Nuclear binding energy using semi empirical mass formula
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ankita,, E-mail: ankitagoyal@gmail.com; Suthar, B. [Department of Physics, Govt. Engineering College, Bikaner-334004 Rajasthan (India)
2016-05-06
In the present communication, semi empirical mass formula using the liquid drop model has been presented. Nuclear binding energies are calculated using semi empirical mass formula with various constants given by different researchers. We also compare these calculated values with experimental data and comparative study for finding suitable constants is added using the error plot. The study is extended to find the more suitable constant to reduce the error.
Tel, E.; Aydın, A.; Kaplan, A.; Şarer, B.
2008-09-01
In the hybrid reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study we have investigated asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 neutron incident energy. It has been discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained empirical and semi-empirical formulas by fitting two parameter for ( n, t) reactions were given. All calculated results have been compared with the experimental data and the other semi-empirical formulas.
Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aydın, A.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Kaplan, A.; Okuducu, Ş.
2009-12-01
In the next century the world will face the need for new energy sources. Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and thus will not contribute to global warming or acid rain. Achieving acceptable performance for a fusion power system in the areas of economics, safety and environmental acceptability, is critically dependent on performance of the blanket and diverter systems which are the primary heat recovery, plasma purification, and tritium breeding systems. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. The hybrid reactor is a combination of the fusion and fission processes. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, we have calculated non-elastic cross-sections by using optical model for ( n, t) reactions at 14-15 MeV energy. We have investigated the excitation function character and reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have obtained new coefficients for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including optical model nonelastic effects by fitting two parameters for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 MeV. We have discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained cross-section formulas
New semi-empirical formula for α-decay half-lives of the heavy and superheavy nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manjunatha, H.C. [Government College for Women, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Sridhar, K.N. [Government First Grade College, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India)
2017-07-15
We have succesfully formulated the semi-empirical formula for α-decay half-lives of heavy and superheavy nuclei for different isotopes of the wide atomic-number range 94 < Z < 136. We have considered 2627 isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei for the fitting. The value produced by the present formula is compared with that of experiments and other eleven models, i.e. ImSahu, Sahu, Royer10, VS2, UNIV2, SemFIS2, WKB. Sahu16, Densov, VSS and Royer formula. This formula is exclusively for heavy and superheavy nuclei. α-decay is one of the dominant decay mode of superheavy nucleus. By identifying the α-decay mode superheavy nuclei can be detected. This formula helps in predicting the α-decay chains of superheavy nuclei. (orig.)
An, B.; Wang, Z.-G.; Yang, L.-C.; Li, X.-P.
2017-09-01
Two-ring aromatics, such as naphthalene, are important fluorescent components of kerosene in the planar laser-induced fluorescent (PLIF) technique. Quantifying measurements of kerosene vapor concentrations by PLIF require a prior knowledge of the fluorescence intensity of naphthalene over a wide temperature and oxygen concentration range. To promote the application of PLIF, a semi-empirical formula based on the collision theory and experimental data at the laser wavelength of 266 nm and a pressure of 0.1 MPa is established to predict the fluorescence intensity of naphthalene at different temperatures and oxygen concentrations. This formula takes vibrational states, temperature, and oxygen quenching into account. Verified by published experimental data, the formula can predict the fluorescence intensity of naphthalene with an error less than 9%.
Aeroelastic loads prediction for an arrow wing. Task 2: Evaluation of semi-empirical methods
Wery, A. C.; Kulfan, R. M.; Manro, M. E.
1983-01-01
The development and evaluation of a semi empirical method to predict pressure distributions on a deformed wing by using an experimental data base in addition to a linear potential flow solution is described. The experimental data accounts for the effects of aeroelasticity by relating the pressures to a parameter which is influenced by the deflected shape. Several parameters were examined before the net leading edge suction coefficient was selected as the best.
Santos, Josilene C; Tomal, Alessandra; Mariano, Leandro; Costa, Paulo R
2015-06-01
The aim of this study was to estimate barite mortar attenuation curves using X-ray spectra weighted by a workload distribution. A semi-empirical model was used for the evaluation of transmission properties of this material. Since ambient dose equivalent, H(⁎)(10), is the radiation quantity adopted by IAEA for dose assessment, the variation of the H(⁎)(10) as a function of barite mortar thickness was calculated using primary experimental spectra. A CdTe detector was used for the measurement of these spectra. The resulting spectra were adopted for estimating the optimized thickness of protective barrier needed for shielding an area in an X-ray imaging facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Semi empirical formula to calculate MSP of relativistic electrons in the range of 940 keV–1020 keV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ramesh Babu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A semi empirical formula has been obtained to calculate the Mass stopping power (MSP of relativistic electrons in the energy range of 950 keV–1050 keV, for any material of atomic number or Zeff ranging from 10–82. The MSP of 942 keV and 1016 keV internal conversion electrons of Bi207 are obtained by allowing them to pass through the targets of atomic numbers 13, 29, 47, 50, 79 and 82. The energies of the incident and transmitted electrons are measured using a Si(Li detector coupled to 8 K multi channel analyzer and the MSP has been determined from the measured incident and transmitted energies. The resultant variation of MSP with the atomic number of the material is plotted and best fitted to a first order exponential equation. The results predicted by this semi empirical formula are compared with the NIST-ESTAR database & Batra's formula and found to be in good agreement. Application of this formula to calculate the MSP and effective atomic number of any biological sample or compound is discussed.
Christensen, Anders S.; Kromann, Jimmy C.; Jensen, Jan H.; Cui, Qiang
2017-10-01
To facilitate further development of approximate quantum mechanical methods for condensed phase applications, we present a new benchmark dataset of intermolecular interaction energies in the solution phase for a set of 15 dimers, each containing one charged monomer. The reference interaction energy in solution is computed via a thermodynamic cycle that integrates dimer binding energy in the gas phase at the coupled cluster level and solute-solvent interaction with density functional theory; the estimated uncertainty of such calculated interaction energy is ±1.5 kcal/mol. The dataset is used to benchmark the performance of a set of semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods that include DFTB3-D3, DFTB3/CPE-D3, OM2-D3, PM6-D3, PM6-D3H+, and PM7 as well as the HF-3c method. We find that while all tested SQM methods tend to underestimate binding energies in the gas phase with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 2-5 kcal/mol, they overestimate binding energies in the solution phase with an RMSE of 3-4 kcal/mol, with the exception of DFTB3/CPE-D3 and OM2-D3, for which the systematic deviation is less pronounced. In addition, we find that HF-3c systematically overestimates binding energies in both gas and solution phases. As most approximate QM methods are parametrized and evaluated using data measured or calculated in the gas phase, the dataset represents an important first step toward calibrating QM based methods for application in the condensed phase where polarization and exchange repulsion need to be treated in a balanced fashion.
Luo, Li; Wang, Xiaochang C; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan
2016-11-01
Residual organic matters in the secondary effluent are usually less biodegradable in terms of the total organic carbon content, and when discharged into a receiving water body, their further decomposition most likely mainly occurs due to chemical oxidation. Using this scenario, a semi-empirical method was previously developed to calculate the thermodynamic entropy of organic oxidation to quantitatively evaluate the impact of organic discharge on the water environment. In this study, the relationship between the entropy increase (ΔSC) and excess organic mass (ΔTOC) was experimentally verified via combustion heat measurement using typical organic chemicals and mixtures. For individual organic chemicals, a linear relationship was detected between ΔSC and ΔTOC with the same proportionality coefficient, 54.0 kJ/g, determined in the previous semi-empirical relationship. For the organic mixtures, a linear relationship was also identified; however, the proportionality coefficient was 69.2 kJ/g, indicating an approximately 28 % increase in the oxidation heat required to decompose the same organic mass. This increase in energy can likely be attributed to the synergistic effects of hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, π-π interactions, and van der Waals interactions between functional groups of different organic compounds. Intermolecular interactions may result in 17-32 % more dissociation energy for organic mixtures compared to the organic components' chemical structures. Because organics discharged into a water body are always a mixture of organic compounds, the proportionality coefficient obtained using organic mixtures should be adopted to modify the previously proposed semi-empirical equation.
Evaluation of three semi-empirical soil moisture estimation models with RADARSAT-2 imagery
Deschamps, Benjamin
Performance of the Oh et al. (1992), Oh (2004) and Dubois et al. (1995a) soil moisture estimation models was evaluated with three RADARSAT-2 scenes over the Casselman, Ontario area. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE), correlation coefficients and the number of valid pixels were used to assess the influence of boxcar speckle filter sizes and pre-extraction averaging filtering on the estimates. Highest agreement with the field data was obtained with speckle filter and pre-extraction filter sizes from 3 x 3 to 7 x 7. Bias of the estimates was found to be highly negatively correlated with incidence angle (r2= DAD, 0.15, 0.51). Correlations between the estimated and observed soil moisture contents were not significant for most dates and the correlations with soil properties data were also weak. The effects of tillage method on the relative error of estimates were significant with lower relative errors in low-roughness tillage methods.
Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Sang I; Lee, Jungil; Chang, Insu; Kim, Jang-Lyul; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Min Chae; Kim, Bong-Hwan
2017-10-19
When neutron survey metres are calibrated in neutron fields, the results for room- and air-scattered neutrons vary according to the distance from the source and the size, shape and construction of the neutron calibration room. ISO 8529-2 recommends four approaches for correcting these effects: the shadow-cone method, semi-empirical method, generalised fit method and reduced-fitting method. In this study, neutron scattering effects are evaluated and compared using the shadow-cone and semi-empirical methods for the neutron field of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The neutron field is constructed using a 252Cf neutron source positioned in the centre of the neutron calibration room. To compare the neutron scattering effects using the two correction methods, measurements and simulations are performed using respectively KAERI's Bonner sphere spectrometer (BBS) and Monte Carlo N-Particle code at twenty different positions. Neutron spectra are measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide [6LiI(Eu)] scintillator in combination with the BBS. The calibration factors obtained using each methods show good agreement within 1.1%. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leszek Bober
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Pharmacological and physicochemical classification of the furan and thiophene amide derivatives by multiple regression analysis and partial least square (PLS based on semi-empirical ab initio molecular modeling studies and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC retention data is proposed. Structural parameters obtained from the PCM (Polarizable Continuum Model method and the literature values of biological activity (antiproliferative for the A431 cells expressed as LD_{50} of the examined furan and thiophene derivatives was used to search for relationships. It was tested how variable molecular modeling conditions considered together, with or without HPLC retention data, allow evaluation of the structural recognition of furan and thiophene derivatives with respect to their pharmacological properties.
Semi-empirical relationship between the hardness, grain size and mean free path of WC-Co
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Makhele-Lekala, L
2001-01-01
Full Text Available , was subsequently derived. The results obtained from this model were in good agreement with those of the empirical formula and like the empirical formula, did not reproduce high hardness values of other researchers. Thus, the model was modified by introducing semi-empirical...
Semi-empirical crack tip analysis
Chudnovsky, A.; Ben Ouezdon, M.
1988-01-01
Experimentally observed crack opening displacements are employed as the solution of the multiple crack interaction problem. Then the near and far fields are reconstructed analytically by means of the double layer potential technqiue. Evaluation of the effective stress intensity factor resulting from the interaction of the main crack and its surrounding crazes in addition to the remotely applied load is presented as an illustrative example. It is shown that crazing (as well as microcracking) may constitute an alternative mechanism to Dugdale-Berenblatt models responsible for the cancellation of the singularity at the crack tip.
The relationship between the semi-empirical and the embedded ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The connection established between the semi-empirical tight-binding potential and embedded atom model was employed to simulate the properties of the fcc metals. The attractive part of the potentials is of the form of the nth power dependence on the effective coordination (or second moment of the local density of states) ...
Semi-Empirical Aeroacoustic Noise Prediction Code for Wind Turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moriarty, P.; Migliore, P.
2003-12-01
A series of semi-empirical aeroacoustic noise prediction subroutines was written and incorporated into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) aeroelastic simulation code: FAST[1]. The subroutines predict six different forms of aerodynamically produced noise that were superimposed to calculate the total aeroacoustic signature of an operating wind turbine. This report explains how the code was written, what validation against test data was performed, and how a user can implement the code to predict noise for any given turbine design.
Holocene sea level, a semi-empirical contemplation
Bittermann, Klaus; Kemp, Andrew; Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan
2017-04-01
Holocene eustatic sea level from approximately -10,000-1800 CE was characterized by an increase of about 60 m, with the rate progressively slowing down until sea level almost stabilizes between 500-1800 CE. Global and northern-hemisphere temperatures rose from the last glacial termination until the 'Holocene Optimum'. From there, up to the start of the recent anthropogenic rise, they almost steadily decline. How are the sea-level and temperature evolutions linked? We investigate this with a semi-empirical sea-level model. We found that, due to the nature of Milankovitch forcing, northern-hemisphere temperature (we used the Greenland temperature by Vinther et al., 2009) is a better model driver than global mean temperature because the evolving mass of northern-hemisphere land ice was the dominant cause of Holocene global sea-level trends. The adjustment timescale for this contribution is 1200 years (900-1500 years; 90% confidence interval). To fit the observed sea-level history, the model requires a small additional constant rate (Bittermann 2016). This rate turns out to be of the same order of magnitude as reconstructions of Antarctic sea-level contributions (Briggs et al. 2014, Golledge et al. 2014). In reality this contribution is unlikely to be constant but rather has a dominant timescale that is large compared to the time considered. We thus propose that Holocene sea level can be described by a linear combination of a temperature driven rate, which becomes negative in the late Holocene (as Northern Hemisphere ice masses are diminished), and a positive, approximately constant term (possibly from Antarctica), which starts to dominate from the middle of the Holocene until the start of industrialization. Bibliography: Bittermann, K. 2016. Semi-empirical sea-level modelling. PhD Thesis University of Potsdam. Briggs, R.D., Pollard, D., & Tarasov, L. 2014. A data-constrained large ensemble analysis of Antarctic evolution since the Eemian. Quaternary science reviews
Electron scattering on molecules: search for semi-empirical indications
Fedus, Kamil; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.
2017-06-01
Reliable cross-sections for electron-molecule collisions are urgently needed for numerical modeling of various processes important from technological point of view. Unfortunately, a significant progress in theory and experiment over the last decade is not usually accompanied by the convergence of cross-sections measured at different laboratories and calculated with different methods. Moreover the most advanced contemporary theories involve such large basis sets and complicated equations that they are not easily applied to each specific molecule for which data are needed. For these reasons the search for semi-empirical indications in angular and energy dependencies of scattering cross-section becomes important. In this paper we make a brief review of the applicability of the Born-dipole approximation for elastic, rotational, vibrational and ionization processes that can occur during electron-molecule collisions. We take into account the most recent experimental findings as the reference points. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.
Aircraft directional stability and vertical tail design: A review of semi-empirical methods
Ciliberti, Danilo; Della Vecchia, Pierluigi; Nicolosi, Fabrizio; De Marco, Agostino
2017-11-01
Aircraft directional stability and control are related to vertical tail design. The safety, performance, and flight qualities of an aircraft also depend on a correct empennage sizing. Specifically, the vertical tail is responsible for the aircraft yaw stability and control. If these characteristics are not well balanced, the entire aircraft design may fail. Stability and control are often evaluated, especially in the preliminary design phase, with semi-empirical methods, which are based on the results of experimental investigations performed in the past decades, and occasionally are merged with data provided by theoretical assumptions. This paper reviews the standard semi-empirical methods usually applied in the estimation of airplane directional stability derivatives in preliminary design, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of these approaches that were developed from wind tunnel tests performed mainly on fighter airplane configurations of the first decades of the past century, and discussing their applicability on current transport aircraft configurations. Recent investigations made by the authors have shown the limit of these methods, proving the existence of aerodynamic interference effects in sideslip conditions which are not adequately considered in classical formulations. The article continues with a concise review of the numerical methods for aerodynamics and their applicability in aircraft design, highlighting how Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers are well-suited to attain reliable results in attached flow conditions, with reasonable computational times. From the results of RANS simulations on a modular model of a representative regional turboprop airplane layout, the authors have developed a modern method to evaluate the vertical tail and fuselage contributions to aircraft directional stability. The investigation on the modular model has permitted an effective analysis of the aerodynamic interference effects by moving, changing, and
A simple semi-empirical model for predicting missing carbon monoxide concentrations
Dirks, Kim N.; Johns, Murray D.; Hay, John E.; Sturman, Andrew P.
Carbon monoxide monitoring using continuous samplers is carried out in most major urban centres in the world and generally forms the basis for air quality assessments. Such assessments become less reliable as the proportion of data missing due to equipment failure and periods of calibration increases. This paper presents a semi-empirical model for the prediction of atmospheric carbon monoxide concentrations near roads for the purpose of interpolating missing data without the need for any traffic or emissions information. The model produces reliable predictions while remaining computationally simple by being site-specifically optimized. The model was developed for, and evaluated at, both a suburban site and an inner city site in Hamilton, New Zealand. Model performance statistics were found to be significantly better than other simple methods of interpolation with little additional computational complexity.
Performance evaluation for darcy friction factor formulae using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Accuracy of pipe network analysis depends on Darcy friction factor, but little is known on update of these formulae and their performance in developing countries. In this paper, as a follow up on our previous studies, Oke (2007); Babatola et al. (2008) an overview and performance evaluation of these formulae is presented ...
A semi-empirical model for predicting crown diameter of cedrela ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A semi-empirical model relating age and breast height has been developed to predict individual tree crown diameter for Cedrela odorata (L) plantation in the moist evergreen forest zones of Ghana. The model was based on field records of 269 trees, and could determine the crown cover dynamics, forecast time of canopy ...
Intrabeam scattering formulas for fast numerical evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergei Nagaitsev
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Small-angle multiple intrabeam scattering (IBS emittance growth rates are normally expressed through integrals, which require a numeric evaluation at various locations of the accelerator lattice. In this paper, I demonstrate that the IBS growth rates can be presented in closed-form expressions with the help of the so-called symmetric elliptic integral. This integral can be evaluated numerically by a very efficient recursive method by employing the duplication theorem. Several examples of IBS rates for a smooth-lattice approximation, equal transverse temperatures and plasma temperature relaxation are given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lantos, P.; Fuller, N
2003-07-01
Measurements during solar particle events with dosemeters flying permanently on-board Concorde are used to develop a semi-empirical model, called SiGLE. The model is intended to calculate, for a given flight plan, the dose equivalent received during a solar particle event observed with ground-based neutron monitors. It is successfully in operation in the SIEVERT computerised system intended to improve monitoring of radiation dose received by aircrews, in application to a European Directive. The semi-empirical model is applied to evaluate, for most exposed routes, the radiation doses corresponding to the GLEs observed since 1942 with ion chambers or neutron monitors. The results for the largest GLEs observed in the past are discussed in terms of radiation risk, and guidelines are suggested concerning possible alerts to the aeroplanes in case of events of exceptional magnitude. (author)
Dirks, Kim N.; Johns, Murray D.; Hay, John E.; Sturman, Andrew P.
A simple semi-empirical model for predicting the effect of changes in traffic flow patterns on carbon monoxide concentrations is presented. The traffic component of the model requires average vehicle emission rate estimates for a range of driving conditions, as well as traffic flow data for the site of interest. The dispersion component of the model is based on a modified empirically optimised box model requiring only wind speed and direction information. The model is evaluated at a suburban site in Hamilton, New Zealand. Despite the simplicity of the model, produces reliable concentration predictions when tested on days with significantly different traffic flow patterns from those days with which the optimum model parameters were evaluated.
Sandeep; Joshi, A.; Lal, Sohan; Kumar, Parveen; Sah, S. K.; Vandana; Kamal
2017-09-01
On 21st September 2009 an earthquake of magnitude (M w 6.1) occurred in the East Bhutan. This earthquake caused serious damage to the residential area and was widely felt in the Bhutan Himalaya and its adjoining area. We estimated the source model of this earthquake using modified semi empirical technique. In the rupture plane, several locations of nucleation point have been considered and finalised based on the minimum root mean square error of waveform comparison. In the present work observed and simulated waveforms has been compared at all the eight stations. Comparison of horizontal components of actual and simulated records at these stations confirms the estimated parameters of final rupture model and efficacy of the modified semi-empirical technique (Joshi et al., Nat Hazards 64:1029-1054, 2012b) of strong ground motion simulation.
Permeability-driven selection in a semi-empirical protocell model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piedrafita, Gabriel; Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Mavelli, Fabio
2017-01-01
, together with plausible synthetic pathways that might have led, abiotically, to such a minimalist scenario. However, in addition to molecular kinetics or molecular evolutionary dynamics, other physical and chemical constraints (like compartmentalization, differential diffusion, selective transport, osmotic...... their 'system-level' implications. In particular, an experimental study on the permeability of prebiotic vesicle membranes composed of binary lipid mixtures allows us to construct a semi-empirical model where protocells are able to reproduce and undergo an evolutionary process based on their coupling...
Test/semi-empirical analysis of a carbon/epoxy fabric stiffened panel
Spier, E. E.; Anderson, J. A.
1990-01-01
The purpose of this work-in-progress is to present a semi-empirical analysis method developed to predict the buckling and crippling loads of carbon/epoxy fabric blade stiffened panels in compression. This is a hand analysis method comprised of well known, accepted techniques, logical engineering judgements, and experimental data that results in conservative solutions. In order to verify this method, a stiffened panel was fabricated and tested. Both the best and analysis results are presented.
A semi-empirical potential for the statics and dynamics of covalent carbon systems
Burgos, E.; Halac, E.; Bonadeo, H.
1998-12-01
The statics and dynamics of different carbon crystals and compounds were studied using a semi-empirical potential, of the form proposed by Tersoff with the addition of a torsion-like term, proposed to overcome the inadequacy of the original potential to describe the dynamics of these systems. The potential parameters were refined by fitting the observed properties of graphite and diamond; the r.m.s. deviations for the vibrational frequencies were reduced by a factor of about 3. The potential is applied to systems not included in the fit, yielding excellent agreement with experimental data on Lonsdaleite and fullerenes.
Soil Moisture Estimate Under Forest Using a Semi-Empirical Model at P-Band
Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Saatchi, Sassan; Jaruwatanadilok, Sermsak
2013-01-01
Here we present the result of a semi-empirical inversion model for soil moisture retrieval using the three backscattering coefficients: sigma(sub HH), sigma(sub VV) and sigma(sub HV). In this paper we focus on the soil moisture estimate and use the biomass as an ancillary parameter estimated automatically from the algorithm and used as a validation parameter, We will first remind the model analytical formulation. Then we will sow some results obtained with real SAR data and compare them to ground estimates.
Evaluating the accuracy of wear formulae for acetabular cup liners.
Wu, James Shih-Shyn; Hsu, Shu-Ling; Chen, Jian-Horng
2010-02-01
This study proposes two methods for exploring the wear volume of a worn liner. The first method is a numerical method, in which SolidWorks software is used to create models of the worn out regions of liners at various wear directions and depths. The second method is an experimental one, in which a machining center is used to mill polyoxymethylene to manufacture worn and unworn liner models, then the volumes of the models are measured. The results show that the SolidWorks software is a good tool for presenting the wear pattern and volume of a worn liner. The formula provided by Ilchmann is the most suitable for computing liner volume loss, but is not accurate enough. This study suggests that a more accurate wear formula is required. This is crucial for accurate evaluation of the performance of hip components implanted in patients, as well as for designing new hip components.
Data mining of Ti-Al semi-empirical parameters for developing reduced order models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broderick, Scott R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Aourag, Hafid [Department of Physics, University Abou Bakr Belkaid, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Rajan, Krishna, E-mail: krajan@iastate.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)
2011-05-15
A focus of materials design is determining the minimum amount of information necessary to fully describe a system, thus reducing the number of empirical results required and simplifying the data analysis. Screening descriptors calculated through a semi-empirical model, we demonstrate how an informatics-based analysis can be used to address this issue with no prior assumptions. We have developed a unique approach for identifying the minimum number of descriptors necessary to capture all the information of a system. Using Ti-Al alloys of varying compositions and crystal chemistries as the test bed, 5 of the 21 original descriptors from electronic structure calculations are found to capture all the information from the calculation, thereby reducing the structure-chemistry-property search space. Additionally, by combining electronic structure calculations with data mining, we classify the systems by chemistries and structures, based on the electronic structure inputs, and thereby rank the impact of change in chemistry and crystal structure on the electronic structure. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We developed an informatics-based methodology to minimize the necessary information. {yields} We applied this methodology to descriptors from semi-empirical calculations. {yields} We developed a validation approach for maintaining information from screening. {yields} We classified intermetallics and identified patterns of composition and structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Rutzinger
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model that was originally developed for stem volume estimation is used for aboveground biomass (AGB estimation of a spruce dominated alpine forest. The reference AGB of the available sample plots is calculated from forest inventory data by means of biomass expansion factors. Furthermore, the semi-empirical model is extended by three different canopy transparency parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data. These parameters have not been considered for stem volume estimation until now and are introduced in order to investigate the behavior of the model concerning AGB estimation. The developed additional input parameters are based on the assumption that transparency of vegetation can be measured by determining the penetration of the laser beams through the canopy. These parameters are calculated for every single point within the 3D point cloud in order to consider the varying properties of the vegetation in an appropriate way. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA is performed to evaluate the influence of the additional LiDAR derived canopy transparency parameters for AGB estimation. The study is carried out in a 560 km2 alpine area in Austria, where reference forest inventory data and LiDAR data are available. The investigations show that the introduction of the canopy transparency parameters does not change the results significantly according to R2 (R2 = 0.70 to R2 = 0.71 in comparison to the results derived from, the semi-empirical model, which was originally developed for stem volume estimation.
Hashimoto, Hideki; Hattori, Kingo; Yamada, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2001-08-01
Nonlinear polarizabilities of a series of polar retinoid analogues were determined experimentally by means of electro-absorption (Stark) spectroscopy. The dependence of the magnitude of nonlinear polarizabilities on polyene chain-lengths as well as on the strength of electron-accepting groups was systematically compared. Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations using AM1 Hamiltonian (MNDO-AM1 method) could quantitatively predict the second (β) and the third (γ) order nonlinear polarizabilities of the present set of molecules except for the γ value of C20BDCInd. The real and imaginary parts of χ(3)(-ω0,0,ω) spectra were calculated in order to account the figure of merit of the third-order nonlinear optical material.
