and save manpower.

  6. Comparison of Two Dose-response Relationship of Noise Exposure Evaluation Results with High Frequency Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex noise and its relation to hearing loss are difficult to measure and evaluate. In complex noise measurement, individual exposure results may not accurately represent lifetime noise exposure. Thus, the mean L Aeq,8 h values of individuals in the same workgroup were also used to represent L Aeq,8 h in our study. Our study aimed to explore whether the mean exposure levels of workers in the same workgroup represented real noise exposure better than individual exposure levels did. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to establish a model for cumulative noise exposure (CNE and hearing loss in 205 occupational noise-exposed workers who were recruited from two large automobile manufacturers in China. We used a personal noise dosimeter and a questionnaire to determine the workers′ occupational noise exposure levels and exposure times, respectively. A qualified audiologist used standardized audiometric procedures to assess hearing acuity after at least 16 h of noise avoidance. Results: We observed that 88.3% of workers were exposed to more than 85 dB(A of occupational noise (mean: 89.3 ± 4.2 dB(A. The personal CNE (CNEp and workgroup CNE (CNEg were 100.5 ± 4.7 dB(A and 100.5 ± 2.9 dB(A, respectively. In the binary logistic regression analysis, we established a regression model with high-frequency hearing loss as the dependent variable and CNE as the independent variable. The Wald value was 5.014 with CNEp as the independent variable and 8.653 with CNEg as the independent variable. Furthermore, we found that the figure for CNEg was more similar to the stationary noise reference than CNEp was. The CNEg model was better than the CNEp model. In this circumstance, we can measure some subjects instead of the whole workgroup and save manpower. Conclusions: In a complex noise environment, the measurements of average noise exposure level of the workgroup can improve the accuracy and save manpower.

  7. Secant cumulants and toric geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalek, M.; Oeding, L.; Zwiernik, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    We study the secant line variety of the Segre product of projective spaces using special cumulant coordinates adapted for secant varieties. We show that the secant variety is covered by open normal toric varieties. We prove that in cumulant coordinates its ideal is generated by binomial quadrics. We

  8. Chemical mixtures: Evaluation of risk for child-specific exposures in a multi-stressor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, H.R.; Abadin, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the health impact from exposure to chemical mixtures is multifaceted. One component is exposure. Exposure, and consequently risk assessment for mixtures and chemicals in general, are often viewed in terms of a given exposure to a given population at a given location over a given time period. However, environmental exposures are present throughout human lifetime. As a result, an evaluation of risk must include the distinctive characteristics related to chemical exposures which will impact risk depending upon the particular life stage where exposure occurs. Risks to offspring may be associated with unique exposures in utero, during infancy, childhood, or adolescent periods. For example, exposure of infants to anthropogenic chemicals via breast milk may be of concern. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) approach to evaluating risks associated with exposure to mixtures of chemicals is presented. In addition to the breast milk issues, indoor exposure to combined air pollutants, drinking water contaminants, and soil and dust contaminants are discussed. The difference between a mixture's risk evaluation for children and adults is in the distinct exposure scenarios resulting from variations in behavior, physiology, and/or pharmacokinetics between adults and children rather than in the method for the specific mixtures evaluation per se

  9. Problems in evaluating health effects of occupational and environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Existing standards for exposure are based primarily on estimates of health effects obtained by extrapolation from effects of high-level exposures such as those experienced at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational and environmental exposures provide one source of data for this task. A number of studies of populations exposed in this manner have attracted recent attention. Because of the size of most of the groups and the magnitude of the exposures received, the amount that can be learned from such populations is severely limited. A number of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting such data are addressed. Many of these problems are illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant

  10. Pesticide Cumulative Risk Assessment: Framework for Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on how to screen groups of pesticides for cumulative evaluation using a two-step approach: begin with evaluation of available toxicological information and, if necessary, follow up with a risk-based screening approach.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1990-07-01

    We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity; these samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (strain TA98) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats may provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means. DNA from liver, lung, and bladder of rats exposed to some of the wastes was analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling technique for the presence of DNA adducts. A waste that produced mutagenic urine produced a DNA adduct in bladder DNA. The implications of this approach for assessment of exposure to complex hazardous waste mixtures are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of permissible exposure to plutonium in occupational workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, W.S.S.; Kimmel, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    No human toxicity data exist from which to evaluate the current MPBB for 239 Pu of 0.04 μCi. The current method of estimating MPBB for 239 Pu in humans uses 239 Pu: 226 Ra ratios in terms of an average skeletal dose in dogs, then compares them to the experience with 226 Ra and 228 Ra in humans. In this paper, a new approach is used that is based on data about 239 Pu toxicity in dogs and on the cellular distribution of the dose. This information has been assimilated in a computerized model of the skeleton which stimulates 239 Pu location as a function of the bone turnover rate; the model then calculates the total number of bone cell- 239 Pu disintegration interactions occurring after one intravenous injection. The number obtained is compared for beagles with a 12.5-year life span and humans with a 50-year life span. We conclude that the current human MPBB for 239 Pu from a single intravenous exposure is adequate for skeletal protection

  13. Evaluation of osprey habitat suitability and interaction with contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschik, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest availability, and contaminants in sediment for use in a nest-occupancy model. Our results demonstrated that the presence of occupied nests was associated with water depth, water clarity, distance to an occupied osprey nest, and presence of urban land use, whereas a companion study demonstrated that hatching success was associated with the principal components derived from organochlorine-contaminant concentrations in osprey eggs (total polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene, chlordane and metabolites, and heptachlor epoxide). Our study provides guidelines for resource managers and local conservation organizations in management of ospreys and in development of habitat models that are appropriate for other piscivorous and marsh-nesting birds.

  14. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, Thamiris Rosado

    2014-07-01

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  15. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reina, Thamiris Rosado

    2014-01-01

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  16. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the...

  17. EVALUATION OF A PERSONAL NEPHELOMETER FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current particulate matter (PM) exposure studies are using continuous personal nephelometers (pDR-1000, MIE, Inc.) to measure human exposure to PM. The personal nephelometer is a passive sampler which uses light scattering technology to measure particles ranging in size from 0....

  18. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Science Advisor, Environmental... influence exposures, dose-response or risk/hazard posed by environmental contaminant exposures, and methods... who wish to receive further information about submitting information on methods for cumulative risk...

  19. Evaluation on the Radiation Exposure of Radiation Workers in Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Tae Yoon; Jeong, Do Hyung; Choi, Gye Suk

    2012-01-01

    cumulative dose and exposure dose on a specific body part can bring health risks if one works in a same location for a long period. Therefore, radiation workers must thoroughly manage exposure dose and try their best to minimize it according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends.

  20. The challenge of cumulative impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masden, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    Full text: As governments pledge to combat climate change, wind turbines are becoming a common feature of terrestrial and marine environments. Although wind power is a renewable energy source and a means of reducing carbon emissions, there is a need to ensure that the wind farms themselves do not damage the environment. There is particular concern over the impacts of wind farms on bird populations, and with increasing numbers of wind farm proposals, the concern focuses on cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any activity/action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. Cumulative impact assessment is a legislative requirement of environmental impact assessment but such assessments are rarely adequate restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Reasons for this are numerous but a recurring theme is the lack of clear definitions and guidance on how to perform cumulative assessments. Here we present a conceptual framework and include illustrative examples to demonstrate how the framework can be used to improve the planning and execution of cumulative impact assessments. The core concept is that explicit definitions of impacts, actions and scales of assessment are required to reduce uncertainty in the process of assessment and improve communication between stake holders. Only when it is clear what has been included within a cumulative assessment, is it possible to make comparisons between developments. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development assessments. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating cumulative

  1. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  2. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table

  3. Evaluation of a cumulative SUV-volume histogram method for parameterizing heterogeneous intratumoural FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Floris H.P. van; Cheebsumon, Patsuree; Yaqub, Maqsood; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smit, Egbert F. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    Standardized uptake values (SUV) are commonly used for quantification of whole-body [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Changes in SUV following therapy, however, only provide a proper measure of response in case of homogeneous FDG uptake in the tumour. The purpose of this study was therefore to implement and characterize a method that enables quantification of heterogeneity in tumour FDG uptake. Cumulative SUV-volume histograms (CSH), describing % of total tumour volume above % threshold of maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}), were calculated. The area under a CSH curve (AUC) is a quantitative index of tumour uptake heterogeneity, with lower AUC corresponding to higher degrees of heterogeneity. Simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous responses were performed to assess the value of AUC-CSH for measuring uptake and/or response heterogeneity. In addition, partial volume correction and image denoising was applied prior to calculating AUC-CSH. Finally, the method was applied to a number of human FDG scans. Partial volume correction and noise reduction improved CSH curves. Both simulations and clinical examples showed that AUC-CSH values corresponded with level of tumour heterogeneity and/or heterogeneity in response. In contrast, this correspondence was not seen with SUV{sub max} alone. The results indicate that the main advantage of AUC-CSH above other measures, such as 1/COV (coefficient of variation), is the possibility to measure or normalize AUC-CSH in different ways. AUC-CSH might be used as a quantitative index of heterogeneity in tracer uptake. In response monitoring studies it can be used to address heterogeneity in response. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of a cumulative SUV-volume histogram method for parameterizing heterogeneous intratumoural FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Floris H.P. van; Cheebsumon, Patsuree; Yaqub, Maqsood; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Smit, Egbert F.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized uptake values (SUV) are commonly used for quantification of whole-body [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Changes in SUV following therapy, however, only provide a proper measure of response in case of homogeneous FDG uptake in the tumour. The purpose of this study was therefore to implement and characterize a method that enables quantification of heterogeneity in tumour FDG uptake. Cumulative SUV-volume histograms (CSH), describing % of total tumour volume above % threshold of maximum SUV (SUV max ), were calculated. The area under a CSH curve (AUC) is a quantitative index of tumour uptake heterogeneity, with lower AUC corresponding to higher degrees of heterogeneity. Simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous responses were performed to assess the value of AUC-CSH for measuring uptake and/or response heterogeneity. In addition, partial volume correction and image denoising was applied prior to calculating AUC-CSH. Finally, the method was applied to a number of human FDG scans. Partial volume correction and noise reduction improved CSH curves. Both simulations and clinical examples showed that AUC-CSH values corresponded with level of tumour heterogeneity and/or heterogeneity in response. In contrast, this correspondence was not seen with SUV max alone. The results indicate that the main advantage of AUC-CSH above other measures, such as 1/COV (coefficient of variation), is the possibility to measure or normalize AUC-CSH in different ways. AUC-CSH might be used as a quantitative index of heterogeneity in tracer uptake. In response monitoring studies it can be used to address heterogeneity in response. (orig.)

  5. Evaluating OSHA's ethylene oxide standard: exposure determinants in Massachusetts hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Kelsey, K T

    2001-03-01

    This study sought to identify determinants of workplace exposures to ethylene oxide to assess the effect of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) 1984 ethylene oxide standard. An in-depth survey of all hospitals in Massachusetts that used ethylene oxide from 1990 through 1992 (96% participation, N = 90) was conducted. Three types of exposure events were modeled with logistic regression: exceeding the 8-hour action level, exceeding the 15-minute excursion limit, and worker exposures during unmeasured accidental releases. Covariates were drawn from data representing an ecologic framework including direct and indirect potential exposure determinants. After adjustment for frequencies of ethylene oxide use and exposure monitoring, a significant inverse relation was observed between exceeding the action level and the use of combined sterilizer-aerators, an engineering control technology developed after the passage of the OSHA standard. Conversely, the use of positive-pressure sterilizers that employ ethylene oxide gas mixtures was strongly related to both exceeding the excursion limit and the occurrence of accidental releases. These findings provide evidence of a positive effect of OSHA's ethylene oxide standard and specific targets for future prevention and control efforts.

  6. Evaluation of radiation exposure from a consumer product. A pillow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Aburai, Tamaru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure from a pillow was analyzed. According to an advertisement of the pillow, this radioactive consumer product contains enough amounts of radioactive materials to induce radiation hormesis effects. The pillow consists of the filling chips made from kneading mineral ores and the polynosic linings contains natural radioactive ores. A γ-ray analysis of the pillow using pure Ge-MCA reveals that there exist radioactivities of thorium and uranium series mixtures in it at concentration of 0.58% by the weight. The observations of a chip surface by a scanning electron microscope show that the shapes of two sides are different each other. There are lots of sharp protuberances on the outside of the chip. To determine the direct external exposures from the pillow, film badges were placed on the pillow for 210 h and 2555 h. The dose equivalents of 210 h exposure was under 0.1 mSv which is a detection limit of a γ-ray by the film badges. However, that of 2555 h exposure was over 0.1 mSv less than 0.15 mSv. Quantities of internal exposures from inhalation of the vaporized Rn were measured by a Lucas Cell. It was 79 Bq/m 3 . There is no necessity for anxious about being broken in health inhaling the Rn-gass. (author)

  7. EVALUATION OF EMF EXPOSURE OF MOBILE PHONES ON HUMAN HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Vtornikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mobile phones are worldwide spread nowadays. Smartphones penetration is growing year after year. Numerous studies indicate the negative effect of EMF exposure of these devices on humans. Therefore, it is important to study the peculiarities of their influence on the target organ-the brain. It is important for solving this problem to find out the real situation of the distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure near the front panel of the apparatus.The aim of the study is to determine and compare EMF exposure from smartphones and classic mobile phones on human head.Material and methods. The original method patented in the Russian Federation was used in this study. The used original measuring setup is also patented, developed and assembled by the authors of the study. The object of the study was classical mobile phones and smartphones widespread at the time of work.Results. We got the graphic of matrices of distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel of 10 apparatus corresponding to the topography of a human head. The study revealed peculiarities of this distribution in smartphones and the classic mobile phones and got the values of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the investigated devices acting primarily on the brain.Conclusions. The design of smartphones and mobile phones determines the overall picture of distribution of EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel for devices of a particular type. This picture must be taken into account when planning epidemiological and experimental studies to obtain comparable results. Progress in the development of mobile communication technologies has led to an increase in the electromagnetic load on users of modern devices.

  8. Evaluation of selected parameters on exposure rates in Westinghouse designed nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years, Westinghouse under EPRI contract and independently, has performed research and evaluation of plant data to define the trends of ex-core component exposure rates and the effects of various parameters on the exposure rates. The effects of the parameters were evaluated using comparative analyses or empirical techniques. This paper updates the information presented at the Fourth Bournemouth Conference and the conclusions obtained from the effects of selected parameters namely, coolant chemistry, physical changes, use of enriched boric acid, and cobalt input on plant exposure rates. The trends of exposure rates and relationship to doses is also presented. (author)

  9. [Effects of subliminal mere exposure to group members on intergroup evaluation: category evaluation measured in the Implicit Association Test (IAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of subliminal mere exposure to ingroup or outgroup members on intergroup evaluation as measured in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants first memorized the members of two groups. Then, they were assigned to either group by lot, and completed the IAT for intergroup evaluation (Time 1). In the next phase, half the participants were subliminally exposed to ingroup members and half to outgroup members. Upon completion of the exposure, the same IAT was administered at Time 2. The results showed that participants who were exposed to ingroup members evaluated the ingroup more positively at Time 2 than at Time 1. Participants who were exposed to outgroup members did not show an effect toward the outgroup. The finding that the mere exposure effect occurred only for the ingroup exposure condition suggests that unconscious awareness of the ingroup enhances the mere exposure effect.

  10. Evaluation of medical and occupational exposures in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekoshi, Hisashi; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Tsuzaka, Masatoshi; Tamiya, Tadashi; Nakamura, Kiyoko.

    1992-01-01

    Absorbed radiation doses received by patients and personnel during interventional procedures were estimated in this study. An Angiostar, a fluoroscopy x-ray unit, made by Siemens Co. Ltd. was used. Fluoroscopic conditions were 82 to 112 kV of tube voltage and 2.5 to 4.3 mA of tube current. The absorbed doses to the ovaries were measured in a Mix-Dp phantom after the image intensifier's field size was changed from 40 cm to 14 cm in diameter. X-ray scattering dose distributions in the vicinity of the fluoroscopy table were measured by an ionization survey meter. This measurement was carried out concurrently with the above x-ray exposure conditions. Patient and personnel exposure increased in relation to the decreased field size. These medical and occupational exposures increases were the result of the x-ray output gradually increasing as the image intensifier's field was progressively decreased. This condition was caused by the automatic brightness control circuits of the x-ray unit. When the smallest field size of the image intensifier (I.I.) was employed the exposure doses absorbed by both patients and personnel were about three times larger than the doses received in the largest field size. (author)

  11. Thin slice impressions : How advertising evaluation depends on exposure duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rik; Elsen, M.; Wedel, M.

    The duration of exposures to advertising is often brief. Then, consumers can only obtain “thin slices” of information from the ads, such as which product and brand are being promoted. This research is the first to examine the influence that such thin slices of information have on ad and brand

  12. Evaluation of Urinary Arsenic as an Indicator of Exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. ... human exposure to As through contaminated groundwater is a serious health threat in many Asian and Latin .... geology. Kuma & Younger (2001) reported that the pH of the soils in the Tarkwa ...

  13. Evaluation of illnesses associated with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study by the Institute of Occupational Medicine is presented of all cases of pathological indications of ionizing radiation exposure during the period 1990-1995. It describes the incidence of theses diseases and their relationship with other factors. It has shown the predominance of pathologies of the haemolymphopoietic system in individuals who work in radiological diagnostics

  14. A method for evaluation of UV and biologically effective exposures to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, A.V.; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD; Wong, J.C.F.; Galea, V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating the UV and biologically effective exposures to a plant canopy during the irradiation of soybean with supplemental levels of UV radiation in a greenhouse study. The method employs four materials as dosimeters that allow evaluation of the UV spectra. The exposures evaluated at three growth stages were less by factors of 0.44, 0.49 and 0.56 compared to the ambient exposures. At the end of the irradiation period, the ambient biologically effective exposure for generalized plant response was higher by 180% compared to that calculated over the canopy. This is the magnitude of the error in UV studies that provide the ambient exposure as a measure of the UV incident on the plant. Additionally, the difference between the ambient and canopy exposures varied during the growth stages. These results indicate that the dosimetric technique applied to evaluating the UV exposures over a plant canopy is a more accurate representation of the UV exposure incidence on a plant than any obtained by measuring the ambient exposures only. (Author)

  15. A re-circulated toxicity exposure chamber to evaluate hydrocarbon dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.B.; Bonner, J.S.; Bujnoch, J.D.; Ussery, S.F.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional toxicology methods are not suitable for evaluating chemically dispersed oil which exists mostly as a colloidal suspension and as dissolved fractions. A new toxicity exposure chamber was designed with separate chambers for scaled mixing and organism exposure. The design of the chamber incorporates continuous recirculation between the mixing and exposure chamber and an upward flow in the exposure chamber. The toxicity exposure system incorporates scalable and quantitative mixing inputs with real time particle size analysis and traditional petrochemistry methods to characterize the exposure regime. Changes in dispersion were successfully translated to the organism exposure regime. The study determined the petroleum toxicity with a juvenile marine test species. Low control mortality demonstrated the usefulness of the method for testing toxicity of colloidal oil suspensions. 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. The impact of ergonomics intervention on trunk posture and cumulative compression load among carpet weavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Davood; Motamedzade, Majid; Salehi, Reza; Soltanian, Alir Raze

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of back among weavers are prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between poor working postures and back disorders among carpet weavers. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the traditional (A) and ergonomically designed (B) workstations on trunk posture and cumulative compression load in carpet weavers. In this study, subtasks were identified in terms of stressful postures and carpet weaving process. Postural data were collected during knotting and compacting subtasks using inclinometer during four hours for each workstation. Postural data, weight and height of the weavers were entered into the University of Michigan three-dimensional static biomechanical model for estimation of the compression load and cumulative load were estimated from the resultant load and exposure time. Thirteen healthy carpet weavers (four males and nine females) participated in the study. Median trunk flexion angle was reduced with workstation B during knotting subtask (18° versus 8.5°, pergonomically designed workstation.

  17. Radiation exposure and dose evaluation in intraoral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, B.; Looe, H. K.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Eenboom, F.; Chofor, N.; Sering, M.; Ruehmann, A.; Poplawski, A.; Willborn, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, dose area product measurements have been performed to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental radiology. Measurements were carried out at 60 X-ray units for all types of intraoral examinations performed in clinical routine. The third quartile values calculated range from 26.2 to 87.0 mGy cm 2 . The results showed that there exists a large difference between the patient exposures among different dental facilities. It was also observed that dentists working with faster film type or higher tube voltage are not always associated with lower exposure. The study demonstrated the necessity to have the DRLs laid out as guidelines in dental radiology. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of diseases associated to occupational exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Ileana Frometa

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective investigation of all cases of radiation workers with diseases and injuries, considered as occupational diseases caused by ionizing radiation is presented. The investigation includes all cases registered in the Institute of Occupational Health over five years period (1990-1995). The incidence of that diseases are studied, as well as the correlation between each type of source, time of exposure and annual average equivalent individual dose

  19. CONDOS methodology for evaluation of radiation exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    The CONDOS methodology is a tool for estimating radiation doses to man from exposures to radionuclides incorporated in consumer products. It consists of two parts: (1) an outline, checklist, and selected data for modeling the life span of a product or the material from which it is made; and (2) a computer code that uses the life-span model to calculate radiation doses to exposed individuals and population groups

  20. Kentucky Preschool Evaluation Project: Differential Effects, Program Characteristics and Child Outcomes, and Longitudinal and Cumulative Findings. Reports 1-4, 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Townley, Kim; Wilson, Stephen; Epstein, Ann; Hines, Huyi

    This document is comprised of four reports related to the evaluation of the Kentucky Preschool Program (KPP), serving 4-year-olds who qualify for the free lunch program and 3- and 4-year-olds with disabilities. Report 1 focuses on the differential effects of the preschool program related to race and to gender. Three key findings are reported: (1)…

  1. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    window of opportunity in which to demonstrate efficacy. Therefore, the effect of AI was studied in a cumulative irritation model by inducing irritant dermatitis with 10 min daily exposures for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekend) to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate on the right and 20% nonanoic acid on the left...

  2. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H C; Snipes, M B; Eidson, A F; Hobbs, C H

    1988-12-01

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)0.