Semi-Empirical Predictions on the Structure and Properties of ent-Kaurenoic Acid and Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Isagani B. Janairo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of ent- kaurenoic acid model derivatives, which possibly influence its therapeutic application, were calculated. Results revealed that the molecule possess favourable attributes which renders it possible to be considered as a drug lead only that its very hydrophobic nature can result to poor bioavailabilty, low absorption and poor systemic circulation. In silico simulations revealed that this setback can be overcome by introduction of hydroxyl group to the tertiary carbon of ent-kaurenoic acid employing m-CPBA catalyzed hydroxylation, thus, unleashing its full drug potency. Moreover, molecular similarity analyses derived from semi-empirical calculations between ent-kaurenoic acid and a set of kaurane diterpenoids showed differences in hydrophobic complementarity, size and electronic properties despite possessing nearly identical molecular frameworks, thus, arriving in a generalization for their observed mechanistic differences on acting on different targets.
Resonance Raman investigation and semi-empirical calculation of the natural carotenoid bixin
de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.; Dantas, Sócrates O.; Velozo, Eudes S.; Santos, Paulo S.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.
1997-11-01
A detailed resonance Raman investigation of the natural carotenoid bixin (6,6'-diapo-ψ-ψ'-carotenedioic acid monomethyl ester) was undertaken in chloroform solution. The excitation profiles of four fundamentals, one overtone and one combination band were obtained and calculated by the transform method within the standard assumptions. A simple model of displaced harmonic oscillators reproduced the profiles satisfactorily, in contrast to the more elaborate models previously used in the case of 1,3,5-hexatriene. In addition, the time-dependent formalism was used to reproduce the optical absorption spectrum of bixin, and together with the transform method, to calculate the displacement parameters. Use was made of semi-empirical calculations via MOPAC6 and ZINDO to gain further insight into the bond length variations in the excited electronic state.
Ehn, S.; Sellerer, T.; Mechlem, K.; Fehringer, A.; Epple, M.; Herzen, J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Noël, P. B.
2017-01-01
Following the development of energy-sensitive photon-counting detectors using high-Z sensor materials, application of spectral x-ray imaging methods to clinical practice comes into reach. However, these detectors require extensive calibration efforts in order to perform spectral imaging tasks like basis material decomposition. In this paper, we report a novel approach to basis material decomposition that utilizes a semi-empirical estimator for the number of photons registered in distinct energy bins in the presence of beam-hardening effects which can be termed as a polychromatic Beer-Lambert model. A maximum-likelihood estimator is applied to the model in order to obtain estimates of the underlying sample composition. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation of a typical clinical CT acquisition, the performance of the proposed estimator was evaluated. The estimator is shown to be unbiased and efficient according to the Cramér-Rao lower bound. In particular, the estimator is capable of operating with a minimum number of calibration measurements. Good results were obtained after calibration using less than 10 samples of known composition in a two-material attenuation basis. This opens up the possibility for fast re-calibration in the clinical routine which is considered an advantage of the proposed method over other implementations reported in the literature.
Patel, Ashaben; Erb, Steven M; Strange, Linda; Shukla, Ravi S; Kumru, Ozan S; Smith, Lee; Nelson, Paul; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Livengood, Jill A; Volkin, David B
2017-05-12
A combination experimental approach, utilizing semi-empirical excipient screening followed by statistical modeling using design of experiments (DOE), was undertaken to identify stabilizing candidate formulations for a lyophilized live attenuated Flavivirus vaccine candidate. Various potential pharmaceutical compounds used in either marketed or investigative live attenuated viral vaccine formulations were first identified. The ability of additives from different categories of excipients, either alone or in combination, were then evaluated for their ability to stabilize virus against freeze-thaw, freeze-drying, and accelerated storage (25°C) stresses by measuring infectious virus titer. An exploratory data analysis and predictive DOE modeling approach was subsequently undertaken to gain a better understanding of the interplay between the key excipients and stability of virus as well as to determine which combinations were interacting to improve virus stability. The lead excipient combinations were identified and tested for stabilizing effects using a tetravalent mixture of viruses in accelerated and real time (2-8°C) stability studies. This work demonstrates the utility of combining semi-empirical excipient screening and DOE experimental design strategies in the formulation development of lyophilized live attenuated viral vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (p, α) at 17.9 MeV and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, TR-06500 Ankara, Turkey; Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kırıkkale University, 71450 Kırıkkale, Turkey; Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Süleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta, Turkey; Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara ...
Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (p, α) at 17.9 MeV and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Turkey. 2Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kırıkkale University, 71450 Kırıkkale, Turkey. 3Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Süleyman Demirel University, 32260 ... neutron source (capable of incinerating nuclear waste and of producing energy), high-energy proton-induced fission as an alternative for the isotope production etc. [1,2].
Vriens, L.
A simple analytical expression for the absolute ionization and (optically allowed) excitation cross sections, as a function of the electron energy, is “derived”. In this expression there are two parameters. The first one is proportional to the optical oscillator strength and the second one is
Assessment of semi-empirical potentials for the U-Si system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baskes, Michael I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-03
Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) are being developed in response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident in Japan. One of the options being pursued is U-Si fuels, such as the U_{3}Si_{2} and U_{3}Si_{5} compounds, which benefit from high thermal conductivity (metallic) compared to the UO2 fuel (semi-conductor) used in current Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The U-Si fuels also have higher fissile density. In order to perform meaningful engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations, the material properties of the fuel, including the response to irradiation environments, must be known. Unfortunately, the data available for U-Si fuels are rather limited, in particular for the temperature range where LWRs would operate. The ATF HIP is using multi-scale modeling and simulations to address this knowledge gap. Even though Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations can provide useful answers to a subset of problems, they are computationally too costly for many others, including properties governing microstructure evolution and irradiation effects. For the latter, semi-empirical potentials are typically used. Unfortunately, there is currently no potential for the U-Si system. In this brief report we present initial results from the development of a U-Si semi-empirical potential based on the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM). The potential should reproduce relevant parts of the U-Si phase diagram as well as defect properties important in irradiation environments. This work also serves as an assessment of the general challenges associated with the U-Si system, which will be valuable for the efforts to develop a U-Si Tersoff potential undertaken by Idaho National Laboratory (also part of the ATF HIP). Going forward the main potential development activity will reside at INL and the work presented here is meant to provide input data and guidelines for that activity. The main focus of our work is on the U_{3}Si_{2} and U3Si_{5}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Blædel, Kristoffer L.; Christensen, Anders Steen
2013-01-01
An interface between semi-empirical methods and the polarized continuum model (PCM) of solvation successfully implemented into GAMESS following the approach by Chudinov et al (Chem. Phys. 1992, 160, 41). The interface includes energy gradients and is parallelized. For large molecules...
Mechlem, Korbinian; Ehn, Sebastian; Sellerer, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noël, Peter B.
2017-03-01
In spectral computed tomography (spectral CT), the additional information about the energy dependence of attenuation coefficients can be exploited to generate material selective images. These images have found applications in various areas such as artifact reduction, quantitative imaging or clinical diagnosis. However, significant noise amplification on material decomposed images remains a fundamental problem of spectral CT. Most spectral CT algorithms separate the process of material decomposition and image reconstruction. Separating these steps is suboptimal because the full statistical information contained in the spectral tomographic measurements cannot be exploited. Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) techniques provide an alternative, mathematically elegant approach to obtaining material selective images with improved tradeoffs between noise and resolution. Furthermore, image reconstruction and material decomposition can be performed jointly. This is accomplished by a forward model which directly connects the (expected) spectral projection measurements and the material selective images. To obtain this forward model, detailed knowledge of the different photon energy spectra and the detector response was assumed in previous work. However, accurately determining the spectrum is often difficult in practice. In this work, a new algorithm for statistical iterative material decomposition is presented. It uses a semi-empirical forward model which relies on simple calibration measurements. Furthermore, an efficient optimization algorithm based on separable surrogate functions is employed. This partially negates one of the major shortcomings of SIR, namely high computational cost and long reconstruction times. Numerical simulations and real experiments show strongly improved image quality and reduced statistical bias compared to projection-based material decomposition.
Zayed, M. A.; Fahmey, M. A.; Hawash, M. F.
2005-03-01
In the present work diazepam (Dz) drug was investigated using thermal analyses (TA) measurements (TG/DTG) in comparison with EI mass spectral (MS) fragmentation at 70 and 20 eV. Semi-empirical MO calculations, MNDO procedure, have been carried out on diazepam both as neutral molecule and the corresponding positively charged molecular ion. These include molecular geometry, bond order, charge distribution, heats of formation and ionization energy. Thermogravimetric and kinetic analysis, reveal a high response of the drug to the temperature variation with very fast rate. It is completely decomposed in the temperature range between 204 and 340 °C with average kinetic energy (KE) at 164.69 kJ mol -1. On the other hand, diazepam can easily fragmented at low energy after ionization by electron energy at 9.56 eV. The losses of CO gas molecules followed by chlorine gas from the entity of diazepam (both neutral and charged molecular ion) as the best selected pathway were observed in both mass spectra (MS) and thermal analyses (TA). MNDO calculation was applied to declare both TA and MS observations.
Technical Note: SWIFT - a fast semi-empirical model for polar stratospheric ozone loss
Rex, M.; Kremser, S.; Huck, P.; Bodeker, G.; Wohltmann, I.; Santee, M. L.; Bernath, P.
2014-07-01
An extremely fast model to estimate the degree of stratospheric ozone depletion during polar winters is described. It is based on a set of coupled differential equations that simulate the seasonal evolution of vortex-averaged hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), active forms of chlorine (ClOx = Cl + ClO + 2 ClOOCl) and ozone (O3) on isentropic levels within the polar vortices. Terms in these equations account for the chemical and physical processes driving the time rate of change of these species. Eight empirical fit coefficients associated with these terms are derived by iteratively fitting the equations to vortex-averaged satellite-based measurements of HCl, HNO3 and ClONO2 and observationally derived ozone loss rates. The system of differential equations is not stiff and can be solved with a time step of one day, allowing many years to be processed per second on a standard PC. The inputs required are the daily fractions of the vortex area covered by polar stratospheric clouds and the fractions of the vortex area exposed to sunlight. The resultant model, SWIFT (Semi-empirical Weighted Iterative Fit Technique), provides a fast yet accurate method to simulate ozone loss rates in polar regions. SWIFT's capabilities are demonstrated by comparing measured and modeled total ozone loss outside of the training period.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruslin Hadanu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Quantitative Structure and Activity Relationship (QSAR analysis of 13 benzothiazoles derivatives compound as antimalarial compounds have been performed using electronic descriptor of the atomic net charges (q, dipole moment (μ, ELUMO, EHOMO and polarizability (α. The electronic structures as descriptors were calculated through HyperChem for Windows 7.0 using AM1 semi-empirical method. The descriptors were obtained through molecules modeling to get the most stable structure after geometry optimization step. The antimalarial activity (IC50 were taken from literature. The best model of QSAR model was determined by multiple linear regression approach and giving equation of QSAR: Log IC50 = 23.527 + 4.024 (qC4 + 273.416 (qC5 + 141.663 (qC6 – 0.567 (ELUMO – 3.878 (EHOMO– 2.096 (α. The equation was significant on the 95% level with statistical parameters: n = 13, r = 0.994, r2 = 0.987, SE = 0.094, Fcalc/Ftable = 11.212, and gave the PRESS = 0.348. Its means that there were only a relatively few deviations between the experimental and theoretical data of antimalarial activity.
The effect of electrodes on 11 acene molecular spin valve: Semi-empirical study
Aadhityan, A.; Preferencial Kala, C.; John Thiruvadigal, D.
2017-10-01
A new revolution in electronics is molecular spintronics, with the contemporary evolution of the two novel disciplines of spintronics and molecular electronics. The key point is the creation of molecular spin valve which consists of a diamagnetic molecule in between two magnetic leads. In this paper, non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) combined with Extended Huckel Theory (EHT); a semi-empirical approach is used to analyse the electron transport characteristics of 11 acene molecular spin valve. We examine the spin-dependence transport on 11 acene molecular junction with various semi-infinite electrodes as Iron, Cobalt and Nickel. To analyse the spin-dependence transport properties the left and right electrodes are joined to the central region in parallel and anti-parallel configurations. We computed spin polarised device density of states, projected device density of states of carbon and the electrode element, and transmission of these devices. The results demonstrate that the effect of electrodes modifying the spin-dependence behaviours of these systems in a controlled way. In Parallel and anti-parallel configuration the separation of spin up and spin down is lager in the case of iron electrode than nickel and cobalt electrodes. It shows that iron is the best electrode for 11 acene spin valve device. Our theoretical results are reasonably impressive and trigger our motivation for comprehending the transport properties of these molecular-sized contacts.
Development of Semi-Empirical Damping Equation for Baffled Tank with Oblate Spheroidal Dome
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Brodnick, Jacob; Eberhart, Chad
2016-01-01
Propellant slosh is a potential source of disturbance that can significantly impact the stability of space vehicles. The slosh dynamics are typically represented by a mechanical model of a spring-mass-damper. This mechanical model is then included in the equation of motion of the entire vehicle for Guidance, Navigation and Control analysis. The typical parameters required by the mechanical model include natural frequency of the slosh, slosh mass, slosh mass center location, and the critical damping ratio. A fundamental study has been undertaken at NASA MSFC to understand the fluid damping physics from a ring baffle in the barrel section of a propellant tank. An asymptotic damping equation and CFD blended equation have been derived by NASA MSFC team to complement the popularly used Miles equation at different flow regimes. The new development has found success in providing a nonlinear damping model for the Space Launch System. The purpose of this study is to further extend the semi-empirical damping equations into the oblate spheroidal dome section of the propellant tanks. First, previous experimental data from the spherical baffled tank are collected and analyzed. Several methods of taking the dome curvature effect, including a generalized Miles equation, area projection method, and equalized fill height method, are assessed. CFD simulation is used to shed light on the interaction of vorticity around the baffle with the locally curved wall and liquid-gas interface. The final damping equation will be validated by a recent subscale test with an oblate spheroidal dome conducted at NASA MSFC.
Semi-empirical mixed statistical flood forecasting for the Mekong River
Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad; Ihringer, Jürgen; Plate, Erich J.
2010-05-01
An ongoing study for improving flood forecasting for the Mekong River by data based modeling by mix of statistical methods and semi-empirical approach has yielded intermediate results, which reduced forecasting errors of previous forecasting models. In contrast to deterministic or semi-deterministic approach, the procedure is adopted to build the physical reality based semi-empirical model from the available data set. The forecast in data scarce basin like Mekong always remained a challenge for hydrologists where with the River of total length of 4000 km and 795000 Sq.km area of catchment has only 32 rainfall gauging stations and 8 runoff gauges in its key contributing catchments with consistent data. Therefore, simple rainfall runoff modeling module is developed for the estimation of inflows contributed by lateral catchments along the River Mekong and added into pre-developed runoff routing algorithm. The simple 3 parameter Nash-cascade model is applied in non-linear mode with varying runoff coefficients (RC). These runoff coefficients were pre-computed by multiple linear auto-regressions algorithms. It has been found that runoff coefficients increase along the flood season from its onset in May to end in October. However this increase was found highly dependent on previous month's RC values. This RC dependency on previous months is exploited to develop multiple linear regressions for estimation of forthcoming month RC's. These pre-computed monthly RC's were used in Nash-cascade to estimate runoff temporal distribution from daily areal average incremental rainfall for each sub-catchment. The algorithm was developed to give flood forecast at 4 points in middle Mekong River starting from N.Phanom in Lao-PDR to Stung Treng in Cambodia. There are a total of 4 sub-catchments which contribute runoff into the main Mekong River from its travel along these points. Separate rainfall-runoff Nash-cascade models were developed and added into routing algorithm to compute 1 to 5
A Semi-Empirical Emissivity Model for use in Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrievals Over Land
Ringerud, S.; Kummerow, C. D.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.
2013-12-01
The upcoming NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) offers the opportunity for greatly increased understanding of global rainfall and the hydrologic cycle. The GPM algorithm team has made improvement in passive microwave remote sensing of precipitation over land a priority for this mission, and developed a framework allowing for algorithm advancement for individual land surface types as new techniques are developed. An accurate understanding of land surface emissivity in terms of associated surface properties is necessary for any physically-based retrieval scheme over land. This is a complex problem for passive microwave sensors, as the emissivity of land surfaces in the microwave region is large and dynamic, making it difficult to distinguish hydrometeor signal from the highly variable surface emission. In an effort to understand and model the surface emissivity, a semi-empirical technique is developed and tested over the US Southern Great Plains (SGP) area. A physical model is used to calculate emissivity at the 10 GHz frequency, combining contributions from the underlying soil as well as vegetation layers, including the dielectric and roughness effects of each medium. Radiative transfer through each layer is calculated. Adjustments are added for post-precipitation surface water emissivity effects on both the soil and water-coated vegetation. A 5-year dataset of retrieved emissivities from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is employed for calculation of a robust set of channel covariances. These covariances, combined with the modeled 10 GHz emissivities, provide emissivity values for each AMSR-E channel, which are then used to compute top of the atmosphere brightness temperatures (TBs). Initial results comparing these calculated TBs to observed values show correlations of 0.87-0.97, with the lowest correlations appearing in the highest frequencies of the microwave window region. Such a modeling system could
A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing
Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.
2015-01-01
Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Zayed
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Naproxen (C14H14O3 is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. It is important to investigate its structure to know the active groups and weak bonds responsible for medical activity. In the present study, naproxen was investigated by mass spectrometry (MS, thermal analysis (TA measurements (TG/DTG and DTA and confirmed by semi empirical molecular orbital (MO calculation, using PM3 procedure. These calculations included, bond length, bond order, bond strain, partial charge distribution, ionization energy and heat of formation (ΔHf. The mass spectra and thermal analysis fragmentation pathways were proposed and compared to select the most suitable scheme representing the correct fragmentation pathway of the drug in both techniques. The PM3 procedure reveals that the primary cleavage site of the charged molecule is the rupture of the COOH group (lowest bond order and high strain which followed by CH3 loss of the methoxy group. Thermal analysis of the neutral drug reveals a high response to the temperature variation with very fast rate. It decomposed in several sequential steps in the temperature range 80–400 °C. These mass losses appear as two endothermic and one exothermic peaks which required energy values of 255.42, 10.67 and 371.49 J g−1 respectively. The initial thermal ruptures are similar to that obtained by mass spectral fragmentation (COOH rupture. It was followed by the loss of the methyl group and finally by ethylene loss. Therefore, comparison between MS and TA helps in selection of the proper pathway representing its fragmentation. This comparison is successfully confirmed by MO-calculation.
Evaluation of mean skin temperature formulas by infrared thermography
Choi, J. K.; Miki, K.; Sagawa, S.; Shiraki, K.
To study the reliabiliity of formulas for calculating mean skin temperature (Tsk), values were computed by 18 different techniques and were compared with the mean of 10,841 skin temperatures measured by infrared thermography. One hundred whole-body infrared thermograms were scanned in ten resting males while changing the air temperature from 40° C to 4° C. Local, regional average and mean skin temperatures were obtained using an image processing system. The agreement frequency, defined as the percentage of the calculated Tsk values which agreed with the corresponding infrared thermographic Tsk within +/-0.2° C, ranged for with the various formulas from 7% to 80%. In many sites, the local skin temperature did not coincide with the regional average skin temperature. When the local skin temperatures which showed the highest percentage similarity to the regional average skin temperature within +/-0.4° C were applied to the formula, the agreement frequency was markedly improved for all formulas. However, the agreement frequency was not affected by changing the weighting factors from specific constants to individually measured values of regional surface area. By applying the physiologically reliable accuracy range of +/-0.2° C in the moderate and +/-0.4° C in the cool condition, agreement frequencies of at least 95% were observed in formulas involving seven or more skin temperature measurement sites, including the hand and foot. We conclude that calculation of a reliable mean skin temperature must involve more than seven skin temperature measurement sites regardless of ambient temperature. Optimal sites for skin temperature measurement are proposed for various formulas.
Yan, Jun-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-qi; Hu, Yan
2011-07-01
To compare the growth and symptom remission of infants with cow's milk protein allergy, who were fed with an amino acid formula, an extensively hydrolyzed formula or soy formula. Infants who were diagnosed as cow's milk protein allergy and can not be breastfed were enrolled in the intervention group, and were assigned to three special formulae (amino acid formula, extensively hydrolyzed formula or soy formula ) according to the will of parents from March 2009 to March 2010 (n = 74). A non-randomized control group was made up of age-matched healthy children (n = 21). Anthropometric measurements and symptoms were evaluated after 30, 60, 90, and 180 days. The differences of physical growth and the therapeutic effects among each group were calculated by SPSS 13.0 package. After 180 days follow-up, the weight for age Z score and length for weight Z score were -0.43 +/- 0.88 and -0.31 +/- 0.78 in patients fed with soy formula substitute, which were significantly lower than those of patients fed with amino acid formula (0.11 +/- 0.77, 0.20 +/- 0.69) , extensively hydrolyzed formula (0.10 +/- 0.62, 0.18 +/- 0.70) and control group (0.22 +/- 0.54, 0.22 +/- 0.64) (P0.05). Moreover, no significant difference was found in length for age and head circumference for age among four groups (P>0.05). All hypoallergenic formulae were much helpful in remission of the symptoms of eczema (Psoy formula (1 mo vs 2 mo) (P = 0.003). Both amino acid formula and extensively hydrolyzed formula can maintain the normal growth of infants with cow's milk protein allergy. While, the growth of patients fed with soy formula was significantly slower than that of the other three groups. All hypoallergenic formulae can be effective in relieving allergy symptoms, and amino acid formula or extensively hydrolyzed formula seems to be superior to soy formula.
Formula over Function? From Algorithms to Values in Judicial Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Contini
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the forms and effects of the ‘invasion’ of the ‘temples of the law’ by new economic and managerial forms of performance evaluation. While traditional judicial evaluation focused on how to select and promote individual judges and on the legal quality of the single case, new quantitative methods and formulas are being introduced to assess efficiency, productivity and timeliness of judges and courts. Building on two case studies, from Spain and the Netherlands, the paper illustrates two contrasting approaches to judicial performance evaluation. On the one hand individual judges' productivity is evaluated through quantitative data and mathematical algorithms: in the extreme case considered here, judge's remuneration was adjusted accordingly. On the other hand quantitative and qualitative data, collected by a variety of methods and theoretical frameworks, are used as the basis of a multi-layered negotiation process designed to find a synthesis between competing economic, legal and social values aimed at improving overall organizational performance. Considering the flaws of unidimensional measurement and evaluation systems and considering the incommensurability of the results of the multiple evaluative frameworks (economic, legal, sociological required to overcome such flaws, the authors argue there is a need for political dialogue between relevant players in order to allocate the values appropriate to judicial evaluation. Este artículo analiza las formas y efectos de la “invasión” de los “templos de la ley” por nuevas formas económicas y de gestión como la evaluación del rendimiento. Mientras que la evaluación judicial tradicional se ha centrado en la forma de seleccionar y promocionar a jueces individuales, y en la calidad jurídica de un caso individual, hoy en día se están introduciendo nuevos métodos cuantitativos y fórmulas para determinar la eficiencia, productividad y oportunidad de jueces y
Application of the Semi-Empirical Force-Limiting Approach for the CoNNeCT SCAN Testbed
Staab, Lucas D.; McNelis, Mark E.; Akers, James C.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Jones, Trevor M.
2012-01-01
The semi-empirical force-limiting vibration method was developed and implemented for payload testing to limit the structural impedance mismatch (high force) that occurs during shaker vibration testing. The method has since been extended for use in analytical models. The Space Communications and Navigation Testbed (SCAN Testbed), known at NASA as, the Communications, Navigation, and Networking re-Configurable Testbed (CoNNeCT), project utilized force-limiting testing and analysis following the semi-empirical approach. This paper presents the steps in performing a force-limiting analysis and then compares the results to test data recovered during the CoNNeCT force-limiting random vibration qualification test that took place at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in the Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) December 19, 2010 to January 7, 2011. A compilation of lessons learned and considerations for future force-limiting tests is also included.
Ishihara, Mariko; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Liu, Wing-Keung
2005-01-01
A semi-empirical molecular-orbital method (CAChe) demonstrates that the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid derivatives can be predicted by several physical parameters (such as heat of formation, hydrophobicity (log P), watersolubility, ionization potential, electron affinity, dipole moment), but not by molecular size (maximum length and width). The present study demonstrates how this method can be applied to estimate the cytotoxic activity of structurally-related compounds.
A summary and evaluation of semi-empirical methods for the prediction of helicopter rotor noise
Pegg, R. J.
1979-01-01
Existing prediction techniques are compiled and described. The descriptions include input and output parameter lists, required equations and graphs, and the range of validity for each part of the prediction procedures. Examples are provided illustrating the analysis procedure and the degree of agreement with experimental results.
Semi-empirical model for the assessment of railway ballast using GPR
Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea
2017-04-01
Over time, railways have become a very competitive mean of transportation, especially for long distances. In order to ensure high level of safety, comfort and regularity of transportation, an efficient maintenance of the railway track-bed is crucial. In fact, the cyclic loads passing on the rails produce a progressive deterioration of railway ballast beneath the sleepers, and a breakdown of its particles that causes a general decrease of railway performances. This work aims at proposing a semi-empirical model for the characterisation of railway ballast grading, through the spectral analysis of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) signal. To this effect, a theoretical study has been preliminary conducted to investigate the propagation and scattering phenomena of the electromagnetic waves within a ballast layer. To confirm the theoretical assumptions, high-frequency GPR signals have been both collected in laboratory and virtual environment. Concerning the latter, progressively more complex numerical domains have been designed and subjected to synthetic GPR test, by a Finite Different Time Domain (FTDT) procedure, run in GPR Max 2D simulator. As first simulation steps, ballast aggregates simplified through circles have been accounted for, with increasing values of radius. Subsequently, real-scale scenarios characterized by multi-size ballast particles, consistent with three different grain size distribution from railway network standards, have been reproduced by the employment of Random Sequential Adsorption - RSA algorithm. As far as the laboratory procedures, real GPR tests have been carried out on an experimental framework purposely set up, and composed of a methacrylate tank filled up with limestone-derived railway ballast. The ballast aggregates grading has been retrieved by means of an automatic image analysis algorithm, run on the lateral sight of the transparent tank. Through their spectral analysis, an empirical relationship between the position of the amplitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
aliakbar sabziparvar
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Solar Net Radiation (Rn is one of the most important component which influences soil heat flux, evapotranspiration rate and hydrological cycle. This parameter (Rn is measured based on the difference between downward and upward shortwave (SW and longwave (LW irradiances reaching the Earth’s surface. Field measurements of Rn are scarce, expensive and difficult due to the instrumental maintenance. As a result, in most research cases, Rn is estimated by the empirical, semi-empirical and physical radiation models. Almorox et al. (2008 suggested a net radiation model based on a linear regression model by using global solar radiation (Rs and sunshine hours. Alados et al. (2003 evaluated the relation between Rn and Rs for Spain. They showed that the models based on shortwave radiation works perfect in estimating solar net radiation. In another work, Irmak et al. (2003 presented two empirical Rn models, which worked with the minimum numbers of weather parameters. They evaluated their models for humid, dry, inland and coastal regions of the United States. They concluded that both Rn models work better than FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model. Sabziparvar et al. (2016 estimated the daily Rn for four climate types in Iran. They examined various net radiation models namely: Wright, Basic Regression Model (BRM, Linacre, Berliand, Irmak, and Monteith. Their results highlighted that on regional averages, the linear BRM model has the superior performance in generating the most accurate daily ET0. They also showed that for 70% of the study sites, the linear Rn models can be reliable candidates instead of sophisticated nonlinear Rn models. Having considered the importance of Rn in determining crop water requirement, the aim of this study is to obtain the best performance Rn model for cold semi-arid climate of Hamedan. Materials and Methods: We employed hourly and daily weather data and Rn data, which were measured during December 2011 to June 2013 in
Sargsyan, G. N.; Shakhrokh, B.; Harutyunyan, A. B.
2015-02-01
A semi-empirical method is proposed for calculating the activation energy of the unimolecular decomposition of complex compounds using the example of vinyl (ethyl, propyl, and butyl) ethers. The method is based on the concept of the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and the possibility of calculating the energy of deformation of ether molecules upon activation, resulting in the potential surface of the transition state undergoing distortion and the transfer of a hydrogen atom from an alkyl group to a vinyl group. The energy of deformation is calculated using the Mathcad 2001i and MM2 computer programs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Conseil, Helene; Mohanty, Sankhya
2016-01-01
and temperature are studied. A set of experiments are done based on a fractional factorial design in order to estimate the time constant for moisture transfer into the enclosure by fitting the experimental data to an analytical quasi-steady-state model. According to the statistical analysis, temperature...... and the opening length are found as the most significant factors. Based on analysis of variance of the derived time constants, a semi-empirical regression model is proposed to predict the moisture transfer time constant with an adjusted R2 of 0.98; which demonstrated that the model can be used for estimation...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
S. ORFANIDIS; P. PANAYOTIDIS; K. UGLAND
2011-01-01
The Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c) was designed to estimate the habitat- based ecological status of rocky coastal and sedimentary transitional waters using shallow benthic macrophyte communities as bioindicators...
Yang, Bin; Zhao, Haimeng; Chen, Wei
2017-11-01
In this paper, six semi-empirical bidirectional polarization distribution functions (BPDF) models for polarized reflectance of land surfaces (Nadal-Bréon model, Waquet model, Maignan model, Litvinov model, Diner model and Xie-Cheng model) were quantitatively intercompared using the recently released database of representative BPDFs generated from POLDER measurements over a wide range of surface types at global scale. The intercomparison technique involved two strategies: one for fitting and the other for priori modeling. Our results suggest that (1) Nadal-Bréon model and Litvinov model provide best fits to the POLDER measurements with average RMSEs equal to 0.174% and 0.173%, respectively; (2) as for priori modeling, Xie-Cheng model performs best among these models as its average RMSE is 0.249%, indicating the corresponding surface-type-based free parameters can be used for a priori model of surface polarized reflectance; (3) despite the semi-empirical models cannot estimate negative polarized reflectance at backward scattering direction, impact of negative polarized reflectance on fitting and priori modeling is negligible. The results provide a priori knowledge of the model performances over various surface types and can be applied to future researches of land optical properties and aerosol parameters retrieval over land surfaces.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mashentseva
2013-05-01
Full Text Available One of the most urgent and extremely social problems in environmental safeties area in Kazakhstan is providing the population of all regions of the country with quality drinking water. Development of filter elements based on nuclear track-etch membranes may be considered as one of best solutions this problem. The values of bulk etch rate and activation energy were calculated in view the effect of temperature, alkaline solution concentration as well as stirring effect. The semi-empirical equation of the bulk etch rate for PET track membranes was calculated. As a result of theoretical and experimental studies a semi-empirical equation of the bulk etch rate VB=3.4∙1012∙C2.07∙exp(-0.825/kT for 12 microns PET film, irradiated by ions 84Kr15+ (energy of 1.75 MeV/nucleon at the heavy ion accelerator DC-60 in Astana branch of the INP NNC RK, was obtained.
Semi-Empirical Calibration of the Integral Equation Model for Co-Polarized L-Band Backscattering
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Nicolas Baghdadi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to extend the semi-empirical calibration of the backscattering Integral Equation Model (IEM initially proposed for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data at C- and X-bands to SAR data at L-band. A large dataset of radar signal and in situ measurements (soil moisture and surface roughness over bare soil surfaces were used. This dataset was collected over numerous agricultural study sites in France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany and Italy using various SAR sensors (AIRSAR, SIR-C, JERS-1, PALSAR-1, ESAR. Results showed slightly better simulations with exponential autocorrelation function than with Gaussian function and with HH than with VV. Using the exponential autocorrelation function, the mean difference between experimental data and Integral Equation Model (IEM simulations is +0.4 dB in HH and −1.2 dB in VV with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE about 3.5 dB. In order to improve the modeling results of the IEM for a better use in the inversion of SAR data, a semi-empirical calibration of the IEM was performed at L-band in replacing the correlation length derived from field experiments by a fitting parameter. Better agreement was observed between the backscattering coefficient provided by the SAR and that simulated by the calibrated version of the IEM (RMSE about 2.2 dB.
Faris, Allison T.; Seed, Raymond B.; Kayen, Robert E.; Wu, Jiaer
2006-01-01
During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and resultant ground displacements damaged bridges, buried utilities, and lifelines, conventional structures, and other developed works. This paper presents an improved engineering tool for the prediction of maximum displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. A semi-empirical approach is employed, combining mechanistic understanding and data from laboratory testing with data and lessons from full-scale earthquake field case histories. The principle of strain potential index, based primary on correlation of cyclic simple shear laboratory testing results with in-situ Standard Penetration Test (SPT) results, is used as an index to characterized the deformation potential of soils after they liquefy. A Bayesian probabilistic approach is adopted for development of the final predictive model, in order to take fullest advantage of the data available and to deal with the inherent uncertainties intrinstiic to the back-analyses of field case histories. A case history from the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake is utilized to demonstrate the ability of the resultant semi-empirical model to estimate maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.
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Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Peng–Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij. In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron–Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation.
Use of a porcelain color discrimination test to evaluate color difference formulas
Wee, Alvin G.; Lindsey, Delwin T.; Shroyer, Kathryn M.; Johnston, William M.
2007-01-01
Statement of problem Limited studies have indicated that an alternative small color difference formula would be more appropriate for use in dentistry. Purpose The purposes of this study were to determine which color difference formula provides a superior degree of fit for judgments of perceptibility and acceptability and to determine if different groups of evaluators have different levels of perceptibility and acceptability for each color difference formula. Material and methods Each observer from 4 groups (4 dentists, 4 dental assistants, 4 technicians, and 4 patients) made independent observations of perceptibility and acceptability judgments on pairs of opaque porcelain (Vita Omega 900) disks (14 mm in diameter by 3 mm thick). Color differences of the pairs were calculated using ΔE*ab, ΔECMC(l:c), and ΔE2000 color difference formulas, and the observer judgments were regressed to each color difference independently for perceptibility and acceptability. The area under the receiver operator curves was calculated and ranked, and the optimal factor for the CMC (Colour Measurement Committee, Society of Dyers and Colourists, Great Britain) color difference formula was chosen. A repeated measures maximum likelihood ANOVA (α=.05) was applied to determine statistical significance of fit among the observer groups, and the various color difference formuls for both perceptibility and acceptability. Tukey-Kramer Adjustment (α=.05) was used as a post hoc test. Results A difference in the degree of fit of the judgments of color differences was found for the 3 formulas(P=.001) and the 2 judgment types (P.404). Conclusions ΔE2000 and ΔECMC(2:3) color difference formulas provide a better fit to the calculated color differences, therefore providing better indicators of human perceptibility and acceptability of color differences between tooth colors. Clinical Implications The ΔE2000 and ΔECMC(2:3) color difference formulas should be considered for use in clinical
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Manas Bajpai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The choice to use teeth for age determination is well accepted due to their longevity ability of being resilient to change. The total of 228 extracted teeth collected from the patients visited to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, NIMS Dental College, Jaipur, the teeth were without dental fillings and without and/or cavity selected. The known age was from 21 to 70 years with the average age of 43.46 years. For age estimation the method according to Gustafson was used. Every tooth was subject to longitudinal section of the midpulpal area. The following dental parameters were studied in each case: attrition, periodontal bone loss, root translucency, secondary dentin deposition, cementum apposition and root resorption. Total scores of different parameters plotted against the chronological age and regression formula was obtained. Using this formula ages were estimated, Gustafson formula was also applied in the same scores and ages estimated. The results of the chronological and estimated age by both formulae have been statistically compared using Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis. The results showed strong correlation (0.92; p<0.001 between chronological and estimated age by using both formulae. We found the mean error of ± 5.47 by using newly derived and formula and ± 6.35 by Gustafson’s formula. As a result of our study it was found that newly derived formula provides better results in comparison with Gustafson’s formula in Indian population. A positive correlation between age and total scores of physiological changes also revealed.
Use of a porcelain color discrimination test to evaluate color difference formulas.
Wee, Alvin G; Lindsey, Delwin T; Shroyer, Kathryn M; Johnston, William M
2007-08-01
Limited studies have indicated that an alternative small color difference formula would be more appropriate for use in dentistry. The purposes of this study were to determine which color difference formula provides a superior degree of fit for judgments of perceptibility and acceptability and to determine if different groups of evaluators have different levels of perceptibility and acceptability for each color difference formula. Each observer from 4 groups (4 dentists, 4 dental assistants, 4 technicians, and 4 patients)made independent observations of perceptibility and acceptability judgments on pairs of opaque porcelain (VitaOmega 900) disks (14 mm in diameter by 3 mm thick). Color differences of the pairs were calculated using DeltaE*(ab), DeltaE(CMC)(l:c), and DeltaE(2000) color difference formulas, and the observer judgments were regressed to each color difference in dependently for perceptibility and acceptability. The area under the receiver operator curves was calculated and ranked, and the optimal factor for the CMC (Colour Measurement Committee, Society of Dyers and Colourists, Great Britain) color difference formula was chosen. A repeated measures maximum likelihood ANOVA (alpha=.05) was applied to determine statistical significance of fit among the observer groups, and the various color difference formulas for both perceptibility and acceptability. Tukey-Kramer Adjustment (alpha=.05) was used as a post hoc test. A difference in the degree of fit of the judgments of color differences was found for the 3 formulas (P=.001)and the 2 judgment types (P.404). DeltaE(2000) and DeltaE(CMC)(2:3) color difference formulas provide a better fit to the calculated color differences,therefore providing better indicators of human perceptibility and acceptability of color differences between tooth colors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Shuchman
2009-03-01
Full Text Available An advanced operational semi-empirical algorithm for processing satellite remote sensing data in the visible region is described. Based on the Levenberg-Marquardt multivariate optimization procedure, the algorithm is developed for retrieving major water colour producing agents: chlorophyll-a, suspended minerals and dissolved organics. Two assurance units incorporated by the algorithm are intended to flag pixels with inaccurate atmospheric correction and specific hydro-optical properties not covered by the applied hydro-optical model. The hydro-optical model is a set of spectral cross-sections of absorption and backscattering of the colour producing agents. The combination of the optimization procedure and a replaceable hydro-optical model makes the developed algorithm not specific to a particular satellite sensor or a water body. The algorithm performance efficiency is amply illustrated for SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS images over a variety of water bodies.
Furanose C-C-linked γ-lactones: a combined ESI FTICR MS and semi-empirical calculations study.
Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Xavier, Nuno M; Rauter, Amélia P; Florêncio, M Helena
2010-10-01
Sugars that incorporate the unsaturated carbonyl motif have become important synthetic targets not only as a result of their potential biological properties but also as precursors in the synthesis of many bioactive products. Moreover, little is known about the influence of the γ-lactone moiety in the fragmentation pattern of furanose rings. Therefore, two α,β-unsaturated γ-lactones (butenolides) and two β-hydroxy γ-lactones, C-C linked to a furanose ring were studied using electrospray ionization FTICR mass spectrometry. The behaviour of the protonated and sodiated forms of the compounds under study has been compared considering their structural features. Fragmentation mechanisms were established and ion structures were proposed taking into account the MS(2) and MS(3) experiments, accurate mass measurements and semi-empirical calculations. These inexpensive methods proved to be a valuable resource for proposing protonation sites and for the establishment of fragmentation pathways. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palacios, Daniel Francisco [Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB), Apartado 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)], E-mail: palacios@usb.ve; Alfonso, Juan A. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Apartado 21827, Caracas (Venezuela); Barros, Haydn [Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB), Apartado 89000, Caracas (Venezuela); LaBrecque, John J.; Perez, Karla [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Apartado 21827, Caracas (Venezuela); Lossada, Marian R. [Direccion de Investigacion y Postgrado, Universidad Maritima del Caribe (UMC), Caracas (Venezuela)
2008-01-15
A semi-empirical method to determine radionuclide concentrations in large environmental samples without the use of reference material and avoiding the typical complexity of Monte-Carlo codes is proposed. The calculation of full-energy peak efficiencies was carried out from a relative efficiency curve (obtained from the gamma spectra data), and the geometric (simulated by Monte-Carlo), absorption, sample and intrinsic efficiencies for energies between 130 and 3000 keV. The absorption and sample efficiencies were determined from the mass absorption coefficients, whereas the intrinsic efficiency was approximated by an empirical function. The deviations between calculated and experimental efficiencies for a reference material in most cases are less than 10%. Radionuclide activities in marine sediment samples calculated by the proposed method and by the experimental comparative method were not significantly different. This new method can be used for routine environmental monitoring when uncertainties up to 10% are acceptable.
Robertson, A. L.; Lin, L.; Tedesco, L.; Wilson, J.; Soyeux, E.
2008-12-01
Cyanobacteria are known to produce toxins harmful to humans and compounds that alter the taste/odor of water. Monitoring cyanobacteria is of interest to surface water managers because eutrophication of these surface water bodies are common thus increasing the chances of cyanobacterial blooms. Traditionally cyanobacteria are remotely sensed using the spectral properties of the two pigments: chlorophyll a (Chl-a), indicative of all algal and cyanobacteria species, and phycocyanin (PC), specific to cyanobacteria in most freshwater systems. Initial algorithms identifying cyanobacterial pigments used ratios of reflectance at specific wavelengths. In an effort to increase transferability between different systems researchers have included optical properties of water and water constituents to build semi-empirical models. Recently researchers have applied a curve-fitting, modified Gaussian model (MGM), to predict these cyanobacterial pigments. To determine the best performing algorithm this study compares the performance of 4 band ratio, 4 semi-empirical, and 2 modified Gaussian models in predicting PC and Chl-a on three central Indiana reservoirs (Eagle Creek, Geist, Morse). For each of these reservoirs, spectral data were collected with three different sensors (boat-based: ASD Fieldspec, Ocean Optics USB4000; Ariel: AISA Eagle) over a three year period (2005-2007), and water samples concomitant with these spectra were analyzed for concentration of the two pigments and other water constituents. Comparison shows that a model using the MGM strength at 620 nm from a 2005 Morse Reservoir ASD Fieldspec data set shows that the MGM has the best transferability to a 2006 Morse Reservoir ASD Fieldspec data set in predicting phycocyanin (R2 = 0.77; RMSE= 52.45 ppb), and a band ratio model published by Mittenzwey et al. 1991 has the best transferability in predicting chlorophyll a (R2 = 0.74; RMSE 16.31=ppb).
Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety
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Davis Anne M
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background/Objectives Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. Subjects/Methods This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold + Lutein. Two hundred thirty-two (232 infants ≤ 14 days postnatal age were randomized and 220 (94.8% completed the study. Weight (g, head circumference (cm, and length (cm were measured at Weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. The primary endpoint was weight gain (g/day from baseline to Week 16. Safety was assessed through monitoring of study events (SEs throughout the study and evaluation of selected blood chemistry tests performed at Week 16. Results Infants in both treatment groups demonstrated appropriate growth. No differences between treatment groups were found in any of the measures of growth at any of the measurement time points. Both study formulas were well tolerated. The mean values of all measured blood chemistry parameters fell within the modified normal ranges for infants, and the values for both groups for any measured parameter were similar. Conclusions Infants fed lutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.
Effect of sweet yeast bread formula on evaluating rapid mix test
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Petra Dvořáková
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect how different sweet yeast bread formulas influence results of rapid mix test and by the help of sensory analysis to discover consumer preferences and possible benefit and use in bakery industry. Applied raw materials (ground wheat flour T 530, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, egg, improver Hit along with basic formula were taken from the Varmužova bakery in Boršice by Buchlovice. The basic formula served as a standard (I, other six formulas were then determined (II–VII. In each formula, the rate of yeast, sugar or oil was altered in the range of ± 10% compared with the standard. Flour bread-making quality – Hagberg Falling number [s], Sedimentation index [ml], wet gluten [%], ash [%], moisture [%], binding capacity [%], granulation [%], alveographic energy [10−4J] and alveographic rate P/L – was measured. Rapid mix test and parameters like pastry weight, volume, shape, dough yield, pastry yield, baking loss, penetration and sensory analysis were determined. To establish yeast fermentation activity, Engelke fermentation test was applied. The most evident differences among the samples appeared in the volume and shape. The results of sensory analysis showed that the samples with higher rate of altered raw materials were evaluated as the best.
Semi-empirical model for optimising future heavy-ion luminosity of the LHC
Schaumann, M
2014-01-01
The wide spectrum of intensities and emittances imprinted on the LHC Pb bunches during the accumulation of bunch trains in the injector chain result in a significant spread in the single bunch luminosities and lifetimes in collision. Based on the data collected in the 2011 Pb-Pb run, an empirical model is derived to predict the single-bunch peak luminosity depending on the bunch’s position within the beam. In combination with this model, simulations of representative bunches are used to estimate the luminosity evolution for the complete ensemble of bunches. Several options are being considered to improve the injector performance and to increase the number of bunches in the LHC, leading to several potential injection scenarios, resulting in different peak and integrated luminosities. The most important options for after the long shutdown (LS) 1 and 2 are evaluated and compared.
A Semi-Empirical Airborne Particle Erosion Model for Polyesteric Matrix Fiberglass Composites
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Valeriu DRAGAN
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the mathematical modeling of the airborne solid particle erosion rate of composite materials, in particular non-oriented fiberglass reinforced polyesteric matrices. Using the mathematical tool of non-linear regression, based on experimental data available in the state of the art, an algebraic equation has been determined to estimate the relative erosion rate of such composites. The formulation is tailored so that it relates to classical erosion models such as Finnie’s, Bitter’s or Tulsa angle dependent model which can be implemented into commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Although the implementation - per se - is not described herein, the model proposed can be useful in estimating the global effect of solid particle erosion on composite materials in this class. Further theoretical developments may add to the model the capacity to evaluate the erosion rate for a wider class of matrices as well as more types of weavings.
A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia
2013-01-01
The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.
Semi-empirical method for estimating the performance of direct gain passive solar heated buildings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wray, W.O.; Balcomb, J.D.; McFarland, R.D.
1979-01-01
The sunspot code for performance analysis of direct gain passive solar heated buildings is used to calculate the annual solar fraction for two representative designs in ten American cities. The two representative designs involve a single thermal storage mass configuration which is evaluated with and without night insulation. In both cases the solar aperture is double glazed. The results of the detailed thermal network calculations are then correlated using the monthly solar load ratio method which has already been successfully applied to the analysis of both active solar heated buildings and passive thermal storage wall systems. The method is based on a correlation between the monthly solar heating fraction and the monthly solar load ratio. The monthly solar load ratio is defined as the ratio of the monthly solar energy transmitted through the glazing aperture to the building's monthly thermal load. The procedure using the monthly method for any location is discussed in detail. In addition, a table of annual performance results for 84 cities is presented, enabling the designer to bypass the monthly method for these locations.
Evaluation of a formula that categorizes female gray wolf breeding status by nipple size
Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David
2015-01-01
The proportion by age class of wild Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) females that reproduce in any given year remains unclear; thus, we evaluated the applicability to our long-term (1972–2013) data set of the Mech et al. (1993) formula that categorizes female Gray Wolf breeding status by nipple size and time of year. We used the formula to classify Gray Wolves from 68 capture events into 4 categories (yearling, adult non-breeder, former breeder, current breeder). To address issues with small sample size and variance, we created an ambiguity index to allow some Gray Wolves to be classed into 2 categories. We classified 20 nipple measurements ambiguously: 16 current or former breeder, 3 former or adult non-breeder, and 1 yearling or adult non-breeder. The formula unambiguously classified 48 (71%) of the nipple measurements; based on supplemental field evidence, at least 5 (10%) of these were incorrect. When used in conjunction with an ambiguity index we developed and with corrections made for classifications involving very large nipples, and supplemented with available field evidence, the Mech et al. (1993) formula provided reasonably reliable classification of breeding status in wild female Gray Wolves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guido D'Urso
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This work evaluates different procedures for the application of a semi-empirical model to derive time-series of Leaf Area Index (LAI maps in operation frameworks. For demonstration, multi-temporal observations of DEIMOS-1 satellite sensor data were used. The datasets were acquired during the 2012 growing season over two agricultural regions in Southern Italy and Eastern Austria (eight and five multi-temporal acquisitions, respectively. Contemporaneous field estimates of LAI (74 and 55 measurements, respectively were collected using an indirect method (LAI-2000 over a range of LAI values and crop types. The atmospherically corrected reflectance in red and near-infrared spectral bands was used to calculate the Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI and to establish a relationship between LAI and WDVI based on the CLAIR model. Bootstrapping approaches were used to validate the models and to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and the coefficient of determination (R2 between measured and predicted LAI, as well as corresponding confidence intervals. The most suitable approach, which at the same time had the minimum requirements for fieldwork, resulted in a RMSE of 0.407 and R2 of 0.88 for Italy and a RMSE of 0.86 and R2 of 0.64 for the Austrian test site. Considering this procedure, we also evaluated the transferability of the local CLAIR model parameters between the two test sites observing no significant decrease in estimation accuracies. Additionally, we investigated two other statistical methods to estimate LAI based on: (a Support Vector Machine (SVM and (b Random Forest (RF regressions. Though the accuracy was comparable to the CLAIR model for each test site, we observed severe limitations in the transferability of these statistical methods between test sites with an increase in RMSE up to 24.5% for RF and 38.9% for SVM.
Scafetta, Nicola
2013-01-01
Power spectra of global surface temperature (GST) records reveal major periodicities at about 9.1, 10-11, 19-22 and 59-62 years. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs), to be used in the IPCC (2013), are analyzed and found not able to reconstruct this variability. From 2000 to 2013.5 a GST plateau is observed while the GCMs predicted a warming rate of about 2 K/century. In contrast, the hypothesis that the climate is regulated by specific natural oscillations more accurately fits the GST records at multiple time scales. The climate sensitivity to CO2 doubling should be reduced by half, e.g. from the IPCC-2007 2.0-4.5 K range to 1.0-2.3 K with 1.5 C median. Also modern paleoclimatic temperature reconstructions yield the same conclusion. The observed natural oscillations could be driven by astronomical forcings. Herein I propose a semi empirical climate model made of six specific astronomical oscillations as constructors of the natural climate variability spanning ...
Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S
2013-01-01
Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.
Khan, M Niyaz
2010-09-15
A new method, based upon semi-empirical kinetic approach, for the determination of ion exchange constant for ion exchange processes occurring between counterions at the cationic micellar surface is described in this review article. Basically, the method involves a reaction kinetic probe which gives observed pseudo-first-order rate constants (k(obs)) for a nucleophilic substitution reaction between the nonionic and anionic reactants (R and S) in the presence of a constant concentration of both reactants as well as cationic micelles and varying concentrations of an inert inorganic or organic salt (MX). The observed data (k(obs), versus [MX]) fit satisfactorily (in terms of residual errors) to an empirical equation which could be derived from an equation explaining the mechanism of the reaction of the kinetic probe in terms of pseudophase micellar (PM) model coupled with another empirical equation. This (another) empirical equation explains the effect of [MX] on cationic micellar binding constant (K(S)) of the anionic reactant (say S) and gives an empirical constant, K(X/S). The magnitude of K(X/S) is the measure of the ability of X(-) to expel S(-) from a cationic micellar pseudophase to the bulk aqueous phase through ion exchange X(-)/S(-). The values of K(X/S) and K(Y/S) (where Y(-) is another inert counterion) give the ion exchange constant, K(X)(Y) (=K(X)/K(Y) where K(X) and K(Y) represent cationic micellar binding constants of X(-) and Y(-), respectively). The suitability of this method is demonstrated by the use of three different reaction kinetic probes and various MX. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.
2011-12-01
Information on the variability in surface water is critical to understand the impact of climate change and global water cycle. Surface water features such as lakes, or reservoirs can affect local weather and regional climate. Hence, there is a widespread demand for accurate and quantitative global observations of surface water variability. Satellite imagery provides a direct way to monitor variations in surface water. However, estimating accurate surface area from satellite imagery can be a problem due to clouds. Hence, the use of optical imagery for operational implementation has been a challenge for monitoring variations in surface water. In this research, a semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model is developed to derive lake/reservoir water levels from partially covered satellite imagery. SRTM elevation combined with bathymetry was used to derive the relationships between lake depth vs. surface area and shore line (L). Using these relationships, lake level/depth (D) was estimated from the surface area (A) and/or shore line (L) delineated from Landsat and MODIS data. The SELL model was applied on Lake Turkana, one of the rift valley lakes in East Africa. First, Lake Turkana water levels were delineated using cloud-free or partially clouded Landsat and MODIS imagery over 1993-2009 and 2002-2009 time periods respectively. Historic lake depths were derived using 1972-1992 Landsat imagery. Lake depths delineated using this approach were validated using TOPEX/Poseidon/Jason satellite altimetry data. It was found that lake depths derived using SELL model matched reasonably well with the satellite altimetry data. The approach presented in this research can be used to (a) simulate lake water level variations in data scarce regions (b) increase the frequency of observation in regions where cloud cover is a problem (c) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins (d) derive historic lake level information using satellite data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. SHAKERI
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, a single polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC in H2/ /O2 form with an effective dimension of 5 cm5 cm as well as a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC with a dimension of 10 cm10 cm were fabricated. In an existing test station, the voltage-current density performances of the fabricated PEMFC and DMFC were examined under various operating conditions. As expected, DMFC showed a lower electrical performance which can be attributed to the slower methanol oxidation rate in comparison to the hydrogen oxidation. The results obtained from the cell operation indicated that the temperature has a great effect on the cell performance. At 60 C, the best power output was obtained for PEMFC. There was a drop in the cell voltage beyond 60 C, which can be attributed to the reduction of water content inside the membrane. For DMFC, the maximum power output resulted at 64 C. Increasing oxygen stoichiometry and total cell pressure had a marginal effect on the cell performance. The results also revealed that the cell performance improved by increasing pressure differences between the anode and cathode. A unified semi-empirical thermodynamic based model was developed to describe the cell voltage as a function of current density for both kinds of fuel cells. The model equation parameters were obtained through a nonlinear fit to the experimental data. There was a good agreement between the experimental data and the model predicted cell performance for both types of fuel cells.