  3. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Snipes, M.B.; Eidson, A.F.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)

  4. Evaluation of exposure to ionizing radiation among gamma camera operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Anna Domańska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protection of nuclear medicine unit employees from hazards of the ionizing radiation is a crucial issue of radiation protection services. We aimed to assess the severity of the occupational radiation exposure of technicians performing scintigraphic examinations at the Nuclear Medicine Department, Central Teaching Hospital of Medical University in Łódź, where thousands of different diagnostic procedures are performed yearly. Materials and Methods: In 2013 the studied diagnostic unit has employed 10 technicians, whose exposure is permanently monitored by individual dosimetry. We analyzed retrospective data of quarterly doses in terms of Hp(10 dose equivalents over the years 2001-2010. Also annual and five-year doses were determined to relate the results to current regulations. Moreover, for a selected period of one year, we collected data on the total activity of radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostics, to analyze potential relationship with doses recorded in technicians performing the examinations. Results: In a 10-year period under study, the highest annual dose recorded in a technician was 2 mSv, which represented 10% of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. The highest total dose for a 5-year period was 7.1 mSv, less than 10% of a 5-year dose limit for occupational exposure. Positive linear correlation was observed between total activity of radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostics in the period of three months and respective quarterly doses received by technicians performing examinations. Conclusions: Doses received by nuclear medicine technicians performing diagnostic procedures in compliance with principles of radiation protection are low, which is confirmed by recognizing the technicians of this unit as B category employees. Med Pr 2013;64(4:503–506

  5. Critical evaluation of German regulatory specifications for calculating radiological exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Claudia; Walther, Clemens [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radioecology; Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Law

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of radiological exposure of the public is an issue at the interface between scientific findings, juridical standard setting and political decision. The present work revisits the German regulatory specifications for calculating radiological exposure, like the already existing calculation model General Administrative Provision (AVV) for planning and monitoring nuclear facilities. We address the calculation models for the recent risk assessment regarding the final disposal of radioactive waste in Germany. To do so, a two-pronged approach is pursued. One part deals with radiological examinations of the groundwater-soil-transfer path of radionuclides into the biosphere. Processes at the so-called geosphere-biosphere-interface are examined, especially migration of I-129 in the unsaturated zone. This is necessary, since the German General Administrative Provision does not consider radionuclide transport via groundwater from an underground disposal facility yet. Especially data with regard to processes in the vadose zone are scarce. Therefore, using I-125 as a tracer, immobilization and mobilization of iodine is investigated in two reference soils from the German Federal Environment Agency. The second part of this study examines how scientific findings but also measures and activities of stakeholders and concerned parties influence juridical standard setting, which is necessary for risk management. Risk assessment, which is a scientific task, includes identification and investigation of relevant sources of radiation, possible pathways to humans, and maximum extent and duration of exposure based on dose-response functions. Risk characterization identifies probability and severity of health effects. These findings have to be communicated to authorities, who have to deal with the risk management. Risk management includes, for instance, taking into account acceptability of the risk, actions to reduce, mitigate, substitute or monitor the hazard, the setting of

  6. Galvanizing industry: evaluation of exposure levels using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela Maria; Mattos, Silvania V. de M.; S. Filho, Serafim; Maia, Elene Cristina P.

    1999-01-01

    In Brazil, statistical surveys concerning occupational diseases refer to accidents and damages. The surveys do not refer to the occupational diseases developed through long exposures to hazardous work conditions, involving physical risk and toxic chemical substances. The Program of Medical Control of Occupational Health determines the Maximum Biological Levels Allowed and the Values of Normality References. But concerning metal and toxic inorganic, values of only few elements are established. In Belo Horizonte and surroundings areas, which is an important industrial centre in the country, there are different industries distributed over various areas. There are about 80 galvanizing industries which are responsible for the majority of the metal contamination hospitalities. A preliminary sampling was performed in order to conduct a survey of the exposures to elements related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry. The preliminary results for toxic and non-toxic elements obtained using hair and fingernails as biomonitors are shown. The K 0 parametric neutron activation analysis method was applied and the elements determined were: Ag, Al, Au, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Ti, V, Ta, and Zn. (author)

  7. Evaluation of internal/external exposure from interior building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Morita-Murase, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Internal exposure to alpha particles emitted from 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters is the second leading cause of lung cancer. As a source of indoor radon in home, there are interior building materials that contain radioactive minerals. These radioactive consumer products have been claimed by distributors to have effect of 'minus-ion' or 'radon spring' for healthy promotion. We analyzed radioactive nuclides contained in the interior building materials, and measured radon levels released from them. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry revealed that these interior building materials contain U- and Th-series nuclides. The densities of some radioactive nuclides in the tile used for a bathroom exceeded the exempt limits of International Basic Safety Standards. However, the radon densities released from the tile was lower than detectable limit. In contrast, one of the wallpaper released 34 Bq·m -3 of radon gas in a 50-liter container. This value is two times higher than the average radon level in Japanese homes. The minus-ion effect' wallpapers are thought to be a cause of residential exposure to radon. (author)

  8. Galvanizing industry: evaluation of exposure levels using biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mattos, Silvania V. de M. [FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Bromatologia e Toxicologia; S. Filho, Serafim [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Saude do Trabalhador; Maia, Elene Cristina P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    In Brazil, statistical surveys concerning occupational diseases refer to accidents and damages. The surveys do not refer to the occupational diseases developed through long exposures to hazardous work conditions, involving physical risk and toxic chemical substances. The Program of Medical Control of Occupational Health determines the Maximum Biological Levels Allowed and the Values of Normality References. But concerning metal and toxic inorganic, values of only few elements are established. In Belo Horizonte and surroundings areas, which is an important industrial centre in the country, there are different industries distributed over various areas. There are about 80 galvanizing industries which are responsible for the majority of the metal contamination hospitalities. A preliminary sampling was performed in order to conduct a survey of the exposures to elements related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry. The preliminary results for toxic and non-toxic elements obtained using hair and fingernails as biomonitors are shown. The K{sub 0} parametric neutron activation analysis method was applied and the elements determined were: Ag, Al, Au, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Ti, V, Ta, and Zn. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: menezes at urano.cdtn.br

  9. Benzene - exposure and risk evaluation; Benzol - Exposition und Risikoabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Hygiene-Institut und Umweltmedizin; Eikmann, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany); Goeen, T. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene und Arbeitsmedizin

    2000-07-01

    Benzene is one of the most important environmental carcinogens. Because of its potential to induce leukemia, benzene is noted as carcinogeneous hazardous substance in legal guidelines for occupational use and environmental contact. Epidemiological studies resulted to unit-risk values between 2.8 x 10{sup -6} to 30 x 10{sup -6} for lifelong exposure to 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} benzene. In Germany, the average unit-risk was estimated to be 9 x 10{sup -6}. The general population is mainly exposed to benzene due to the emissions of motor vehicles. The average annual air concentration of benzene at main roads and in industrial areas are 5 to 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Due to seasonal influences and special exposure situations distinctly higher peak concentrations are occurring. Regional differences, i.e. between rural and urban immission levels and between the concentration in air of the northern and southern part of Europe, are also recognizable. The life-style factor smoking increases the individual exposure distinctly, whereas contamination of the diet contribute little to the total uptake of benzene. The internal exposure of the general population varies due to living area, smoking habits and mobility. Individuals living in no-smoking buildings show benzene concentrations in blood of 15 to 170 ng/l, whereas the benzene level of persons with additional exposures (smoking, frequently use of motor vehicles, etc.) can reach approximately 1000 ng/l blood. Comparable conclusions result from data for the urinary levels of two sensitive metabolites of benzene: trans-, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. (orig.) [German] Benzol stellt aufgrund seines ubiquitaeren Auftretens und seiner Leukaemie verursachenden Wirkung eines der bedeutendsten Umweltkanzerogene dar. Es ist als krebserzeugender Gefahrstoff (Gefahrstoffverordnung: Gruppe II) und als eindeutig krebserzeugender Arbeitsstoff (Kategorie 1) ausgewiesen. Aus epidemiologischen Studien ergaben sich Unit

  10. Evaluation of Image According to Exposure Conditions using Contrast-Detail Phantom for Chest Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Nam; Kim, Chang Nam; Lee, Chang Yeob; Park, Kye Yeon

    2009-01-01

    To find out proper photographing conditions in the chest DR imaging, the evaluation of images using the C-D phantom was carried out on relationship of identification capability, graininess, and exposure ratio. The conclusions were obtained as follows. 1. The patient's entrance skin Exposure (ESE) was decreased as tube voltage was increased. 2. According to the tube voltage change, the C-D phantom's identification capability of the exposure conditions was most visible at 110 kVp. 3. The identification capability according to the exposure ratio (mAs) change was most visible at 90 kVp for 0.5 times of low exposure ratio and at 110 kVp for 1.5 times. Therefore, it is known that the images were able to be better identified at a high exposure than a low exposure. 4. The graininess according to the exposure ratio at tube voltage of 110 kVp resulted in the best thing at 1.5 times of ratio when the exposure ratio was 1.5 times increased and the tube voltage was changed, the graininess showed the best result at 110 kVp. Therefore, the patient's exposure dose was low when kVp was increased and the adequate kVp was found to be 110. The image was better identified when exposure ratio was 1.5 times compared to 1.0 times. The graininess was also good when the exposure ratio became 1.5 times. The tube voltage was good at 110 kVp. However, once the exposure ratio is increased, the amount of radiation dose that the patients received get increased, so that the exposure condition has to be thoroughly considered.

  11. Evaluation of Image According to Exposure Conditions using Contrast-Detail Phantom for Chest Digital Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Tecnology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Nam [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nam; Lee, Chang Yeob; Park, Kye Yeon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To find out proper photographing conditions in the chest DR imaging, the evaluation of images using the C-D phantom was carried out on relationship of identification capability, graininess, and exposure ratio. The conclusions were obtained as follows. 1. The patient's entrance skin Exposure (ESE) was decreased as tube voltage was increased. 2. According to the tube voltage change, the C-D phantom's identification capability of the exposure conditions was most visible at 110 kVp. 3. The identification capability according to the exposure ratio (mAs) change was most visible at 90 kVp for 0.5 times of low exposure ratio and at 110 kVp for 1.5 times. Therefore, it is known that the images were able to be better identified at a high exposure than a low exposure. 4. The graininess according to the exposure ratio at tube voltage of 110 kVp resulted in the best thing at 1.5 times of ratio when the exposure ratio was 1.5 times increased and the tube voltage was changed, the graininess showed the best result at 110 kVp. Therefore, the patient's exposure dose was low when kVp was increased and the adequate kVp was found to be 110. The image was better identified when exposure ratio was 1.5 times compared to 1.0 times. The graininess was also good when the exposure ratio became 1.5 times. The tube voltage was good at 110 kVp. However, once the exposure ratio is increased, the amount of radiation dose that the patients received get increased, so that the exposure condition has to be thoroughly considered.

  12. Design and evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad Bashir; Thakur, Ram Sharnagat

    2018-03-01

    To design and evaluate novel, feasible, safe, mucoadhesive intravaginal tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). It may provide pre-exposure prophylaxis for women against HIV. TDF intravaginal tablets were formulated employing poylvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the matrix forming polymer and various mucoadhesive polymers such as carbopol 934, 940, chitosan, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC). Wet granulation was used. The evaluation involved testing drug-excipient compatibility, precompression parameters such as percentage yield, bulk density and tapped density of the granules, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, post compression parameters such as color, shape, physical dimensions, weight variation, hardness, friability, swelling index, assay, in vitro dissolution study and ex vivo mucoadhesion studies. Based on in vitro evaluation, C1 was selected as the best formulation and evaluated further for release kinetics, curve fitting analysis, absorption studies using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique and histopathological assessment in female Sprague-Dawley rats. C1 followed Higuchi model kinetics. Accelerated stability study was as per ICH guidelines by keeping C1 at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% RH for six months. C1 was selected as the best formulation due to better swelling index (65.93% at 24 h), prolonged release of 100.62% cumulative drug release (CDR) at 24 h, superior mucoadhesion force (35.93 × 10 2 dynes/cm 2 ) and retention time (16 h). The study revealed that C1 remained stable for six months. C1 showed nil systemic absorption which is desirable and according to histopathological study, C1, exhibited minimal damage on the rat vaginal epithelium indicating safety.

  13. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  14. Evaluation of effects of long term exposure on lethal toxicity with mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vibha; Yu, Qiming J; Connell, Des W

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure time (LT50) and lethal exposure concentration (LC50) has been evaluated over relatively long exposure times using a novel parameter, Normal Life Expectancy (NLT), as a long term toxicity point. The model equation, ln(LT50) = aLC50(ν) + b, where a, b and ν are constants, was evaluated by plotting lnLT50 against LC50 using available toxicity data based on inhalation exposure from 7 species of mammals. With each specific toxicant a single consistent relationship was observed for all mammals with ν always mammals and then be extended to estimate toxicity at any exposure time with other mammals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cosmic rays exposure during aircraft flight (3). Guideline and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Council of MEXT drew up the Guideline of Cosmic Ray Exposure Control for Air Crew in 2006. The content of the Guideline and evaluation methods of dose are explained. The Guideline stated five items for Airline Company. It consists of 1) exposure dose control for air crew, 2) evaluation methods of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, 3) explanation and education of cosmic rays exposure for air crew, 4) reading, record and store of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, and 5) health control of air crew. The doses of four airlines were calculated by the Civil Aeromedical Research Institute (CARI) code and the European Program package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (EPCARD) code. The difference of two codes was about 15 to 25%. Japanese Internet System for Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (JISCAED) has been developed by Japan. (S.Y.)

  16. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  17. Evaluation of the risk of exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchaux, G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using a horizontal approach across a large-scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk, a task that required a combination of several programmes and involved a multidisciplinary approach. Five main topics were addressed: radioactive aerosol studies, modelling, human studies, animal studies and retrospective assessment of radon exposure. The five studies were distributed between working groups. The rationale of this project was to pool the expertise from laboratories working in different fields of radiation protection. This paper summarises the main achievements made through this multidisciplinary research programme and the synergies that occurred between the different groups. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Noise Exposure Secondary to Wind Noise in Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Wertz, Anna G; Smith, Matthew M; Jacob, Steve; Ahsan, Syed F

    2017-11-01

    Objective Determine if the noise levels of wind exposure experienced by cyclists reach levels that could contribute to noise-induced hearing loss. Study Design Industrial lab research. Setting Industrial wind tunnel. Subjects and Methods A commercial-grade electric wind tunnel was used to simulate different speeds encountered by a cyclist. A single cyclist was used during the simulation for audiometric measurements. Microphones attached near the ears of the cyclist were used to measure the sound (dB sound pressure level) experienced by the cyclist. Loudness levels were measured with the head positioned at 15-degree increments from 0 degrees to 180 degrees relative to the oncoming wind at different speeds (10-60 mph). Results Wind noise ranged from 84.9 dB at 10 mph and increased proportionally with speed to a maximum of 120.3 dB at 60 mph. The maximum of 120.3 dB was measured at the downwind ear when the ear was 90 degrees away from the wind. Conclusions Wind noise experienced by a cyclist is proportional to the speed and the directionality of the wind current. Turbulent air flow patterns are observed that contribute to increased sound exposure in the downwind ear. Consideration of ear deflection equipment without compromising sound awareness for cyclists during prolonged rides is advised to avoid potential noise trauma. Future research is warranted and can include long-term studies including dosimetry measures of the sound and yearly pre- and postexposure audiograms of cyclists to detect if any hearing loss occurs with long-term cycling.

  19. The multimedia models for the evaluation of exposure bond to the atmospheric emissions of classified installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnard, R.

    2001-12-01

    Risk assessment and environmental impacts studies are realized to preserve the public health. Today one of the most used approach is the use of an atmospheric dispersion model to assess the risks. The data are then injected in a calculation software of exposure bond to polluted soils, to evaluate the risks of non direct exposure. This report details and evaluates the models corresponding to the need: the methodology for assessing Health Risks associated with multiple pathways of exposure to combustor, human health risk assessment proto col for hazardous waste combustion facilities, EUSES, CALTOX, MEPAS, MEND-TOX, RESRAD, MMSOILS, FRAMES-HWIR, PC-GEMS and TRIM. (A.L.B.)

  20. Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-05-01

    The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations

  1. Difficulty Systematized Evaluation of Vocal Folds Exposure in Microsurgery of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies addressing preoperative factors that predict difficulty of endotracheal intubation graduated by anesthesiologists, for the scale of the Cormack-Lehane. These parameters were evaluated for the difficulty of location of the laryngoscope in microsurgery of the larynx. There is not a standard scale of difficulty targeted to surgeons of the larynx. Objective: Create a standard scale of difficulty leasing the laryngoscope during microsurgery of the larynx, with a focus on exposure of the vocal folds (vocal cords to evaluate which clinical parameters predict difficulty of exposure of their vocal folds and verify the improvement of laryngeal exposure with the hanger of the laryngoscope. Method: A prospective randomized study, 57 patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery. The preoperative parameters were evaluated: three epidemiological data, two of history and 13 physical examination. Intraoperatively: the anesthesiologist evaluated the Cormack-Lehane score and the surgeon evaluated according to the proposed scale, before and after placement of the hanger. Results and Conclusion: Several parameters showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value for high inadequate exposure of the larynx. But only distance hiomentual <6.05 cm (p = 0.003 and 2 classes of Cormack-Lehane (p = 0.04 with statistical significance and high sensitivity of 100% and 81% respectively. The use of the hanger of laryngoscope laryngeal exposure improved significantly (p = 0.04. The proposed scale standardizes the visualization and grades the difficulty of exposure of their vocal folds, facilitating comparisons between studies and communication between otolaryngologists.

  2. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S 11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  4. Barrier function and natural moisturizing factor levels after cumulative exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent: different outcomes in atopic and healthy skin and relevance for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Dapic, Irena; Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Fischer, Tobias W.; Zillikens, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Fruit-derived organic compounds and detergents are relevant exposure factors for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry. Although individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are at risk for development of occupational contact dermatitis, there have been no controlled studies on the effects

  5. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  6. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  7. Validity evaluation of internal exposure in nuclear facility decommission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoli; Chen Dahua; You Zeyun

    2012-01-01

    During nuclear facility decommission under construction, it is very important for workers to wear respirator to avoid harm of Am aerosols. So the protection effect of respirator is very important. The protection effect of respirator was calculated and evaluated according to the data achieved from engineering practice. The result shows that the protection effect is better than target management value and the respirator is effective to protect workers from harm of Am aerosols. The respirator is applied to other nuclear facility decommission. (authors)

  8. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Suski, Jamie G; Salice, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing stress-related treatment needs among girls at risk for poor functional outcomes: The impact of cumulative adversity, criterion traumas, and non-criterion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Beck, Audrey N

    2017-05-01

    Despite growing recognition that cumulative adversity (total stressor exposure, including complex trauma), increases the risk for psychopathology and impacts development, assessment strategies lag behind: Adversity-related mental health needs (symptoms, functional impairment, maladaptive coping) are typically assessed in response to only one qualifying Criterion-A traumatic event. This is especially problematic for youth at-risk for health and academic disparities who experience cumulative adversity, including non-qualifying events (separation from caregivers) which may produce more impairing symptomatology. Data from 118 delinquent girls demonstrate: (1) an average of 14 adverse Criterion-A and non-Criterion event exposures; (2) serious maladaptive coping strategies (self-injury) directly in response to cumulative adversity; (3) more cumulative adversity-related than worst-event related symptomatology and functional impairment; and (4) comparable symptomatology, but greater functional impairment, in response to non-Criterion events. These data support the evaluation of mental health needs in response to cumulative adversity for optimal identification and tailoring of services in high-risk populations to reduce disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of effects of long term exposure on lethal toxicity with mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vibha; Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between exposure time (LT 50 ) and lethal exposure concentration (LC 50 ) has been evaluated over relatively long exposure times using a novel parameter, Normal Life Expectancy (NLT), as a long term toxicity point. The model equation, ln(LT 50 ) = aLC 50 ν + b, where a, b and ν are constants, was evaluated by plotting lnLT 50 against LC 50 using available toxicity data based on inhalation exposure from 7 species of mammals. With each specific toxicant a single consistent relationship was observed for all mammals with ν always <1. Use of NLT as a long term toxicity point provided a valuable limiting point for long exposure times. With organic compounds, the Kow can be used to calculate the model constants a and v where these are unknown. The model can be used to characterise toxicity to specific mammals and then be extended to estimate toxicity at any exposure time with other mammals. -- Highlights: • Model introduces a new parameter, normal life expectancy, to explain changes in toxicity with time. • Model is innovatory as it can be used to calculate toxicity at any, particularly long exposure times. • Toxicity is influenced by normal life expectancy of the organism particularly longer exposure times. • The model was applicable to all the mammals (7 species) evaluated. • The model can be used to predict toxicity at different exposure times with untested mammals species. -- The RLE model provides a mathematical description of the change in toxicity over time for a particular chemical. This represents a major advance on the use of Haber's Rule in toxicology

  11. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  12. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  13. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The evaluation of stack metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators: assessing human exposure through noninhalation pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedman, R M; Polisini, J M; Esparza, J R

    1994-01-01

    Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human...

  15. Maternal exposure to Cochlospermum regium: a toxicological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cochlospermum regium (Schrank Pilg., Bixaceae, is a Brazilian plant widely used as a folk medicine in the southwestern of the Brazil to treat inflammation and infection diseases. However, the effects of C. regium hydroethanolic extract on pregnant rats have not been assessed. To evaluate the effects of the C. regium on pregnant rats during the organogenic period, the hydroethanolic extract was administered via gavage at a dose of 11.5 mg/kg/day to rats from 6th to 15th day of pregnancy. No clinical signs of maternal toxicity were observed. The placenta's and fetuses' weight were similar in control and treated animals. The term fetuses dis not present malformations or anomalies although the number of live fetuses and birth rate were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the C. regium hydroethanolic extract is nontoxicant to the pregnant rat although it would be likely to interfere in the progress of the embryofetal development.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes were evaluated. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: These samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (either TA98 or TA100) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats would provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means.