Frommeyer, Gerrit; Bogossian, Harilaos; Pechlivanidou, Eleni; Conzen, Philipp; Gemein, Christopher; Weipert, Kay; Helmig, Inga; Chasan, Ritvan; Johnson, Victoria; Eckardt, Lars; Hamm, Christian W; Seyfarth, Melchior; Lemke, Bernd; Zarse, Markus; Schmitt, Jörn; Erkapic, Damir
2017-04-01
The presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) due to right ventricular pacing represents a particular challenge in properly measuring the QTc interval. In 2014, a new formula for the evaluation of QT interval in patients with LBBB was reported. 145 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator were included in this prospective multicenter observational study. Inclusion criteria were: no permanent right ventricular stimulation, an intrinsic QRS interval of QT-interval must be respected. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ahmadi, Mahshid; Moosavi, Seyyed Mohammad
2013-09-25
During recent decades, women have been increasingly involved in social activities. Despite the fact that mothers prefer to breastfeed, their return to work is associated with a reduction in breastfeeding frequency and duration. The present study evaluates the impact of occupational factors on continuation of breastfeeding and formula initiation in employed mothers with infants aged 6-12 months in Bandar-Abbas, Iran in 2010. This is a descriptive-analytic study on employed mothers with infants aged 6-12 months referring to healthcare centers of Bandar-Abbas in 2010. Data were collected through a questionnaire dealing with work-related factors in mothers' workplace. Out of 212 mothers who responded, 52.38% used formula to feed their children, and 27.36% had discontinued breastfeeding. The rate of formula use was significantly higher in mothers who had less than 6 months of maternity leave, those who did not have a suitable nursery or place to milk themselves and preserve the milk in their workplace, those working more than 6 hours per day, and those who could not take a breastfeeding break. It is essential to identify and support breastfeeding employed women. The employers should provide facilities such as nurseries, a suitable physical space for milking, as well as the equipment necessary for milk preservation. Also, such mothers should be granted breastfeeding breaks to feed their child or milk their breasts.
Evaluation of effect of solution-density formula on criticality parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Hirose, Hideyuki; Ami, Norio; Sakurai, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1993-03-01
Calculations of the criticality parameters have been performed for solution fuels such as uranyl nitrate, plutonium nitrate and their mixture by use of a newly proposed formula (SST formula) of the solution density. By comparison of the calculated infinitive multiplication factor and critical buckling using SST formula with those by the present formula based on Maimoni`s and Burger`s, the effect of the density formula for nitrate solution on the criticality calculation were studied. (author).
Evaluation of effect of solution-density formula on criticality parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Hirose, Hideyuki; Ami, Norio; Sakurai, Satoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)
1993-03-01
Calculations of the criticality parameters have been performed for solution fuels such as uranyl nitrate, plutonium nitrate and their mixture by use of a newly proposed formula (SST formula) of the solution density. By comparison of the calculated infinitive multiplication factor and critical buckling using SST formula with those by the present formula based on Maimoni's and Burger's, the effect of the density formula for nitrate solution on the criticality calculation were studied. (author).
Chabot, M.; Beroff, K.; Gratier, P.; Jallat, A.; Wakelam, V.
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to provide a new set of branching ratios for interstellar and planetary chemical networks based on a semi empirical model. We applied, instead of zero order theory (i.e. only the most exoergic decaying channel is considered), a statistical microcanonical model based on the construction of breakdown curves and using experimental high velocity collision branching ratios for their parametriza- tion. We applied the model to ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and ion-pair reac...
Addari, Daniele
The term microvibrations generally refers to accelerations in the order of micro-gs and which manifest in a bandwidth from a few Hz up to say 500-1000 Hz. The need to accurately characterise this small disturbances acting on-board modern satellites, thus allowing the design of dedicated minimisation and control systems, is nowadays a major concern for the success of some space missions. The main issues related to microvibrations are the feasibility to analytically describe the microvibration sources using a series of analysis tools and test experiments and the prediction of how the dynamics of the microvibration sources couple with those of the satellite structure. In this thesis, a methodology to facilitate the modelling of these phenomena is described. Two aspects are investigated: the characterisation of the microvibration sources with a semi-empirical procedure which allows derivation of the dynamic mass properties of the source, also including the gyroscopic effect, with a significantly simpler test configuration and lower computational effort compared to traditional approaches; and the modelling of the coupled dynamics when the source is mounted on a representative supporting structure of a spacecraft, including the passive and active effects of the source, which allows prediction of the structure response at any location. The methodology has been defined conducting an extensive study, both experimental and numerical, on a reaction wheel assembly, as this is usually identified as the main contributory factor among all microvibration sources. The contributions to the state-of-the-art made during this work include: i) the development of a cantilever configured reaction wheel analytical model able to reproduce all the configurations in which the mechanism may operate and inclusive of the gyroscopic effect; ii) the reformulation of the coupling theory which allows retrieving the dynamic mass of a microvibration source over a wide range of frequencies and speeds
Global Estimation of Soil Nitrous Oxide Emission Using a Semi-Empirical Model and a Global Dataset
Hashimoto, S.
2015-12-01
Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux is one of the major greenhouse gas fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems. N2O is produced as a by-product of the transformations of nitrogen in the soil and is generally released from the soil surface to the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to provide a data-oriented global estimate of N2O flux from the soil. In this study, a semi-empirical model was developed by modifying a model for soil CO2 flux (Raich et al. 2002). The model consists of the functions of nitrogen, air temperature, and precipitation. The parameters of the functions were determined using a global dataset of N2O emission (Stehfest and Bouwman 2006) through the Bayesian approach. The function of nitrogen is a function of carbon to nitrogen ratio. For agricultural land use, the effect of nitrogen fertilizer was also incorporated in the function of nitrogen. The model was applied at a spatial resolution of 5 min and at a monthly time resolution. Preliminary calculation revealed that the total amount of N2O emission was 10 Tg N yr-1. The upland natural land was the major source of N2O emission, followed by the upland agricultural land. Latitudinally, the flux was high at 30°N-40°N and 10°S-10°N. The major contribution to the peak at 30°N-40°N was by the upland agricultural land and that to the peak around the equator was by the upland natural land. The monthly flux showed a clear seasonality, and it was the highest and lowest in August and February, respectively. The global scale seasonality was mainly contributed by the N2O flux from the upland agricultural land in the northern mid-latitude. This study provides data-oriented spatiotemporal distribution of soil N2O flux, and I hope that these data will be used for a benchmark and constraint of process-based modeling.
A simple semi-empirical approach to model thickness of ash-deposits for different eruption scenarios
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A. O. González-Mellado
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The impact of ash-fall on people, buildings, crops, water resources, and infrastructure depends on several factors such as the thickness of the deposits, grain size distribution and others. Preparedness against tephra falls over large regions around an active volcano requires an understanding of all processes controlling those factors, and a working model capable of predicting at least some of them. However, the complexity of tephra dispersion and sedimentation makes the search of an integral solution an almost unapproachable problem in the absence of highly efficient computing facilities due to the large number of equations and unknown parameters that control the process. An alternative attempt is made here to address the problem of modeling the thickness of ash deposits as a primary impact factor that can be easily communicated to the public and decision-makers. We develop a semi-empirical inversion model to estimate the thickness of non-compacted deposits produced by an explosive eruption around a volcano in the distance range 4–150 km from the eruptive source.
The model was elaborated from the analysis of the geometric distribution of deposit thickness of 14 world-wide well-documented eruptions. The model was initially developed to depict deposits of potential eruptions of Popocatépetl and Colima volcanoes in México, but it can be applied to any volcano. It has been designed to provide planners and Civil Protection authorities of an accurate perception of the ash-fall deposit thickness that may be expected for different eruption scenarios. The model needs to be fed with a few easy-to-obtain parameters, namely, height of the eruptive column, duration of the explosive phase, and wind speed and direction, and its simplicity allows it to run in any platform, including a personal computers and even a notebook. The results may be represented as tables, two dimensional thickness-distance plots, or isopach maps using any available
Uozumi, Jiro; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Tokuda, Yuji; Tobu, Shohei; Udo, Kazuma; Kakinoki, Hiroaki; Kurata, Saya; Nanri, Maki; Ichibagase, Yuka; Takahara, Kohei
2015-08-01
Accurate evaluation of renal function is required before cancer chemotherapy. Various kinds of formula have been developed for estimating creatinine clearance (Ccr) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) conveniently. We retrospectively examined the reliability of the GFR estimating formula using the renal function data in cancer chemotherapy. Clinical data of 12 patients with urogenital cancer from 1998 to 2013 in Saga University Hospital were reviewed. Patients were treated with 6-21 (median 10.5) courses of chemotherapy and those patients underwent 9-29 (median 14.5) times of 24hrCcr tests before and during chemotherapy. We compared estimated GFR (eGFR) with 24hrCcr. In addition, we developed a novel method to estimate the Ccr using the patient-inherent 24hrCcr/eGFR ratio, which is calculated from initial 3 or 4 determinations of 24hrCcr and the corresponding eGFR. Those estimated Ccrs were also compared with 24hrCcr. The dissociation between 24hrCcr and eGFR was not constant, and a large dissociation was observed in some cases. The newly devised estimated Ccr demonstrated less dissociation from 24hrCcr compared with eGFR. The eGFR formula is not adequate for the clinical use in cancer chemotherapy. The absolute value of eGFR is not reliable, but clinical use of eGFR as relative value seems to be acceptable. To avoid troublesome 24hrCcr measurement in long-term cancer chemotherapy, eGFR formula can be used for estimating Ccr in combination with the specific inherent 24hrCcr/eGFR ratio, which is obtained from 3 or 4 times of actual 24hrCcr measurements.
Lopez Gonzales, A H; Tomal, A; Costa, P R
2015-06-01
Primary X-ray spectra were measured in the range of 80-150kV in order to validate a computer program based on a semiempirical model. The ratio between the characteristic and total air Kerma was considered to compare computed results and experimental data. Results show that the experimental spectra have higher first HVL and mean energy than the calculated ones. The ratios between the characteristic and total air Kerma for calculated spectra are in good agreement with experimental results for all filtrations used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of plaque pH changes following oral rinse with eight infant formulas.
Sheikh, C; Erickson, P R
1996-01-01
Inappropriate feeding habits have been identified as major factors associated with the development of baby bottle tooth decay or nursing caries. An in vivo/in vitro combination technique was developed to investigated the plaque pH changes associated with rinsing with eight different infant formulas. These eight formulas represented four categories: 1) formulas with iron, 2) formulas with low iron, 3) soy formulas 4) and protein hydrolyzate formulas (from the manufacturers Mead Johnson Nutritionals and Ross Laboratories). All formulas had the ability to reduce the pH significantly below the pre-rinse plaque pH. Furthermore, the average minimum pH for formulas from the two manufacturers did not differ within each formula category except for the soy-based formulas, where, rinsing with Isomil produced a significantly lower plaque pH than ProSobee. These results suggest that infant formulas are acidogenic and therefore may play a significant role in the development of baby bottle tooth decay.
Chamorro-Posada, P
2016-01-01
Semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods offer a very interesting compromise between accuracy and computational load. In order to assess the performance of NDDO methods in the interpretation of terahertz spectra, the low frequency vibration modes of three crystalline materials, namely, polyethylene, poly(vinylidene fluoride) form II and $\\alpha$-D-glucose have been studied using the PM6 and PM7 Hamiltonians and the results have been compared with the experimental data and former calculations. The results show good qualitative or semi-quantitative agreement with the experimentally observed terahertz spectra.
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S. ORFANIDIS
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c was designed to estimate the habitat- based ecological status of rocky coastal and sedimentary transitional waters using shallow benthic macrophyte communities as bioindicators. This study aimed to remedy the weaknesses of the currently used EEI methodology in: (1 ecological status groups (ESG, (2 the formula, and (3 reference condition values. A cluster analysis of twelve species traits was used to delineate ESGs. Two main clusters (ESG I, late-successional; ESG II, opportunistic were identified that were hierarchically divided into three and two sub-clusters, respectively: ESG I comprised thick perennial (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC coastal water species, and angiosperm plastic (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC transitional water species. ESG II comprised fleshy opportunistic (IIB and filamentous sheet-like opportunistic (IIA species both in coastal and transitional waters. To avoid discrete jumps at the boundaries between predefined ecological categories, a hyperbolic model that approximates the index values and expresses the ecosystem status in continuous numbers was developed. Seventy-four quantitative and destructive samples of the upper infralittoralCystoseira crinita and coastal lagoonRuppia cirrhosa communities from tentative pristine to less impacted sites in Greece verified 10 as an ‘ideal’ EEI-c reference condition value.
Hekmat, Reza; Eshraghi, Hamid; Esmailpour, Maryam; Hassankhani, Golnaz Ghayyem
2017-02-01
Kinetic glomerular filtration rate estimation may have more power and versatility than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or Cockcroft-Gault formula for evaluating kidney function when plasma creatinine fluctuates rapidly. After kidney donation, glomerular filtration rate rapidly fluctuates in otherwise healthy patients. We compared 3 formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate: kinetic, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Cockcroft-Gault, for determining stages of acute kidney injury early after kidney donation. In 42 living kidney donors, we measured serum creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and glomerular filtration rates before uninephrectomy and 3 days afterward. To estimate glomerular filtration rate, we used Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and kinetic equations. We sought the most accurate formula for staging acute kidney injury according to the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage criteria. The kinetic glomerular filtration rate model found more cases of stage 3 acute kidney injury than did the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or Cockcroft-Gault formula. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the kinetic glomerular filtration rate model had more sensitivity and specificity than the Cockroft-Gault formula for discriminating among risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage criteria stages of acute kidney injury, based on serum creatinine changes. On day 2 after donation, a more sensitive marker with a shorter half-life (serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) was more significantly correlated with kinetic glomerular filtration rate estimation. The kinetic glomerular filtration rate model was able to discriminate stages of acute kidney injury early after kidney donation according to risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage criteria better than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or Cockcroft-Gault formulas. The kinetic model detected failure
Khan, Mohammad Niyaz; Yusof, Nor Saadah Mohd; Razak, Norazizah Abdul
2013-01-01
The semi-empirical spectrophotometric (SESp) method, for the indirect determination of ion exchange constants (K(X)(Br)) of ion exchange processes occurring between counterions (X⁻ and Br⁻) at the cationic micellar surface, is described in this article. The method uses an anionic spectrophotometric probe molecule, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)phthalamate ion (1⁻), which measures the effects of varying concentrations of inert inorganic or organic salt (Na(v)X, v = 1, 2) on absorbance, (A(ob)) at 310 nm, of samples containing constant concentrations of 1⁻, NaOH and cationic micelles. The observed data fit satisfactorily to an empirical equation which gives the values of two empirical constants. These empirical constants lead to the determination of K(X)(Br) (= K(X)/K(Br) with K(X) and K(Br) representing cationic micellar binding constants of counterions X and Br⁻). This method gives values of K(X)(Br) for both moderately hydrophobic and hydrophilic X⁻. The values of K(X)(Br), obtained by using this method, are comparable with the corresponding values of K(X)(Br), obtained by the use of semi-empirical kinetic (SEK) method, for different moderately hydrophobic X. The values of K(X)(Br) for X = Cl⁻ and 2,6-Cl₂C6H₃CO₂⁻, obtained by the use of SESp and SEK methods, are similar to those obtained by the use of other different conventional methods.
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Xiurong Zhu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the liquid–liquid micro extraction of 4-tert-butylphenol from aqueous solution to trioctyl phosphate organic phase in carbon paste electrode was studied by potentiometry and semi-empirical quantum chemistry with MOPAC2009. The extraction dynamic process was monitored by open circuit potential method, which follows an exponential association function with the apparent first extraction kinetic rate constant of 0.01685 s−1. The Nernstian plot of potential difference of the open circuit potentials against logarithm of 4-tert-butylphenol concentration at 500 s extraction time gives a slope of 0.01382, and indicates that 3 or 4 of 4-tert-butylphenol molecules can be extracted by one cluster of trioctyl phosphate dimer. This equation can also serve as working curve for the determination of 4-tert-butylphenol in the concentration range of 1.0 × 10−4–5.0 × 10−7 M with detection limit of 5.0 × 10−7 M (n = 3, ratio of signal/noise = 3. The semi-empirical quantum chemical calculation offers a thermodynamic evidence for the molecular mechanism of the liquid–liquid micro extraction of 4-tert-butylphenol from aqueous solution to trioctyl phosphate cluster.
Ferreira, Antonio M; Krishnamurthy, Mathangi; Moore, Bob M; Finkelstein, David; Bashford, Donald
2009-03-15
Recent work implicating the cannabinoid receptors in a wide range of human pathologies has intensified the need for reliable QSAR models for drug discovery and lead optimization. Predicting the ligand selectivity of the cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors in the absence of generally accepted models for their structures requires a ligand-based approach, which makes such studies ideally suited for quantum-chemical treatments. We present a QSAR model for ligand-receptor interactions based on quantum-chemical descriptors (an eQSAR) obtained from PM3 semi-empirical calculations for a series of phenyl-substituted cannabinoids based on a ligand with known in vivo activity against glioma [Duntsch, C.; Divi, M. K.; Jones, T.; Zhou, Q.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Boehm, P.; Wood, G.; Sills, A.; Moore. B. M., II. J. Neuro-Oncol., 2006, 77, 143] and a set of structurally similar adamantyl-substituted cannabinoids. A good model for CB(2) inhibition (R(2)=0.78) has been developed requiring only four explanatory variables derived from semi-empirical results. The role of the ligand dipole moment is discussed and we propose that the CB(2) binding pocket likely possesses a significant electric field. Describing the affinities with respect to the CB(1) receptor was not possible with the current set of ligands and descriptors, although the attempt highlighted some important points regarding the development of QSAR models.
Suendo, Veinardi
2011-01-01
Chlorophyll a is one the most abundant pigment on Earth, which is responsible for trapping the light energy to perform the photosynthesis process in green plants. This molecule is a metal-complex compound that consists of a porphyrins ring with high symmetry that acts as ligands with magnesium as the central ion. Chlorophyll a has been studied for many years from different point of views for both experimental and theoretical interests. In this study, the restricted Hartree-Fock configuration interaction single (RHF/CIS), time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and some semi-empirical methods (CNDO/s and ZINDO) calculations were carried out and compared to reconstruct the UV-Vis absorption spectra of chlorophyll a. In some extend, the calculation results based on a single molecule calculation were succeeded to reconstruct the absorption spectra but required to be scaling and broaden to match the experimental one. Different computational methods (ab initio and semi-empirical) exhibits the differences i...
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Veinardi Suendo
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Chlorophyll a is one the most abundant pigment on Earth that responsible for trapping the light energy to perform photosynthesis in green plants. This molecule has been studied for many years from different point of views in both experimental and theoretical interests. In this study, the restricted Hartree-Fock configuration interaction single (RHF/CIS, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT and several semi-empirical methods (CNDO/s and ZINDO calculations were carried out to reconstruct the UV-Vis absorption spectra of chlorophyll a. In some extend, the calculation results based on single molecule approach were succeeded to reconstruct the absorption spectra but required to be rescaled to fit the experimental one. In general, the semi-empirical methods provide better energy scaling factor that closer to unity. However, they lack of vertical transition fine features with respect to the spectrum obtained experimentally. Here, the ab initio calculations provide more complete features, especially the TDDFT at high level of basis sets that also has a good accuracy in the transition energies. The contribution of ground states and excited states orbitals in the main vertical transitions is discussed based on delocalization nature of the wavefunctions and the presence of solvent through polarizable continuum model (PCM.
Gritti, Fabrice
2015-09-04
The local volume fractions of water, acetonitrile, and C18-bonded chains across the 96Åmesopores of 5μm Symmetry particles were determined semi-empirically. The semi-empirical approach was based on previous molecular dynamics studies, which provided relevant mathematical expressions for the density profiles of C18 chains and water molecules, and on minor disturbance experiments, which measured the excess amount of acetonitrile adsorbed in the pores of Symmetry-C18 particles. The pore walls of the Symmetry-C18 material were in thermodynamic equilibrium with a series of binary mixtures of water and acetonitrile. The results show that C18 chains are mostly solvated by acetonitrile molecules, water is excluded from the C18-bonded layer, and acetonitrile concentrates across a 15-25Åthick interface region between the C18 layer and the bulk phase. These actual density profiles are expected to have a direct impact on the retention behaviour of charged, polar, and neutral analytes in RPLC. They also provide clues to predict the local mobility of analytes inside the pores and a sound physico-chemical description of the phenomenon of surface diffusion observed in RPLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sun, Jian-Ning; Sun, Wen-Yan; Dong, Shi-Fen
2017-03-01
The Chinese herbal compound formula preparation was made based on theory of Chinese medicine, which was confirmed by long period clinical application, and with multi-compound and multi-target characteristics. During the exploitation process of innovation medicine of Chinese herbal compound formula, selecting and speeding up the research development of drugs with clinical value shall be paid more attention, and as request of rules involved in new drug research and development, the whole process management should be carried out, including project evaluation, manufacturing process determination, establishment of quality control standards, evaluation for pharmacological and toxic effect, as well as new drug application process. This reviews was aimed to give some proposals for pharmacodynamics research methods involved in exploration of Chinese herbal compound formula preparation, including： ①the endpoint criteria should meet the clinical attribution of new drugs; ②the pre-clinical pharmacodynamics evaluation should be carried on appropriate animal models according to the characteristics of diagnosis and therapy of Chinese medicine and observation indexes; ③during the innovation of drug for infants and children, information on drug action conforming to physiological characteristics of infants and children should be supplied, and the pharmacodynamics and toxicology research shall be conducted in immature rats according to the body weight of children. In a summary, the clinical application characteristics are the important criteria for evaluation of pharmacological effect of innovation medicine of Chinese herbal compound formula. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
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Apurva Jagdish Gujarathi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the remineralizing potential of commercially available low fluoride child formula dentifrice on primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Total 30 primary teeth were placed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial carious lesions of approximately 100 μm depth, and then cut longitudinally into 30 sections of 100-150 μm thickness and randomly assigned to three groups. Sections were treated with dentifrices containing Colgate ® (anti tooth decay 500 ppm NaF, Cheerio gel ® 458 ppm MFP and Vicco ® non-fluoridated dentifrice. Lesions were evaluated using polarized light microscopy. Results: Colgate ® (anti tooth decay 500 ppm NaF sections exhibited a statistically significant decrease in lesion depth (P < 0.05, paired t-test, whereas those in Cheerio gel ® 458 ppm MFP showed a decrease in lesion depth but was not statistically significant. Vicco ® non-fluoridated dentifrice showed increase in lesion depth. Statistics: A paired t-test is used to evaluate pre- and post-treatment lesion depth measurements, and Newman-Keuls multiple post hoc procedures was carried out to compare pair-wise difference of pre- and post-treatment lesion depth. Conclusion: The Colgate ® (anti tooth decay 500 ppm NaF dentifrice and Cheerio gel ® 458 ppm MFP demonstrated remineralization of carious lesions by virtue of decrease in lesion depth, whereas Vicco ® non-fluoridated dentifrice showed increase in lesion depth.
Seidel-Salinas, L. K.; Jones, S. H.; Duva, J. M.
1992-01-01
A semi-empirical model has been developed to determine the complete crystallographic orientation dependence of the growth rate for vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Previous researchers have been able to determine this dependence for a limited range of orientations; however, our model yields relative growth rate information for any orientation. This model for diamond and zincblende structure materials is based on experimental growth rate data, gas phase diffusion, and surface reactions. Data for GaAs chloride VPE is used to illustrate the model. The resulting growth rate polar diagrams are used in conjunction with Wulff constructions to simulate epitaxial layer shapes as grown on patterned substrates. In general, this model can be applied to a variety of materials and vapor phase epitaxy systems.
... iron-fortified formula.Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems ... cow’s milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula.If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...
Muhammad Saiedullah; Nasreen Chowdhury; Md. Aminul Haque Khan
2014-01-01
Background: Various formulas are available to estimate serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. All of these are serum triglycerides (TG) dependent. But very recently de Cordova et al developed a simple formula (CF) to calculate LDL cholesterol without using serum TG and claimed it to be more accurate than Friedewald.s formula (FF). Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the CF for the calculation of LDL cholesterol in a Bangladeshi popula...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne
Makeham's formula is an actuarial formula expressing the present value of a payment stream in terms of its repayments instead of the payments themselves. The formula is largely neglected in the finance literature, but -- as this paper shows -- it has a number of useful applications in fixed income...... analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...
Bouazza, Safa; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal
2017-09-01
We present a semi-empirical determination of Mo II radiative parameters in a wide wavelength range 1716-8789 Å. Our fitting procedure to experimental oscillator strengths available in the literature permits us to provide reliable values for a large number of Mo II lines, predicting previously unmeasured oscillator strengths of lines involving 4d45p and 4d35s5p odd-parity configurations. The extracted transition radial integral values are compared with ab-initio calculations: on average they are 0.88 times the values obtained with the basic pseudo-relativistic Hartree Fock method and they agree well when core polarization effects are included. When making a survey of our present and previous studies and including also those given in the literature we observe as general trends a decreasing of transition radial integral values with filling nd shells of the same principal quantum numbers for ndk(n + 1)s → ndk(n + 1)p transitions.
Claret, Antonio; Torres, Guillermo
2017-11-01
Convective core overshooting has a strong influence on the evolution of stars of moderate and high mass. Studies of double-lined eclipsing binaries and stellar oscillations have renewed interest in the possible dependence of overshooting on stellar mass, which has been poorly constrained by observations so far. Here, we have used a sample of 29 well-studied double-lined eclipsing binaries in key locations of the H–R diagram to establish the explicit dependence of {f}{ov} on mass, where {f}{ov} is the free parameter in the diffusive approximation to overshooting. Measurements of the masses, radii, and temperatures of the binary components were compared against stellar evolution calculations based on the MESA code to infer semi-empirical values of {f}{ov} for each component. We find a clear mass-dependence such that {f}{ov} rises sharply from zero in the range 1.2{--}2.0 {M}ȯ , and levels off thereafter up to the 4.4 {M}ȯ limit of our sample. Tests with two different element mixtures indicate the trend is the same, and we find it to also be qualitatively similar to the one established in our previous study with the classical step-function implementation of overshooting characterized by the free parameter {α }{ov}. Based on these measurements, we infer an approximate relationship between the two overshooting parameters of {α }{ov}/{f}{ov}=11.36+/- 0.22, with a possible dependence on stellar properties.