  17. Evaluating Cumulative Ascent:. Mountain Biking Meets Mandelbrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  18. 76 FR 69726 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity when making regulatory decisions... stakeholders including environmental, human health, farm worker, and agricultural advocates; the chemical... Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  19. Negative radiographic examinations: Evaluation of risks from exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.; Jerez Vegueria, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The individual dose of radiation per radiological diagnosis is decreasing, which is an important contribution for the number of exposed population. This is a result of a completed study presented by the Manuel Fajardo Surgery Clinic of the Municipality of Havana, which evaluated the behaviour of the negative radiological examinations and their contribution to the collective dose as well as the associated detriment. 486 cases with radiographic examinations are reported over a period of four months. The information on individual cases is classified by type of radiographic examination and whether the outcome of the examination was positive or negative, the absorbed doses per organ and irradiated tissue, dose equivalent, collective and effective doses. The probability of the occurrence of a fatal cancer and associated genetic damage due to the examinations is also considered. 41% of the examinations performed were negative, with a collective dose of 11.35 manSv and 52.9 % of the total doses contributed for all the radiological examinations of the population studied

  20. 32 CFR 651.16 - Cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cumulative impacts. 651.16 Section 651.16... § 651.16 Cumulative impacts. (a) NEPA analyses must assess cumulative effects, which are the impact on the environment resulting from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present...

  1. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  2. Implications of applying cumulative risk assessment to the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A; Spicer, Kristen; Chosewood, L Casey; Susi, Pam; Johns, Douglas O; Dotson, G Scott

    2018-06-01

    Multiple changes are influencing work, workplaces and workers in the US including shifts in the main types of work and the rise of the 'gig' economy. Work and workplace changes have coincided with a decline in unions and associated advocacy for improved safety and health conditions. Risk assessment has been the primary method to inform occupational and environmental health policy and management for many types of hazards. Although often focused on one hazard at a time, risk assessment frameworks and methods have advanced toward cumulative risk assessment recognizing that exposure to a single chemical or non-chemical stressor rarely occurs in isolation. We explore how applying cumulative risk approaches may change the roles of workers and employers as they pursue improved health and safety and elucidate some of the challenges and opportunities that might arise. Application of cumulative risk assessment should result in better understanding of complex exposures and health risks with the potential to inform more effective controls and improved safety and health risk management overall. Roles and responsibilities of both employers and workers are anticipated to change with potential for a greater burden of responsibility on workers to address risk factors both inside and outside the workplace that affect health at work. A range of policies, guidance and training have helped develop cumulative risk assessment for the environmental health field and similar approaches are available to foster the practice in occupational safety and health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the soil-to-indoor air exposure pathway at petroleum contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W. B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Results of two approaches for evaluating human exposure to benzene inside a former gasoline station converted into a strip mall were discussed. Using passive air sampling, benzene levels inside the mall were evaluated. It was found that contrary to expectations the levels inside the mall were lower than the average levels in Canadian homes. The second approach, i.e. modeling of soil vapour entry, confirmed the findings of the passive air test by showing that incremental exposure conditions for mall workers was no worse than what they receive by inhalation in their own homes. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Evaluation of the soil-to-indoor air exposure pathway at petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindzierski, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of two approaches for evaluating human exposure to benzene inside a former gasoline station converted into a strip mall were discussed. Using passive air sampling, benzene levels inside the mall were evaluated. It was found that contrary to expectations the levels inside the mall were lower than the average levels in Canadian homes. The second approach, i.e. modeling of soil vapour entry, confirmed the findings of the passive air test by showing that incremental exposure conditions for mall workers was no worse than what they receive by inhalation in their own homes. 14 refs., 2 figs

  6. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme dos Santos Trento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%. Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002. Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness.

  7. Self-reported and laboratory evaluation of late pregnancy nicotine exposure and drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E S; Wexelblatt, S L; Greenberg, J M

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of late pregnancy nicotine exposures, including secondhand smoke exposures, and to evaluate the associated risk of exposure to drugs of abuse. The study was a retrospective single-center cohort analysis of more than 18 months. We compared self-reported smoking status from vital birth records with mass spectrometry laboratory results of maternal urine using a chi-square test. Logistic regression estimated adjusted odds for detection of drugs of abuse based on nicotine detection. Compared with 8.6% self-reporting cigarette use, mass spectrometry detected high-level nicotine exposures for 16.5% of 708 women (Pdrugs of abuse, presented as adjusted odds ratios, (95% confidence interval (CI), for both low-level (5.69, CI: 2.09 to 15.46) and high-level (13.93, CI: 7.06 to 27.49) nicotine exposures. Improved measurement tactics are critically needed to capture late pregnancy primary and passive nicotine exposures from all potential sources.

  8. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic toolkit to evaluate environmental exposures: Applications of the dioxin model to study real life exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, Claude, E-mail: claude.emond@biosmc.com [BioSimulation Consulting Inc, Newark, DE (United States); Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) are a series of mono- to octa-chlorinated homologous chemicals commonly referred to as polychlorinated dioxins. One of the most potent, well-known, and persistent member of this family is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of translational research to make computerized models accessible to health risk assessors, we present a Berkeley Madonna recoded version of the human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the recent dioxin assessment. This model incorporates CYP1A2 induction, which is an important metabolic vector that drives dioxin distribution in the human body, and it uses a variable elimination half-life that is body burden dependent. To evaluate the model accuracy, the recoded model predictions were compared with those of the original published model. The simulations performed with the recoded model matched well with those of the original model. The recoded model was then applied to available data sets of real life exposure studies. The recoded model can describe acute and chronic exposures and can be useful for interpreting human biomonitoring data as part of an overall dioxin and/or dioxin-like compounds risk assessment. - Highlights: • The best available dioxin PBPK model for interpreting human biomonitoring data is presented. • The original PBPK model was recoded from acslX to the Berkeley Madonna (BM) platform. • Comparisons were made of the accuracy of the recoded model with the original model. • The model is a useful addition to the ATSDR's BM based PBPK toolkit that supports risk assessors. • The application of the model to real-life exposure data sets is illustrated.

  9. [Effects of mere exposure on category evaluation measured by the IAT and the GNAT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-12-01

    Based on mere exposure studies, we proposed that repeated exposure to stimuli belonging to a common category leads to a positive evaluation of that category. Furthermore, to investigate the implicit effects of mere exposure, indirect measures were used. In a series of experiments, participants were repeatedly exposed to mimetic words written in Japanese hiragana or katakana, or nothing (control). Then their evaluations of the category ("hiragana" or "katakana") were measured using indirect and direct measures. In Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Test; IAT), we adopted a traditional design using an exposure paradigm, such that the rating stimuli were identical to the exposed stimuli. Significant effects were observed for both measures. In Experiment 2 (IAT) and Experiment 3 (Go/No-go Association Task; GNAT), we used non-exposed stimuli that belonged to a common category as the rating stimuli. Significant effects were observed only for indirect measures. These results indicate that repeated exposure has unconscious positive effects on category evaluation. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Cumulative keyboard strokes: a possible risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheriou Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradictory reports have been published regarding the association of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS and the use of computer keyboard. Previous studies did not take into account the cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes among computer workers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cumulative keyboard use (keyboard strokes and CTS. Methods Employees (461 from a Governmental data entry & processing unit agreed to participate (response rate: 84.1 % in a cross-sectional study. Α questionnaire was distributed to the participants to obtain information on socio-demographics and risk factors for CTS. The participants were examined for signs and symptoms related to CTS and were asked if they had previous history or surgery for CTS. The cumulative amount of the keyboard strokes per worker per year was calculated by the use of payroll’s registry. Two case definitions for CTS were used. The first included subjects with personal history/surgery for CTS while the second included subjects that belonged to the first case definition plus those participants were identified through clinical examination. Results Multivariate analysis used for both case definitions, indicated that those employees with high cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes were at increased risk of CTS (case definition A: OR = 2.23;95 % CI = 1.09-4.52 and case definition B: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.36-4.25. A dose response pattern between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and CTS has been revealed (p  Conclusions The present study indicated a possible association between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and development of CTS. Cumulative exposure to key-board strokes would be taken into account as an exposure indicator regarding exposure assessment of computer workers. Further research is needed in order to test the results of the current study and assess causality between cumulative keyboard strokes and

  11. Evaluation of exposure limits to toxic gases for nuclear reactor control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Sasser, L.B.

    1991-07-01

    We have evaluated ammonia, chlorine, Halon (actually a generic name for several halogenated hydro-carbons), and sulfur dioxide for their possible effects during an acute two-minute exposure in order to derive recommendations for maximum exposure levels. To perform this evaluation, we conducted a search to find the most pertinent literature regarding toxicity in humans and in experimental animals. Much of the literature is at least a decade old, not an unexpected finding since acute exposures are less often performed now than they were a few years ago. In most cases, the studies did not specifically examine the effects of two-minute exposures; thus, extrapolations had to be made from studies of longer-exposure periods. Whenever possible, we gave the greatest weight to human data, with experimental animal data serving to strengthen the conclusion arrived at from consideration of the human data. Although certain individuals show hypersensitivity to materials like sulfur dioxide, we have not attempted to factor this information into the recommendations. After our evaluation of the data in the literature, we held a small workshop. Major participants in this workshop were three consultants, all of whom were Diplomates of the American Board of Toxicology, and staff from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Our preliminary recommendations for two-minute exposure limits and the rationale for them were discussed and consensus reached on final recommendations. These recommendations are: (1) ammonia-300 to 400-ppm; (2) chlorine-30 ppm; (3) Halon 1301-5%; Halon 1211-2%; and (4) sulfur dioxide-100 ppm. Control room operators should be able to tolerate two-minute exposures to these levels, don fresh-air masks, and continue to operate the reactor if the toxic material is eliminated, or safely shut down the reactor if the toxic gas remains. 96 refs., 9 tabs

  12. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  13. Patient dose evaluations from medical X-ray exposure in Italy: an analysis of next data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, A.; Paganini, F.M.; Susanna, A.

    1980-01-01

    NEXT (Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends) is a program for the evaluation of patient exposure in X-ray diagnostic tests. The program is aimed at reducing patient exposure by pin-pointing poor radiological techniques and improving them. CNEN (Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare) and ISS (Istituto Superiore di Sanita) have been developing such a program in Italy since 1976. Up to now two regional administrations applied the method and regional operators collected the needed data in all the medical institutions in their areas. The results show a wide spread of values for all the parameters studied in the 12 X-ray projections selected. Gonad dose and skin entrance exposure were found to be spread over a range up to about two orders of magnitude. (H.K.)

  14. Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan L. Schilling

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. "Passive" monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially...

  15. The effects of temperature and pressure on airborne exposure concentrations when performing compliance evaluations using ACGIH TLVs and OSHA PELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, D J; Lillquist, D R

    2001-04-01

    Occupational hygienists perform air sampling to characterize airborne contaminant emissions, assess occupational exposures, and establish allowable workplace airborne exposure concentrations. To perform these air sampling applications, occupational hygienists often compare an airborne exposure concentration to a corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) or an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL). To perform such comparisons, one must understand the physiological assumptions used to establish these occupational exposure limits, the relationship between a workplace airborne exposure concentration and its associated TLV or PEL, and the effect of temperature and pressure on the performance of an accurate compliance evaluation. This article illustrates the correct procedure for performing compliance evaluations using airborne exposure concentrations expressed in both parts per million and milligrams per cubic meter. In so doing, a brief discussion is given on the physiological assumptions used to establish TLVs and PELs. It is further shown how an accurate compliance evaluation is fundamentally based on comparison of a measured work site exposure dose (derived from the sampling site exposure concentration estimate) to an estimated acceptable exposure dose (derived from the occupational exposure limit concentration). In addition, this article correctly illustrates the effect that atmospheric temperature and pressure have on airborne exposure concentrations and the eventual performance of a compliance evaluation. This article also reveals that under fairly moderate conditions of temperature and pressure, 30 degrees C and 670 torr, a misunderstanding of how varying atmospheric conditions affect concentration values can lead to a 15 percent error in assessing compliance.

  16. The Effect of Uncertainty in Exposure Estimation on the Exposure-Response Relation between 1,3-Butadiene and Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maldonado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a follow-up study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers, cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was positively associated with leukemia. Problems with historical exposure estimation, however, may have distorted the association. To evaluate the impact of potential inaccuracies in exposure estimation, we conducted uncertainty analyses of the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia. We created the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates using job-exposure matrices consisting of exposure values that corresponded to randomly selected percentiles of the approximate probability distribution of plant-, work area/job group-, and year specific butadiene ppm. We then analyzed the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia for each of the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates. In the uncertainty analysis, the point estimate of the RR for the first non zero exposure category (>0–<37.5 ppm-years was most likely to be about 1.5. The rate ratio for the second exposure category (37.5–<184.7 ppm-years was most likely to range from 1.5 to 1.8. The RR for category 3 of exposure (184.7–<425.0 ppm-years was most likely between 2.1 and 3.0. The RR for the highest exposure category (425.0+ ppm-years was likely to be between 2.9 and 3.7. This range off RR point estimates can best be interpreted as a probability distribution that describes our uncertainty in RR point estimates due to uncertainty in exposure estimation. After considering the complete probability distributions of butadiene exposure estimates, the exposure-response association of butadiene and leukemia was maintained. This exercise was a unique example of how uncertainty analyses can be used to investigate and support an observed measure of effect when occupational exposure estimates are employed in the absence of direct exposure measurements.

  17. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-11-01

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes "Common Principles" to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of these 6 principles are: "reduce hazard" and "minimize exposure." A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the US National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this article serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build on practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through 2 hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These 2 case studies-inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain-demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard and exposure (risk) analysis. This article informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk context

  18. Evaluation of skin exposure of patients and the irradiation field dimensions in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.J.; Hazin, C.A.; Andrade Lima, F.R.; Lopes Filho, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    This work aimed to estimate the skin exposure to patients in dental radiography, as well as, evaluate the magnitude of the skin area irradiated during a typical radiographic procedure. The study was based in a preliminary survey of dental X-ray equipments installed in the metropolitan region of Recife. The results showed that in 90% of the equipments surveyed the estimated patient skin exposure was above the recommended value of 500 mR. For X-ray beam diameters, the results showed values ranging from 4.5 to 11.5 cm, which do not agree with those set up by either national or international radiation protection organizations. (author)

  19. Cumulative trauma disorders: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zaheen A; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2017-08-03

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) is a term for various injuries of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that are caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression or sustained postures. Although there are many studies citing incidence of CTDs, there are fewer articles about its etiology, pathology and management. The aim of our study was to discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and management of CTDs. A literature search was performed using various electronic databases. The search was limited to articles in English language pertaining to randomized clinical trials, cohort studies and systematic reviews of CTDs. A total of 180 papers were identified to be relevant published since 1959. Out of these, 125 papers reported about its incidence and 50 about its conservative treatment. Workplace environment, same task repeatability and little variability, decreased time for rest, increase in expectations are major factors for developing CTDs. Prevention of its etiology and early diagnosis can be the best to decrease its incidence and severity. For effective management of CTDs, its treatment should be divided into Primordial, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary prevention.

  20. Complete cumulative index (1963-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This complete cumulative index covers all regular and special issues and supplements published by Atomic Energy Review (AER) during its lifetime (1963-1983). The complete cumulative index consists of six Indexes: the Index of Abstracts, the Subject Index, the Title Index, the Author Index, the Country Index and the Table of Elements Index. The complete cumulative index supersedes the Cumulative Indexes for Volumes 1-7: 1963-1969 (1970), and for Volumes 1-10: 1963-1972 (1972); this Index also finalizes Atomic Energy Review, the publication of which has recently been terminated by the IAEA

  1. Analysis of LDPE-ZnO-clay nanocomposites using novel cumulative rheological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Milan

    2017-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites exhibit complex rheological behaviour due to physical and also possibly chemical interactions between individual phases. Up to now, rheology of dispersive polymer systems has been usually described by evaluation of viscosity curve (shear thinning phenomenon), storage modulus curve (formation of secondary plateau) or plotting information about dumping behaviour (e.g. Van Gurp-Palmen-plot, comparison of loss factor tan δ). On the contrary to evaluation of damping behaviour, values of cot δ were calculated and called as "storage factor", analogically to loss factor. Then values of storage factor were integrated over specific frequency range and called as "cumulative storage factor". In this contribution, LDPE-ZnO-clay nanocomposites with different dispersion grades (physical networks) have been prepared and characterized by both conventional as well as novel analysis approach. Next to cumulative storage factor, further cumulative rheological parameters like cumulative complex viscosity, cumulative complex modulus or cumulative storage modulus have been introduced.

  2. Using Information on Exposure to Characterizing Risks to Human Health from Concurrent Exposures to Multiple Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mr Price, PSP

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of using exposure information to understand, organize, and manage the risks associated with cumulative exposures to chemicals (exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple sources). The issue of cumulative exposures was identified in more than 30 years ago, but in

  3. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic

  4. Consumer exposure to biocides - identification of relevant sources and evaluation of possible health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heger Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Products containing biocides are used for a variety of purposes in the home environment. To assess potential health risks, data on products containing biocides were gathered by means of a market survey, exposures were estimated using a worst case scenario approach (screening, the hazard of the active components were evaluated, and a preliminary risk assessment was conducted. Methods Information on biocide-containing products was collected by on-site research, by an internet inquiry as well as research into databases and lists of active substances. Twenty active substances were selected for detailed investigation. The products containing these substances were subsequently classified by range of application; typical concentrations were derived. Potential exposures were then estimated using a worst case scenario approach according to the European Commission's Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment. Relevant combinations of scenarios and active substances were identified. The toxicological data for these substances were compiled in substance dossiers. For estimating risks, the margins of exposure (MOEs were determined. Results Numerous consumer products were found to contain biocides. However, it appeared that only a limited number of biocidal active substances or groups of biocidal active substances were being used. The lowest MOEs for dermal exposure or exposure by inhalation were obtained for the following scenarios and biocides: indoor pest control using sprays, stickers or evaporators (chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos and spraying of disinfectants as well as cleaning of surfaces with concentrates (hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde. The risk from aggregate exposure to individual biocides via different exposure scenarios was higher than the highest single exposure on average by a factor of three. From the 20 biocides assessed 10 had skin-sensitizing properties. The biocides isothiazolinone (mixture of 5-chloro

  5. A review of the cohorts with environmental and occupational mineral fiber exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metintas, Selma; Ak, Guntulu; Metintas, Muzaffer

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine factors associated with Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) incidence rate of the groups with occupational asbestos and environmental asbestos or erionite exposure in rural area. In this ecological study, a total of 21 cohort datasets (8 environmental and 13 occupational) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression analysis model. In environmental cohorts, the risk of MM incidence was higher in women and people exposed to erionite. In this cohort, the incidence rate of MM increased as the median exposure time increased, while the incidence decreased as the median cumulative exposure dose increased. In occupational cohorts, the incidence rate of MM was positively correlated with the median cumulative exposure dose. The risk of mesothelioma was lower in those exposed to tremolite than others. Environmental asbestos exposure is as important as occupational exposure to develop MM, and it has its own unique exposure features on the risk of MM.

  6. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, Scott M.; Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. - Avian receptors are not universally appropriate surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment.

  7. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Scott M., E-mail: scott.weir@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States); Suski, Jamie G., E-mail: jamie.suski@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 43131, Lubbock, TX (United States); Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.salice@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. - Avian receptors are not universally appropriate surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment.

  8. Measurement of radioactive aerosol behavior during dismantling and reflection to the exposure dose evaluation - 16107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro; Kato, Masami

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol disperses slightly via contamination prevention systems such as control enclosures and filters when the nuclear installation is dismantled, and it might impact the environment. Therefore, when decommissioning is planned, it is necessary to assess the safety such as exposure dose evaluation to the public. For the radioactive aerosol, it is possible that the dispersion ratio is different according to the contamination condition, the dismantlement method of the material, nuclides (elements), etc. The radiation exposure evaluation for the decommissioning plan has been executed by operators in Japan based on a number of experiments (mostly cold tests) and overseas results. The decommissioning is now being carried out at the Tokai Power Station (GCR) and Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center in Japan. In this study, the results data is acquired at the decommissioning sites, and the methodology and data for the exposure dose evaluation are verified and confirmed. These examination results will lead to the upgrading and improvement of the exposure evaluation methodology. In particular, the dismantlement work of connected piping of the heat exchanger (steam generator) was executed in the Tokai Power Station in 2008. In this study, we paid attention to the radionuclides of Co-60 and Cs-137 that adhered to piping, and the dispersion behavior of aerosol was measured and contamination prevention effect was assured. As a result, the data show that the cesium concentrates about four times higher than cobalt. Moreover, the effects of the prevention measures of contamination were confirmed and the behavior of the radioactive aerosol became clear and the effective findings about the dose evaluation of the dismantling were collected. (authors)

  9. Media Exposure and Genetic Literacy Skills to Evaluate Angelina Jolie's Decision for Prophylactic Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Leah R; Koehly, Laura M; Hooker, Gillian W; Paquin, Ryan S; Capella, Joseph N; McBride, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    To examine public preparedness to evaluate and respond to Angelina Jolie's well-publicized decision to have a prophylactic mastectomy. A consumer panel (n = 1,008) completed an online survey in November 2013, reporting exposure to Jolie's story, confidence applying genomic knowledge to evaluate her decision, and ability to interpret provided genetic risk information (genetic literacy skills). Linear and logistic regressions tested mediating/moderating models of these factors in association with opinions regarding mastectomies. Confidence with genomics was associated with increased genetic literacy skills and increased media exposure, with a significant interaction between the two. Confidence was also associated with favoring mastectomies for women with BRCA mutations, mediating the relationship with media exposure. Respondents were more likely to form opinions about mastectomies if they had high genetic literacy skills. These findings suggest that having higher genetic literacy skills may increase the public's ability to form opinions about clinical applications of genomic discovery. However, repeated media exposure to high-profile stories may artificially inflate confidence among those with low genetic literacy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. System-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, NEWTONP, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Program finds probability required to yield given system reliability. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  11. Common-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest, M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CROSSER, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), used independently of one another. Point of equality between reliability of system and common reliability of components found. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  12. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  13. Cumulative Student Loan Debt in Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand student debt in Minnesota, the Minnesota Office of Higher Education (the Office) gathers information on cumulative student loan debt from Minnesota degree-granting institutions. These data detail the number of students with loans by institution, the cumulative student loan debt incurred at that institution, and the percentage…

  14. Quantitative evaluation of personal exposure to UV radiation of workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisto, R.; Borra, M.; Casale, G. R.; Militello, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to meteorological conditions variability and to the variability of exposure patterns, which can be largely different during a working day, personal dosemeters use can be necessary to obtain a correct quantitative evaluation of the radiation dose absorbed by an exposed worker. Different classes of personal dosemeters exist and, among them, electronic dosemeters and poly-sulphone film dosemeters. An experimental campaign is presented conduced in a cultivated area of Tuscany and some aspects are discussed about an experimental campaign performed on a population of volunteers on a central Italy beach near Rome. The aim of the present work is to show some relevant issues in a dosimetric approach to the exposure evaluation of outdoor workers and, in general, of the public during recreational activities. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of dose exposure from irradiated samples at TRIGA PUSPATI reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Julia Abdul Karim; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation has been made to data of irradiated samples for the type of sample requested for activation at RTP. Sample types are grouped with percentage of total throughputs to rule out the weight percent of every respective group. The database consists of radionuclide inventory of short, intermediate and long half-life and high activity radionuclides such as Br and Au have been identified. Evaluation of gamma exposure using Micro shield has also been made to pattern the trend of gamma exposure at experimental facilities and to ensure radiological effect towards safety and health is limited per Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulation 1988. This analysis places an important parameter to improve the design accuracy of shielding design in assuring safety, reliability and economy. (author)

  16. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeraert, N.; Bosmans, H.; Klausz, R.; Muller, S.; Bloch, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  17. Predicting the cumulative risk of death during hospitalization by modeling weekend, weekday and diurnal mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico; Wang, Ying; Magrabi, Farah; Concha, Oscar Perez; Gallego, Blanca; Runciman, William

    2014-05-21

    Current prognostic models factor in patient and disease specific variables but do not consider cumulative risks of hospitalization over time. We developed risk models of the likelihood of death associated with cumulative exposure to hospitalization, based on time-varying risks of hospitalization over any given day, as well as day of the week. Model performance was evaluated alone, and in combination with simple disease-specific models. Patients admitted between 2000 and 2006 from 501 public and private hospitals in NSW, Australia were used for training and 2007 data for evaluation. The impact of hospital care delivered over different days of the week and or times of the day was modeled by separating hospitalization risk into 21 separate time periods (morning, day, night across the days of the week). Three models were developed to predict death up to 7-days post-discharge: 1/a simple background risk model using age, gender; 2/a time-varying risk model for exposure to hospitalization (admission time, days in hospital); 3/disease specific models (Charlson co-morbidity index, DRG). Combining these three generated a full model. Models were evaluated by accuracy, AUC, Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. There was a clear diurnal rhythm to hospital mortality in the data set, peaking in the evening, as well as the well-known 'weekend-effect' where mortality peaks with weekend admissions. Individual models had modest performance on the test data set (AUC 0.71, 0.79 and 0.79 respectively). The combined model which included time-varying risk however yielded an average AUC of 0.92. This model performed best for stays up to 7-days (93% of admissions), peaking at days 3 to 5 (AUC 0.94). Risks of hospitalization vary not just with the day of the week but also time of the day, and can be used to make predictions about the cumulative risk of death associated with an individual's hospitalization. Combining disease specific models with such time varying- estimates appears to

  18. The evaluation prescribes dosimetry for occupational exposure in research work places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Capote, E.; Manzano, J.; Villa Zulueta, R.; Fernandez Echemendia, J.; Delgado Martinez, R.; Guerra, M.; Ferriol Echevarria, M.