Zaug, Joseph; Stavrou, Elissaios; Bastea, Sorin; Goncharov, Alexander; Crowhurst, Jonathon; Roberts, Sarah; Plaue, Jonathan; Carter, Jeffrey; Armstrong, Michael
2013-06-01
Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (alpha-AlF3) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI3) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF3 and AlI3 were determined through refinements of collected x-ray patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives using multiple orders of the Birch-Murngahan, Ff, and Gg EoS models will be discussed. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits no pressure induced structural phase transition while the triiodide data reveal a second-order iso-structural rearrangement: Applied stress transformed a monoclinicly distorted face centered cubic (FCC) structure into a perfect FCC structure. Results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
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Gang Yang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The solubility data of compounds in supercritical fluids and the correlation between the experimental solubility data and predicted solubility data are crucial to the development of supercritical technologies. In the present work, the solubility data of silymarin (SM in both pure supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 and SCCO2 with added cosolvent was measured at temperatures ranging from 308 to 338 K and pressures from 8 to 22 MPa. The experimental data were fit with three semi-empirical density-based models (Chrastil, Bartle and Mendez-Santiago and Teja models and a back-propagation artificial neural networks (BPANN model. Interaction parameters for the models were obtained and the percentage of average absolute relative deviation (AARD% in each calculation was determined. The correlation results were in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison among the four models revealed that the experimental solubility data were more fit with the BPANN model with AARDs ranging from 1.14% to 2.15% for silymarin in pure SCCO2 and with added cosolvent. The results provide fundamental data for designing the extraction of SM or the preparation of its particle using SCCO2 techniques.
Amira, Touil; Roman, Peczalski; Fethi, Zagrouba
2016-11-01
The aim of this work was to monitor in-line and at a real time, the solid-state forms during pharmaceuticals manufacturing. It concerns the dehydration behavior and the solid-state transitions of theophylline in an agitated vacuum contact dryer. First, a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method was performed using a reflectance diffuse probe to measure the in-line and in-situ exact composition of the mixture of different forms of theophylline and water content during drying. A multivariate modeling has been investigated to build a robust model which can predict four components at the same time during drying process. The XRPD analysis was used as a reference method in the process of calibration of NIRS. The indicators of the accuracy in quantitative spectral analysis confirm the robustness of the model and the efficiency of the method of calibration. Second, the kinetics of solid state transformations were investigated. It was shown that the dehydration advanced first by the formation of the metastable anhydrate and after a lag time of the stable one. Once the stable form appeared, formation of the metastable form came to an end. The temperature was found out to be the main factor controlling the overall process rate but also the final contents of the stable and metastable anhydrates for the considered dryer and operating conditions range. Finally, a semi-empirical drying model was proposed and significant quantitative differences were found, particularly at the product temperature which was probably caused by the excessive simplicity of the model.
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Nil Didem ŞİMŞEK
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Since primitive times, the need to communicate with each other has paved the way for the use different types of languages; and the question of language has become an unsolvable, complex issue. It is not possible to limit language with definitions. Language, as a social institution, differs from other languages with the cultural and social structure it has been shaped through; and forms its own lexicon. Aksan (1996:9 ; considers the lexicon of a language as “a whole made up of not only the words, but also the idioms, communicative expressions, formulaic expressions, proverbs, terms and various sets of expressions of that language.” As there are numerous lexical items in a language, there are numerous cult ural elements as well. Each unit among the lexicon provides an important communication between the speaker of that language and the cultural values to which that language belongs; and strengthens the relationship between them. Formulaic expressions, or in other words, communicative expressions are the most significant ones among these units that constitute the lexicon. Cultural transfer has an important role especially in teaching Turkish to foreigners. The functionality of these units is noteworthy in the transfer and the deliberate use of the cultural elements of that language. The aim of this study is to evaluate the texts in beginner level (A1 Turkish as a foreign language course books in terms of formulaic expressions (communicative expressions. The d ata sources for the study are the A1 level books of Lale and İstanbul series. Transferring the culture is quite important in teaching a language. In order to present the language along with the culture, formulaic expressions (communicative expressions sho uld be included frequently, particularly in the beginner level course books.
The explicit formulas and evaluations of Ramanujan's theta-function [psi
Yi, Jinhee; Lee, Yang; Paek, Dae Hyun
2006-09-01
We define two quotients of theta-function [psi] depending on two positive real parameters. We then show how they are connected with two parameters of Dedekind eta-function, theta-function [phi], and the Ramanujan-Weber class invariants. Explicit formulas for determining values of the theta-function [psi] are derived, and several examples will be given. In addition, we give some applications of these parameters for the famous Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction R(q), Ramanujan's cubic continued fraction G(q), and the modular j-invariant.
Alpha decay calculations with a new formula
Akrawy, D. T.; Poenaru, D. N.
2017-10-01
A new semi-empirical formula for calculations of α decay half-lives is presented. It was derived from the Royer relationship by introducing new parameters which are fixed by fit to a set of experimental data. We are using three sets: set A with 130 e-e (even-even), 119 e-o (even-odd), 109 o-e, and 96 o-o, set B with 188 e-e, 147 e-o, 131 o-e and 114 o-o, and set C with 136 e-e, 84 e-o, 76 o-e and 48 o-o alpha emitters. A comparison of results obtained with the new formula (newF) and the following well known relationships: semiempirical relationship based on fission theory (semFIS), analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model and universal formula (UNIV) made in terms of rms standard deviation. We also introduced a weighted mean value of this quantity, allowing us to compare the global properties of a given model. For set B the order of the four models is the following: semFIS, UNIV, newF and ASAF. Nevertheless for even-even alpha emitters, UNIV gives the second best result after semFIS, and for odd-even parents the second is newF. Despite its simplicity in comparison with semFIS, newF, presented in this article, behaves quite well, competing with the other well known relationships.
New formula for evaluation of the QT interval in patients with left bundle branch block.
Bogossian, Harilaos; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Ninios, Ilias; Hasan, Fuad; Nguyen, Quy Suu; Karosiene, Zana; Mijic, Dejan; Kloppe, Axel; Suleiman, Hawal; Bandorski, Dirk; Seyfarth, Melchior; Lemke, Bernd; Eckardt, Lars; Zarse, Markus
2014-12-01
Left bundle branch block (LBBB) and QT prolongation both are associated with a worse prognosis. LBBB lengthens the QT interval. To date it is not known whether QT prolongation during LBBB differs in repolarization from QT prolongation during narrow QRS. The purpose of the present proof-of-concept-study was to develop a formula that allows comparison of the adjusted QT interval during LBBB with reference values and thereby allows interpretation of the QT interval irrespective of QRS widening. Sixty consecutive patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and narrow QRS underwent electrophysiologic study for ablation. In all patients, the intrinsic QRS ,QT, and JT times were measured during SR, and ventricular pacing from both the right ventricular apex (RVA) and the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) caused LBBB. We determined prolongation of the QT during as compared to SR (ΔQT). ΔQT was then divided by the QRS length during pacing QRS (QRSb). This describes the percentage of the QRS duration at LBBB, which must be subtracted from the measured QT (QTb) to determine the modified QT interval (QTm). The ratio of ΔQT to paced QRS was calculated as 48.3% (RVA) and 48.8% (RVOT) (mean 48.5%). The ratio intrinsic of JTi to paced JT was 1.0055 (RVA) and 1.0087 (RVOT). There was no significant difference in intrinsic JT vs paced JT (P = .2). Right ventricular pacing causes prolongation of the QT due to a paced LBBB without prolongation of the JT time. In our study, we showed that QT prolongation caused by LBBB constitutes 48.5% of the QRS width. This is the value that must be subtracted from the measured QT in LBBB in order to estimate the modified QT. Thus, the resulting formula for "modified QT" estimation in LBBB is QTm = QTb - 48.5% * (QRSb). Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antonucci, V.; Caputo, F.; Ferraro, P.; Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Riccio, A.; Toscano, C.
2016-02-01
The research reported in this paper was aimed mainly to investigate the different NDE techniques on specimens made by a new process labeled as "pulsed infusion", very crucial for voids content under critical loading conditions. The impact load, in fact, is critical for composite laminates due to their anisotropy, in particular in extreme temperature conditions due to their brittleness. An additional and very relevant aim was to collect a large number of experimental results to supply useful information for the numerical models needed to simulate the dynamic behavior of composite laminates. At the aim to investigate the response under dynamic loads of laminates fabricated by a new vacuum assisted technology labeled as "pulsed infusion", rectangular carbon fiber composite specimens were subjected to low velocity impact tests. Experimental tests up to complete penetration and at different energy levels, were carried out by a modular falling weight tower. All the parameters related to the phenomenon, like penetration energy, maximum force and indentation depths, were used to validate existing semi-empirical and numerical models. The largely used ultra sound technique (US) was adopted to investigate the delamination together with the thermo graphic technique. The results of the measurements were compared with data obtained on the same specimens by holographic analysis (ESPI). One of the scope was to investigate the crucial internal impact damage and assess the ability of an unconventional ND system (ESPI) in giving right information about non-visual damage generated inside composite laminates subjected to dynamic loads. Moreover, some of the specimens were cut to allow the fractographic analysis. The efficiency of the above mentioned new fabrication technology was studied also comparing the results with measurements from literature on impacted autoclave cured laminates. By the comparison between the results, good agreements were found denoting the efficiency and the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shammas, Gabriel Issa Jabra
2006-07-01
Many thermoluminescent materials has been developed and used for photon personal dosimetry but no one has all desired characteristics alone. These characteristics include robustness, high sensitivity, energy photon independence, large range of photon energy detection, good reproducibility, small fading and simple glow curve with peaks above 150 deg C. Calcium Sulfate Dysprosium doped (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) phosphor Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) has been used by many laboratories, mainly in Brazil and India. Another interesting phosphor is Calcium Fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). These phosphor advantages begin to be more required and its disadvantages have became more apparent, in a global market more and more competitive. These phosphors are used in environmental and area monitoring, once they present more sensibility than other phosphors, like LiF:Mg. Theirs mainly disadvantage is a strong energetic dependence response, which must be corrected for theirs application in the field, where photon radiation is unknown a priori. An interesting way do make this correction in orthogonal incidence of the radiation on the phosphor is to interject a plane leaked filter between the beam and the phosphor. In order to reduce the energetic dependence on any incidence angle, reducing the field dose measurement uncertainty too, this work presents a simulation study on spherical filter geometries. It was simulated photon irradiations with Gamma rays of {sup 60}Co and x-rays of 33; 48 and 118 keV, on many incidence angles from zero to ninety degrees. These semi-empirical computational simulations using finite differences in three dimensions were done in spherical coordinates. The results pointed out the best filter thicknesses and widths, in order to optimize the correction on energetic dependence. (author)
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M. V. Tchernycheva
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with development outcomes for creation method of one-electron wave functions of complex atoms, relatively simple, symmetrical for all atom electrons and free from hard computations. The accuracy and resource intensity of the approach are focused on systematic calculations of cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes of inelastic collisions of atoms or molecules with electrons (ionization, excitation, excitation transfer, and others. Method. The method is based on a set of two iterative processes. At the first iteration step the Schrödinger equation was solved numerically for the radial parts of the electron wave functions in the potential of the atomic core self-consistent field. At the second iteration step the new approximationfor the atomic core field is created that uses found solutions for all one-electron wave functions. The solution optimization for described multiparameter problem is achieved by the use of genetic algorithm. The suitability of the developed method was verified by comparing the calculation results with numerous data on the energies of atoms in the ground and excited states. Main Results. We have created the run-time version of the program for creation of sets of one-electron wave functions and calculation of the cross sections and constants of collisional transition rates in the first Born approximation. The priori available information about binding energies of the electrons for any many-particle system for creation of semi-empirical refined solutions for the one-electron wave functions can be considered at any step of this procedure. Practical Relevance. The proposed solution enables a simple and rapid preparation of input data for the numerical simulation of nonlocal gas discharge plasma. The approach is focused on the calculation of discharges in complex gas mixtures requiring inclusion in the model of a large number of elementary collisional and radiation
Lara González, Sandra; Domecq Jendres, C; Atalah Samur, Eduardo
2013-11-01
The development of enteral formulas (FE) is subject to various risks of contamination. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), have worried about alerting, recommendations and documents released to prevent contamination the FE, suggesting the standardization and protocols for all procedures involved. The study was aimed to evaluate compliance with the technical criteria contained in a Guideline for Good Practice of Manufacture in relation to the development, maintenance and administration of enteral nutrition in hospitals of Santiago, in the Metropolitan Area. The verification criteria considered Physical Plant, Equipment and Implementation, Hygienic and Sanitary Standards, Human Resources, Organization and Management, Safety and Warranty Quality Assurance. 639 criteria were defined, 309 risk Type 1, by mayor risk of producing pollution. The study was conducted by observing Central Units Enteral Formulas and interview with the caregiver. Medium of compliance for each group of criteria risk 1 and overall, was analyzed. A total of 14 public hospitals were studied. The degree of compliance with the 639 reached a median of 33.2% (p25-75 31.6%-40.4%), with the lowest value for physical plant with 27.9% (p25-75 23.9%-38.2%) and the highest for human resources with 52.4% (p25-75 44.1%-52.4%). Median compliance for risk criteria Type 1 was only 31.8% (p25-75 27.5%-41.2%). Most of the units tested, meets less than half of the internationals recommendations, or the Ministry of Health of Chile. It should develop protocols and train staff to ensure quality and safety in the development of enteral formulas and reduce risk of infection. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Li-Guo; Ouyang, Xiao-Wen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Ni, Li-Jun; Shi, Wan-Zhong
2014-09-29
Yaotongning Capsule (YTNC) is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) formula that has been demonstrated to be effective for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment in clinical use. Many compounds and 10 component medicinal materials (CMMs for short, i.e., the fundamental elements used in TCM formulas) in YTNC are challenging to study the pharmacological effects and interactions of the CMMs. Besides, it is difficult to know whether the YTNC formula is reasonable, and if YTNC formula could be improved without comparing YTNC with other TCM formulas of treating OA. Based on different combinations of the active fractions from the 10 CMMs of YTNC and eight additional herbs frequently used in the TCM formulas of treating OA, the present study evaluated systematically the in vitro effects of these active fractions and the interactions among the active fractions from YTNC on rat chondrocytes to find possible solutions of the above questions. Based on the formulation of YTNC and the concept of combinatorial chemistry, the active fractions were applied to form the whole YTNC prescription (i.e., the combination of all YTNC active fractions and the extract of YTNC׳s vehicle), five disassembled formulas of YTNC (i.e., the combinations of some active fractions in YTNC) and 21 TCM samples consisted of different kinds of active fractions. The degenerated chondrocytes were induced with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and then the half-effective concentration (EC50) value of the proliferation activity was analyzed to evaluate the 27 TCM samples. Nine samples were screened for the following evaluation on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. Rat articular cartilage was obtained from six Sprague-Dawley rats (seven days of age), and then chondrocytes were isolated through enzymatic digestion with 0.2% Collagenase II. Proliferations of chondrocytes were examined through Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, when the intracellular levels of GAG were detected by 1,9-Dimethylmethylene blue staining. The interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne
analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...
Kiran, Ch Sai; Reddy, R Sudhakara; Ramesh, T; Madhavi, N Sai; Ramya, K
2015-01-01
The study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian method and its comparison with Indian formulas for estimation of dental age in subjects attending a dental school in South India. A total of 250 individuals (130 males and 120 females) between 7 and 18 years, with orthopantamographs were included in the study. Chronological age was recorded based on subject's date of birth. Dental age was estimated using Demirjian's and Indian formulas. All the data obtained was entered into spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis. The mean chronological age of the study sample was 12.39 ± 3.32 years; while the mean age obtained from Demirjian's method and Indian-specific regression formula were 11.56 ± 3.17 years and 14.20 ± 3.24 years, respectively. In the present study, the Demirjian's method under estimated dental age by 0.84 years in males and 0.83 years in females (P < 0.05). Indian-specific regression formulas overestimated dental age by 1.72 years in males and 1.91 years in females (P < 0.05). The published Demirjian's and Indian-specific regression formulas are not applicable to the present study group. Hence population-specific cubic regression formulas were developed for males and females in Bhimavaram town (South India).
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Caroline Siefarth
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The challenge in the development of infant formulas enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs is to meet the consumers’ expectations with regard to high nutritional and sensory value. In particular, PUFAs may be prone to fatty acid oxidation that can generate potential rancid, metallic and/or fishy off-flavors. Although such off-flavors pose no health risk, they can nevertheless lead to rejection of products by consumers. Thus, monitoring autoxidation at its early stages is of great importance and finding a suitable analytical tool to perform these evaluations is therefore of high interest in quality monitoring. Two formulations of infant formulas were varied systematically in their mineral composition and their presence of antioxidants to produce 18 model formulas. All models were aged under controlled conditions and their oxidative deterioration was monitored. A quantitative study was performed on seven characteristic odor-active secondary oxidation products in the formulations via two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-HRGC-MS/O. The sensitivity of the multi-dimensional GC-MS/O analysis was supported by two additional analytical tools for monitoring autoxidation, namely the analysis of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. Furthermore, an aroma profile analysis (APA was performed to reveal the presence and intensities of typical odor qualities generated in the course of fatty acid oxidation. The photometrical analyses of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were found to be too insensitive for early indication of the development of sensory defects. By comparison, the 2D-HRGC-MS/O was capable of monitoring peroxidation of PUFAs at low ppb-level in its early stages. Thereby, it was possible to screen oxidative variances on the basis of such volatile markers already within eight weeks after production of the products, which is an earlier indication of oxidative deterioration
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Fumino Ninomiya
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Palmoplantar hidrosis is common in patients who are susceptible to strains on the autonomic nervous system, and stress and mental strain have been proven to produce sweating in this population. Shigyaku-san (Sini san, TJ-35: Tsumura & Co. is effective for relieving stagnation of ‘liver Qi and vital energy’ in traditional Chinese medicine theory; this brings about improvement of palmoplantar hidrosis. The effect of Shigyaku-san on 40 patients was evaluated based on changes in palmoplantar sweat volume and skin temperature before and after stress loading. We also measured changes in the palmoplantar sweat volume and skin temperature due to stress load in 35 healthy controls who did not receive Shigyaku-san. Before treatment, the pre-stress sweat volume in patients was larger than that in healthy controls, however, after Shigyaku-san treatment, their pre-stress sweat volume decreased. With stress, the sweat volume increased in both patients and controls, but the net increase in the patients was larger than that in healthy controls. After Shigyaku-san treatment, the net increase of sweat volume due to stress was smaller than that of pretreatment, however, it did not show a significant difference with that of healthy controls. The palmoplantar skin temperature of the patients before treatment was lower than that of healthy controls. Palmoplantar skin temperature rose with stress loading in healthy controls, but decreased in pretreatment patients. Shigyaku-san treatment reduced the palmoplantar perspiration in palmoplantar hidrosis patients at rest and under stress. Furthermore, it also improved other serious complications, especially coldness of the extremities.
Inal, Berrin Bercik; Oguz, Osman; Emre, Turker; Usta, Murat; Inal, Halil; Altunoglu, Esma; Topkaya, Cigdem
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to compare the use of the ideal weight with the use of the patient's actual weight in the C-G (Cockcroft-Gault) formula for the measurement of the GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate). We also aimed to compare the results of the calculations explained above with the results of the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula and CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) results of the classical 24-hour creatinine clearance method. Creatinine clearance values, which were obtained from 24-hour urine collection, were compared with the values from the C-G formula in which each patient's ideal weight was used, with the values from the C-G for- mula in which each patient's actual body weight was used, and with the MDRD Formula and CKD-EPI. The correlation analysis between 24-hour creatinine clearance and the GFR obtained from the C-G formula with adjusted ideal weight in the Control group, Group I (patients with diabetes mellitus) and Group II resulted in values of r = 0.526, 0.576, and 0.850 (p formula among the same groups resulted in r = 0.814, 0.682, and 0.861 (p formula among the same groups resulted in r = 0.821, 0.679, and 0.871 (p formula were the most compatible with the results of 24-hour urine cre- atinine clearance which is used in clinical practice, especially in the control and diabetic group.
Formulaic speech in disorders of language
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Diana Sidtis
2014-04-01
Formulaic language studies remain less well recognized in language disorders. Profiles of differential formulaic language abilities in neurological disease have implications for cerebral models of language and for clinical evaluation and treatment of neurogenic language disorders.
Park, Joonam; Appiah, Williams Agyei; Byun, Seoungwoo; Jin, Dahee; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min
2017-10-01
To overcome the limitation of simple empirical cycle life models based on only equivalent circuits, we attempt to couple a conventional empirical capacity loss model with Newman's porous composite electrode model, which contains both electrochemical reaction kinetics and material/charge balances. In addition, an electrolyte depletion function is newly introduced to simulate a sudden capacity drop at the end of cycling, which is frequently observed in real lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). When simulated electrochemical properties are compared with experimental data obtained with 20 Ah-level graphite/LiFePO4 LIB cells, our semi-empirical model is sufficiently accurate to predict a voltage profile having a low standard deviation of 0.0035 V, even at 5C. Additionally, our model can provide broad cycle life color maps under different c-rate and depth-of-discharge operating conditions. Thus, this semi-empirical model with an electrolyte depletion function will be a promising platform to predict long-term cycle lives of large-format LIB cells under various operating conditions.
Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won
2014-12-01
Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect. Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.
Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; 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The inclusive production cross sections at forward rapidity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text](1S) and [Formula: see text](2S) are measured in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.35 pb[Formula: see text]. Quarkonia are reconstructed in the dimuon-decay channel and the signal yields are evaluated by fitting the [Formula: see text] invariant mass distributions. The differential production cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], over the ranges [Formula: see text] GeV/c for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] GeV/c for all other resonances and for [Formula: see text]. The measured cross sections integrated over [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and assuming unpolarized quarkonia, are: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] nb and [Formula: see text] nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second one is systematic. The results are compared to measurements performed by other LHC experiments and to theoretical models.
Esch, B.C.A.M. van; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Jeurink, P.V.; Garssen, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Knippels, L.M.J.
2013-01-01
This study describes two phases of a multi-phase project aiming to validate a mouse model for cow's milk allergy to assess the potential allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas (claim support EC-directive 2006/141/E). The transferability and the discriminatory power of this
Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won
2014-01-01
Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including e...
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Muhammad Saiedullah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Various formulas are available to estimate serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. All of these are serum triglycerides (TG dependent. But very recently de Cordova et al developed a simple formula (CF to calculate LDL cholesterol without using serum TG and claimed it to be more accurate than Friedewald.s formula (FF. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the CF for the calculation of LDL cholesterol in a Bangladeshi population. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty adult Bangladeshi subjects were purposively included in this study. Serum total cholesterol (TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were measured by direct automated methods. LDL cholesterol was also calculated by CF and FF. Results were expressed in conventional unit as mean ± SD and compared by two-tailed paired t test, bias against measured LDL cholesterol, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r, Passing & Bablok regression and accuracy within ±10% of the measured LDL cholesterol. Results: The mean values of directly measured LDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol calculated by CF and FF were 117.7 ± 31.0, 111.8 ± 31.0 and 108.9 ± 39.7 mg/dL respectively. Bias of calculated LDL cholesterol against measured LDL cholesterol was -5.2% for CF and -9.6% for FF. The correlation coefficients of measured LDL cholesterol were 0.9796 (p<0.001 for CF and 0.9525 (p<0.001 for FF. Passing & Bablok regression yielded the equation y = 0.9938x - 6.2 for CF and y = 1.2774x - 40.9 for FF. Accuracy within ±10% of measured LDL cholesterol was 81% for CF and 49% for FF. Conclusion: This study revealed better performance of the de Cordova's formula than Friedewald's formula for approximate calculation of LDL cholesterol without using serum triglycerides.
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Konstantinos Papagaroufalis
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background D-Lactic acidosis in infants fed lactic acid bacteria-containing products is a concern. Methods The primary objective of this non-inferiority trial was to compare urinary D-lactic acid concentrations during the first 28 days of life in infants fed formula containing Lactobacillus reuteri (1.2 x 10 6 colony forming units (CFU/ml with those fed a control formula. The non-inferiority margin was set at a two-fold increase in D-lactic acid (0.7 mmol/mol creatinine, log-transformed. Healthy term infants in Greece were enrolled between birth and 72 hours of age, and block randomized to a probiotic ( N = 44 or control ( N = 44 group. They were exclusively fed their formulae until 28 days of age and followed up at 7, 14, 28, 112, and 168 ± 3 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken at each visit and tolerance recorded until 112 days. Urine was collected before study formula intake and at all visits up to 112 days and blood at 14 days. Results D-Lactic acid concentration in the probiotic group was below the non-inferiority margin at 28 days: treatment effect -0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [-0.48 to 0.41] mmol/mol creatinine but was above the non-inferiority margin at 7 and 14 days–-treatment effect 0.50 (95% CI: [0.05-0.96] mmol/mol creatinine and 0.45 (95% CI: [0.00-0.90] mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. Blood acid excess and pH, anthropometry, tolerance, and adverse events (AEs were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Intake of L. reuteri -containing formula was safe and did not cause an increase in D-lactic acid beyond two weeks. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01119170.