    1998-01-01

    The work discusses behavior shown by occupational exposure 65 workers underwent during a 10 years term at the Center of Applied Studies to Nuclear Development by evaluating dosimetric clinical indexes which are important for radiological occupational protection. Research results conclude that workers exposed to low radiation doses, behave the same as reported internationally. There are no clinical findings linking it to the influence ionizing radiation can have on health. This corresponds to what had been expected

  19. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR

  20. Evaluation of the validity of job exposure matrix for psychosocial factors at work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Solovieva

    Full Text Available To study the performance of a developed job exposure matrix (JEM for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work in terms of accuracy, possible misclassification bias and predictive ability to detect known associations with depression and low back pain (LBP.We utilized two large population surveys (the Health 2000 Study and the Finnish Work and Health Surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix performance. In the first study, information on job demands, job control, monotonous work and social support at work was collected via face-to-face interviews. Job strain was operationalized based on job demands and job control using quadrant approach. In the second study, the sensitivity and specificity were estimated applying a Bayesian approach. The magnitude of misclassification error was examined by calculating the biased odds ratios as a function of the sensitivity and specificity of the JEM and fixed true prevalence and odds ratios. Finally, we adjusted for misclassification error the observed associations between JEM measures and selected health outcomes.The matrix showed a good accuracy for job control and job strain, while its performance for other exposures was relatively low. Without correction for exposure misclassification, the JEM was able to detect the association between job strain and depression in men and between monotonous work and LBP in both genders.Our results suggest that JEM more accurately identifies occupations with low control and high strain than those with high demands or low social support. Overall, the present JEM is a useful source of job-level psychosocial exposures in epidemiological studies lacking individual-level exposure information. Furthermore, we showed the applicability of a Bayesian approach in the evaluation of the performance of the JEM in a situation where, in practice, no gold standard of exposure assessment exists.

  1. Evaluation of the validity of job exposure matrix for psychosocial factors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Svetlana; Pensola, Tiina; Kausto, Johanna; Shiri, Rahman; Heliövaara, Markku; Burdorf, Alex; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2014-01-01

    To study the performance of a developed job exposure matrix (JEM) for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work in terms of accuracy, possible misclassification bias and predictive ability to detect known associations with depression and low back pain (LBP). We utilized two large population surveys (the Health 2000 Study and the Finnish Work and Health Surveys), one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix performance. In the first study, information on job demands, job control, monotonous work and social support at work was collected via face-to-face interviews. Job strain was operationalized based on job demands and job control using quadrant approach. In the second study, the sensitivity and specificity were estimated applying a Bayesian approach. The magnitude of misclassification error was examined by calculating the biased odds ratios as a function of the sensitivity and specificity of the JEM and fixed true prevalence and odds ratios. Finally, we adjusted for misclassification error the observed associations between JEM measures and selected health outcomes. The matrix showed a good accuracy for job control and job strain, while its performance for other exposures was relatively low. Without correction for exposure misclassification, the JEM was able to detect the association between job strain and depression in men and between monotonous work and LBP in both genders. Our results suggest that JEM more accurately identifies occupations with low control and high strain than those with high demands or low social support. Overall, the present JEM is a useful source of job-level psychosocial exposures in epidemiological studies lacking individual-level exposure information. Furthermore, we showed the applicability of a Bayesian approach in the evaluation of the performance of the JEM in a situation where, in practice, no gold standard of exposure assessment exists.

  2. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J [Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Moran, Bernadette [Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  3. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; DePrince, Anne P.; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were const...

  4. Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael A. Magris; Alana Grech; Robert L. Pressey

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal de...

  5. Evaluation of radiation exposure from patients with thyroid disease by iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianfeng; Lu Keyi; Duan Lian

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiation exposure to the individuals other than patients with thyroid disease, who had received radioiodine (iodine-131) therapy and had turned into a specific 'radiant point'. Methods: 107 outpatients or inpatients, with iodine-131 therapy had been investigated and followed up by telephone and outpatients. There were 117 times treatment (68 females, 49 males, mean age 41 years old), including the patients with hyperthyroidism (39 females, 40 males), thyroid cancer (27 females, 8 males), toxic thyroid adenoma (1 female and 1 male) and nontoxic nodular goiter(1 female). According to the personal condition of the patients, we attained the percentage of thyroid iodine-131 uptake (U), the iodine-131 dose (Q), the duration of constrained social activity, and the occupancy factor (OF) for the 3 periods (the preequilibrium, OFp; the constrained, OFc; and the unconstrained, OFuc), and the time of exposure to individuals other than patients, and to calculate the exposure dose (mSv) to the individuals. The formula is E (mSv) = Q[OFP(0.0173)+ OFC(0.537)U(1-e-0.095C)+0.023(1-U)(1-e-2.08C ) +OFUC (0.537) Ue-0.095C +0.0236(1-U)e-2.08C]. In accordance with the new recommendations of the national criteria from GB18871-2002, we evaluated the radiation safety to the individuals other than patients Results: Based on the national criteria the total effective dose equivalent to the individuals other than patients may not exceed 5 mSv. For all patients, including 79 hyperthyroidism, 2 toxic thyroid adenoma and 16 times treatment of thyroid cancer, the exposure doses to the individuals were not likely to exceed 5 mSv, but the others, including 19 times treatment of thyroid cancer and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter, the exposure doses were higher than 5 mSv. There were no difference between the part of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer of inpatients were compared with outpatients (P>0.05, respectively). we found that occupancy factor during the preequilibrium period

  6. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling and Spatial Analysis to Evaluate Population Exposure to Pesticides from Farming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Costanzini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work originates from an epidemiological study aimed to assess the correlation between population exposure to pesticides used in agriculture and adverse health effects. In support of the population exposure evaluation two models implemented by the authors were applied: a GIS-based proximity model and the CAREA atmospheric dispersion model. In this work, the results of the two models are presented and compared. Despite the proximity analysis is widely used for these kinds of studies, it was investigated how meteorology could affect the exposure assessment. Both models were applied to pesticides emitted by 1519 agricultural fields and considering 2584 receptors distributed over an area of 8430 km2. CAREA output shows a considerable enhancement in the percentage of exposed receptors, from the 4% of the proximity model to the 54% of the CAREA model. Moreover, the spatial analysis of the results on a specific test site showed that the effects of meteorology considered by CAREA led to an anisotropic exposure distribution that differs considerably from the symmetric distribution resulting by the proximity model. In addition, the results of a field campaign for the definition and planning of ground measurement of concentration for the validation of CAREA are presented. The preliminary results showed how, during treatments, pesticide concentrations distant from the fields are significantly higher than background values.

  7. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors.

  8. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors

  9. A mixture of Iprodione and Vinclozolin delays the onset of puberty in the male rat in a cumulative manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin and iprodione are dicarboximide fungicides that display anti-androgenic effects in the male rat, which suggests co-exposure to these fungicides would lead to cumulative effects on androgen-sensitive endpoints. In order to test for cumulative effects by iprodione and v...

  10. An evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of occupational radiation exposure data, including procedures based on Cox's proportional hazards model, are presented and evaluated. Issues of interest include the contribution of an external control, the effective handling of highly skewed exposure data, and the potential for detecting effects in populations occupationally exposed to radiation. Expressions for evaluating the power of various procedures are derived and applied to data from the Hanford population in order to determine power curves for detecting leukemia effects, with both additive and multiplicative linear models being used. It is found that the introduction of an external control can increase power, although not when an overall adjustment factor must be estimated from the data or when death rates for the study population are substantially lower than those for the control population. It is also found that very little power is lost if exposures are grouped. Finally, the power calculations indicate, as expected, that in analyses of occupationally exposed populations, such as the Hanford workers, there is very little chance of detecting radiation effects at the levels of our current estimates. However, power is reasonably good for detecting effects that are 10 to 15 times larger

  11. Evaluation of a public health intervention to lower mercury exposure from fish consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dewailly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a public health intervention to reduce blood mercury (Hg concentration levels in pregnant Bermudian women. METHODS: In 2003, we conducted a study entitled "Prenatal exposure of the Bermudian Population to Environmental Contaminants" which provided Bermuda's first baseline data on prenatal exposure to several environmental contaminants, including Hg. The mean Hg concentration from 42 healthy newborns measured in umbilical cord blood was 41.3 nmol/L, ranging from 5-160 nmol/L. This concentration was much higher than expected, being approximately 8 times the general levels found in Canada and the U.S. Furthermore, we estimated that 85% of total Hg measured was in the form of methylmercury (MeHg, indicating that seafood consumption was the primary source of Hg exposure during pregnancy in Bermuda. Locally sourced seafood was identified as the most significant possible contributory source of Hg exposure. In 2005 the authors began a complementary research programme to study the levels of Hg in local commercial fish species. Coming out of this research were specific local fish consumption guidelines issued by the Department of Health advising pregnant women to avoid those local fish species found to be high in Hg while still encouraging consumption of fish species having lower Hg levels. RESULTS: In 2010, under another research initiative, we returned to Bermuda to carry out another evaluation of Hg in human blood. Hg was measured in the blood of 49 pregnant women. The arithmetic mean Hg blood concentration was 6.6 nmol/L and the geometric mean 4.2 nmol/L. The maximum concentration found was 24 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Hg exposure of Bermudian pregnant women has dropped significantly by a factor of around 5 since the foetal cord blood study in 2003.

  12. [The evaluation of biological effects of exposure to respirable crystalline silica in building industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, E; Piolatto, P G

    2012-01-01

    The building industry entails the exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS), though there is a large variability among different sectors. The environmental values reported for the current conditions seem to be relatively low. For example the mean exposure estimated by IOM for all industrial sectors in the EU is 0.07 mg/m3. There are few studies in the building sector which show similar values. This is obviously not representative of past exposure. Moreover, the problems of sampling and analysis techniques are still at issue. The well known effect of RCS exposure is silicosis. The carcinogenicity of RCS is still under debate, especially regarding the question of whether RCS is carcinogenic "per se" or whether the risk of developing lung cancer is mediated by silicosis. Although the IARC includes RCS in the Group I (human carcinogen), the reference should be the CLP regulation, of which carcinogen definition criteria allow to state that today there are not sufficient data to classify RCS as a carcinogen and that it seems more appropriate to include RCS in different STOT.RE categories. This is valid for building industry as well as for the other industrial sectors. In Italy the recommended exposure limit is the ACGIH value of 0.025 mg/m3. At EU level it is still debated which is the best choice, based on cost/benefits evaluation, among the following limit values: 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 respectively. The authors obviously believe that the most protective value should be adopted.

  13. Evaluation of the diseases associated with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.

    1998-01-01

    Medical monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation enables evaluation of their state of health, as well as early detection of general or somatic diseases which are considered as a criterion of unfitness for work, and which may or may not be related to the exposure conditions. A retrospective study is presented of all the cases of workers suspected to be suffering from radiation-related diseases which were referred for specialized study to the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IMT) during 1990-95. The incidence of the diseases and affected tissues is described, as well as the relationship between the time of manifestation and the type of source, the exposure time and the recorded dose levels. Diseases of the haemolymphopoietic system predominated, being observed in individuals exposed to medical radiodiagnostic sources. (author)

  14. EXPURT - a model for evaluating exposure from radioactive material deposited in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, M.J.; Brown, J.

    1990-06-01

    This model, EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), is described in detail. The model simulates the movement of activity deposited on various surfaces in the urban environment and, by taking into account the shielding properties of buildings and the habits of the population, evaluates the external doses to members of the population living in such urban environments, as a function of time after deposition. One of the other advantages of EXPURT over simpler models is that it can be used to assess the possible dose reductions that might be achieved by various decontamination techniques; for example, it can estimate the effectiveness of decontaminating roof surfaces alone in reducing exposure to individuals living in an urban environment. Sensitivity/uncertainty studies have been performed whereby those parameters contributing most to remaining uncertainty in the model's predictions of dose and dose rates were identified. Predictions of the EXPURT model were compared with those from a simpler external dose model in use at NRPB. (author)

  15. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  16. Immunotoxicity evaluation of jet a jet fuel in female rats after 28-day dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Cynthia M; Peachee, Vanessa L; Trimmer, Gary W; Lee, Ji-Eun; Twerdok, Lorraine E; White, Kimber L

    2008-01-01

    The potential for jet fuel to modulate immune functions has been reported in mice following dermal, inhalation, and oral routes of exposure; however, a functional evaluation of the immune system in rats following jet fuel exposure has not been conducted. In this study potential effects of commercial jet fuel (Jet A) on the rat immune system were assessed using a battery of functional assays developed to screen potential immunotoxic compounds. Jet A was applied to the unoccluded skin of 6- to 7-wk-old female Crl:CD (SD)IGS BR rats at doses of 165, 330, or 495 mg/kg/d for 28 d. Mineral oil was used as a vehicle to mitigate irritation resulting from repeated exposure to jet fuel. Cyclophosphamide and anti-asialo GM1 were used as positive controls for immunotoxic effects. In contrast to reported immunotoxic effects of jet fuel in mice, dermal exposure of rats to Jet A did not result in alterations in spleen or thymus weights, splenic lymphocyte subpopulations, immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody-forming cell response to the T-dependent antigen, sheep red blood cells (sRBC), spleen cell proliferative response to anti-CD3 antibody, or natural killer (NK) cell activity. In each of the immunotoxicological assays conducted, the positive control produced the expected results, demonstrating the assay was capable of detecting an effect if one had occurred. Based on the immunological parameters evaluated under the experimental conditions of the study, Jet A did not adversely affect immune responses of female rats. It remains to be determined whether the observed difference between this study and some other studies reflects a difference in the immunological response of rats and mice or is the result of other factors.

  17. Automatic exposure control in computed tomography - an evaluation of systems from different manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Marcus; Gunnarsson, Mikael (Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)), e-mail: marcus.soderberg@med.lu.se

    2010-07-15

    Background: Today, practically all computed tomography (CT) systems are delivered with automatic exposure control (AEC) systems operating with tube current modulation in three dimensions. Each of these systems has different specifications and operates somewhat differently. Purpose: To evaluate AEC systems from four different CT scanner manufacturers: General Electric (GE), Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba, considering their potential for reducing radiation exposure to the patient while maintaining adequate image quality. Material and Methods: The dynamics (adaptation along the longitudinal axis) of tube current modulation of each AEC system were investigated by scanning an anthropomorphic chest phantom using both 16- and 64-slice CT scanners from each manufacturer with the AEC systems activated and inactivated. The radiation dose was estimated using the parameters in the DICOM image information and image quality was evaluated based on image noise (standard deviation of CT numbers) calculated in 0.5 cm2 circular regions of interest situated throughout the spine region of the chest phantom. Results: We found that tube current modulation dynamics were similar among the different AEC systems, especially between GE and Toshiba systems and between Philips and Siemens systems. Furthermore, the magnitude of the reduction in the exposure dose was considerable, in the range of 35-60%. However, in general the image noise increased when the AEC systems were used, especially in regions where the tube current was greatly decreased, such as the lung region. However, the variation in image noise among images obtained along the scanning direction was lower when using the AEC systems compared with fixed mAs. Conclusion: The AEC systems available in modern CT scanners can contribute to a significant reduction in radiation exposure to the patient and the image noise becomes more uniform within any given scan.

  18. Risk evaluation of cosmic-ray exposure in long-term manned space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Majima, Hideyuki; Ando, Koichi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masao

    1999-03-01

    Long-term manned space missions are planned to be implemented within the first two decades of the 21st century. The International Space Station (ISS) will be ready to run, and a plan to visit Mars is also under way. Humans will live in space for long periods of time and we are planning to do experiments in space to examine various aspects of space science. The main risk in long-term manned space missions is large exposure to space radiation. Human safety must be ensured in space where exposure to cosmic rays is almost 1 mSv a day. As such missions will inevitably result in significant exposure for astronauts, there is increasing need to protect them adequately based on both physical and biological knowledge. A good method to evaluate realistic risk associated with space missions will be in urgent demand. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan, a research institutes of the Science Technology Agency of Japan, high energy cosmic radiation can be simulated only with heavy ion irradiation accelerated by the particle accelerator, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC). Research to evaluate risk of space radiation, including physical measurement techniques, protective effects, biological effects and risk adjustment, aging, neuronal cell damage and cancer risk are undergoing. We organized a workshop of the latest topics and experimental results of physics and biology related to space radiation supported by Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST). This workshop was held as a satellite meeting associated with the 32nd Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Scientific Assembly (Nagoya, July 12-19th, 1998). This volume is an extended proceedings of the workshop. The proceedings contain six main subjects covering the latest information on Risk Evaluation of Cosmic-Ray Exposure in Long-Term Manned Space Mission'. 1. Risk Estimation of Heavy Ion Exposure in Space. 2. Low Dose-Rate Effects and Microbeam-Related Heavy Ions. 3. Chromosome and

  19. The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and Mental Health of Employees in ... CAs were measured in three forms (family adversities (CAFam), personal adversities ... Age of employees ranged between 18-65 years.

  20. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children’s learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission—the cornerstone of human cultural diversity. PMID:28739945

  1. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querbes, A.; Vaesen, K.; Houkes, W.N.

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological

  2. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources.

  3. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  4. Evaluation of three physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tools for emergency risk assessment after acute dichloromethane exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, R. Z.; Olie, J. D N; van Eijkeren, J. C H; Bos, P. M J; Hof, B. G H; de Vries, I.; Bessems, J. G M; Meulenbelt, J.; Hunault, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models may be useful in emergency risk assessment, after acute exposure to chemicals, such as dichloromethane (DCM). We evaluated the applicability of three PBPK models for human risk assessment following a single exposure to DCM: one model

  5. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  6. About the cumulants of periodic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, Axel; El Badaoui, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    This note studies cumulants of time series. These functions originating from the probability theory being commonly used as features of deterministic signals, their classical properties are examined in this modified framework. We show additivity of cumulants, ensured in the case of independent random variables, requires here a different hypothesis. Practical applications are proposed, in particular an analysis of the failure of the JADE algorithm to separate some specific periodic signals.

  7. Development, implementation and utilization of 210Pb in vivo measurement techniques as indicator of human being exposure to 222Rn - evaluation of associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its decay products are present in the atmosphere and are the most important contributors for the internal exposure of humans to natural radiation. The execution of in vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the population and in individuals occupationally exposed in underground mines has been studied and recommended as one of the procedures for the estimation of the exposure to 222 Rn. The metabolism of 210 Pb and its distribution within the human body, mainly deposited in the bone tissue, suggests the regions of skull and knee as the most suitable for the in vivo monitoring of such radionuclide. A radiological survey in non uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the State of Parana, in the south of Brazil, had high radon concentration. The aim of this work were: (1) To investigate whether underground coal miners may also have elevated 210 Pb in the skeleton as a result of occupational exposure to radon in the coal mine; (2) To estimate the committed equivalent dose and the committed effective dose in different incorporation scenarios using a computer code. The calibration and the in vivo measurements of underground coal miners were performed in the IRD-CNEN Whole Body Counter shielded room using an array of four high resolution germanium detectors. The detection system was positioned at the head and knee geometries. The minimum detectable quantity of 210 Pb in the skeleton using this methodology was (50 Bq) and the positive results were verified using a mathematical method that applies a moving median smoothing function to the total spectrum for each measurement. In vivo measurements of 210 Pb in 6 out of the 32 underground coal miners ranged between 83 Bq and 164 Bq suggesting that these workers received significant occupational cumulative exposure to 222 Rn. The simulation of some exposure patterns of 222 Rn progeny and 210 Pb incorporation showed that the most important contribution for 210 Pb skeleton deposition was the intake of

  8. Cumulative effects assessment: Does scale matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therivel, Riki; Ross, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is (or should be) an integral part of environmental assessment at both the project and the more strategic level. CEA helps to link the different scales of environmental assessment in that it focuses on how a given receptor is affected by the totality of plans, projects and activities, rather than on the effects of a particular plan or project. This article reviews how CEAs consider, and could consider, scale issues: spatial extent, level of detail, and temporal issues. It is based on an analysis of Canadian project-level CEAs and UK strategic-level CEAs. Based on a review of literature and, especially, case studies with which the authors are familiar, it concludes that scale issues are poorly considered at both levels, with particular problems being unclear or non-existing cumulative effects scoping methodologies; poor consideration of past or likely future human activities beyond the plan or project in question; attempts to apportion 'blame' for cumulative effects; and, at the plan level, limited management of cumulative effects caused particularly by the absence of consent regimes. Scale issues are important in most of these problems. However both strategic-level and project-level CEA have much potential for managing cumulative effects through better siting and phasing of development, demand reduction and other behavioural changes, and particularly through setting development consent rules for projects. The lack of strategic resource-based thresholds constrains the robust management of strategic-level cumulative effects

  9. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  10. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  11. Exposure dose evaluation of worker at radioactive waste incineration facility on KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kim, Youn Hwa; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    An incineration treatment of inflammable radioactive wastes leads to have a reduction effect of disposal cost and also to contribute an enhancement of safety at a disposal site by taking the advantage of stabilization of the wastes which is accomplished by converting organic materials into inorganic materials. As it was required for an incineration technology, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed a pilot incineration process and then constructed a demonstration incineration facility having based on the operating experiences of the pilot process. In this study, worker exposure doses were evaluated to confirm safety of workers before the demonstration incineration facility will commence a commercial. (author)

  12. Development of ECOREA-II code for the evaluation of exposures from radionuclides through food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dong Han; Lee, Han Soo

    2002-01-01

    The release of radionuclides from nuclear facilities following an accident into air results in human exposures by intakes of plant products such as rice, vegetables and/or animal products including meat, milk and eggs from contaminated soil. In order to evaluate such exposures from radioactive substances, it is essential to mathematically predict the behavior of these substances in the environments. A computer code, named 'ECOREA-II' is developing to assess human exposures through food chain of such substances in Korea. ECOREA-II code has a dynamic compartment-based model at its core, the graphical user interface (GUI) for the selection of input parameters and result displays on personal computers, and generation of data files for a GIS (Graphical Information System). Even the code is developed mostly based currently available models and/or codes, a new model is included for the time-dependent growth dilution in a vegetation part. Effort on The development of the code is towards the prediction of the behavior and pattern of radionuclides in a specific food chain condition in Korea. Finally, it provides a more user-friendly environment such as GUI developed based on the VBA(Visual Basic Application) for personal users. Therefore, the current code, when more fully developed, is expected to increase the understanding of environmental safety assessment of nuclear facilities following an accident and provide a reasonable regulatory guideline with respect to food safety issues

  13. Evaluation of occupation hot exposure in industrial workplaces in a subtropical country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chi Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study has been to evaluate the occupational heat exposure of 12 workers at 5 plants in a subtropical country. Material and Methods: The heat stresses and strain on workers in 5 plants were assessed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 7243 index (wet bulb globe temperature – WBGT and the ISO 7933 index (maximum allowable exposure time – Dlim. Results: Results indicated that 42% of the subjects (5 workers surpassed the WBGT limits. According to the Dlim, 42% of the subjects could not continue working in the hot environments. The relationships between the various heat stress indices and the WBGT index were also correlated. However, further studies from different heat environments and more subjects should be performed. Conclusions: The sensitive dependence of skin temperature on meteorological and physiological indices for each subject was clearly observed. Obviously, the heart rate response to metabolic rate was much greater than that caused by environmental heat alone. The exponential relationship between workers’ duration-limited exposure time, predicted by various estimated criteria, and WBGT were also found. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3:379–395

  14. Evaluation of a biomarker of Cd(II) exposure on Limnoperna fortunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Belaich; Cristian, Oliver; Marcela, Pilloff; Porta, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The use of organisms to monitor contamination allows the access to information that cannot be acquired by chemical methods. Limnoperna fortunei, mussel frequently found in Rio de la Plata estuary, fulfils the requirements to be used as a biomonitoring organism. In this work we report that a polypeptide of 22 kDa of molecular weight (LF22) is induced when L. fortunei is exposed to Cd (II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) sublethal levels. To characterize LF22, mussels were sampled from a non-polluted region and whole soft tissue was homogenized, with and without previous exposure to 100 μg/L of Cd(II). The cytosolic proteins were evaluated by mono and bidimensional SDS-PAGE, and size exclusion chromatography. All the methods showed that LF22 triples its concentration in presence of Cd(II). Purification of LF22 was achieved by fractioned precipitation, salting-out, ionic exchange and size exclusion chromatography. We conclude that LF22 is a useful biomarker of heavy metal exposure. - Limnoperna fortunei induces a 22 kDa polypeptide in sublethal exposure to Cd(II)

  15. Evaluation of hepatitis A vaccine in post-exposure prophylaxis, The Netherlands, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Whelan

    Full Text Available The secondary attack rate of hepatitis A virus (HAV among contacts of cases is up to 50%. Historically, contacts were offered immunoglobulin (IG, a human derived blood product as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. Amid safety concerns about IG, HAV vaccine is increasingly recommended instead. Public health authorities' recommendations differ, particularly for healthy contacts ≥40 years old, where vaccine efficacy data is limited. We evaluated routine use of HAV vaccine as an alternative to immunoglobulin in PEP, in those considered at low risk of severe infection in the Netherlands.Household contacts of acute HAV cases notified in Amsterdam (2004-2012 were invited ≤14 days post-exposure, for baseline anti-HAV testing and PEP according to national guidelines: immunoglobulin if at risk of severe infection, or hepatitis A vaccine if healthy and at low risk (aged 40 years of age. In healthy contacts vaccinated per-protocol ≤8 days post-exposure, RR(ref. ≤15 years of secondary infection in those >40 years was 12.0 (95%CI:1.3-106.7.Timely administration of HAV vaccine in PEP was feasible and the secondary attack rate was low in those 40 years of age and those vulnerable to severe disease.

  16. Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, Beatrice; Morelli, Maria Sole; Landini, Luigi; Hartwig, Valentina

    2018-04-30

    The use of wireless communication devices, such as tablets or laptops, is increasing among children. Only a few studies assess specific energy absorption rate (SAR) due to exposure from wireless-enabled tablets and laptops, in particular with Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) technology. This paper reports the estimation of the interaction between an E-shaped patch antenna (3.5 GHz) and human models, by means of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Specifically, four different human models (young adult male, young adult female, pre-teenager female, male child) in different exposure conditions (antenna at different distances from the human model, in different positions, and orientations) were considered and whole-body, 10 and 1 g local SAR and magnetic field value (Bmax) were evaluated. From our results, in some worst-case scenarios involving male and female children's exposure, the maximum radiofrequency energy absorption (hot spots) is located in more sensitive organs such as eye, genitals, and breast. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of Toluene Exposure in Workers at Industrial Area of Sidoarjo, Indonesia by Measurement of Urinary Hippuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Sahri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Sahri M, Widajati N. Evaluation of Toluene Exposure in Workers at Industrial Area of Sidoarjo, Indonesia by Measurement of Urinary Hippuric Acid. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:145-9.

  18. High Throughput PBPK: Evaluating EPA's Open-Source Data and Tools for Dosimetry and Exposure Reconstruction (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To address this need, new tools have been created for characterizing, simulating, and evaluating chemical biokinetics. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models provide estimates of chemical exposures that produce potentially hazardous tissue concentrations, while tissu...

  19. Readiness evaluation report -- High-exposure rate hardware removal resumption of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    In August 1996, N Basin Project Management proactively ceased activities in the N Basin after noting several radiological control anomalies occurring during the performance of the high exposure rate hardware removal activity. The HERH is one of several activities that will be accomplished to complete deactivation of N Basin. Three project critiques were performed to identify causes and several corrective actions were identified. To ensure the true causes of the events were identified the N Basin Project Manager requested that a root cause analysis be performed for the events covered by the three critiques. The intent was to identify recurring events and evaluate the effectiveness of corrective action implementation. These three review elements were used by the project to develop a corrective action plan (CAP) which consisted of both project unique and programmatic items. The N Basin Project is using this BHI Readiness Evaluation (RE) process as a mechanism to independently verify that corrective actions identified from the CAP have been completed and that no changes have been made during the stand down that affect the resumption of the HERH activities. A readiness evaluation (RE) plan (Attachment 3) was prepared. The completed Readiness Evaluation Records which documents the results of the team member evaluations are in attachment 1. The independent readiness evaluation team identified 5 deficiencies of which two are post startup and three are pre startup. All deficiencies are in the area of training. These findings are explained in detail in Attachment 2

  20. An evaluation of retrofit engineering control interventions to reduce perchloroethylene exposures in commercial dry-cleaning shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, G Scott; Ewers, Lynda M; Ruder, Avima M; Petersen, Martin R; Kovein, Ronald J

    2002-02-01

    Real-time monitoring was used to evaluate the ability of engineering control devices retrofitted on two existing dry-cleaning machines to reduce worker exposures to perchloroethylene. In one dry-cleaning shop, a refrigerated condenser was installed on a machine that had a water-cooled condenser to reduce the air temperature, improve vapor recovery, and lower exposures. In a second shop, a carbon adsorber was retrofitted on a machine to adsorb residual perchloroethylene not collected by the existing refrigerated condenser to improve vapor recovery and reduce exposures. Both controls were successful at reducing the perchloroethylene exposures of the dry-cleaning machine operator. Real-time monitoring was performed to evaluate how the engineering controls affected exposures during loading and unloading the dry-cleaning machine, a task generally considered to account for the highest exposures. The real-time monitoring showed that dramatic reductions occurred in exposures during loading and unloading of the dry-cleaning machine due to the engineering controls. Peak operator exposures during loading and unloading were reduced by 60 percent in the shop that had a refrigerated condenser installed on the dry-cleaning machine and 92 percent in the shop that had a carbon adsorber installed. Although loading and unloading exposures were dramatically reduced, drops in full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were less dramatic. TWA exposures to perchloroethylene, as measured by conventional air sampling, showed smaller reductions in operator exposures of 28 percent or less. Differences between exposure results from real-time and conventional air sampling very likely resulted from other uncontrolled sources of exposure, differences in shop general ventilation before and after the control was installed, relatively small sample sizes, and experimental variability inherent in field research. Although there were some difficulties and complications with installation and

  1. PARAMETER EVALUATION AND MODEL VALIDATION OF OZONE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING HARVARD SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE STUDY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine factors influencing long-term ozone exposures by children living in urban communities, we analyzed longitudinal data on personal, indoor, and outdoor ozone concentrations as well as related housing and other questionnaire information collected in the one-year-long Harv...

  2. Evaluation of an external exposure of a worker during manipulation with waste packages stored in Bohunice radioactive waste treatment centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimak, A.; Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly describes current state of radioactive waste management as well as radioactive waste treatment and conditioning technologies used in Bohunice Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre. Radioactive Waste management includes pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport and disposal of radioactive waste. Presented paper deals with the evaluation of an external exposure of a worker during manipulation with fibre-reinforced concrete container stored under shelter object. The external exposure of a worker was evaluated using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA code. (Authors)

  3. Cumulative effective dose associated with radiography and CT of adolescents with spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemburg, Stefan P; Peters, Soeren A; Roggenland, Daniela; Nicolas, Volkmar; Heyer, Christoph M

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the quantity and distribution of cumulative effective doses in diagnostic imaging of adolescents with spinal injuries. At a level 1 trauma center from July 2003 through June 2009, imaging procedures during initial evaluation and hospitalization and after discharge of all patients 10-20 years old with spinal fractures were retrospectively analyzed. The cumulative effective doses for all imaging studies were calculated, and the doses to patients with spinal injuries who had multiple traumatic injuries were compared with the doses to patients with spinal injuries but without multiple injuries. The significance level was set at 5%. Imaging studies of 72 patients (32 with multiple injuries; average age, 17.5 years) entailed a median cumulative effective dose of 18.89 mSv. Patients with multiple injuries had a significantly higher total cumulative effective dose (29.70 versus 10.86 mSv, p cumulative effective dose to multiple injury patients during the initial evaluation (18.39 versus 2.83 mSv, p cumulative effective dose. Adolescents with spinal injuries receive a cumulative effective dose equal to that of adult trauma patients and nearly three times that of pediatric trauma patients. Areas of focus in lowering cumulative effective dose should be appropriate initial estimation of trauma severity and careful selection of CT scan parameters.

  4. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Melissa M., E-mail: mfoley@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, 400 Natural Bridges, Dr., Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 99 Pacific St., Monterey, CA 93940 (United States); Mease, Lindley A., E-mail: lamease@stanford.edu [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Martone, Rebecca G., E-mail: rmartone@stanford.edu [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 99 Pacific St., Monterey, CA 93940 (United States); Prahler, Erin E. [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Morrison, Tiffany H., E-mail: tiffany.morrison@jcu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811 (Australia); Murray, Cathryn Clarke, E-mail: cmurray@pices.int [WWF-Canada, 409 Granville Street, Suite 1588, Vancouver, BC V6C 1T2 (Canada); Wojcik, Deborah, E-mail: deb.wojcik@duke.edu [Nicholas School for the Environment, Duke University, 9 Circuit Dr., Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  5. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Prahler, Erin E.; Morrison, Tiffany H.; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Wojcik, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  6. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A; Martone, Rebecca G; Prahler, Erin E; Morrison, Tiffany H; Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Wojcik, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  7. Risk of whole body radiation exposure and protective measures in fluoroscopically guided interventional techniques: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Jose

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroscopic guidance is frequently utilized in interventional pain management. The major purpose of fluoroscopy is correct needle placement to ensure target specificity and accurate delivery of the injectate. Radiation exposure may be associated with risks to physician, patient and personnel. While there have been many studies evaluating the risk of radiation exposure and techniques to reduce this risk in the upper part of the body, the literature is scant in evaluating the risk of radiation exposure in the lower part of the body. Methods Radiation exposure risk to the physician was evaluated in 1156 patients undergoing interventional procedures under fluoroscopy by 3 physicians. Monitoring of scattered radiation exposure in the upper and lower body, inside and outside the lead apron was carried out. Results The average exposure per procedure was 12.0 ± 9.8 seconds, 9.0 ± 0.37 seconds, and 7.5 ± 1.27 seconds in Groups I, II, and III respectively. Scatter radiation exposure ranged from a low of 3.7 ± 0.29 seconds for caudal/interlaminar epidurals to 61.0 ± 9.0 seconds for discography. Inside the apron, over the thyroid collar on the neck, the scatter radiation exposure was 68 mREM in Group I consisting of 201 patients who had a total of 330 procedures with an average of 0.2060 mREM per procedure and 25 mREM in Group II consisting of 446 patients who had a total of 662 procedures with average of 0.0378 mREM per procedure. The scatter radiation exposure was 0 mREM in Group III consisting of 509 patients who had a total 827 procedures. Increased levels of exposures were observed in Groups I and II compared to Group III, and Group I compared to Group II. Groin exposure showed 0 mREM exposure in Groups I and II and 15 mREM in Group III. Scatter radiation exposure for groin outside the apron in Group I was 1260 mREM and per procedure was 3.8182 mREM. In Group II the scatter radiation exposure was 400 mREM and with 0.6042 m

  8. Evaluation of occupational exposure during the exploration and physical processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Joao Torres de

    2006-01-01

    In Brazil the most important concentrations of monazite sands occur in the beaches and sandbanks that extend throughout the coast, from the State of Rio Grande do Norte down to the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Nowadays, the most important Brazilian monazite concentrations - considered as being the fourth worldwide reservoir of rare-earth elements - are located at the north seacoast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, near Buena town. At this location the Brazilian Nuclear Industries - INB - manages an industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands. Among the elements present at the monazite sands there are the radioelements thorium and uranium, which make the monazite sand a radioactive mineral. Monazite is constituted basically of 62% in TR 2 0 3 (rare-earth oxides), 5,5% of thorium in Th0 2 (thorium oxide) and 0,25% of uranium in U 3 0 8 (uranium oxide). The general objective of the present work was to estimate the occupational doses at the industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands located at Buena, at the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The occupational exposures occur mainly through the inhalation of airbone dust particles of mineraIs containing thorium and uranium, during the prospection and physical separation and concentration of monazite. To evaluate the impact of the occupational exposures during the physical separation and concentration of monazite, it was necessary to evaluate the effective equivalent doses due to thorium contamination of the air and the exposures due to the daughter radionuclides from the natural series of uranium and thorium. The results obtained at the present work showed that, although occupational doses are within the annual dose limits established by the Brazilian regulatory authority - CNEN - in some of the working places within the industrial complex the concentrations of radionuclides in air are above the

  9. A multimedia exposure assessment methodology for evaluating the performance of the design of structures containing chemical and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanatos, B.N.; Molholt, B.; Walter, K.P.; MacGregor, A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to develop a multimedia exposure assessment methodology for the evaluation of existing and future design of structures containing chemical and radioactive wastes and to identify critical parameters for design optimization. The designs are evaluated in terms of their compliance with various federal and state regulatory requirements. Evaluation of the performance of a particular design is presented within the scope of a given exposure pathway. An exposure pathway has four key components: (1) a source and mechanism of chemical release, (2) a transport medium; (3) a point of exposure; and (4) a route of exposure. The first step in the analysis is the characterization of the waste source behavior. The rate and concentration of releases from the source are evaluated using appropriate mathematical models. The migration of radionuclides and chemicals is simulated through each environmental medium to the exposure point. The total exposure to the potential receptor is calculated, and an estimate of the health effects of the exposure is made. Simulation of the movement of radionuclides and chemical wastes from the source to the receptor point includes several processes. If the predicted human exposure to contaminants meets the performance criteria, the design has been validated. Otherwise the structure design is improved to meet the performance criteria. A phased modeling approach is recommended at a particular mixed waste site. A relatively simple model is initially used to pinpoint critical fate and transport processes and design parameters. The second phase of the modeling effort involves the use of more complex and resource intensive fate and transport models. This final step in the modeling process provides more accurate estimates of contaminant concentrations at the point of exposure. Thus the human dose is more accurately predicted, providing better design validation

  10. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E dep ) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated

  11. Evaluation of workers' exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in an automobile manufacturing company, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Karbasi, Hossein-Ali

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of personal inhalation exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among 39 employees, working in the window fixation and window glue processes in an automobile manufacturing company was performed. This study was conducted for both case and control groups. After sampling and sample preparation processes, MDI was determined with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer at 590 nm; the lung function was assessed with a digital spirometer, too. The average concentration of MDI in the window fixation, and window glue workplaces were 34.53 and 27.37 micro g/m3, respectively, which was lower than the threshold limit value (TLV) recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (51 micro g/m3). Respiratory symptoms in the exposed group were significantly different compared to the unexposed group (p < .05). Lung capacities in the case group were lower than in the control group (p < .05). Therefore, MDI can be easily measured making it possible to evaluate the adverse effects caused by occupational exposure.

  12. [Evaluation of an Experimental Production Wireless Dose Monitoring System for Radiation Exposure Management of Medical Staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Murazaki, Hiroo; Kuramoto, Taku; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Ishigaki, Yung

    2015-08-01

    Because of the more advanced and more complex procedures in interventional radiology, longer treatment times have become necessary. Therefore, it is important to determine the exposure doses received by operators and patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an experimental production wireless dose monitoring system for pulse radiation in diagnostic X-ray. The energy, dose rate, and pulse fluoroscopy dependence were evaluated as the basic characteristics of this system for diagnostic X-ray using a fully digital fluoroscopy system. The error of 1 cm dose equivalent rate was less than 15% from 35.1 keV to 43.2 keV with energy correction using metal filter. It was possible to accurately measure the dose rate dependence of this system, which was highly linear until 100 μSv/h. This system showed a constant response to the pulse fluoroscopy. This system will become useful wireless dosimeter for the individual exposure management by improving the high dose rate and the energy characteristics.

  13. Cumulative trauma and symptom complexity in children: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Monica; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Lanktree, Cheryl; Gilbert, Alicia; Kletzka, Nicole Taylor

    2013-11-01

    Multiple trauma exposures during childhood are associated with a range of psychological symptoms later in life. In this study, we examined whether the total number of different types of trauma experienced by children (cumulative trauma) is associated with the complexity of their subsequent symptomatology, where complexity is defined as the number of different symptom clusters simultaneously elevated into the clinical range. Children's symptoms in six different trauma-related areas (e.g., depression, anger, posttraumatic stress) were reported both by child clients and their caretakers in a clinical sample of 318 children. Path analysis revealed that accumulated exposure to multiple different trauma types predicts symptom complexity as reported by both children and their caretakers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  15. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2005-01-01

    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  16. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  17. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  18. Simplified segmented human models for whole body and localised SAR evaluation of 20 MHz to 6 GHz electromagnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The digital human model is a key element in evaluating the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. This paper proposes the application of simplified segmented human models for EMF exposure compliance evaluation with the whole body and the localised limits. The method is based on the fact that most of the EMF power absorption is concentrated in several major tissues. Two kinds of human models were simply (the proposed method) and precisely segmented from two sets of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanned images. The whole body average-specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) and the peak localised SAR averaging over 10 g tissues for the two kinds of models are calculated for various exposure configurations. The results confirmed the efficiency and the validity of the proposed method. The application as evaluating the MRI radiofrequency EMF exposure is also discussed in the paper. (authors)

  19. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to preven...