Iskedjian, Michael; Dupont, Christophe; Spieldenner, Jörg; Kanny, Gisèle; Raynaud, Françoise; Farah, Bechara; Haschke, Ferdinand
2010-11-01
A pharmacoeconomic analysis was performed to determine costs, consequences and cost effectiveness of a partially hydrolysed 100% whey-based infant formula, NAN HA, manufactured by Nestlé S.A, Switzerland (PHF-W) and branded under Nidal Excel HA in France, in the prevention of atopic dermatitis (AD) in 'at risk' children when compared to standard cows' milk formula (SF) in France. A decision-analytic economic model depicting AD treatment pathways, as well as resource utilisation and costs associated with the treatment of AD in healthy yet 'at risk' French newborns who cannot be exclusively breastfed was constructed for a 12-month time horizon, including an initial 6 months of intervention with formula consumption. Model inputs were based on the literature, official formularies and expert opinion. The modelled treatment pathways included a dietary management approach (formula change), a medical treatment approach and a combination thereof. The final outcome was the expected cost per avoided case of AD, yielding an incremental cost per avoided case (ICER) of AD when comparing subjects who used PHF-W versus SF. Outcomes were presented from three perspectives: the French Ministry of Health (MOH), the subjects' family and society as a whole. A secondary analysis also compared PHF-W to extensively hydrolysed formula (EHF) in prevention. The number of avoided AD cases by selecting PHF-W over SF was 13,356 cases in a birth cohort of 185,298 'at risk' infants. The base case analysis, at 65% reimbursement, yielded expected ICERs of €1343, € -624 (savings) and €719 from the MOH, family and societal perspectives, respectively. From all three perspectives, the highest cost was attributable to formula. In case of a 35% reimbursement rate for PHF-W, the ICER was €615 from the MOH perspective, while the use of PHF-W was cost neutral at 10% reimbursement. PHF-W was cost-saving against EHF (€98-€116 million savings depending on type of EHF), when this latter was used in
Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian
2014-01-01
Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (−9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096
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Miao Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily, Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels between placebo and active treatment (−9% was significantly (P<0.05 better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1% (P=0.098. There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects.
Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem
2014-04-01
The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001), 0.486 (p < 0.001) and 0.608 (p < 0.001), respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779) was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gürhan Kayihan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT using different formulae. Material and Methods: Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST. VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993, Cureton et al. (1995 and Kline et al. (1987 for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982 for the 20-MST. Results: The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001, 0.486 (p < 0.001 and 0.608 (p < 0.001, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779 was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. Conclusions: When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/ walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.
Bar-Sela, Gil; Kaidar-Person, Orit; Mari, Fadi; Assady, Suheir; Haim, Nissim
2012-11-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Cockroft and Gault (CG) equation for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation in carboplatin dosing based on the Calvert formula. The records of 117 patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with carboplatin were retrospectively analyzed. Theoretical carboplatin doses derived from the Calvert formula using the CG equation were calculated for each chemotherapy cycle. Fluctuations in the theoretical carboplatin doses were analyzed, and discrepancies between actual carboplatin doses prescribed by the physician and theoretical doses were assessed. It was found that, compared with the first-cycle dose, subsequent theoretical doses were more than 10% higher in 79/320 cycles (24.7%) and more than 10% lower in 53/320 cycles (16.6%; P=0.015). A body mass index greater than or equal to 30 was associated with a tendency for increased CG-estimated GFR during subsequent chemotherapy cycles (P=0.009). Physicians tended to lower the prescribed dose (32.2% of the cycles) by using a higher serum creatinine (Scr) level for dose calculation than was actually measured. We concluded that Calvert formula-derived carboplatin doses fluctuate widely during repeated cycles when actual Scr is used for CG-estimated GFR. The measurement of 24-h creatinine clearance is advised as an alternative in selected patients with reduction in serum creatinine observed during treatments.
Walkenbach, John
2013-01-01
Maximize the power of Excel 2013 formulas with this must-have Excel reference John Walkenbach, known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" is a master at deciphering complex technical topics and Excel formulas are no exception. This fully updated book delivers more than 800 pages of Excel 2013 tips, tricks, and techniques for creating formulas that calculate, developing custom worksheet functions with VBA, debugging formulas, and much more. Demonstrates how to use all the latest features in Excel 2013 Shows how to create financial formulas and tap into the power of array formulas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bittencourt, Guilherme Rodrigues [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). PIBIC; Castro, Leonardo Curvello de; Pereira, Walsan W.; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Dantas, Maria Leticia [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI). Lab. de Neutrons
2009-07-01
The bath of a manganese sulfate (BMS) is a system for absolute standardization of the neutron sources. This work establishes a functional relationship based on semi-empirical methods for the theoretical prediction of physical density values, concentration and rate between the hydrogen and manganese atoms presents in the solution of the BMS
Universal deformation formulas
Remm, E.; Markl, M.
2015-01-01
We give a conceptual explanation of universal deformation formulas for unital associative algebras and prove some results on the structure of their moduli spaces. We then generalize universal deformation formulas to other types of algebras and their diagrams.
Wijker, J. J.; Ellenbroek, M. H. M.; Boer, A. de
2015-09-01
To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load), C^2 is a very important parameter for FLVT. A number of computational methods to estimate C^2 are described in the literature, i.e. the simple and the complex two degree of freedom system, STDFS and CTDFS, respectively. The motivation of this work is to evaluate the method for the computation of a realistic value of C^2 to perform a representative random vibration test based on force limitation, when the description of the supporting structure (source) is more or less unknown. Marchand discussed the formal description of obtaining C^2, using the maximum PSD of the acceleration and maximum PSD of the force, both at the interface between test article and supporting structure. Stevens presented the coupled systems modal approach (CSMA), where simplified asparagus patch models (parallel-oscillator representation) of load and source are connected. The asparagus patch model consists of modal effective masses and spring stiffnesses associated with the natural frequencies. When the random acceleration vibration specification is given the CSMA method is suitable to compute the value of the parameter C^2. When no mathematical model of the source can be made available, estimations of the value C^2 can be find in literature. In this paper a probabilistic mathematical representation of the unknown source is proposed, such that the asparagus patch model of the source can be approximated. The chosen probabilistic design parameters have a uniform distribution. The computation of the value C^2 can be done in conjunction with the CSMA method, knowing the apparent mass of the load and the random acceleration specification at the interface between load and source, respectively. Data of two
Ramírez, B; Rondán, V; Ortiz-Hernández, L; Silva-Martínez, S; Alvarez-Gallegos, A
2016-04-15
A commercial Unidirectional Carbon Fabric piece was used to design an electrode for the cathodic O2 reduction reaction in a divided (by a Nafion(®) 117 membrane) parallel plate reactor. The anode was a commercial stainless steel mesh. Under this approach it is feasible to produce H2O2 at low energy (2.08 kWh kg(-1) H2O2) in low ionic acidic medium. In the catholyte side the H2O2 can be activated with Fe(2+) to develop the Fenton reagent. It was found that Acid Orange 7 (AO7) indirect oxidation (in the concentration range of 0.12-0.24 mM) by Fenton chemistry follows a first order kinetic equation. The energy required for 0.24 mM AO7 degradation is 1.04 kWhm(-3). From each experimental AO7 oxidation the main parameters (a, mM and k, min(-1)) of the first order kinetic equation are obtained. These parameters can be correlated with AO7 concentration in the concentration range studied. Based on this method a semi-empirical chemical model was developed to predict the AO7 abatement, by means of Fenton chemistry. Good AO7 oxidation predictions can be made in the concentration range studied. A detailed discussion of the energy required for oxidizing AO7 and the accuracy of the chemical model to predict its oxidation is included in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walkenbach, John
2011-01-01
Everything you need to know about* Mastering operators, error values, naming techniques, and absolute versus relative references* Debugging formulas and using the auditing tools* Importing and exporting XML files and mapping the data to specific cells* Using Excel 2003's rights management feature* Working magic with array formulas* Developing custom formulas to produce the results you needHere's the formula for Excel excellenceFormulas are the lifeblood of spreadsheets, and no one can bring a spreadsheet to life like John Walkenbach. In this detailed reference guide, he delves deeply into unde
Lavelle, G C; Gubbe, S L; Neveaux, J L; Bowden, B J
1989-01-01
The virucidal efficacy of a health care personnel hand wash product containing 0.5% parachlorometaxylenol in a sodium C14-16 olefin sulfonate formula was evaluated in in vitro tests with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the presence of 50% whole human blood. The HTLV-IIIRF strain of HIV-1 was suspended in 50% medium-50% whole human blood and exposed to various dilutions of the hand wash product for 30 or 60 s. Following detoxification, residual infectivity was determined by a lytic cytopathogenic assay in MT2 cell cultures. No infectious HIV could be detected after a 30-s exposure to the hand wash product at dilutions of 1:5 and 1:10 and after a 60-s exposure at dilutions of 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, and 1:30. More than 99.9% of the virus was inactivated at these dilutions and exposure times. PMID:2619271
The triptan formulations: a critical evaluation Formulações dos triptanos: avaliacão crítica
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo E. Bigal
2003-06-01
drogas de escolha para o tratamento da crise migranosa. Diferentes triptanos são disponíveis em diferentes formulações, incluindo comprimidos, tabletes de dispersão oral, sprays para administração nasal e injeções subcutâneas. Na Europa, sumatriptan também é disponível como supositório. Diferenças específicas entre os triptanos são evidenciadas por seu diferente perfil farmacológico, incluindo T½, Tmax, Cmax, AUC, metabolismo, perfil de interação entre drogas, entre outros parâmetros. Controvérsias existem sobre se, ou como, essas variáveis traduzem-se em eficácia clínica e tolerabilidade. A distinção clínica entre esses agentes é sutil e a escolha adequada de um triptano requer consideração sobre as características específicas de cada paciente, conhecimento da preferência dos mesmos, obtenção de história acurada sobre a eficácia de medicações previamente utilizadas, assim como consideração sobre as características individuais das diversas drogas. A via posológica parece desempenhar importante papel no modo de ação dos triptanos. A seleção de droga antimigranosa adequada para o tratamento da crise migranosa depende da estratificação do ataque de acordo como a intensidade da dor, tempo para que a máxima intensidade da dor seja atingida, sintomas associados, tempo para que os sintomas associados se manifestem, doenças concomitantes e tratamentos adjuvantes que possam causar interações medicamentosas. O clínico dispõe em seu armamentário uma variedade de medicamentos em constante expansão, em múltiplas formulações e dosagens, seguras e com bom perfil de tolerabilidade. O uso continuado dos triptanos perimitirá familiaridade com essa classe de medicação e possibilitará ao clínico a prescrição de drogas com características específicas para atender as necessidades clínicas de diferentes pacientes, de modo a otimizar o benefício terapêutico.
Yeerken, Yesiboli; Otomaru, Takafumi; Said, Mohamed; Li, Na; Taniguchi, Hisashi
2017-04-01
Mastication is one of the essential stomatognathic functions and is impaired when mandibulectomy is performed for removal of head and neck lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between perceived chewing ability {Masticatory Score (MS)} and objective mixing ability (∆E) in patients who had undergone marginal mandibulectomy. Twenty normal dentate subjects as control group and twenty mandibulectomy patients who had undergone marginal mandibulectomy and wearing a dentomaxillary prosthesis were enrolled. Perceived chewing ability MS and objective ∆E were evaluated using a food intake questionnaire and the colour-changeable chewing gum, respectively. They were instructed to chew the gum continuously for 100 strokes on their usual side. The chewed gum was measured using the CIELAB colour space defined by a colourimeter and L, a* and b* were obtained. The change in colour of the gum after chewing was calculated using CIELAB (∆Eab) and the CIEDE2000 (∆E00) formula. The relationships of a*, ∆Eab, and ∆E00 with MS score were analyzed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A correlation was found between perceived chewing ability (MS) and objective mixing ability (index of the masticatory function {∆E}) in marginal mandibulectomy patients. (∆E00 = 0.481, a* = 0.587, ∆Eab = 0.668). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the CIEDE2000 formula for calculation of colour difference can be used to evaluate masticatory function in patients who have undergone marginal mandibulectomy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yennie, D.R.
1963-06-15
The Rosenbluth formula, defined as the theoretical expression for the differential cross section for electronproton scattering under one-photon- exchange, is discussed. Electron-proton amd positron-proton scattering are compared using the formula. Some possible corrections to the Rosenbluth formula are discussed. The effects of nonelectromagnetic interactions and two-photon- exchange, with the possibility of Regge pole behavior, are also discussed. (R.E.U.)
Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar; Mahdieh Pouryazdanpanah; Zahra Ganie Far; Saba Ghazanfari; Abdolreza Norouzy
2014-01-01
...`s reports standard enteral formula is inducing diarrhea. In this study our purpose is to evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in hospitalized patients with standard Enteral Nutrition (EN) formula intake...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hojsak, Iva; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina
2018-01-01
Young child formulae (YCF) are milk-based drinks or plant protein-based formulae intended to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of young children ages 1 to 3 years. Although widely available on the market, their composition is, however, not strictly regulated and health effects have...
Formula misasi?! / Sten Soomlais
Soomlais, Sten
2008-01-01
Formula Student on kõrgkoolide masinaehituse ja/või autotehnika tudengite meeskondade vaheline iga-aastane tootearendusvõistlus, mis kujutab endast väikese vormelauto projekteerimist, ehitamist ja võidusõitmist ringrajal. Lisa: Formula Student Eestis
... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...
K.R. Apt (Krzysztof); M.A. Bezem
1998-01-01
textabstractWe provide here a computational interpretation of first-order logic based on a constructive interpretation of satisfiability w.r.t. a fixed but arbitrary interpretation. In this approach the emph{formulas themselves are emph{programs. This contrasts with the so-called emph{formulas as
Ishida, Kazuhiro
1991-10-01
Recurrence relations between auxiliary functions to calculate the electron-repulsion integrals (ERIs) over Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals (GTOs) can be derived. With the use of the Rys polynomials, this serves as a general formula method for evaluating ERIs and the ERI analytical derivatives. The computer code of the present method is quite general (i.e., it has no limitation for the shell type of GTOs), very compact (i.e., it has no coding difficulty), and extremely rapid (e.g., 2.1 μs per one ERI, 0.51 μs per one ERI first derivative, and 0.40 μs per one ERI second derivative for the [II‖II] shell block). It is found that the present method is especially efficient for evaluating ERIs including g-type or higher GTOs, the first derivatives including f-type or higher GTOs, and the second derivatives including d-type or higher GTOs.
Sam, Sazilah; Abdullah, Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee
2017-05-01
This article introduces the Form Three Mathematics i-Think Module (Mi-T3). The main objective of this Mi-T3 is to assist form three students develop their higher order thinking skills (HOTS). The Sidek Module Development Model (SMDM) and eight innovative thinking maps (i-Think) were applied as a guideline in developing Mi-T3. A validation stage was carried out by eight experts, and content validation achievement more than 90% obtained. A group of form three students and teachers was piloted to check the module's reliability through one to one and small group evaluation and Cronbach Alpha more than 0.90 was obtained. Implications of the study are discussed in this article.
Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.
Rygiel, Mary Ann
1982-01-01
Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...
Herzsprung, Peter; von Tümpling, Wolf; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Norf, Helge; Weitere, Markus; Kamjunke, Norbert
2017-04-01
Transformation of DOC and DOM was and is widespread investigated (1-3). Due to the complex composition of DOC increased attention was payed to DOM quality change during degradation processes. In order to get a better insight in DOM transformation processes both resolution as a function of time and on a molecular level are promising. The observation of DOM quality changes requires sophisticated evaluation techniques. A new evaluation strategy of FTICR-MS elemental formula data sets is introduced. An experiment with seven flumes and leaf leachate was performed. All flumes were sampled on five dates (within 7 days) and the SPEDOM was characterized using high-field FTICR-MS analysis, resulting in together 35 elemental formula data sets. The time dependent change of components abundance was fitted by a simple linear regression model after normalization of mass peak intensities. All components were categorized by calculation of the slope (change of percent intensity per day) in all seven flumes. A positive slope means product formation, a negative slope means degradation of components. Specific data filtration was developed to find out components with relevant change of relative intensity. About 7000 different components were present in at least one of the 35 samples. Of those about 1800 components were present in all of the 35 samples. About 300 components with significant increase of intensity were identified. They were mainly unsaturated and oxygen-rich components (lignin-like or tannin-like) and had molecular masses less than 450 Dalton. A group of about 70 components was partially degraded (significant negative slope, present in all samples). These components were more saturated and less oxygen-rich compared to the product group and had molecular masses > 450 Dalton. A third group of about 150 components was identified with a tendency to total degradation (significant negative slope, not present in all samples, reduced or no abundance at the end of the experiment
Verger, Eric O; Eussen, Simone; Holmes, Bridget A
2016-07-01
To adapt and evaluate a nutrient-based diet quality index (PANDiet) for UK young children and to determine the nutritional adequacy of their diets according to consumption of young child formula (YCF) and commercial infant foods (CIF). Content and construct validity of the PANDiet were assessed by studying associations between the PANDiet and its components, energy intake, food intakes, and child and maternal characteristics. Four groups of children were defined according to their intake of YCF and CIF: (i) no consumption; (ii) consumption of YCF; (iii) consumption of CIF; and (iv) consumption of YCF and CIF. Child and maternal characteristics, PANDiet scores and food intakes of these four groups were compared. Secondary analysis of data from the UK Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC, 2011). Young children (n 1152) aged 12-18 months. The PANDiet was adapted to the UK based on twenty-five nutrients. A lower PANDiet score was linked to lower intakes of YCF, CIF, vegetables and fruits. Determinants of having a lower score were being older, having siblings and having a younger mother with a lower educational level. Compared with children consuming neither YCF nor CIF, PANDiet scores were higher in children consuming CIF (+1·4), children consuming YCF (+7·2) and children consuming YCF and CIF (+7·8; all P<0·001). The PANDiet is a valid indicator of the nutrient adequacy of the diet of UK young children. Consuming CIF was not found to be associated with lower nutritional adequacy whereas consuming YCF was associated with higher nutritional adequacy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.
1982-04-10
A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghanem Maha
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Background: A prediction formula for mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP using standard lung function measurement has been recently validated to screen for pulmonary hypertension (PH in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF patients. Objective: To test the usefulness of this formula as a new non invasive screening tool for PH in IPF patients. Also, to study its correlation with patients′ clinical data, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABGs and other commonly used screening methods for PH including electrocardiogram (ECG, chest X ray (CXR, trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE and computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 37 IPF patients from tertiary hospital. The accuracy of MPAP estimation was assessed by examining the correlation between the predicted MPAP using the formula and PH diagnosed by other screening tools and patients′ clinical signs of PH. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the prediction of PH using cut off point of 21 or 25 mm Hg (p0 = 0.24. The formula-predicted MPAP greater than 25 mm Hg strongly correlated in the expected direction with O2 saturation (r = −0.95, P < 0.000, partial arterial O2 tension (r = −0.71, P < 0.000, right ventricular systolic pressure measured by TTE (r = 0.6, P < 0.000 and hilar width on CXR (r = 0.31, P = 0.03. Chest symptoms, ECG and CTPA signs of PH poorly correlated with the same formula (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The prediction formula for MPAP using standard lung function measurements is a simple non invasive tool that can be used as TTE to screen for PH in IPF patients and select those who need right heart catheterization.
Formulaic language: fixed and varied
Schmitt, Norbert
2006-01-01
Formulaic language has been shown to be an important component of language usage. This paper summarizes evidence of this importance and then goes on to focus upon two key characteristics of formulaic language: fixedness and variability. Formulaic language is usually conceptualized as being basically fixed, but examples are given to illustrate that in many cases formulaic language contains a considerable amount of variation. The degree and type of variation depends on which kind of formulaic l...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abefe Sanusi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The new predictive formula generated during the study of Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients was found to be superior to existing predictive formulas in all races including black Americans. We had previously published a study evaluating and comparing 5 predictive formulas and their applicability in Nigerian CKD patients and normal subjects. The existing data from this study were re-analyzed and the 5 previous formulas compared with the MDRD formula. All the pre-dictive formulas including the MDRD formula correlated significantly with measured creatinine clearance in CKD subjects and controls. Correlation Coefficient, (r ranged between 0.908-0.968 and Coefficient of Determination, (r 2 , ranged between 0.826-0.936. There was also good corre-lation between the measured and predicted CrCl in healthy state, though the r and r 2 values were weaker (0.718-0.957 and (0.516-0.916. Specifically, MDRD formula was only superior to Jelliffe and Gates and not so to Cockcroft and Gault, Hull, and Mawer equations in CRF. MDRD formula yielded r= 0.93 and r 2 = 0.86 and the values for Cockcroft and Gault, Hull and Mawer ranged between 0.96-0.97 and 0.93-0.94 respectively. In conclusion, MDRD formula, though useful and applicable was not superior to existing formulas. Cockcroft and Gault equation can still be used due to the ease of recall and its high correlation coefficient in health and disease states.
A series transformation formula and related polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khristo N. Boyadzhiev
2005-12-01
Full Text Available We present a formula that turns power series into series of functions. This formula serves two purposes: first, it helps to evaluate some power series in a closed form; second, it transforms certain power series into asymptotic series. For example, we find the asymptotic expansions for ÃŽÂ»>0 of the incomplete gamma function ÃŽÂ³(ÃŽÂ»,x and of the Lerch transcendent ÃŽÂ¦(x,s,ÃŽÂ». In one particular case, our formula reduces to a series transformation formula which appears in the works of Ramanujan and is related to the exponential (or Bell polynomials. Another particular case, based on the geometric series, gives rise to a new class of polynomials called geometric polynomials.
Evaluating Mediterranean Soil Contamination Risks in Selected Hydrological Scenarios.
Rosa, de la D.; Crompvoets, J.
1997-01-01
This paper reports an attempt of predicting the contamination risk of soils and water as they respond to hydrological changes in the agricultural lands of Sevilla province, Spain. Based on land evaluation methodologies, a semi-empirical model (named Pantanal, as module of the integrated package
white's friction factor formulae
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara Monkin, Ondo State. NIGERIA. ACCURATE SOLUTIONS OF COLEBROOK- WHITE'S FRICTION FACTOR FORMULAE. S. Lukman1 and I. A. Oke2,*. 1 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF HAFR AL-BATIN, HAFR AL-BATIN, SAUDI ARABIA. 2 CIVIL ...
Acidified infant formula explained
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2013-01-21
Jan 21, 2013 ... children.1 The development of effective methods to prevent acute gastroenteritis in infants remains ... over non-acidified formula in children with mild digestive problems (or in situation in which .... Bifidobacterium lactis: impact on infant diarrhea in residential care settings. J. Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004 ...
Iskedjian, Michael; Belli, Dominique; Farah, Bechara; Navarro, Vincent; Detzel, Patrick
2012-01-01
A pharmacoeconomic analysis was undertaken to determine costs, consequences, and cost-effectiveness of a partially hydrolyzed 100% whey-based infant formula, NAN-HA®, manufactured by Nestlé S.A, Switzerland (PHF-W), branded under BEBA HA® in Switzerland, in the prevention of atopic dermatitis (AD) in 'at risk' Swiss children when compared to standard cow's milk formula (SF). Based on a 12-month time horizon including 6 months of formula consumption, an economic model was developed synthesizing treatment pathways, resource utilization, and costs associated with the treatment of AD in healthy 'at risk' Swiss newborns who could not be exclusively breastfed. Model inputs were retrieved from the literature, official formularies, and expert opinion. The treatment pathways considered a medical treatment approach, supplemented in some instances by a change of formula. The final outcome was the expected cost per avoided case of AD, yielding an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for PHF-W vs SF. Outcomes were presented from three perspectives: the Swiss public healthcare system (MOH), the subject's family, and society (SOC). A secondary analysis compared PHF-W to whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) in prevention. The model yielded 1653 avoided AD cases by selecting PHF-W over SF in a birth cohort of 22,933 'at risk' infants. The base case analyses generated an expected ICER of CHF 982 from the MOH perspective as well as savings of CHF 2202 and CHF 1220 from the family and SOC perspectives, respectively. PHF-W yielded CHF 11.4M savings against EHF when the latter was assumed to be used in prevention. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Under a range of assumptions, this analysis has established the dominance from the family and societal perspectives and cost-effectiveness from the MOH perspective of PHF-W vs SF in the prevention of AD among 'at risk' Swiss infants.
Miraglia Del Giudice, Michele; D'Auria, Enza; Peroni, Diego; Palazzo, Samuele; Radaelli, Giovanni; Comberiati, Pasquale; Galdo, Francesca; Maiello, Nunzia; Riva, Enrica
2015-06-03
Both extensively hydrolysed formulas (eHF) and amino acid-based formula (AAFs) have been demonstrated effective for the treatment of CMA. However, in clinical practice, parents complain that hydrolysates are rejected by children due to their bad taste. Flavor of hydrolysed formulas has been poorly investigated although it affects the acceptance of milk over all the other attributes. The aim of the present study was to understand the factors underlying the unpleasant flavor of hydrolysed 25 formulas and amino acid-based formula. One hundred and fifty trained panelists performed a randomized-double-blind test with different milks. The smell, texture, taste and aftertaste of each formula were evaluated on a scale ranging from -2 (worst) to 2 (best). Formulas showed significant difference, as compared to cow's milk, in smell, texture, taste and aftertaste. Overall, whey eHFs were judged of better palatability than casein eHF and the AAFs (p milks' flavor and nutrient profile of hydrolysed formulas are warranted.
Research is reported on the development of a quantitative decision model that can be used in the selection of the most appropriate method of support ...which constitute a cost estimation model by which overall costs (including logistical costs) of alternate methods of support may be compared and the...item for study and the alternatives to be considered, including a major component formula; and (4) examples of model application to end items supported by Frankford Arsenal. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfredo Bregni
2013-04-01
innovation to the main process functioning. As a result, the proposed algorithm copes better with demand uncertainty, lowers the system nervousness and also removes the need for continuous forecast adjustments, thereby improving the ease in managing the material flow, allowing the development of new forms of collaboration among different supply chain partners and the creation of new business networks. The algorithm is presented in formulas to describe in detail each procedure step and calculations.
Antezana, Jorge; Larotonda, Gabriel; Varela, Alejandro
2011-01-01
Let X and Y be two nxn Hermitian matrices. In the article "Proof of a conjectured exponential formula" (Linear and Multilinear Algebra (19) 1986, 187-197) R. C. Thompson proved that there exist two nxn unitary matrices U and V such that $$ e^{i X}e^{i Y}=e^{i (UXU^*+VBV^*)}. $$ In this note we consider extensions of this result to compact operators as well as to operators in an embeddable II$_1$ factor.
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Nádia Araci Bou-Chacra
2005-09-01
Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of four different dental gel formulas was evaluated on three microorganisms associated with cariogenesis: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces viscosus. The preliminary antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed using an agar diffusion method. In addition, the formulas were challenged using each microorganism with subsequent determinations of survivors at time intervals of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The decimal reduction time (D-value calculated from the obtained curves (logCFU/mL vs. time was employed for the antimicrobial activity comparison of the formulas. The selected method for survivor enumeration was validated according to official compendia. Results revealed intense bactericidal activity, even at 1:2 dilution, on S. mutans and L. casei. The data concerning A. viscosus showed the absence of microbial reduction in the challenge employing diluted formulas at the selected time interval. The obtained D-values were 0.21, 2.08, 1.93 and 5.79 minutes for formulas 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After comparing the obtained results, formula 1 can be considered to have the highest bactericidal activity.A atividade antimicrobiana de quatro diferentes fórmulas de gel dental foi avaliada empregando três microrganismos associados à cariogênese: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei e Actinomyces viscosus. A avaliação preliminar foi efetuada utilizando método por difusão em ágar. Além disso, as fórmulas foram desafiadas empregando cada microrganismo e as determinações relativas aos sobreviventes foram efetuadas após 1, 5, 10, 20 e 30 minutos do desafio. O tempo de redução decimal (valor-D foi calculado por meio das curvas obtidas (UFC/mL x tempo, objetivando a comparação da atividade antimicrobiana entre as fórmulas. O método selecionado para a enumeração dos sobreviventes foi validado de acordo com compêndio oficial. Os resultados revelaram intensa atividade antimicrobiana
Soy formulas and nonbovine milk.