  20. Evaluation of blue light exposure to beta brainwaves on simulated night driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawijaya, Dandri Aly; Fitri, Lulu Lusianti; Suprijanto

    2015-09-01

    Numbers of night driving accident in Indonesia since 2010 are exponentially rising each year with total of loss more than 50 billion rupiah. One of the causes that contribute to night driving accident is drowsiness. Drowsiness is affected by circadian rhythm resulted from the difference of blue light quality and quantity between night and day. Blue light may effect on human physiology through non-visual pathway by suppressing melatonin hormone suppression that influence drowsiness. Meanwhile, the production of hormones and other activities in brain generate bioelectrical activity such as brainwaves and can be recorded using Electroencephalograph (EEG). Therefore, this research objective is to evaluate the effect of blue light exposure to beta brainwave emergence during night driving simulation to a driver. This research was conducted to 4 male subjects who are able to drive and have a legitimate car driving license. The driving simulator was done using SCANIA Truck Driving Simulator on freeform driving mode in dark environment. Subjects drove for total 32 minutes. The data collections were taken in 2 days with 16 minutes for each day. The 16 minutes were divided again into 8 minutes adaptation in dark and 8 minutes for driving either in blue light exposure or in total darkness. While driving the simulation, subjects' brainwaves were recorded using EEG EMOTIV 14 Channels, exposed by LED monochromatic blue light with 160 Lux from source and angle 45o and sat 1 m in front of the screen. Channels used on this research were for visual (O1; O2), cognition (F3; F4; P7; P8), and motor (FC5; FC6). EEG brainwave result was filtered with EEGLab to obtain beta waves at 13 - 30 Hz frequencies. Results showed that beta waves response to blue light varied for each subject. Blue light exposure either increased or decreased beta waves in 2 minutes pattern and maintaining beta waves on cognition and motor area in 3 out of 4 subjects. Meanwhile, blue light exposure did not maintain

  1. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (pmasks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  3. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J.

    2006-01-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  4. Cumulative processes and quark distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of multiquark (mainly 12q) bags in nuclei the spectra of cumulative nucleons and mesons produced in high-energy particle-nucleus collisions are discussed. The exponential form of quark momentum distribution in 12q-bag (agreeing well with the experimental data on lepton-nucleus interactions at large q 2 ) is shown to result in quasi-exponential distribution of cumulative particles over the light-cone variable αsub(B). The dependence of f(αsub(B); psub(perpendicular)) (where psub(perpendicular) is the transverse momentum of the bag) upon psub(perpendicular) is considered. The yields of cumulative resonances as well as effects related to the u- and d-quark distributions in N > Z nuclei being different are dicscussed

  5. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  6. Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, C O; Weaver, M F; Eissenberg, T

    2010-10-01

    Non-combustible potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; eg, Star Scientific's Ariva; a variety of other smokeless tobacco products) are marketed to reduce the harm associated with smoking. This marketing occurs despite an absence of objective data concerning the toxicant exposure and effects of these PREPs. Methods used to examine combustible PREPs were adapted to assess the acute effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. 28 overnight abstinent cigarette smokers (17 men, 14 non-white) each completed seven, Latin-squared ordered, approximately 2.5 h laboratory sessions that differed by product administered: Ariva, Marlboro Snus (Philip Morris, USA), Camel Snus (RJ Reynolds, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA), Commit nicotine lozenge (GlaxoSmithKline; 2 mg), own brand cigarettes, Quest cigarettes (Vector Tobacco; delivers very low levels of nicotine) and sham smoking (ie, puffing on an unlit cigarette). In each session, the product was administered twice (separated by 60 min), and plasma nicotine levels, expired air CO and subjective effects were assessed regularly. Non-combustible products delivered less nicotine than own brand cigarettes, did not expose smokers to CO and failed to suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms as effectively as combustible products. While decreased toxicant exposure is a potential indicator of harm reduction potential, a failure to suppress abstinence symptoms suggests that currently marketed non-combustible PREPs may not be a viable harm reduction strategy for US smokers. This study demonstrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the short-term effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers′ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman′s correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level.

  8. EXAFS cumulants of CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, D.

    1997-04-01

    EXAFS functions had been extracted from measurements on the K edge of Se at different temperatures between 20 and 300 K. The analysis of the EXAFS of the filtered first two shells has been done in the wavevector range laying between 2 and 15.5 A -1 in terms of the cumulants of the effective distribution of distances. The cumulants C 3 and C 4 obtained from the phase difference and the amplitude ratio methods have shown the anharmonicity in the vibrations of atoms around their equilibrium position. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  9. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. A guide to assessing the cumulative effects of wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidance provides advice on how to assess the cumulative effects of wind energy developments in an area and is aimed at developers, planners, and stakeholders interested in the development of wind energy in the UK. The principles of cumulative assessment, wind energy development in the UK, cumulative assessment of wind energy development, and best practice conclusions are discussed. The identification and assessment of the cumulative effects is examined in terms of global environmental sustainability, local environmental quality and socio-economic activity. Supplementary guidance for assessing the principle cumulative effects on the landscape, on birds, and on the visual effect is provided. The consensus building approach behind the preparation of this guidance is outlined in the annexes of the report.

  10. Cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs are associated with increased mortality rate in patients with Alzheimer's dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R E; Lolk, A; Valentin, J B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the effects of cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drug in Alzheimer's dementia, when controlling for known risk factors, including current antipsychotic exposure, on all-cause mortality. METHOD: We utilized a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort...... study design with mortality as outcome in individual patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. RESULTS: We included a total of 45 894 patients and followed them for 3 803 996 person-years in total, presenting 27 894 deaths in the study population. Cumulative antipsychotic exposure increased...... or equal to 730 DDDs: HR 1.06, 95% CI (0.95-1.18), P = 0.322, when controlling for proxy markers of severity, somatic and mental comorbid disorders. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide cohort study of 45 894 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia, we found that cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs...

  11. Establishment of a dosimetry method for the exposure evaluation to the ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronchi, Claudia Carla

    2009-01-01

    A dosimetric method for the exposure evaluation to ultraviolet radiation was established with Al 2 O 3 :C InLight detectors and an OSL microStar reader and software, of Landauer, associated to the techniques of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Photo transferred Optically Stimulated Luminescence (PTOSL). The main phases of this work were: characterization of the Al 2 O 3 :C InLight detectors, without pre-conditioning, exposed to ultraviolet radiation (RUV) of solar and artificial sources, using the OSL technique; characterization of the Al 2 O 3 :C InLight detectors, pre-conditioned, exposed to RUV solar and artificial sources, using the PTOSL technique; practical applications of the Al 2 O 3 :C InLight detectors to the solar and artificial RUV, originating from TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and electric welding. The Al 2 O 3 :C InLight detectors presented satisfactory OSL and PTOSL responses in relation to the parameters: wavelength, UV illumination time, irradiance, radiance exposure and angular dependence to the RUV. Those detectors presented maximum OSL and PTOSL stimulation for the wavelength of 330 nm, showing that they are may be useful for UVA radiation detection and dosimetry. (author)

  12. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  13. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  14. PIXE analysis of hilar gland for the evaluation of personal history of exposure to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo; Sasa, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Kunihiko.

    1992-01-01

    Seven autopsied cases were studied for the evaluation of individual history of exposure to environmental contaminants based on the elemental profile of hilar gland by PIXE and lung tissue by AAS. The results well characterized their occupational history, especially from Cr, Al, Si and As detection. Moreover, it might be possible that these analyses would provide data to suspect the chemical form of each element in deposited particles of lung parenchyma, since the solubility could reflect the different profile of element between hilar gland and lung parenchyma. In addition to these retrospective analyses using the materials obtained from autopsies, it is possible to assess the individual risk using small quantity of hilar gland or lung tissue obtained by biopsy or surgical resection. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the patient with an exposure-related disease: the occupational and environmental history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papali, Alfred; Hines, Stella E

    2015-03-01

    Although the process of taking an occupational and environmental history has remained largely the same, the context in which it is done has changed dramatically over recent years. This review examines the role of the occupational and environmental history in the context of the changing nature of medical practice and discusses methods for evaluating patients with contemporary exposure-related respiratory illnesses. Surveillance for occupational lung disease using mnemonic devices, screening questions and the use of structured questionnaires can significantly increase the likelihood and accuracy of detection. Electronic health records likewise can be adapted to include the most important elements of the occupational and environmental history. The emergence of new technologies and industries will lead to respiratory diseases in novel occupational and environmental contexts. Using the methods described herein can make detecting these diseases easier and less time-consuming.

  16. Evaluation of the external exposure to Rn-222 progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Rn-222 progeny annual effective dose, skin dose and effective doses to different organs such as Gonad, Lung, Red Marrow, Bone surface, Thyroid, and the Remainder. Dose Coefficients of external exposure to Rn-222 in air was used in mSv s/Bqm -3 to calculate the organ doses. The study was monitored for two places, Nuclear Research Center and Al-Minia University. We have confirmed that the inhalation modes, sleep, sitting, light and heavy exercise influence the activity inhalation rate Bq/hr. It varies from 0.3 to 39.6 Bq/hr., the organ doses of Pb-214 is higher than Bi-214/Po-214 and Po-218 respectively in the case of the organ dose relative to environmental media

  17. Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders: an evaluation of research quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Russell A; Armstrong, Christina M; Skopp, Nancy A; Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Smolenski, Derek J; June, Jennifer D; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda; Reger, Greg M

    2014-08-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders; however, the overall quality of the VRET RCT literature base has yet to be evaluated. This study reviewed 27 VRET RCTs and the degree of adherence to 8 RCT research design criteria derived from existing standards. Adherence to the study quality criteria was generally low as the articles met an average 2.85 criteria (SD=1.56). None of the studies met more than six quality criteria. Study quality did not predict effect size; however, a reduction in effect size magnitude was observed for studies with larger sample sizes when comparing VRET to non-active control groups. VRET may be an effective method of treatment but caution should be exercised in interpreting the existing body of literature supporting VRET relative to existing standards of care. The need for well-designed VRET research is discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of human papillomavirus elimination from cervix uteri by infrared laser exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymkovets, V P; Ezhov, V V; Manykin, A A; Belov, S V; Danileiko, Yu K; Osiko, V V; Salyuk, V A

    2011-12-01

    Elimination of types 16 and 18 human papilloma virus from the surface of cervix uteri for secondary prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated. The method is protected by patent of invention of the Russian Federation. Infrared laser therapy of cervix uteri was carried out in patients with precancer diseases of cervix uteri at Department of Gynecology of Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). Papillomavirus infection was eliminated using a Russian diode laser (lambda=1.06 μ, radiation power 10 W) with a collimating headpiece using carbon die at a distance of 10-12 cm from the exposed surface. The treatment resulted in a high percentage of elimination of types 16 and 18 oncogenic virus 4-6 weeks and during delayed periods after exposure.

  19. An evaluation of the exposure to 210Pb-210Po in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Santori, G.; Renzetti, A.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introduction on the behaviour in the environment and in man of 210 Pb- 210 Po, experimental data are reported on 210 Pb- 210 Po exposure of the italian population. The analytical methods used to measure 210 Pb- 210 Po activity in the many biological and environmental samples analyzed are also reported. The data collected refer to the intake, excretion, internal burden and metabolism both in a group of subjects representative of the general population and in other critical groups exposed to high internal contamination of 210 Pb- 210 Po, as the radioactive spa wopkes and the miners. The absorbed dose due to 210 Pb- 210 Po has also been evaluated, on the basis of data referring to the various population groups

  20. Methodology for worker neutron exposure evaluation in the PDCF facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpelz, R. I.; Traub, R. J.; Pryor, K. H.

    2004-01-01

    A project headed by Washington Group International is meant to design the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) to convert the plutonium pits from excessed nuclear weapons into plutonium oxide for ultimate disposition. Battelle staff are performing the shielding calculations that will determine appropriate shielding so that the facility workers will not exceed target exposure levels. The target exposure levels for workers in the facility are 5 mSv y -1 for the whole body and 100 mSv y -1 for the extremity, which presents a significant challenge to the designers of a facility that will process tons of radioactive material. The design effort depended on shielding calculations to determine appropriate thickness and composition for glove box walls, and concrete wall thicknesses for storage vaults. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used ORIGEN-S and SOURCES to generate gamma and neutron source terms, and Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) (MCNP-4C) to calculate the radiation transport in the facility. The shielding calculations were performed by a team of four scientists, so it was necessary to develop a consistent methodology. There was also a requirement for the study to be cost-effective, so efficient methods of evaluation were required. The calculations were subject to rigorous scrutiny by internal and external reviewers, so acceptability was a major feature of the methodology. Some of the issues addressed in the development of the methodology included selecting appropriate dose factors, developing a method for handling extremity doses, adopting an efficient method for evaluating effective dose equivalent in a non-uniform radiation field, modelling the reinforcing steel in concrete, and modularising the geometry descriptions for efficiency. The relative importance of the neutron dose equivalent compared with the gamma dose equivalent varied substantially depending on the specific shielding conditions and lessons were

  1. Critical evaluation of key evidence on the human health hazards of exposure to bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstler, JG; Foth, H; Gebel, T; Kramer, P-J; Lilienblum, W; Schweinfurth, H; Völkel, W; Wollin, K-M; Gundert-Remy, U

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that more than 5000 safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), there seems to be no resolution of the apparently deadlocked controversy as to whether exposure of the general population to BPA causes adverse effects due to its estrogenicity. Therefore, the Advisory Committee of the German Society of Toxicology reviewed the background and cutting-edge topics of this BPA controversy. The current tolerable daily intake value (TDI) of 0.05 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day, derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), is mainly based on body weight changes in two- and three-generation studies in mice and rats. Recently, these studies and the derivation of the TDI have been criticized. After having carefully considered all arguments, the Committee had to conclude that the criticism was scientifically not justified; moreover, recently published additional data further support the reliability of the two-and three-generation studies demonstrating a lack of estrogen-dependent effects at and below doses on which the current TDI is based. A frequently discussed topic is whether doses below 5 mg/ kg bw/day may cause adverse health effects in laboratory animals. Meanwhile, it has become clear that positive results from some explorative studies have not been confirmed in subsequent studies with higher numbers of animals or a priori defined hypotheses. Particularly relevant are some recent studies with negative outcomes that addressed effects of BPA on the brain, behavior, and the prostate in rodents for extrapolation to the human situation. The Committee came to the conclusion that rodent data can well be used as a basis for human risk evaluation. Currently published conjectures that rats are insensitive to estrogens compared to humans can be refuted. Data from toxicokinetics studies show that the half-life of BPA in adult human subjects is less than 2 hours and BPA is completely recovered in urine as BPA-conjugates. Tissue deconjugation

  2. An early approach for the evaluation of repair processes in fish after exposure to sediment contaminated by an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel

    2008-12-01

    A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future.

  3. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  4. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Barr, R.; Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years

  5. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...

  6. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  7. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H.M.; Dvorak, R.D.; Elklit, A.; Elhai, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more

  8. Multiparty correlation measure based on the cumulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D. L.; Zeng, B.; Xu, Z.; You, L.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a genuine multiparty correlation measure for a multiparty quantum system as the trace norm of the cumulant of the state. The legitimacy of our multiparty correlation measure is explicitly demonstrated by proving it satisfies the five basic conditions required for a correlation measure. As an application we construct an efficient algorithm for the calculation of our measures for all stabilizer states

  9. Decision analysis with cumulative prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, A M; Redelmeier, D A

    2000-01-01

    Individuals sometimes express preferences that do not follow expected utility theory. Cumulative prospect theory adjusts for some phenomena by using decision weights rather than probabilities when analyzing a decision tree. The authors examined how probability transformations from cumulative prospect theory might alter a decision analysis of a prophylactic therapy in AIDS, eliciting utilities from patients with HIV infection (n = 75) and calculating expected outcomes using an established Markov model. They next focused on transformations of three sets of probabilities: 1) the probabilities used in calculating standard-gamble utility scores; 2) the probabilities of being in discrete Markov states; 3) the probabilities of transitioning between Markov states. The same prophylaxis strategy yielded the highest quality-adjusted survival under all transformations. For the average patient, prophylaxis appeared relatively less advantageous when standard-gamble utilities were transformed. Prophylaxis appeared relatively more advantageous when state probabilities were transformed and relatively less advantageous when transition probabilities were transformed. Transforming standard-gamble and transition probabilities simultaneously decreased the gain from prophylaxis by almost half. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even near-linear probability weighting transformations could substantially alter quality-adjusted survival estimates. The magnitude of benefit estimated in a decision-analytic model can change significantly after using cumulative prospect theory. Incorporating cumulative prospect theory into decision analysis can provide a form of sensitivity analysis and may help describe when people deviate from expected utility theory.

  10. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  11. Estimating retrospective exposure of household humidifier disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D U; Friesen, M C; Roh, H S; Choi, Y Y; Ahn, J J; Lim, H K; Kim, S K; Koh, D H; Jung, H J; Lee, J H; Cheong, H K; Lim, S Y; Leem, J H; Kim, Y H; Paek, D M

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a comprehensive humidifier disinfectant exposure characterization for 374 subjects with lung disease who presumed their disease was related to humidifier disinfectant use (patient group) and for 303 of their family members (family group) for an ongoing epidemiological study. We visited the homes of the registered patients to investigate disinfectant use characteristics. Probability of exposure to disinfectants was determined from the questionnaire and supporting evidence from photographs demonstrating the use of humidifier disinfectant, disinfectant purchase receipts, any residual disinfectant, and the consistency of their statements. Exposure duration was estimated as cumulative disinfectant use hours from the questionnaire. Airborne disinfectant exposure intensity (μg/m(3)) was estimated based on the disinfectant volume (ml) and frequency added to the humidifier per day, disinfectant bulk level (μg/ml), the volume of the room (m(3)) with humidifier disinfectant, and the degree of ventilation. Overall, the distribution patterns of the intensity, duration, and cumulative exposure to humidifier disinfectants for the patient group were higher than those of the family group, especially for pregnant women and patients ≤6 years old. Further study is underway to evaluate the association between the disinfectant exposures estimated here with clinically diagnosed lung disease. Retrospective exposure to household humidifier disinfectant as estimated here can be used to evaluate associations with clinically diagnosed lung disease due to the use of humidifier disinfectant in Korea. The framework, with modifications to account for dispersion and use patterns, can also be potentially adapted to assessment of other household chemical exposures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cumulative effect of multiple trauma on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Sharain; Mkabile, Siyabulela G; Fincham, Dylan S; Ahmed, Rashid; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature has indicated that exposure to multiple traumatic events in adults is associated with high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Against the backdrop of stressful life events and childhood abuse and neglect, we investigated the cumulative effect of multiple trauma exposure on PTSD, anxiety, and depression in an adolescent sample. One thousand one hundred forty 10th-grade learners from 9 Cape Town (South Africa) schools completed questionnaires on stressful life experiences; trauma exposure; and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Our population of interest for this study was adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years who had been exposed to serious, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, qualifying traumatic events. The final sample size was thus 922. Rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, and anxiety were high. Controlling for sex, stressful life experiences in the past year, and childhood adversity, we found an effect of cumulative trauma exposure effect on PTSD and depression, with an increase in the number of traumas linearly associated with an increase in symptoms of PTSD (F((4,912)) = 7.60, P cumulative effect on anxiety. Our findings indicate that adolescents exposed to multiple traumas are more likely to experience more severe symptoms of PTSD and depression than those who experience a single event, with this effect independent of childhood adversity and everyday stressful life experiences. Exposure to multiple trauma, however, does not seem to be associated with more severe anxiety symptoms.

  13. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate...... if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. METHODS: We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register...... of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. RESULTS: We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular...

  14. Implementation and evaluation of the fluorescent tracer technique in greenhouse exposure studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, E.P.B.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the level of exposure is important for health risk estimation and risk management. Recently, the occurrence of dermal exposure in many situations has been recognized and estimated to be relevant for worker health. Dermal exposure measurement techniques are therefore needed and several

  15. [Multiple mere exposure effect: category evaluation measured in the Go/No-go association task (GNAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2011-12-01

    The effect on likability of multiple subliminal exposures to the same person was investigated. Past studies on the mere exposure effect indicated a correlation between the frequency of repeated exposure to the same stimulus and likability. We proposed that exposure to various stimuli of the same person would have a stronger effect on likability. Participants were subliminally exposed to photographs of a person's face taken from seven angles (multi-angle-exposure) three times each (Experiment 1), or photographs of a person with seven facial expressions (multi-expression-exposure) three times each (Experiment 2). Then, the likability toward the exposed person was measured using the Go/No-go Association Task. The results indicated that the effect of the multiple exposures from various angles was equivalent to exposure to only one full-face photograph shown 21 times (Experiment 1). Moreover, likability was significantly higher in the case of exposure to various facial expressions than for exposure to only a single facial expression (Experiment 2). The results suggest that exposure to various stimuli in a category is more effective than repeated exposure to a single stimulus for increasing likability.

  16. Acute and Cumulative Effects of Unmodified 50-nm Nano-ZnO on Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tao; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Hao, Xue-Qin; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Cai; Yang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Wang, Jie

    2018-01-02

    Nanometer zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is widely used in diverse industrial and agricultural fields. Due to the extensive contact humans have with these particles, it is crucial to understand the potential effects that nano-ZnO have on human health. Currently, information related to the toxicity and mechanisms of nano-ZnO is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute and cumulative toxic effects of 50-nm unmodified ZnO in mice. This investigation will seek to establish median lethal dose (LD50), a cumulative coefficient, and target organs. The acute and cumulative toxicity was investigated by Karber's method and via a dose-increasing method, respectively. During the experiment, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology were examined. The LD50 was 5177-mg/kg·bw; the 95% confidence limits for the LD50 were 5116-5238-mg/kg·bw. It could be concluded that the liver, kidney, lung, and gastrointestinal tract were target organs for the 50-nm nano-ZnO acute oral treatment. The cumulative coefficient (K) was 1.9 which indicated that the cumulative toxicity was apparent. The results also indicated that the liver, kidney, lung, and pancrea were target organs for 50-nm nano-ZnO cumulative oral exposure and might be target organs for subchronic and chronic toxicity of oral administered 50-nm ZnO.

  17. Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal development, mining, aquaculture, shipping, and global warming. We calculated an index of the risk to cumulative impacts: (i assuming uniform sensitivity of coral reefs to stressors; and (ii using impact weights to reflect varying tolerance levels of coral reefs to each stressor. We also predicted the index in both the presence and absence of global warming. We found that 16% and 37% of coral reefs had high to very high risk of cumulative impacts, without and with information on sensitivity respectively, and 42% of reefs had low risk to cumulative impacts from both local and global stressors. Our outputs are the first comprehensive spatial dataset of cumulative impact on coral reefs in Brazil, and show that areas requiring attention mostly corresponded to those closer to population centres. We demonstrate how the relationships between risks from local and global stressors can be used to derive strategic management actions.