Muraro, Maria Antonella; Giampietro, Paolo G; Galli, Elena
2002-12-01
Cow's milk allergy is frequently observed during the first year of life when nutritional requirements are critical. In those cases where breast-feeding is not available, a safe and adequate substitute to cow's milk should be offered. The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of milk derived from vegetable proteins, such as soy, or from animals such as goat, mare, or donkey, or elemental diet in children with cow's milk allergy. MEDLINE searches were conducted with key words such as soy, goat's milk, donkey's milk, mare's milk, and elemental diet. Additional articles were identified from references in books or articles. Original research papers and review articles from peer-reviewed journals were chosen. Soy formulas are nutritionally adequate and can be used in children with immunoglobulin E-mediated nongastrointestinal manifestations of cow's milk allergy. Goat's milk is as allergenic as cow's milk. Mare's milk and donkey's milk may be used in selected cases of cow's milk allergy after appropriate modification to make them suitable for human infants. Elemental diets are usually restricted to the most severe cases of cow's milk allergy (ie, sensitivity to extensively hydrolyzed protein formulas). Vegetable formulas obtained from soy and milk derived from other mammals, such as mare or donkey, homemade preparations, and elemental diet may represent valid alternatives for children with cow's milk allergy. Extensive clinical trials are needed on the safety profile of any alternative mammal-derived milk. The choice of alternative milk should take into account the clinical profile of the child allergic to cow's milk, particularly as concerns age, severity of symptoms, degree of sensitivity to cow's milk proteins, and any multiple food allergies.
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Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N
2017-01-01
This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borzenko, V.A.; Koltovskiy, L.V.; Koshelyov, Yu.I.; Kuzovlyev, G.F.; Lebedyev, S.I.; Sitnikov, S.A.; Telegin, V.D.
1979-12-30
To improve operation of scrubbers that operate in crystallizers for deparaffinization of oil products, a formula is being suggested which contains siliceous fibers, and a type of thermoactive resin - phenol-formaldehyde laquer, with the following component ration (% weight): carbon fiber 20-25, siliceous fibers 20-30, dry lubricant 10-15, phenolformaldehyde laquer up to 100. Phys.-mech. characteristics are flexure, compression, Ak of the suggested and known compositions (kgs/cm/sup 2/) 2150-2450 and 2550-2700, 32-37 and 1750, 2150 and 27 operation resource 2100:2500 and 1400.
Analysis of straightening formula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Devadatta M. Kulkarni
1988-01-01
standard bitableaux (or the set of standard monomials in minors gives a free basis for a polynomial ring in a matrix of indeterminates over a field. The straightening formula expresses a nonstandard bitableau as an integral linear cobmbination of standard bitableaux. In this paper we analyse the exchanges in the process of straightening a nonstandard pure tableau of depth two. We give precisely the number of steps required to straighten a given violation of a nonstandard tableau. We also characterise the violation which is eliminated in a single step.
Iskedjian, Michael; Haschke, Ferdinand; Farah, Bechara; van Odijk, Jenny; Berbari, Jade; Spieldenner, Jörg
2012-01-01
A pharmacoeconomic analysis was undertaken to determine costs, consequences, and cost-effectiveness of a brand of partially hydrolyzed 100%-whey formula manufactured by Nestlé (PHF-W), in the prevention of atopic dermatitis (AD) in 'at risk' Danish children compared to extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF-Whey or Casein). Given the non-significant differences between PHF-W and EHF, the base case analytic approach amounted to a cost-minimization analysis (CMA) reporting the difference in formula acquisition costs over the period of formula consumption for the population of interest. However, sensitivity analyses (SAs) were undertaken to explore applying the nominal efficacy of PHF-W and EHF, thus leading to a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Hence, an economic model based on a 12-month time horizon was developed synthesizing treatment pathways, resource utilization, and costs associated with the treatment of AD in the population of interest. The final economic outcome of the SAs was the incremental cost per avoided case (ICER) defined as the expected cost per avoided case of AD for PHF-W vs EHF, determined from three perspectives: the Ministry of Health (MOH), the family of the subject, and society (SOC). In the base case CMA, savings of DKK 9 M, DKK 20 M, and DKK 29 M were generated for PHF-W vs EHF from the MOH, family, and SOC perspectives. In the sensitivity CEA, PHF-W was dominant over EHF-Whey from all perspectives, while EHF-Casein displayed against PHF-W unattractive ICERs of DKK 315,930, DKK 408,407, and DKK 724,337 from the MOH, family, and SOC perspectives. Probabilistic SAs indicated that PHF-W was 86% likely to be dominant over EHF-Whey, whereas EHF-Casein had no likelihood of dominating PHF-W. Under a range of assumptions, this analysis demonstrated the attractiveness of PHF-W vs both types of EHF in the prevention of AD among 'at risk' Danish infants who are not or cannot be exclusively breastfed.
Huang, Yi; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Huang, Hui; Choiniere, Conrad J; Fein, Sara B
2013-03-01
Infant formula is marketed by health professionals and directly to consumers. Formula marketing has been shown to reduce breastfeeding, but the relation with switching formulas has not been studied. Willingness to switch formula can enable families to spend less on formula. Data are from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a United States national longitudinal study. Mothers were asked about media exposure to formula information during pregnancy, receiving formula samples or coupons at hospital discharge, reasons for their formula choice at infant age 1 month, and formula switching at infant ages 2, 5, 7, and 9 months. Analysis included 1,700 mothers who fed formula at infant age 1 month; it used logistic regression and longitudinal data analysis methods to evaluate the association between marketing and formula choice and switching. Most mothers were exposed to both types of formula marketing. Mothers who received a sample of formula from the hospital at birth were more likely to use the hospital formula 1 month later. Mothers who chose formula at 1 month because their doctor recommended it were less likely to switch formula than those who chose in response to direct-to-consumer marketing. Mothers who chose a formula because it was used in the hospital were less likely to switch if they had not been exposed to Internet web-based formula information when pregnant or if they received a formula sample in the mail. Marketing formula through health professionals may decrease mothers' willingness to switch formula. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Feynman formulae for evolution semigroups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya. A. Butko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper systematically describes an approach to solution of initial and initial-boundary value problems for evolution equations based on the representation of the corresponding evolution semigroups with the help of Feynman formulae. The article discusses some of the methods of constructing Feynman formulae for different evolution semigroups, presents specific examples of solutions of evolution equations. In particular, Feynman formula is obtained for evolution semigroups generated by multiplicative perturbations of generators of some initial semigroups. In this case semigroups on a Banach space of continuous functions defined on an arbitrary metric space are considered; Feynman formulae are constructed with the help of operator families, which are Chernoff equivalent to the initial unperturbed semigroups. The present result generalizes the author's paper \\Feynman formula for semigroups with multiplicative perturbed generators" and some of the results of the joint with O.G. Smolyanov and R.L. Schilling paper \\Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Feynman formulae for some Feller processes and their perturbations". The approach to the construction of Feynman formulae for semigroups with multiplicative and additive perturbed generators is illustrated with examples of the Cauchy problem for the Schrodinger equation, the approximation of transition probabilities of some Markov processes.Further, a wider class of additive and multiplicative perturbations of a particular generator | the Laplace operator | is considered in the paper. And Feynman formula for the solution of the Cauchy problem for a second order parabolic equation with unbounded variable coefficients is proved. In addition, the article describes a method for constructing Feynman formulae for solutions of the Cauchy | Dirichlet problem for parabolic differential equations. The method is also illustrated by a second order parabolic equation with variable coefficients. These results generalize some
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
Bojanov, Borislav
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.
2008-01-01
Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…
Case Study: Enteral formula: Selecting the right formula for your ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We provide a brief summary of all enteral formulae in terms of unique features and recommendations for use. Practical application .... Be cautious of the high fibre and fat content of the products in patients with gastroparesis. Low sodium. • Polymeric formulae with reduced sodium content. • For use in patients with persistent ...
Seuss, Hannes; Janka, Rolf; Prümmer, Marcus; Cavallaro, Alexander; Hammon, Rebecca; Theis, Ragnar; Sandmair, Martin; Amann, Kerstin; Bäuerle, Tobias; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias
2017-04-01
Volumetric analysis of the kidney parenchyma provides additional information for the detection and monitoring of various renal diseases. Therefore the purposes of the study were to develop and evaluate a semi-automated segmentation tool and a modified ellipsoid formula for volumetric analysis of the kidney in non-contrast T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR)-images. Three readers performed semi-automated segmentation of the total kidney volume (TKV) in axial, non-contrast-enhanced T2-weighted MR-images of 24 healthy volunteers (48 kidneys) twice. A semi-automated threshold-based segmentation tool was developed to segment the kidney parenchyma. Furthermore, the three readers measured renal dimensions (length, width, depth) and applied different formulas to calculate the TKV. Manual segmentation served as a reference volume. Volumes of the different methods were compared and time required was recorded. There was no significant difference between the semi-automatically and manually segmented TKV (p = 0.31). The difference in mean volumes was 0.3 ml (95% confidence interval (CI), -10.1 to 10.7 ml). Semi-automated segmentation was significantly faster than manual segmentation, with a mean difference = 188 s (220 vs. 408 s); p segmentation and volumetric analysis of the kidney in native T2-weighted MR data delivers accurate and reproducible results and was significantly faster than manual segmentation. Applying a modified ellipsoid formula quickly provides an accurate kidney volume.
Mosley, Gregg A; Gillis, John R; Krushefski, Garrett
2005-01-01
Bacterial endospores from six different species of bacteria were exposed to a spectrum of ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilizing conditions. Temperature was varied from 40 to 60 degrees C and the ethylene oxide concentration was varied from 300 to 750 mg/L. Relative humidity was maintained at 60+/-10% RH. The fraction negative procedure was used to determine the D value for each of the test conditions. Bacterial species tested included Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC # 9372, Bacillus smithii ATCC # 51232, Bacillus subtilis "5230" ATCC # 35021, Bacillus subtilis, DSM # 4181, Bacillus pumilus ATCC # 27142, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC # 7953. All spore preparations were inoculated on filter paper strips packaged in blue, sterilizable glassine pouches. G. stearothermophilus was the least resistant organism tested. The most resistant organisms tested were B. atrophaeus and B. subtilis "5230". The B. subtilis "5230" strain was slightly more resistant than B. atrophaeus at conditions of 54C and EtO concentrations of 400, 600, and 750 mg/L, as well as at 60C/750mg/L EtO. The other species were between these extremes. This empirical data allowed the application of the recently published formula for converting D values from one set of conditions to another and evaluations of accuracy. The measured D values also allowed the determination of Z values based on temperature variations. These formulae, when applied to process temperatures independent of gas concentration, result in a Z value of approximately 32 degrees C that appears to be similar for all species tested. These data support the application of the previously published formulae 1-6 and allow the same approach to integrated lethality for ethylene oxide processes as is commonly applied to steam sterilization. A review of steam sterilization and related principles was conducted for comparison of integrated lethality for these two methods of sterilization. Errors associated with D values, Z values, extrapolation, and
Formulae to describe porous flow
Van Gent, M.R.A.
1992-01-01
For the description of porous flow the Forchheimer equation is normally used. Several formulae have been proposed for the coefficients Cl and c2 from this equation. All these formulae are based on experiments. Those coefficients represent the friction and resistance caused by the porous medium. The
Oort, F.
2016-01-01
Let ϕ : S → T be a surjective holomorphic map between compact Riemann surfaces. There is a formula relating the various invariants involved: the genus of S, the genus of T, the degree of ϕ and the amount of ramification. Riemann used this formula in case T has genus zero. Contemporaries referred to
Wang, Rui; Chen, Lie-Wen
2017-10-01
We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4 (A) of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4 (ρ0) at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4 (A) via the double difference of the ;experimental; symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) = 20.0 ± 4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4 (ρ0) is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Wang
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4(A of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4(ρ0 at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4(A via the double difference of the “experimental” symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4(ρ0=20.0±4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4(ρ0 is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.
Poetic grounds of epic formulae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delić Lidija
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The study of oral formulae in the twentieth century had several phases. After the initial - very stimulating and influential - research by M. Parry and A. B. Lord, who focused on the technique of composing the poem and the mnemotechnic function of formulae, the focus at first shifted to the concept of performance (J. M. Foley, and then to the mental text (L. Honko, which introduced into research horizons social, ideological, psychological and mental conditions of improvisation, interaction between the singer and the audience, collective and individual factors of memorising, cultural representation, and the like. Although all the abovementioned aspects undoubtedly determine the structure of a specific variant, it should be kept in mind that formulae transcend concrete improvisations and connect different epic zones, different local traditions and different times. The formula precedes verbal improvisation both chronologically and logically. Therefore - before explaining the repeating of formulae by the needs and nature of improvisation (composition-in-performance or the generating of formulae in specific variants by textualisation of mental text - we must explain the existence of the formula in the first place. This paper seeks to point out the complex system of factors that determine the genesis of formulae. Formulae are regarded as cultural codes, which combine elements from different spheres (the conceptualization of space, time, colour and so on, elements of rituals, customary norms, historical experience, life realities, ethics, etc.. Therefore, their structure is described in terms of hidden knowledge, hidden complexity, frame semantics, the tip of the iceberg, compressed meanings. Meanings “compressed” in the formulae are upgraded with new “income” in every new/concrete realisation (i.e. poem and this is the area where aesthetics rivals poetics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178011: Serbian Oral Tradition in an
Preclinical assessment of infant formula.
Lönnerdal, Bo
2012-01-01
Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Analogues of Euler and Poisson summation formulae
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Analogues of Euler and Poisson Summation Formulae. Vivek V Rane. Volume 113 Issue 3 ... Keywords. Abel's summation formula; Euler summation formula; Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; Poisson's summation formula; Fourier series.
Implementing successful strategic plans: a simple formula.
Blondeau, Whitney; Blondeau, Benoit
2015-01-01
Strategic planning is a process. One way to think of strategic planning is to envision its development and design as a framework that will help your hospital navigate through internal and external changing environments over time. Although the process of strategic planning can feel daunting, following a simple formula involving five steps using the mnemonic B.E.G.I.N. (Begin, Evaluate, Goals & Objectives, Integration, and Next steps) will help the planning process feel more manageable, and lead you to greater success.
Gao, Anja; Cachat, Francois; Faouzi, Mohamed; Bardy, Daniel; Mosig, Dolores; Meyrat, Blaise-Julien; Girardin, Eric; Chehade, Hassib
2013-03-01
The most widely used formula for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in children is the Schwartz formula. It was revised in 2009 using iohexol clearances with measured GFR (mGFR) ranging between 15 and 75 ml/min × 1.73 m(2). Here we assessed the accuracy of the Schwartz formula using the inulin clearance (iGFR) method to evaluate its accuracy for children with less renal impairment comparing 551 iGFRs of 392 children with their Schwartz eGFRs. Serum creatinine was measured using the compensated Jaffe method. In order to find the best relationship between iGFR and eGFR, a linear quadratic regression model was fitted and a more accurate formula was derived. This quadratic formula was: 0.68 × (Height (cm)/serum creatinine (mg/dl))-0.0008 × (height (cm)/serum creatinine (mg/dl))(2)+0.48 × age (years)-(21.53 in males or 25.68 in females). This formula was validated using a split-half cross-validation technique and also externally validated with a new cohort of 127 children. Results show that the Schwartz formula is accurate until a height (Ht)/serum creatinine value of 251, corresponding to an iGFR of 103 ml/min × 1.73 m(2), but significantly unreliable for higher values. For an accuracy of 20 percent, the quadratic formula was significantly better than the Schwartz formula for all patients and for patients with a Ht/serum creatinine of 251 or greater. Thus, the new quadratic formula could replace the revised Schwartz formula, which is accurate for children with moderate renal failure but not for those with less renal impairment or hyperfiltration.
Validation of the Wilks powerlifting formula.
Vanderburgh, P M; Batterham, A M
1999-12-01
Because maximal strength varies with body mass, the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF) has adopted a method of adjusting powerlifting events (bench press, BP; squat, SQ; deadlift, DL, and total lift (the sum of BP, DL, and SQ), TOT) by body mass. This method, the Wilks formula, multiplies one's lift by an index based on body mass so that lifters of different size can be compared on the same event. The Wilks formula is not, however, based on published data and has yet to be critically evaluated. The purpose of this investigation, then, was to validate the Wilks formula. This was performed by 1) examining residuals bias to verify that the adjusted score does, in fact, lead to no systematic bias based on body mass and 2) by applying a more theoretically supportable allometric model to the same data and comparing the fit with the Wilks approach. Subjects were the current men's and women's world record holders as well as the top two performers for each event in the IPF's 1996 and 1997 World Championships (a total of 30 men and 27 women for each lift). Results of data analysis regarding the Wilks formula indicate that: 1) there is no bias for men's or women's BP and TOT; 2) there is a favorable bias toward intermediate weight class lifters in the women's SQ with no bias for men's SQ; and 3) there is a linear unfavorable bias toward heavier men and women in the DL. Furthermore, the allometric approach indicated a bias against light and heavy men and women which may be considered acceptable given that half as many lifters are found in the lightest and heaviest weight classes as in the intermediate weight classes. As used currently (BP and TOT only), the Wilks formula appears to be a valid method to adjust powerlifting scores by body mass.
Pineda, A; Ballou, M A; Campbell, J M; Cardoso, F C; Drackley, J K
2016-11-01
Previous studies with calves and other species have provided evidence that blood serum-derived proteins and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) may benefit intestinal health. We assessed the effects of supplementing products containing serum proteins as a component of arrival fluid support or serum proteins plus FOS (in addition to additional solids, minerals, and vitamins) in an early life dietary supplement on performance, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport, cold) male calves. Male Holstein calves (n=93) weight (BW) and plasma protein concentration, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of one-time administration of fluid support [either control electrolyte solution (E) or the serum protein-containing arrival formula (AF)] and 14d of either no supplementation (NG) or supplementation with Gammulin (G; APC Inc., Ankeny, IA), which contains serum proteins and FOS in addition to other solids, minerals, and vitamins. Upon arrival at the research facility, calves were orally administered either AF or E. At the next feeding, half of the calves from each fluid support treatment received either milk replacer (20% crude protein, 20% fat) or the same milk replacer supplemented with G (50g/d during the first 14d). Starter and water were freely available. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. Calf health was assessed by daily assignment of fecal and respiratory scores. Stature measures and BW were determined weekly. Blood samples were obtained at d 0 (before treatments), 2, 7, 14, and 28. Calves were weaned at d 42 and remained in the experiment until d 56. After 2 wk of treatments, calves previously fed AF had greater body length (66.6 vs. 66.0cm), intakes of dry matter (38.7 vs. 23.5g/d) and crude protein (9.2 vs. 5.6g/d) from starter, and cortisol concentration in blood (17.0 vs. 13.9 ng/mL) than calves fed E. Supplementation with G resulted in greater BW gain during the first 2 wk, increased intakes of dry
Chang, W-K; Chao, Y-C; Mcclave, S-A; Yeh, M-K
2005-10-01
Gastric residual volumes are widely used to evaluate gastric emptying for patients receiving enteral feeding, but controversy exists about what constitutes gastric residual volume. We have developed a method by using refractometer and derived mathematical equations to calculate the formula concentration, total residual volume (TRV), and formula volume. In this study, we like to validate these mathematical equations before they can be implemented for clinical patient care. Four dietary formulas were evaluated in two consecutive validation experiments. Firstly, dietary formula volume of 50, 100, 200, and 400 ml were diluted with 50 ml water, and then the Brix value (BV) was measured by the refractometer. Secondly, 50 ml of water, then 100 ml of dietary formula were infused into a beaker, and followed by the BV measurement. After this, 50 ml of water was infused and followed by the second BV measurement. The entire procedure of infusing of dietary formula (100 ml) and waster (50 ml) was repeated twice and followed by the BV measurement. The formula contents (formula concentration, TRV, and formula volume) were calculated by mathematical equations. The calculated formula concentrations, TRVs, and formula volumes measured from mathematic equations were strongly close to the true values in the first and second validation experiments (R2>0.98, Pmathematical equations may be used to accurately measure the formula concentration, TRV, and formula volume and served as a tool to monitor gastric emptying for patients receiving enteral feeding.
Central Difference Formula in Numerical Analysis.
de Alwis, Tilak
1992-01-01
Describes numerical differentiation and the central difference formula in numerical analysis. Presents three computer programs that approximate the first derivative of a function utilizing the central difference formula. Analyzes conditions under which the approximation formula is exact. (MDH)
Three Dimensional Tropical Correspondence Formula
Parker, Brett
2017-07-01
A tropical curve in R3 contributes to Gromov-Witten invariants in all genus. Nevertheless, we present a simple formula for how a given tropical curve contributes to Gromov-Witten invariants when we encode these invariants in a generating function with exponents of {λ} recording Euler characteristic. Our main modification from the known tropical correspondence formula for rational curves is as follows: a trivalent vertex, which before contributed a factor of n to the count of zero-genus holomorphic curves, contributes a factor of {2sin(nλ/2)}. We explain how to calculate relative Gromov-Witten invariants using this tropical correspondence formula, and how to obtain the absolute Gromov-Witten and Donaldson-Thomas invariants of some 3-dimensional toric manifolds including {CP3}. The tropical correspondence formula counting Donaldson-Thomas invariants replaces n by {i^{-(1+n)}q^{n/2}+i^{1+n}q^{-n/2}}.
FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...
Molecular Formula Identification with SIRIUS
Dührkop, Kai; Scheubert, Kerstin; Böcker, Sebastian
2013-01-01
We present results of the SIRIUS2 submission to the 2012 CASMI contest. Only results for Category 1 (molecular formula identification) were submitted. The SIRIUS method and the parameters used are briefly described, followed by detailed analysis of the results and a discussion of cases where SIRIUS2 was unable to come up with the correct molecular formula. SIRIUS2 returns consistently high quality results, with the exception of fragmentation pattern analysis of time-of-flight data. We then di...
[Estimation of glomerular filtration rate using weight/creatinine formula].
Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Martín de Francisco, Angel Luis; Rodrigo Calabia, Emilio; Ruiz San Millán, Juan Carlos; Sanz de Castro, Saturnino; Arias Rodríguez, Manuel
2003-04-12
The correct management of patients with chronic renal disease depends on an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness, in the daily clinical practice, of the weight/creatinine formula as an indirect measurement of glomerular filtration. 1,025 ambulatory patients were referred to the Nephrology Laboratory for basic blood and urine analysis. Creatinine clearance was calculated with the standard formula. A good correlation between the creatinine clearance adjusted for the corporal surface and that estimated by the weight/creatinine formula was observed, especially when creatinine levels were between 1.5-3 mg/dl and patients were older than 60 years. The mean difference between both methods was 6.3 (14.5) ml/min for males and 2.4 (10.5) ml/min for females. The weight/creatinine formula had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 80% to detect a clearance below 50 ml/min. The weight/creatinine formula underestimates the clearance for normal creatinine values but fits quite well for creatinine levels between 1.5-3 mg/dl, mainly in patients older than 60 years. Although the estimation of clearance through this formula could be inaccurate, in most cases this is clinically irrelevant. Moreover, such a simple formula could avoid potential mistakes appearing at the time of evaluating renal function only by the serum creatinine.
Hexa-herbal Chinese formula for eczema
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chang, J.; Jäger, Anna; Heinrich, M.
2014-01-01
Diverse pharmacological activities and reliable clinical performances of Chinese herbal medicines have attracted worldwide attention in terms of its modernization. Here, a hexa-herbal Chinese formula (HHCF) for treating eczema topically has been studied from both chemical and biological perspective....... It consists of roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Gerogi, Rheum officinale Baill., Sophora flavescens Aiton; root's bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.; bark of Phellodendron chinense C.K. Schnied and fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schard.. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the hexa-herbal decoction...... colonizes the skin of most patients with AD and produces superantigens that could further increase severity of AD via subverting T-regulatory cell activity and inducing corticosteroid resistance. [3] Therefore, activity of the decoctions prepared from mixture and individual medicinal plants of the formula...
Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Benetti, P; Cardani, L; Casali, N; Chiesa, D; Clemenza, M; Dafinei, I; Domizio, S Di; Ferroni, F; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gotti, C; Laubenstein, M; Maino, M; Nagorny, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Orio, F; Pagnanini, L; Pattavina, L; Pessina, G; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rusconi, C; Schäffner, K; Tomei, C; Vignati, M
The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of [Formula: see text]Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched [Formula: see text]Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched [Formula: see text]Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of [Formula: see text]Th, [Formula: see text]U and [Formula: see text]U are respectively: [Formula: see text]61, [Formula: see text]110 and [Formula: see text]74 [Formula: see text]Bq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the [Formula: see text]Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of [Formula: see text]Se to 0[Formula: see text], 2[Formula: see text] and 2[Formula: see text] excited states of [Formula: see text]Kr of 3.4[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text], 1.3[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text] and 1.0[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text] y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.
Improving accessibility to mathematical formulas: the Wikipedia Math Accessor
Fuentes Sepúlveda, J.; Ferres, L.