  18. The cumulative burden of surviving childhood cancer: an initial report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Nickhill; Liu, Qi; Ness, Kirsten K; Baassiri, Malek; Eissa, Hesham; Yeo, Frederick; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Bass, Johnnie; Bishop, Michael W; Shelton, Kyla; Lu, Lu; Huang, Sujuan; Li, Zhenghong; Caron, Eric; Lanctot, Jennifer; Howell, Carrie; Folse, Timothy; Joshi, Vijaya; Green, Daniel M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R; Brinkman, Tara M; Khan, Raja B; Srivastava, Deo K; Hudson, Melissa M; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L

    2017-12-09

    Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015. Age-matched and sex-frequency-matched community controls were used for comparison. 21 treatment exposure variables were included in the analysis, with data abstracted from medical records. 168 CHCs for all participants were graded for severity using a modified Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events. Multiple imputation with predictive mean matching was used for missing occurrences and grades of CHCs in the survivors who were not clinically evaluable. Mean cumulative count was used for descriptive cumulative burden analysis and marked-point-process regression was used for inferential cumulative burden analysis. Of 5522 patients treated for childhood cancer at St Jude Children's Research Hospital who had complete records, survived 10 years or longer, and were 18 years or older at time of study, 3010 (54·5%) were alive, had enrolled, and had had prospective clinical assessment. 2512 (45·5%) of the 5522 patients were not clinically evaluable. The cumulative incidence of CHCs at age 50 years was 99·9% (95% CI 99·9-99·9) for grade 1-5 CHCs and 96·0% (95% CI 95·3-96·8%) for grade 3-5 CHCs. By age 50 years, a survivor had experienced, on average, 17·1 (95% CI 16·2-18·1) CHCs of any grade, of which 4·7 (4·6-4·9) were CHCs of grade 3-5. The cumulative burden in matched community controls of grade 1-5 CHCs was 9·2 (95% CI 7·9-10·6; pgrade 3-5 CHCs was 2·3 (1

  19. Evaluation of dose conversion coefficients for external exposure using Taiwanese reference man and woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.; Hung, S.Y.; Liu, Y.L.; Jiang, S.H.; Wu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Reference man has been widely used for external and internal dose evaluation of radiation protection. The parameters of the mathematical model of organs suggested by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) are adopted from the average data of Caucasians. However, the organ masses of Asians are significantly different from the data of Caucasians, leading to potentially dosimetric errors. In this study, a total of 40 volunteers whose heights and weights corresponded to the statistical average of Taiwanese adults were recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and T2-weighted images were acquired. The Taiwanese reference man and woman were constructed according to the measured organ masses. The dose conversion coefficients (DCFs) for anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right lateral (RLAT) and left lateral (LLAT) irradiation geometries were simulated. For the Taiwanese reference man, the average differences of the DCFs compared with the results of ICRP-74 were 7.6, 5.1 and 11.1 % for 0.1, 1 and 10 MeV photons irradiated in the AP direction. The maximum difference reached 51.7 % for the testes irradiated by 10 MeV photons. The size of the trunk, the volume and the geometric position of organs can cause a significant impact on the DCFs for external exposure of radiation. The constructed Taiwanese reference man and woman can be used in radiation protection to increase the accuracy of dose evaluation for the Taiwanese population. (authors)

  20. Evaluating the potential effect on fetal tissue after exposure to granisetron during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith A; Julius, Justin M; Gaikwad, Anjali; Berens, Pamela D; Alcorn, Joseph; Moise, Kenneth J; Refuerzo, Jerrie S

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the possible toxic effects on the fetal tissues after exposure to two clinically relevant concentrations of granisetron. Primary cells were isolated from human fetal organs of 16-19 weeks gestational age and treated with 3 ng/mL or 30 ng/mL of granisetron. Cell cycle progression was evaluated by flow cytometry. ELISA was used to detect alterations in major apoptotic proteins. Up to 10% apoptosis in cardiac tissue was observed following treatment with 30 ng/mL granisetron. Neither concentration of granisetron caused alteration in cell cycle progression or alterations in apoptotic proteins in any of the other tissues. At 30 ng/mL granisetron concentration had the potential to induce up to 10% apoptosis in cardiac tissue; clinical significance needs further evaluation. At granisetron 3 ng/mL there was no detectable toxicity or on any fetal tissue in this study. Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings and determine if clinically significant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Organophosphate Exposure: A Preliminary Assessment on the use of Pesticide Intensity Score to Evaluate Exposure among Fruit Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of work hours, personal protective equipment use, and pesticide ingestion on the amount of urinary metabolites among fruit growers applying organophosphate pesticide. Thirty nine urine samples were collected from seven applicators before and after organophosphate applications. All dimethyl metabolites were present in day 1 morning urine samples for all workers. The arithmetic means for day 1 ranged from 21.5-94.17 μg/L DMP, 6.25-81.25 μg/L DMTP, and < LOQ-153.17 μg/L DMDTP. Day 2 urine samples had the highest amount of metabolites. The arithmetic means ranged from 25.8-558 μg/L DMP, 15.75-398 μg/L DMTP, 21.5-568.57 μg/L DMDTP, and < LOQ-17.67 μg/L DEP. The arithmetic means for day 4 ranges from 19.2-182 μg/L DMP, 13.33-138 μg/L DMTP, 22.75-157.83 μg/L DMDTP, and < LOQ-26 μg/L DEP. From the questionnaire, the exposure algorithm based on duration of hours worked, PPE use and pesticide ingestion showed poor relationship with urine concentration (r=0.1847. The linear relationship is not established due to variability within and between applicators.

  2. Evaluation of the radiation exposure. Recommendation of the radiation protection commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The recommendation of the Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) deals with the realistic requirements for the radiation exposure assessment based on radio-ecological modeling. The recommendation is applicable for all exposure situations that can be derived from FEP (features, events processes) exposure scenarios. In this case the exposure scenario consists of natural and technical features and a set of processes and events that can influence the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes the scientific justification, the previous procedure in Germany and abroad (EURATOM, France, UK, Ukraine, USA).

  3. Evaluation of external radiation exposure of personnel involved in veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, N.; Ito, N.; Natsuhori, M.; Sano, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Futatsugawa, S.; Terasaki, K.; Hirayama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary nuclear medicine has been widely applied in the US and Europe, especially for dogs, cats, and horses. The needs of the nuclear medicine in veterinary practice are also growing in Japan. This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Two sorts of well often medically used radionuclide, 18 F and 99m Tc were chosen for evaluating the exposed doses of the veterinarian, the animal owner, and the general public. Air absorption doses around a physical phantom containing radioactive materials ( 18 F or 99m Tc) were measured by glass dosimeters. (Asahi Techno Glass Ltd.) It was verified that the measurement values were corresponding to the calculation values using EGS4. Then, canine pectoral and abdominal mathematical phantom was designed, external radiation exposure of the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public from the phantom containing radioactive materials were calculated by using EGS4. Calculated exposure doses were compared with the dose limit or the dose constraint. (20mSv/yr for the veterinarian: ICRP, 5mSv/yr for the animal owner: IAEA, and 1mSv/yr for the general public: ICRP 2 ). The future integration exposed doses of the animal owner and the public didn't exceed the dose constraint or the dose limit at the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. In this study, all the calculation conditions were set up on the safety side. Therefore, it is thought that actual exposed doses lower considerably. The safety guideline for the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan will be established by further application of this type of research. (author)

  4. Welding fume exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D-H; Kim, J-I; Kim, K-H; Yoo, S-W

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure is estimated to contribute 15% to the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Welding fumes are suspected to accelerate the decline of lung function and development of COPD. To examine the relationship between welding fume exposure and COPD in Korean shipyard welders. The study involved a group of male welders working at two shipyards who underwent an annual health examination in 2010. Subjects completed a questionnaire about smoking habits and occupational history and a pulmonary function test (PFT) was carried out with strict quality control measures. Welding fume exposure concentrations were estimated using 884 measurements taken between 2002 and 2009 in one of the shipyards. Multiple linear and logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between cumulative fume exposure and lung function parameters, controlling for age, height and cigarette smoking. Two hundred and forty subjects participated, with a mean age of 48 and mean work duration of 15 years. The mean cumulative fume exposure was 7.7mg/m(3). The prevalence of COPD was 15%. FEV1 and FVC showed non-significant negative correlations with cumulative fume exposure. Odds ratios of COPD were significantly elevated for the middle (3.9; 95% CI 1.4-13.3) and high exposure groups (3.8; 95% CI 1.03-16.2) compared with the low fume exposure group. Our findings support an association between welding fume exposure and increased risk of COPD. Further prospective study is needed to investigate whether this is a causal relationship. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cumulative Mass and NIOSH Variable Lifting Index Method for Risk Assessment: Possible Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi, Giulia; Battevi, Natale; Pandolfi, Monica; Galinotti, Luca; Iodice, Simona; Favero, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether the Variable Lifting Index (VLI) can be corrected for cumulative mass and thus test its efficacy in predicting the risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background A validation study of the VLI method was published in this journal reporting promising results. Although several studies highlighted a positive correlation between cumulative load and LBP, cumulative mass has never been considered in any of the studies investigating the relationship between manual material handling and LBP. Method Both VLI and cumulative mass were calculated for 2,374 exposed subjects using a systematic approach. Due to high variability of cumulative mass values, a stratification within VLI categories was employed. Dummy variables (1-4) were assigned to each class and used as a multiplier factor for the VLI, resulting in a new index (VLI_CMM). Data on LBP were collected by occupational physicians at the study sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of acute LBP within levels of risk exposure when compared with a control group formed by 1,028 unexposed subjects. Results Data showed greatly variable values of cumulative mass across all VLI classes. The potential effect of cumulative mass on damage emerged as not significant ( p value = .6526). Conclusion When comparing VLI_CMM with raw VLI, the former failed to prove itself as a better predictor of LBP risk. Application To recognize cumulative mass as a modifier, especially for lumbar degenerative spine diseases, authors of future studies should investigate potential association between the VLI and other damage variables.

  6. Evaluation of commercially available seat suspensions to reduce whole body vibration exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Marin, Luz S; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2018-09-01

    As mining vehicle operators are exposed to high level of Whole body vibration (WBV) for prolonged periods of time, approaches to reduce this exposure are needed for the specific types of exposures in mining. Although various engineering controls (i.e. seat suspension systems) have been developed to address WBV, there has been lack of research to systematically evaluate these systems in reducing WBV exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle settings. Therefore, this laboratory-based study evaluated the efficacy of different combinations of fore-aft (x-axis), lateral (y-axis), and vertical (z-axis) suspensions in reducing WBV exposures. The results showed that the active vertical suspension more effectively reduced the vertical vibration (∼50%; p's suspension (10%; p's suspension systems did not attenuate the corresponding axis vibration (p's > 0.06) and sometimes amplified the floor vibration, especially when the non-vertical vibration was predominant (p's suspensions to address non-vertical WBV exposures, especially because these non-vertical WBV exposures can increase risks for adverse health effects including musculoskeletal loading, discomfort, and impaired visual acuity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of a dynamic population-based model for evaluation of exposure reduction strategies in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijster, Tim; Tielemans, Erik [TNO Quality of Life, Business unit Quality and Safety, Zeist (Netherlands); Warren, Nick [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire (United Kingdom); Heederik, Dick, E-mail: Tim.meijster@tno.n [Utrecht University, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    Recently a dynamic population model was developed that simulates a population of bakery workers longitudinally through time and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in each worker. Input for this model comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies which allowed estimation of exposure response relationships and disease transition probabilities This model allows us to study the development of diseases and transitions between disease states over time in relation to determinants of disease including flour dust and/or allergen exposure. Furthermore it enables more realistic modelling of the health impact of different intervention strategies at the workplace (e.g. changes in exposure may take several years to impact on ill-health and often occur as a gradual trend). A large dataset of individual full-shift exposure measurements and real-time exposure measurements were used to obtain detailed insight into the effectiveness of control measures and other determinants of exposure. Given this information a population wide reduction of the median exposure with 50% was evaluated in this paper.

  8. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several important issues which affect external exposure in contaminated Chernobyl areas have been investigated using field measurements and computational simulations since 1992. The objectives of the study were: 1) the development of a mobile survey method to collect radiation data over the contaminated wide areas in a shot time; 2) the verification of a method to infer external dose to the population; 3) the provision of basic data used for evaluation of external dose due to gamma ray using a Monte Carlo simulation method. To develop a method to rapidly measure radiation over wide areas and map the extend of fallout, a mobile survey system was constructed and tested; the conversion factors to convert the measured data to required quantities were examined; and finally a detailed contamination map was created. The field surveys were implemented by using a land rover and a helicopter. To infer external dose to inhabitants, radiation measurements were carried out in the living environments using accurate dose meters in addition to individual dose measurements using glass dosimeters. Individual doses were inferred from occupancy factors and dose rate data measured with portable dose rate meters in and around houses. The evaluated doses were compared to directly measured individual doses with glass dosimeters in the seven settlements. A good agreement was observed with an error margin of approximate 20%. Basic data used for the evaluation of environmental gamma-ray dose rate were calculated using a Monte Carlo method. The following two kinds of data have been provided from the calculation: a) conversion factors from the nuclide concentration in the ground to the air kerma rate at 1 m height; and b) shielding factors of a typical Chernobyl house for gamma radiation. (M. Suetake)

  9. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  10. Methods and practice in the evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Franzen, L.F.; Handge, P.; Meurin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The estimation and evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations resulting from airborne and aquatic releases of radioactivity has always been included in the Nuclear Authorization Procedures (atomrechtliches Genehmigungsverfahren) in the Federal Republic of Germany. Basic investigations have shown that first of all the radiological burden is expected via the pathway of external radiation exposure. Since about 1970 the pasture - cow - milk -pathway has been accorded an increased importance by introducing a corresponding dose rate guideline for the thyroid burden. With the rapid increase of energy production from nuclear power plants, a detailed analysis of the environmental radiological burden possibly brought about by these facilities was inserted into the Nuclear Authorization Procedures. In order to estimate in detail the consequences resulting from the release of radioactivity, nowadays the potential radiation exposure for a site is evaluated for exposures resulting from airborne discharges and for exposures resulting from aquatic discharges. Furthermore, some other pathways of exposure depending on local characteristics are taken into account. Particularly, extensive inquiry is needed concerning the deposition of radionuclides and the reconcentration by food chains. The choice of appropriate parameters often is difficult as site-specific values are not available. The determination of critical population groups and critical persons and their behavioral or dietary habits results in comparable difficulties. Therefore, a site-independent model for the evaluation of the potential radiological exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany was worked out and submitted to the nuclear regulatory commission. Moreover, some other groups - among others the Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) and the Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) - are investigating by theory and experiment ecological procedures and parameters

  11. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO 2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions. (authors)

  12. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  13. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  14. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects.

  15. Proposal of a methodology for evaluation of internal occupational exposure by Fluorine-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio Miri

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of 18 F for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine through PET technology leads to the growth in the number of occupationally exposed workers to this radionuclide, and consequently, increases up the probability of incorporation of this radionuclide. The external and internal exposures may occur during its clinical application 18 FDG and mainly during its production. Workers involved in such activities are usually monitored routinely for the control of external exposure. However it is important to provide methods for internal monitoring promptly after a suspicion of incorporation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedures for internal monitoring of 18 F to be applied in cases of possible incorporation of ions fluoride and 18 FDG radiopharmaceutical, using in vivo and in vitro methods of measurements. The NaI(Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the IRD-Whole Body Counter was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a whole body anthropomorphic phantom simulating incorporation by 18 F in the form of fluoride ions due to the homogeneous distribution of this substance in the body. The Nal(Tl) 3'' x 3'' scintillation detector of the IRD-Whole Body Counter was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a brain phantom inserted in an artificial skull simulating incorporation by 18 F in the form 18FDG due to the high absorption of this substance by brain. HPGe detection system of the IRD-Bioassay Laboratory was calibrated for in vitro measurements of urine samples. It was used 1 liter plastic bottles containing standardized radioactive source. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation based on standard ICRP models edited with the software AIDE-version 6 was established. It is concluded that in vivo measurements for the evaluation of incorporation of 18 F in the form of fluoride and 18 FDG have sufficient sensitivity to detect effective doses of 4,4 x 10 -6 and 1,55 x 10 5 mSv, respectively, i.e., below the recording level of

  16. Fuzzy set theory for cumulative trauma prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniel J.; Merritt, Thomas W.; Moynihan, Gary P.

    2001-01-01

    A widely used fuzzy reasoning algorithm was modified and implemented via an expert system to assess the potential risk of employee repetitive strain injury in the workplace. This fuzzy relational model, known as the Priority First Cover Algorithm (PFC), was adapted to describe the relationship between 12 cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) of the upper extremity, and 29 identified risk factors. The algorithm, which finds a suboptimal subset from a group of variables based on the criterion of...

  17. Sikap Kerja Duduk Terhadap Cumulative Trauma Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Yulita; Sugiharto, -

    2011-01-01

    Permasalahan yang diteliti adalah adakah hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan di PT. Geromar Jepara. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian CTD pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan. Metode penelitian ini bersifat explanatory dengan menggunakan pendekatan belah lintang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah pekerja bagian pengamplasan sebanyak 30 orang. Teknik ...

  18. Power Reactor Docket Information. Annual cumulation (citations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An annual cumulation of the citations to the documentation associated with civilian nuclear power plants is presented. This material is that which is submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of applications for construction and operating licenses. Citations are listed by Docket number in accession number sequence. The Table of Contents is arranged both by Docket number and by nuclear power plant name

  19. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  20. Cumulative release to the accessible environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Fractional Release Subgroup are presented

  1. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa Demarni; Deprince, Anne P; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2013-03-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were constructed to assess the number of different types of traumas experienced that were low (LBTs), moderate (MBTs), or high in betrayal (HBTs). Greater trauma exposure was related to more symptoms of depression, dissociation, and PTSD, with exposure to HBTs contributing the most. Women were more likely to experience HBTs than men, but there were no gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Appraisals of trauma were predictive of trauma-related symptoms over and above the effects explained by cumulative trauma at each level of betrayal. The survivor's relationship with the perpetrator, the effect of cumulative trauma, and their combined impact on trauma symptomatology are discussed.

  2. Lead in teeth from lead-dosed goats: Microdistribution and relationship to the cumulative lead dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Jones, Joseph; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are commonly used as a biomarker of long-term lead exposure. There appear to be few data, however, on the content or distribution of lead in teeth where data on specific lead intake (dose) are also available. This study describes the analysis of a convenience sample of teeth from animals that were dosed with lead for other purposes, i.e., a proficiency testing program for blood lead. Lead concentration of whole teeth obtained from 23 animals, as determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, varied from 0.6 to 80 μg g -1 . Linear regression of whole tooth lead (μg g -1 ) on the cumulative lead dose received by the animal (g) yielded a slope of 1.2, with r 2 =0.647 (p -1 , were found in circumpulpal dentine. Linear regression of circumpulpal lead (μg g -1 ) on cumulative lead dose (g) yielded a slope of 23 with r 2 =0.961 (p=0.0001). The data indicated that whole tooth lead, and especially circumpulpal lead, of dosed goats increased linearly with cumulative lead exposure. These data suggest that circumpulpal dentine is a better biomarker of cumulative lead exposure than is whole tooth lead, at least for lead-dosed goats

  3. Higher order cumulants in colorless partonic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S. [Sciences and Technologies Department, University of Ghardaia, Ghardaia, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M. A. A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Taiz University in Turba, Taiz (Yemen); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ladrem, M., E-mail: mladrem@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-06-10

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume T{sub 0}(V), a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the ℒ{sub m,n}-Method is used. We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase transition point. In the context of our model, we have shown that the finite volume transition point is always associated to the appearance of a particular point in whole higher order cumulants under consideration.

  4. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  5. Evaluation of Veriox as a Skin Decontamination Product after Dermal Exposure to the Nerve Agent VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    was to determine whether Veriox® had efficacy as a decontamination product (DC) after skin exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX. This study...countermeasure, decontamination , RSDL, VX, nerve agent, cutaneous exposure, chemical warfare agent 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...invested considerable resources in developing detectors, protective garments, and products to remove and/or decontaminate chemical agent exposure on

  6. Evaluation of exposure to fluoride in child population of North Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, René Antonio; Calatayud, Marta; Devesa, Vicenta; Vélez, Dinoraz

    2017-09-01

    Fluoride is an important element for humans. It inhibits initiation and progression of dental caries and stimulates bone formation. However, excessive intake may lead to the appearance of dental and/or skeletal fluorosis and a decrease in intellectual coefficient in child populations. This study evaluates exposure to fluoride in the child population of Chaco province (Argentina) by analysis of drinking water, food and its bioaccessible fraction (quantity of fluoride solubilised by gastrointestinal digestion and available for intestinal absorption) and urine as a biomarker of internal dose. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varied between 0.050 and 4.6 mg L -1 , and 80% of the samples exceeded the WHO drinking-water guideline value (1.5 mg L -1 ). Fluoride concentrations in food ranged between 0.80 and 3.0 mg kg -1 fresh weight (fw), being lower in bioaccessible fraction (0.43-1.9 mg kg -1 , fw). On the basis of the consumption data declared for the young child population, fluoride intake varies between 4.1 and 6.5 mg day -1 , greater than the level recommended for this age group. Moreover, in some cases, concentrations of fluoride found in urine (0.62-8.9 mg L -1 ) exceeded those reported in areas with declared fluorosis. All data obtained show the worrying situation of child population in this area of Argentina.

  7. Evaluation of 222radon occupational exposure in underground workplaces: tunnels used for mushroom cultivation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Vecchiariello, S.; Angeloni, U.; Trevisi, R.; Tonnarini, S.

    2006-01-01

    The mushroom cultivation in tunnels represents a working activity with interesting characteristics from a radiological protection point of view. The practice of using tunnels or caves for the cultivation of mushrooms is diffused in many countries as well as in several Italian regions. These places are characterized by micro climate conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) particularly adapted for the growth of mushrooms in every period of the year. This practice, like every working activity carried out in underground workplaces, is regulated by the Italian implementation of the European Union Basic Safety Standards (E.U. B.S.S., 1996). With the aim to evaluate the 222 Rn exposure of workers in tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, a study has been undertaken. In particular, hygienic and micro climatic characteristics (depth, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, ventilation, etc.) and radiometric parameters (indoor radon concentration, radon decay products concentration, equilibrium factor F) have been investigated. In the present paper, the results of the two steps of the study are reported. In the first step, an operative protocol has been defined: the protocol was put through a series of measurements in two tuff tunnels in the area of Rome. In the second step, several tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, located in different Italian regions, have been monitored and experimental data have been used to estimate annual effective doses of workers due to radon inhalation.The experimental results have been analyzed in the context of the E.U. B.S.S

  8. Evaluations of the Spitzenkandidaten: The Role of Information and News Exposure in Citizens’ Preference Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katjana Gattermann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 European Parliament (EP elections were characterised by a novel element in European Union (EU politics. For the first time, the major European party families put forward top candidates for President of the European Commission, the so-called Spitzenkandidaten. This paper tests whether this innovation had the potential to—at least partially—alleviate the alleged accountability deficit. We rely on original survey data to assess citizens’ preferences for each of the main Spitzenkandidaten: Jean-Claude Juncker, Martin Schulz, and Guy Verhofstadt. Our research is guided by three questions: what explains whether citizens formulate a preference for a certain Spitzenkandidat? Which factors are responsible for variations in such preferences? And, are these explanations moderated by citizens’ political awareness? We show that three factors enable citizens to formulate a preference for the Spitzenkandidaten: news exposure, general EU political information, and campaign-specific information about the Spitzenkandidaten. Furthermore, we demonstrate that only the most knowledgeable citizens are able to use party cues in their evaluations of the Spitzenkandidaten. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to the EU’s democratic deficit debate.

  9. Evaluating terrain based criteria for snow avalanche exposure ratings using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delparte, Donna; Jamieson, Bruce; Waters, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    Snow avalanche terrain in backcountry regions of Canada is increasingly being assessed based upon the Avalanche Terrain Exposure Scale (ATES). ATES is a terrain based classification introduced in 2004 by Parks Canada to identify "simple", "challenging" and "complex" backcountry areas. The ATES rating system has been applied to well over 200 backcountry routes, has been used in guidebooks, trailhead signs and maps and is part of the trip planning component of the AVALUATOR™, a simple decision-support tool for backcountry users. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers a means to model and visualize terrain based criteria through the use of digital elevation model (DEM) and land cover data. Primary topographic variables such as slope, aspect and curvature are easily derived from a DEM and are compatible with the equivalent evaluation criteria in ATES. Other components of the ATES classification are difficult to extract from a DEM as they are not strictly terrain based. An overview is provided of the terrain variables that can be generated from DEM and land cover data; criteria from ATES which are not clearly terrain based are identified for further study or revision. The second component of this investigation was the development of an algorithm for inputting suitable ATES criteria into a GIS, thereby mimicking the process avalanche experts use when applying the ATES classification to snow avalanche terrain. GIS based classifications were compared to existing expert assessments for validity. The advantage of automating the ATES classification process through GIS is to assist avalanche experts with categorizing and mapping remote backcountry terrain.

  10. Evaluation of occupational exposure to toxic metals released in the process of aluminum welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, Wanda; Gromiec, Jan

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to welding fumes and its elements on aluminum welders in Polish industry. The study included 52 MIG/Al fume samples and 18 TIG/Al samples in 3 plants. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of welders (total and respirable dust). Dust concentration was determined gravimetrically, and the elements in the collected dust were determined by AAS. Mean time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the welding dusts/fumes and their components in the breathing zone obtained for different welding processes were, in mg/m3: MIG/Al fumes mean 6.0 (0.8-17.8), Al 2.1 (0.1-7.7), Mg 0.2 (TIG/Al fumes 0.7 (0.3-1.4), Al 0.17 (0.07-0.50). A correlation has been found between the concentration of the main components and the fume/dust concentrations in MIG/Al and TIG/Al fumes. Mean percentages of the individual components in MIG/Al fumes/dusts were Al: 30 (9-56) percent; Mg: 3 (1-5.6) percent; Mn: 0.2 (0.1-0.3) percent; Cu: 0.2 (welding methods, the nature of welding-related operations, and work environment conditions.

  11. Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an asbestos cement sheet manufacturing industry in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Davood; Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein; Mehrdad, Ramin; Golhosseini, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 tons of Chrysotile asbestos per year and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, airborne asbestos concentrations during AC sheet manufacturing were measured. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Airborne total fiber concentrations of 45 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. The results have highlighted that 15.5% of samples exceed the threshold limit value (TLV) established the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, which is 0.1 fiber per milliliter (f/ml). Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.16 ± 0.03 f/ml. The geometrical mean was 0.05 ± 1.36 f/ml, which is considerably lower than the TLV. SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of Chrysotile (55.89%) and amphiboles (44.11%). We conclude that the industrial consumption of imported Chrysotile asbestos is responsible for the high airborne amphibole asbestos levels in the AC sheet industry. More research is needed to improve characterization of occupational exposures by fiber size and concentration in a variety of industries.

  12. Experiences in the evaluation of prenatal unjustified exposure during the medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Gonzalez, Alina Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the radiations ionising is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability, to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly it for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper exposes the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one patient subjected 'gestantes' to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine, during the years 1999 - 2007. The obtained results evidence that 30% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with purposes diagnoses or therapeutic. While the period of pregnancy of the patients oscillated between 4 and 13 weeks. It could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body didn't overcome the 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received don't have any evidences of significant risks for the embryo-fetus. (author)

  13. Baseline risk evaluation for exposure to bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and a quarry. This baseline risk evaluation has been prepared to support a proposed response action for management of contaminated bulk wastes in the quarry. The quarry became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of various wastes that were disposed of there between 1942 and 1969. This risk evaluation assesses potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from the quarry under current site conditions. Risk assessment is a key component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); this process addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List. The DOE is also responsible for complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, which requires federal agencies to consider the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of the decision-making process for that action. Although this document has not been prepared to fulfill specific NEPA requirements, the analyses contained herein --- along with the analyses provided in the remedial investigation, feasibility study, and other supporting documents --- are intended to meet the environmental assessment requirements of NEPA

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic Evaluation of the Potential Association between Exposure to Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products and Semen Quality*Morris, R; +Olshan, A; +Lansdell, L; *Jeffay, S; *Strader, L; *Klinefelter, G; *Perreault, S.* U.S. EPA/ORD/NHEERL/RTD/GEEBB, Research ...

  15. Evaluating subway drivers’ exposure to whole body vibration based on Basic and VDV methods (with ISO 2631-1 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khavanin

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Investigation of the result obtained from Basic method and VDV method manifested different amounts of vibration exposure in a way that VDV predicts higher level of risk, compared to basic method. The results shows that some presented indicators can not presented the safe zone in human vibration evaluations.

  16. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  17. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  18. Basic principles for the development of a concept for environmental exposure assessments of single substances released from multiple uses under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The ECHA Guidance Documents R.12 to R.18 include detailed provisions on how to conduct an exposure assessment as part of the Chemical Safety Report. The guidance documents, however, only restrictedly address the consideration of a substance's emissions into the environment, if the local releases from various uses of the same substance result in a cumulative exposure. In a situation where a chemical has a number of applications in one site, it may however occur that the emissions of several uses which only have a low risk if considered separately will sum up and cause an unacceptable risk to the environment. Against this background, the objective of the present study is a further specification of the guidelines on cumulative risk assessment according to the REACH Regulation. Besides the definition of the key terminology, guidelines on cumulative exposure assessment already laid down in other legal regulations have been evaluated and their transferability to the environmental exposure assessment according to REACH has been investigated. Moreover, the fields of application for which a cumulative exposure assessment might be relevant have been worked out. A distinction was made between cases where the responsibility for cumulative exposure assessment falls into the hands of the registrant as part of the Chemical Safety Report and other cases, where the responsibility lies with the downstream users (DU) or the Member State Competent Authorities (MS-CA). Initial proposals have been elaborated for a technical implementation of the cumulative exposure assessment of chemicals as part of the preparation and evaluation of chemical dossiers by the registrant and the MS-CA, respectively, and as part of the responsibility of the DU. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  20. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of Heart Function During Exposure to Subacute Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, Petra; Finderle, Zarko; Schlegel, Todd T.; Princi, Tanja; Starc, Vito

    2010-01-01

    High altitude climbing presents a wide spectrum of health risks, including exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Risks are also typically exacerbated by the difficulty in appropriately monitoring for early signs of organ dysfunction in remote areas. We investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool (e.g., instead of Doppler echocardiography) for evaluating early signs of heart overload in hypobaric hypoxia. Nine non-acclimatized healthy trained alpine rescuers (age 43.7 plus or minus 7.3 years) climbed in four days to the altitude of 4,200 m on Mount Ararat. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position on different days but at the same time of day at four different altitudes: 400 m (reference altitude), 1,700 m, 3,200 m and 4,200 m. Changes in conventional and advanced resting ECG parameters, including in beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG was estimated by calculation of the regression coefficients in independent linear regression models. A p-value of less than 0.05 was adopted as statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with trends k = -96 ms/1000 m with p = 0.000 and k = -9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.001, respectively. Significant changes were found in P-wave amplitude, which nearly doubled from the lowest to the highest altitude (k = 41.6 microvolt/1000 m with p = 0.000), and nearly significant changes in P-wave duration (k = 2.9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.059). Changes were less significant or non-significant in other studied parameters including those of waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG. High resolution ECG analysis, particularly of the P wave, shows promise as a tool for monitoring early changes in heart function

  1. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6% and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%. Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23 were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  2. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao; Paula, Gustavo Affonso de

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of 131 I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of 131 I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam 131 I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m 3 . This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10 3 Bq of 131 I / m 3 corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10 -4 mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of 131 I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures

  3. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  4. Evaluation of air-liquid interface exposure systems for in vitro assessment of airborne pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of cells to airborne pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of submerged cells. The published literature, however, describes irreproducible and/or unrealistic experimental conditions using ALI systems. We have compared fi...

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of occupational radiation exposure to intraoperative and perioperative personnel from 18F-FDG radioguided surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Martin, Edward W.; Sarikaya, Ismet; Hall, Nathan C.; Knopp, Michael V.; White, William C.; Marsh, Steven G.; Hinkle, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to comprehensively evaluate occupational radiation exposure to all intraoperative and perioperative personnel involved in radioguided surgical procedures utilizing 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). Radiation exposure to surgeon, anesthetist, scrub technologist, circulating nurse, preoperative nurse, and postoperative nurse, using aluminum oxide dosimeters read by optically stimulated luminescence technology, was evaluated during ten actual radioguided surgical procedures involving administration of 18 F-FDG. Mean patient dosage of 18 F-FDG was 699 ± 181 MBq (range 451-984). Mean time from 18 F-FDG injection to initial exposure of personnel to the patient was shortest for the preoperative nurse (75 ± 63 min, range 0-182) followed by the circulating nurse, anesthetist, scrub technologist, surgeon, and postoperative nurse. Mean total time of exposure of the personnel to the patient was longest for the anesthetist (250 ± 128 min, range 69-492) followed by the circulating nurse, scrub technologist, surgeon, postoperative nurse, and preoperative nurse. Largest deep dose equivalent per case was received by the surgeon (164 ± 135 μSv, range 10-580) followed by the anesthetist, scrub technologist, postoperative nurse, circulating nurse, and preoperative nurse. Largest deep dose equivalent per hour of exposure was received by the preoperative nurse (83 ± 134 μSv/h, range 0-400) followed by the surgeon, anesthetist, postoperative nurse, scrub technologist, and circulating nurse. On a per case basis, occupational radiation exposure to intraoperative and perioperative personnel involved in 18 F-FDG radioguided surgical procedures is relatively small. Development of guidelines for monitoring occupational radiation exposure in 18 F-FDG cases will provide reassurance and afford a safe work environment for such personnel. (orig.)

  6. The Evaluation of Conventional X-ray Exposure Parameters Including Tube Voltage and Exposure Time in Private and Governmental Hospitals of Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Gholami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In radiography, dose and image quality are dependent on radiographic parameters. The problem is caused from incorrect use of radiography equipment and from the radiation exposure to patients much more than required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a quality-control program to detect changes in exposure parameters, which may affect diagnosis or patient radiation dose. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on seven stationary X-ray units in sixhospitals of Lorestan province. The measurements were performed, using a factory-calibrated Barracuda dosimeter (model: SE-43137. Results According to the results, the highest output was obtained in A Hospital (M1 device, ranging from 107×10-3 to 147×10-3 mGy/mAs. The evaluation of tube voltage accuracy showed a deviation from the standard value, which ranged between 0.81% (M1 device and 17.94% (M2 device at A Hospital. The deviation ranges at other hospitals were as follows: 0.30-27.52% in B Hospital (the highest in this study, 8.11-20.34% in C Hospital, 1.68-2.58% in D Hospital, 0.90-2.42% in E Hospital and 0.10-1.63% in F Hospital. The evaluation of exposure time accuracy showed that E, C, D and A (M2 device hospitals complied with the requirements (allowing a deviation of ±5%, whereas A (M1 device, F and B hospitals exceeded the permitted limit. Conclusion The results of this study showed that old X-ray equipments with poor or no maintenance are probably the main sources of reducing radiographic image quality and increasing patient radiation dose.

  7. Evaluation of Quantitative Exposure Assessment Method for Nanomaterials in Mixed Dust Environments: Application in Tire Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Marisa L; Cyrs, William D; Tosiano, Melissa A; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-01

    Current recommendations for nanomaterial-specific exposure assessment require adaptation in order to be applied to complicated manufacturing settings, where a variety of particle types may contribute to the potential exposure. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a method that would allow for exposure assessment of nanostructured materials by chemical composition and size in a mixed dust setting, using carbon black (CB) and amorphous silica (AS) from tire manufacturing as an example. This method combined air sampling with a low pressure cascade impactor with analysis of elemental composition by size to quantitatively assess potential exposures in the workplace. This method was first pilot-tested in one tire manufacturing facility; air samples were collected with a Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI) during mixing where either CB or AS were used as the primary filler. Air samples were analyzed via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to identify what fraction of particles were CB, AS, or 'other'. From this pilot study, it was determined that ~95% of all nanoscale particles were identified as CB or AS. Subsequent samples were collected with the Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) at two tire manufacturing facilities and analyzed using the same methodology to quantify exposure to these materials. This analysis confirmed that CB and AS were the predominant nanoscale particle types in the mixing area at both facilities. Air concentrations of CB and AS ranged from ~8900 to 77600 and 400 to 22200 particles cm(-3), respectively. This method offers the potential to provide quantitative estimates of worker exposure to nanoparticles of specific materials in a mixed dust environment. With pending development of occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials, this methodology will allow occupational health and safety practitioners to estimate worker exposures to specific materials, even in scenarios

  8. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  9. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel David; Hauser, Russ B.; Wright, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods: NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, ag...

  10. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    Shock model; cumulative damage model; cumulative repair cost limit; preventive maintenance model. 1. Introduction ... with two types of shocks: one type is failure shock, and the other type is damage ...... Theory, methods and applications.

  11. On interference of cumulative proton production mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamical picture of the cumulative proton production in hA-collisions by means of diagram analysis with NN interaction described by a non-relativistic NN potential is considered. The contributions of the various mechanisms (spectator, direct and rescattering) for backward hemisphere proton production within the framework of this common approach is calculated. The emphasis is on the comparison of the relative contributions of these mechanisms for various angles, taking into account the interference of these contributions. Comparison with experimental data is also presented. (author)

  12. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  13. Illicit drug exposure in patients evaluated for alleged child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Bayman, Levent; Assad, Abraham; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Buhrow, Jakob; Austin, Andrea; Bayman, Emine O

    2011-06-01

    Substantiation of drug exposure in cases with alleged maltreatment is important to provide proper treatment and services to these children and their families. A study performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics showed that 30% of pediatric patients with burn injuries, which were due to child maltreatment, were also exposed to illicit drugs. The children presenting to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with alleged maltreatment have been tested for illicit substances since 2004. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of illicit drug exposure in the pediatric subpopulation admitted to pediatric inpatient and outpatient units for an evaluation for abuse/neglect. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Using hospital databases, every pediatric chart with a child abuse/neglect allegation was retrieved. The association between risk factors and clinical presentation and illicit drug test result was assessed. Excel and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct this study. Six hundred sixty-five charts met study inclusion criteria for child abuse/neglect allegation. Of those, 232 cases were tested for illicit drugs between 2004 and 2008 per the testing protocol. Thirty-four cases (14.7%) tested positive on a drug test. Positive test rates based on clinical presentation were 28.6% (18/63) in neglect cases, 16.1% (5/31) in cases with soft tissue injuries, 14.3% (4/28) in burn injuries, 10.0% (2/20) in cases with sexual abuse, 7.1% (2/28) in cases with fractures, and 4.8% (3/62) in abusive head trauma cases. There were long-term abuse findings in 129 children (55.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive drug testing was most significantly associated with clinical symptoms suggesting physical abuse or neglect versus sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 6.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-35.49; P = 0.026), no or public health insurance versus those with

  14. Moving toward exposure and risk evaluation of nanomaterials: challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Treye; Bahadori, Tina; Savage, Nora; Thomas, Karluss

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the commercial development of engineered nanomaterials, promises breakthrough innovations by enhancing the performance of existing consumer products and enabling development of new devices, architectures, and applications. Although these materials and applications are being developed at an explosive pace, a fundamental understanding of any potential human health and environmental risks resulting from exposure throughout the lifecycle of these materials has not advanced as rapidly. Past experience has demonstrated that successful introduction of a new technology occurs more readily if it is precipitated by a robust appreciation for any inherent risks associated with the technology. Such understanding allows the timely development of occupational and consumer exposure standards that might be needed to protect human health and the environment. Although risk is recognized as the product of hazard and exposure, too often exposure patterns are poorly characterized, and risk is based primarily or exclusively on the hazard characterization. The extent of exposure to nanomaterials in currently available commercial products is relatively unknown. Given the number of commercial products that claim to contain engineered nanomaterials, it is possible that human and environmental exposure to these materials is widespread. This paper is intended to highlight the importance of exposure assessment for determining the potential risks of nanomaterials. In essence, this is a call to action to the community of exposure scientists, toxicologists, and risk assessors to develop, consider, and incorporate requisite exposure information in the risk assessment of nanomaterials. Without an integrated approach, it will be difficult to meaningfully assess the risks of nanomaterials, realize their potential benefits, and foster their sustainable development. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.

  16. An evaluation of three simple phantoms used in quality assurance of automatic exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, S.E.; Rofe, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Different attenuators are used to assess the performance of x-ray systems with automatic exposure control (AEC). Three attenuators, copper, water and hardboard, were compared in this assessment. The Health Physics Service (HPS), which is part of the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering at Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand, has chosen to use hardboard as its patient equivalent phantom when testing x-ray equipment simply because it is generally easier to handle compared to water phantoms. Tests were conducted on the hardboard phantom in order to evaluate its effect on radiation in terms of attenuation equivalence, production of scatter and sensitivity to different kilovoltages compared to water or copper. Entrance and exit dose comparison tests were conducted using the AEC on a Philips Optimus 50 x-ray machine. A Keithley Triad Field Service Kit Model 10100A was used to record doses. The first set of tests were designed to ascertain the thickness of water and copper required to produce a similar mAs to the particular thickness of hardboard being examined. The tests were repeated with a film in a cassette which was placed in the bucky tray. Film optical densities were then measured. The hardboard phantom shows a very similar response to radiation as water and hence the human body and is therefore a suitable material for use in the construction of phantoms. Copper produces a very different radiation spectrum and its scattering effects are quite different to water or hardboard. For these reasons we consider copper to be unsuitable for use as a phantom when programming AECs. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.A.; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed

  18. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.A. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heaven1@snu.ac.kr; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-25

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed.

  19. The evaluation the magnitude radiation exposure dose rate in digital radiography room design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanto, Agung; Setia Budi, Wahyu; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2017-12-01

    This study discusses the dose rate in digital radiography room, buit according to meet the provisions of KEMENKES No.1014 / Menkes / SK / XI / 2008 and Regulation of BAPETEN No. 8 / 2011. The provisions primary concern of radiation safety, not comfort, by considering the space design. There are five aspects to consider in designing the space: functionality, comfort, security, movement activities and aesthetics. However provisions only met three aspects of the design, which are a function, security and movement activity. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate digital radiography room in terms of its ability to control external radiation exposure to be safe and comfortable The dose rate is measured by the range of primary and secondary radiation in the observation points by using Surveymeter. All data are obtained by the preliminary survey prior to the study. Furthermore, the review of digital radiography room is done based on architectural design theory. The dose rate for recommended improvement room is recalculated using the same method as the actual room with the help of computer modeling. The result of dose rate calculation at the inner and outer part of digital radiography observation room shows that in-room dose for a week at each measuring point exceeds the allowable dose limit both for staff and public. During a week of observation, the outdoor dose at some measuring points exceeds the dose limit set by the KEMENKES No.1014 / Menkes / SK / XI / 2008 and Regulation BEPETEN No 8/2011. Meanwhile, the result of dose rate calculation in the inner and outer part of the improved digital radiography room can meet the applicable regulations better.

  20. Palladium nanoparticles exposure: Evaluation of permeation through damaged and intact human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Baracchini, Elena; Bovenzi, Massimo; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Adami, Gianpiero

    2016-07-01

    The intensified use of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in many chemical reactions, jewellery, electronic devices, in car catalytic converters and in biomedical applications lead to a significant increase in palladium exposure. Pd can cause allergic contact dermatitis when in contact with the skin. However, there is still a lack of toxicological data related to nano-structured palladium and information on human cutaneous absorption. In fact, PdNPs, can be absorbed through the skin in higher amounts than bulk Pd because NPs can release more ions. In our study, we evaluated the absorption of PdNPs, with a size of 10.7 ± 2.8 nm, using intact and damaged human skin in Franz cells. 0.60 mg cm(-2) of PdNPs were applied on skin surface for 24 h. Pd concentrations in the receiving solutions at the end of experiments were 0.098 ± 0.067 μg cm(-2) and 1.06 ± 0.44 μg cm(-2) in intact skin and damaged skin, respectively. Pd flux permeation after 24 h was 0.005 ± 0.003 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and 0.057 ± 0.030 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and lag time 4.8 ± 1.7 and 4.2 ± 3.6 h, for intact and damaged skin respectively. This study indicates that Pd can penetrate human skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.