2012-09-01
Mathematics accessibility is an important topic for inclusive education. In this paper, we make Wikipedia's repository of mathematical formulas accessible by providing a natural language description of its more than 420,000 formulas using a well-researched sub-language. We also contribute by targeting Spanish speakers, for whom assistive technologies, particularly domain-specific technologies like the one described here, are scarce. Our focus on the semantics of formulas (rather than their visual appearance) allowed us to generate verbalizations with a precision of approximately 80% of understandable descriptions, as shown in an evaluation with sighted users.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria de Paula Caldas
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish two new formulas for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation of cervical vertebrae in female and male Brazilian subjects using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The sample included 128 girls and 110 boys, aged 7.0 to 15.9 years, from the files of the Oral Radiology Clinic, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (Unicamp, SP, Brazil. The cervical vertebral bodies of C3 and C4 were traced and measured and regression formulas were developed in order to determine cervical vertebral bone age. Another sample of lateral teleradiographs and hand-wrist radiographs of 55 girls and 54 boys (aged 7.0 to 15.9 years was used to verify the reliability of the developed regression formulas, as compared with bone age assessed using the Tanner et al.15 (2001 Method (TW3 in hand-wrist radiographs. The analysis of both the boys’ and girls’ data (ANOVA showed no statistical difference between cervical vertebral bone age, bone age, and chronological age, indicating that these formulas can be used in this population (p = 0.5721 and p = 0.6007 for girls and boys, respectively. Female cervical vertebral bodies of C3 and C4 increased in an accelerated manner from 10 to 13 years. Analysis of the male sample showed that C3 measurements increased in an accelerated manner from 12 to 15 years. The C4 measurements, however, did not increase at all. Using cervical vertebral bone age it is possible to evaluate skeletal maturation objectively in cephalometric radiographs.O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer dois novos métodos para meninas e meninos brasileiros, no intuito de determinar de forma objetiva a maturação esquelética das vértebras cervicais em radiografias cefalométricas laterais. Foram selecionados 128 meninas e 110 meninos, com faixa etária variando entre 7 e 15,9 anos, pertencentes à Clínica de Radiologia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba da Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp. Os corpos da
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iversen, Villy Bæk
2012-01-01
This paper presents a robust and efficient algorithm for evaluating multi-service multi-rate queueing systems, including finite buffer systems and loss systems. Vint Cerf listed in 2007 seven research problems concerning the Internet. This paper responds to the second problem: an Internet Erlang...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ifeyinwa Osegbe
2017-01-01
Conclusion: Teerankanchana's formula showed good correlation and minimal bias with dLDLC at all TG levels. Moreover, linear regression showed no difference in the two. It seems to be the most suitable formula for estimating LDLC in our HIV-positive population.
Semi-empirical model for estimating molar fraction of syngas ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
To optimize the efficiency of the wood gasification, tar which limits the use of syngas in thermal engines must be reduced. The quantity, quality and composition of syngas produced after thermal cracking of tar were analysed, and mathematical equations formulated based on Newton's bivariate polynomial interpolation were ...
Semi-Empiric Algorithm for Assessment of the Vehicle Mobility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ticusor CIOBOTARU
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The mobility of military vehicles plays a key role in operation. The ability to reach the desired area in war theatre represents the most important condition for a successful accomplishment of the mission for military vehicles. The off-road vehicles face a broad spectrum of terrains to cross. These terrains differ by geometry and the soil characteristics.NATO References Mobility Model (NRMM software is based on empirical relationship between the terrain characteristics, running conditions and vehicles design. The paper presents the main results of a comparative mobility analysis for M1 and HMMWV vehicles obtained using NRMM.
Semi-empirical system scaling rules for DWDM system design.
DeMuth, Brian; Frankel, Michael Y; Pelekhaty, Vladimir
2012-01-30
Recently, several theoretical papers have derived relationships for fiber-optic transmission system performance in terms of associated physical layer parameters. At the same time, a large number of detailed experiments have been and continue being performed that demonstrate increasing capacities and unregenerated reach. We use this wealth of experimental data to validate the aforementioned relationships, and to propose a set of simple scaling rules for performance. We find that, despite substantial differences in experimental configurations, overall performance in terms of spectral efficiency and unregenerated reach is well explained by scaling rules. These scaling rules will be useful to carriers seeking to understand what they should expect to see in terms of network performance using deployed or easily accessible technology, which may be radically different from hero experiment results. These rules will also be useful to design engineers seeking cost effective tradeoffs to achieving higher performance using realistic upgrade strategies, and what might be encountered as a fundamental limit.
Semi-empirical software for the aluminothermic and carbothermic reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milorad Gavrilovski
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Understanding the reaction thermochemistry as well as formatting the empirical data about element distribution in gas-metal-slag phases is essential for creating a good model for aluminothermic and carbothermic reaction. In this paper modeling of material and energy balance of these reactions is described with the algorithm. The software, based on this model is basically made for production of high purity ferro alloys through aluminothermic process and then extended for some carbothermic process. Model validation is demonstrated with production of FeTi, FeW, FeB and FeMo in aluminothermic and reduction of mill scale, pyrite cinders and magnetite fines in carbothermic process.
A Semi-Empirical Low-Latitude Ionospheric Model
1988-10-06
13, taken from the paper by Anderson and Klobuchar [1983], shows the large day- to-day variation in TEC at Ascension Island for the 10 a month of...September 1979. Often the premidnight maximum in TEC is greater than the daytime maxi- mum value. Anderson and Klobuchar found that the 0 strength of the... Klobuchar et al., 1977]. The con- 00 12 24 tour shapes are very similar; however, the observed LOCAL TIME (hrs) magnitudes are higher during solar
Semi-empirical software for the aluminothermic and carbothermic reactions
Milorad Gavrilovski; Vaso Manojlović; Željko Kamberović; Marija Korać; Miroslav Sokić
2014-01-01
Understanding the reaction thermochemistry as well as formatting the empirical data about element distribution in gas-metal-slag phases is essential for creating a good model for aluminothermic and carbothermic reaction. In this paper modeling of material and energy balance of these reactions is described with the algorithm. The software, based on this model is basically made for production of high purity ferro alloys through aluminothermic process and then extended for some carbothermic proc...
Semi-Empirical Method Interpretation of Cone Penetration Test (CPT ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a reliable technique for measuring subsurface soil friction, cohesion and bearing capacity for pile foundation. In some parts of the ... The approach is suitable because of the insensitivity of the mechanical cone penetrometer in measuring skin friction, especially in clay deposits. Discovery and ...
Semi-Empirical Models for Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Terpager Andersen, Karl
2015-01-01
A literature study is presented on the theories and models dealing with buoyancy-driven ventilation in rooms. The models are categorised into four types according to how the physical process is conceived: column model, fan model, neutral plane model and pressure model. These models are analysed...
High Througput pKa Prediction Using Semi Empirical Methods
Jensen, Jan H
2015-01-01
A large proportion of organic molecules relevant to medicine and biotechnology contain one or more ionizable groups, which means that fundamental physical and chemical properties (e.g. the charge of the molecule) depend on the pH of the surroundings via the corresponding pKa values of the molecules. As drug- and material design increasingly is being done through high throughput screens, fast - yet accurate - computational pKa prediction methods are becoming crucial to the design process. Current empirical pKa predictors are increasingly found to fail because they are being applied to parts of chemical space for which experimental parameterization data is lacking. We propose to develop a pKa predictor that, due its quantum mechanical foundation, is more generally applicable but still fast enough to be used in high throughput screening. The method has the potential to impact virtually any biotechnological design process involving organic molecules as we will demonstrate for metabolic engineering and organic bat...
Parameters in semi-empirical theories of alloy phase formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennett, L H; Watson, R E
1979-01-01
Many theories of alloy solubility, structural stability of compounds, and heats of formation in alloying rely on parameters such as valence, size or electronegativity for their predictions. Nature, of course, requires only one parameter, the nuclear charge to completely specify all the electronic properties of the elements. Thus, the atomic parameters are, of necessity, initimately connected with one another. This presentation reviews the physical origins of some of the more popular parameters used. The relaionship of the different electronegativity scales to each other, and the relationship of electronegativity to other parameters such as atomic size are emphasized. Structural stability maps employing electronegativity and some other parameters are shown for intermetallic compounds formed from different classes of elements: main group-main group, transition metal-main group, and transition metal-transition metal.
Twisting formula of epsilon factors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sazzad Ali Biswas
2017-08-07
Aug 7, 2017 ... SAZZAD ALI BISWAS. Chennai Mathematical Institute, H1, SIPCOT IT Park, Siruseri 603 103, India ... F of characteristic zero. In general, we do not have any explicit formula of epsilon factor of a twisted character ...... of one variable II, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 349 (1972) (Berlin: Springer) pp. 501–597.
[Estimating renal function with formulas
Verhave, J.C.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Bakker, S.J.; Gansevoort, R.T.
2007-01-01
A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and renal insufficiency. The formula of the 'Modification of diet in renal disease' (MDRD) study is derived from plasma-creatinine concentrations and estimates GFR based on age, sex
Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully
Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron
2015-01-01
As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…
[Thickened infant formula, rheological study of the "in vitro" properties].
Infante Pina, D; Lara-Villoslada, F; López Ginés, G; Morales Hernández, M E
2010-05-01
Thickened infant formulas, specially formulated to increase the viscosity, are commonly used in the treatment of regurgitation in the non-complicated gastroesophageal reflux. To analyse viscosity and the rheological behaviour of different thickened standard formulas on the Spanish market compared to a standard formula with or without the addition of 10 g/100mL of gluten-free cereals. Viscosity of the samples was evaluated in a Bohlim CS-1o controlled-stress rheometer and was performed at basal conditions (25 degrees C, pH 7) and at simulated gastric conditions (37 degrees C, pH 4 and 10 g/100mL of pepsin) at time 0, 30 and after 60 min of incubation. Values were expressed as centipoises (cp) (1 cp=1/100 p). All formulas show a viscosity increase both in basal conditions and in gastric simulated conditions but the behaviour is very heterogeneous. Formulas containing bean gum (carob seed flour) with 2.9 g/100g and a protein ratio similar to cow's milk (80 casein/20 whey) showed the highest and consistent viscosity (70 cp and 90 cp), with significant differences compared to the standard formula in all the measurements. When this thickener is in formulas with a protein ratio similar to breast milk (40 casein/60 whey) the viscosity was lower and reached 50 cp only with the thickener at a concentration of 4.7 gr/100g, achieving significant differences versus standard formula. The formulas with starch thickeners (rice, potatoes and corn) achieved a lower and less consistent viscosity, with no significant difference. The viscosity reached after the addition of cereals both in basal conditions and in gastric simulated conditions was similar to that achieved with more effective thickeners. Lipid concentration is not involved in viscosity and rheological behaviour. The viscosity of the thickened infant formula depends on the agent used, concentration and protein ratio. Not all reach a viscosity of 50 cp, hypothetical value to reach, since it doubles the viscosity of a
Viscosity and flow-rate of three high-energy, high-fibre enteral nutrition formulas.
Casas-Augustench, P; Salas-Salvadó, J
2009-01-01
There have been few studies evaluating how the viscosity of the enteral nutrition formulas determine the time of nutritional administration by gravity and whether viscosity causes tubes to become obstructed. To assess how long it takes for three polymeric, hypercaloric and fibre-rich enteral nutrition formulas marketed in Europe to pass through different nasointestinal tubes by gravity and whether these formulas obstruct the tubes. We evaluated the in vitro viscosity of the three formulas using a rotational viscometer and by calculating how long these formulas took to pass by free fall through the equipment and different calibre tubes. We also assessed the possible obstruction of the tubes or the equipment after the three formulas had been administered, simulating the administration conditions in clinical practice (1,500 ml over 24 h). The administration time by gravity of 500 ml of each of the formulas studied was closely related to the viscosity determined in vitro of each of the formulas used. The larger the internal diameter of the tube, the shorter the emptying time by gravity or free fall. The possibility of tube obstruction was higher in the case of the two more viscous formulas. The viscosity of the enteral nutrition formulas should be included in the labelling of the product. This information would assist the clinician to make decisions about the kind of formula to be used with different types and calibres of tube.
Excel formulas and functions for dummies
Bluttman, Ken
2013-01-01
Learn to use Excel for practical, day-to-day calculations Excel is a powerful program with more than 300 built-in functions that can be used to perform an almost infinite number of calculations. This friendly book shows you how to use the 150 most valuable ones in real-world situations: to compare the cost of buying vs. leasing a car, calculate classroom grades, or evaluate investment performance, for example. Another 85 specialized functions are also described. Detailed, step-by-step instructions help you understand how functions work within formulas and how you can use them t
Immunogenicity of hydrolysate formulas in children (part 1). Analysis of 202 reactions.
Cantani, A; Micera, M
2000-01-01
Cow's milk protein hydrolyzed formulas appeared in the 1940s with the aim of decreasing or eliminating the allergenicity of cow's milk proteins, in addition to reducing the risk of sensitization. In recent years, the so-called "hypoallergenic" formulas have been developed. The use of such hydrolyzed formulas is based on the premise that predigested proteins, when fed as amino acids and peptides, provide nutrients in a nonantigenic form. Thus, protein hydrolyzed formulas have been classified as hypoallergenic. These formulas are processed by heat and enzymatic hydrolysis, and the conformational and sequential structures are more or less changed. The formulas contain peptides of lower molecular weight than the native protein source, which are thought to be less immunogenic. Hydrolyzed formulas appear to be nutritionally adequate and infants generally gain weight until they refuse the formula because of its bad taste. However, caution should be taken when such formulas are given for prolonged periods since no data are available on nutritional assessment of infants exclusively fed hydrolyzed formulas for several months. In this paper we report and discuss more than 202 reactions to different hydrolyzed formulas, including cases of anaphylactic shock and apparent life-threatening events. The cross-reactivity between different hydrolyzed formulas and cow's milk proteins, and the potential immunogenicity of such formulas are discussed. We conclude that none of the hydrolyzed formulas are nonallergenic, both for allergic children and for high-risk babies. Moreover, we suggest that double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge studies in larger cohorts of babies evaluated with well-defined and well-validated diagnostic methods may establish a more reliable prevalence of allergy to hydrolyzed formulas.
Chehade, H; Cachat, F; Jannot, A-S; Meyrat, B-J; Mosig, D; Bardy, D; Parvex, P; Girardin, E
2013-01-01
The combined serum creatinine (SCreat) and cystatin C (CysC) CKD-EPI formula constitutes a new advance for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation in adults. Using inulin clearances (iGFRs), the revised SCreat and the combined Schwartz formulas, this study aims to evaluate the applicability of the combined CKD-EPI formula in children. 201 iGFRs for 201 children were analyzed and divided by chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages (iGFRs ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 90 > iGFRs > 60, and iGFRs ≤59), and by age groups (15 years). Medians with 95% confidence intervals of bias, precision, and accuracies within 30% of the iGFRs, for all three formulas, were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. For the entire cohort and for all CKD and age groups, medians of bias for the CKD-EPI formula were significantly higher (p formulas. We also found that using the CKD-EPI formula, bias decreased and accuracy increased while the child age group increased, with a better formula performance above 15 years of age. However, the CKD-EPI formula accuracy is 58% compared to 93 and 92% for the SCreat and combined Schwartz formulas in this adolescent group. The performance of the combined CKD-EPI formula improves in adolescence compared with younger ages. Nevertheless, the CKD-EPI formula performs more poorly than the SCreat and the combined Schwartz formula in pediatric population. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Comparison of the CIELab and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas.
Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Portillo Muñoz, María; Lorenzo Luengo, Mari Cruz; Vicente, Purificación; Galindo, Purificanción; Martín Casado, Ana María
2016-01-01
Many color specification systems and color differences have been proposed to improve the correlation between color measurement and visual perception. Although color differences can be quantified using either the CIELab formula (ΔE*(ab)) or the recently introduced CIEDE2000 formula (ΔE00), which captures the perceived color difference better is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CIELab and CIEDE2000 formulas to determine which best reflects the difference in color perception and whether color perception differs by sex. Forty participants grouped 18 dental resin disks (color range: from 73.6 to 87.5 for L*; from -1.6 to 3.4 for a*; from 18.1 to 36.6 for b*), the only requirement being that each group was formed of disks with chromatically indistinguishable colors. Each participant was free to choose the number and composition of the groups. With the results obtained, a dissimilarity matrix was generated, and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) was applied to it to obtain the coordinates of the disks within a Euclidean space. The linear correlation coefficient between the interpoint distances of the MDS configuration (MDS_total sample) and the color differences with the CIELab formula (ΔE*(ab)) was 0.176 (P=.029), whereas with the CIEDE2000 formula (ΔE00) it was 0.289 (Pcolor differences was 0.230 (P=.004), and the CIEDE2000 color difference was 0.328 (Pcolor differences calculated with both formulas reflected the perceived differences more poorly. Within the limitations of this study, the CIEDE2000 formula reflected the color differences perceived by the human eye better than the CIELab formula (ΔE*ab). In addition, women were confirmed to be more sensitive than men to color differences. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Callias index formula revisited
Gesztesy, Fritz
2016-01-01
These lecture notes aim at providing a purely analytical and accessible proof of the Callias index formula. In various branches of mathematics (particularly, linear and nonlinear partial differential operators, singular integral operators, etc.) and theoretical physics (e.g., nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, and quantum field theory), there is much interest in computing Fredholm indices of certain linear partial differential operators. In the late 1970’s, Constantine Callias found a formula for the Fredholm index of a particular first-order differential operator (intimately connected to a supersymmetric Dirac-type operator) additively perturbed by a potential, shedding additional light on the Fedosov-Hörmander Index Theorem. As a byproduct of our proof we also offer a glimpse at special non-Fredholm situations employing a generalized Witten index.
Intensity formulas for triplet bands
Budo, A.
1982-01-01
Previous work in this area is surveyed and the mathematics involved in determining the quantitative intensity measurements in triplet bands is presented. Explicit expressions for the intensity distribution in the branches of the 3 Sigma-3 Pi and 1 Sigma-3Pi bands valid for all values of the coupling constant Y of the 3 Pi terms are given. The intensity distribution calculated according to the formulas given is compared with measurements of PH, 3 Pi-3 Sigma. Good quantitative agreement is obtained.
Analyzing Walksat on random formulas
Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Frieze, Alan
2011-01-01
Let F be a uniformly distributed random k-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses. We prove that the Walksat algorithm from Papadimitriou (FOCS 1991)/Schoning (FOCS 1999) finds a satisfying assignment of F in polynomial time w.h.p. if m/n0. This is an improvement by a factor of $\\Theta(k)$ over the best previous analysis of Walksat from Coja-Oghlan, Feige, Frieze, Krivelevich, Vilenchik (SODA 2009).
New entropy formula for Kerr black holes
Gonzalez, Hernan; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout; Wutte, Raphaela
2017-01-01
We introduce a new entropy formula for Kerr black holes inspired by recent results for 3-dimensional black holes and cosmologies with soft Heisenberg hair. We show that also Kerr-Taub-NUT black holes obey the same formula.
27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.
2010-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by which...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
2010-04-01
... that covers the production of any beer base used in producing the formula product. If the beer base was... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.57 Formula information. (a... content of the flavor; and the point of production at which the flavor was added (that is, before, during...
Prescribing infant formula to allergic babies
African Journals Online (AJOL)
of life.4 The avoidance of allergens during pregnancy5 and lactation6 is still under debate.7. Recommended infant formula that aims to prevent and treat allergy and food intolerance includes hydrolysed cow's milk, elemental formula, and adapted soy or hydrolysed soy formula.4 In studies of infants at high risk of atopy, and ...
Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Zykunov, V; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Sharma, A; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Chagas, E Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; De Souza, S Fonseca; Guativa, L M Huertas; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; 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Malik, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Penning, B; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Seez, C; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Berry, E; Cutts, D; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Jesus, O; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Spencer, E; Syarif, R; Breedon, R; Breto, G; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tripathi, M; Bravo, C; Cousins, R; Dasgupta, A; Everaerts, P; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Mccoll, N; Saltzberg, D; Schnaible, C; Takasugi, E; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Shrinivas, A; Si, W; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Franco Sevilla, M; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Heller, R; Incandela, J; Mullin, S D; Ovcharova, A; Qu, H; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Apresyan, A; Bendavid, J; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Duarte, J; Lawhorn, J M; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Azzolini, V; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Cremonesi, M; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, Y; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Shchutska, L; Sperka, D; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, J R; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Diamond, B; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Khatiwada, A; Prosper, H; Santra, A; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Bruner, C; Castle, J; Forthomme, L; Kenny, R P; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Krajczar, K; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Tatar, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bartek, R; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Malta Rodrigues, A; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Kumar, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Mc Donald, J; Medvedeva, T; Mei, K; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Schulte, J F; Shi, X; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, E; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Nash, K; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Juska, E; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N
2017-01-01
The nuclear modification factor [Formula: see text] and the azimuthal anisotropy coefficient [Formula: see text] of prompt and nonprompt (i.e. those from decays of b hadrons) [Formula: see text] mesons, measured from PbPb and pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] at the LHC, are reported. The results are presented in several event centrality intervals and several kinematic regions, for transverse momenta [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], extending down to [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] in the [Formula: see text] range. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] is found to be nonzero, but with no strong dependence on centrality, rapidity, or [Formula: see text] over the full kinematic range studied. The measured [Formula: see text] of nonprompt [Formula: see text] is consistent with zero. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] exhibits a suppression that increases from peripheral to central collisions but does not vary strongly as a function of either y or [Formula: see text] in the fiducial range. The nonprompt [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] shows a suppression which becomes stronger as rapidity or [Formula: see text] increases. The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of open and hidden charm, and of open charm and beauty, are compared.
Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Formulas for Highly Myopic Eyes
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Yichi Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate and compare the accuracy of different intraocular lens (IOL power calculation formulas for eyes with an axial length (AL greater than 26.00 mm. Methods. This study reviewed 407 eyes of 219 patients with AL longer than 26.0 mm. The refractive prediction errors of IOL power calculation formulas (SRK/T, Haigis, Holladay, Hoffer Q, and Barrett Universal II using User Group for Laser Interference Biometry (ULIB constants were evaluated and compared. Results. One hundred seventy-one eyes were enrolled. The Barrett Universal II formula had the lowest mean absolute error (MAE and SRK/T and Haigis had similar MAE, and the statistical highest MAE were seen with the Holladay and Hoffer Q formulas. The interquartile range of the Barrett Universal II formula was also the lowest among all the formulas. The Barrett Universal II formulas yielded the highest percentage of eyes within ±1.0 D and ±0.5 D of the target refraction in this study (97.24% and 79.56%, resp.. Conclusions. Barrett Universal II formula produced the lowest predictive error and the least variable predictive error compared with the SRK/T, Haigis, Holladay, and Hoffer Q formulas. For high myopic eyes, the Barrett Universal II formula may be a more suitable choice.
Color-quality control using color-difference formulas: progress and problems
Melgosa, M.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; García, P. A.; Morillas, S.; Fernández-Maloigne, C.; Richard, N.; Huang, M.; Li, C.; Cui, G.
2017-08-01
We report on some recent advances in industrial color-difference evaluation focused in three main fields: Development of reliable experimental visual datasets; proposal of new color spaces and color-difference formulas; tools to evaluate the merits of color-difference formulas. The use of fuzzy techniques to assign consistency degrees to color pairs in combined visual datasets is described. The CIE/ISO joint proposal of the CIEDE2000 color-difference formula as a standard will facilitate the communication among companies and users. The CIE recommendation of the STRESS index to assess observers' variability and relative merits of different color-difference formulas is reported. Power functions are an efficient method to improve the performance of modern color-difference formulas. We need of advanced color-difference formulas accounting for new materials with different kind of textures and gonioapparent effects.
Bryant J. correction formula; Formula corregida de J. Bryant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A
1990-03-15
For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)
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Maria Cecília de Carvalho Chaves
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Escolher um bom piloto é tarefa difícil, que ultrapassa a identificação de habilidade e coragem para pilotar automóveis. Pilotos que não disputam a liderança das competições costumam receber pouco destaque porque as transmissões esportivas enfatizam a luta pelas melhores posições. A busca por pilotos tem importância especial para equipes menores, incapazes de pagar altos salários. Identificar um bom piloto pode representar ganhos significativos, permitindo à equipe obter melhor desempenho no campeonato. Este artigo propõe uma forma de avaliação desses pilotos no campeonato de F1, usando o método de apoio à decisão multicritério ELECTRE II. O objetivo é propor uma ordenação de pilotos, a fim de identificar os mais indicados para serem contratados por equipes pequenas/médias, proporcionando-lhes maior competitividade na temporada seguinte. A análise foi elaborada considerando-se os pilotos que participaram da temporada de 2007.Choosing a Formula One driver is a difficult task, which goes beyond the identification of ability and courage to drive cars. Drivers that do not fight for the first places in competitions normally gain little coverage because sports broadcasts favor the winners. The search for good drivers is especially important for smaller teams that are unable to pay high salaries. Hiring a good driver may represent significant earnings, allowing for a better team performance in the championship. This article proposes a methodology to evaluate these drivers in the F1 championship using the ELECTRE II decision support method. The main goal is to offer hiring options for the small/medium teams, allowing them to be more competitive in the following season. The analysis was made considering the pilots of the 2007 season.
Predictions for the [Formula: see text] decay.
Roca, L; Mai, M; Oset, E; Meißner, Ulf-G
We calculate the shape of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] invariant mass distributions in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays that are dominated by the [Formula: see text] resonance. The weak interaction part is the same for both processes and the hadronization into the different meson-baryon channels in the final state is given by symmetry arguments. The most important feature is the implementation of the meson-baryon final-state interaction using two chiral unitary models from different theoretical groups. Both approaches give a good description of antikaon-nucleon scattering data, the complex energy shift in kaonic hydrogen and the line shapes of [Formula: see text] in photoproduction, based on the two-pole scenario for the [Formula: see text]. We find that this reaction reflects more the higher mass pole and we make predictions of the line shapes and relative strength of the meson-baryon distributions in the final state.
Magical Formulae for Market Futures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne
2016-01-01
, and financial advisors are often savvy in the art of creatively blending the ‘objective facts’ of markets with magical formulae, rites, and imaginaries of the future. This article looks at the World Economic Forum's yearly Davos meeting as a large-scale ritual that engages senior executives of global......Markets are often portrayed as being organized by way of rationalized knowledge, objective reasoning, and the fluctuations of demand and supply. In parallel, and often mixed with this modality of knowledge, magical beliefs and practices are prevalent. Business leaders, management consultants...
Infant formula-handling education and safety.
Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Fein, Sara B; Shealy, Katherine R
2008-10-01
Our goal was to assess the extent to which mothers learn about proper handling of infant formula from health professionals and package labels; mothers' beliefs about the likelihood of germs being in infant formula and the importance of following safe-use directions; whether they take measures while handling infant formula to prevent foodborne illnesses and injury to their infants; and maternal characteristics associated with unsafe infant formula-handling practices. The study cohort consisted of mothers participating in the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II who fed their infant formula. We conducted frequency and multiple logistic regression analyses. Sample sizes for the analyses ranged from 860 to 1533. The majority of formula-feeding mothers did not receive instruction on formula preparation (77%) or storage (73%) from a health professional. Thirty percent did not read some of the safe-use directions on the formula package label; an approximately equal percentage (38%) thought that both powdered (which is not sterile) and ready-to-feed (which is sterile) formula were unlikely to contain germs; and 85% believed that following safe-storage directions was very important. Among the mothers of the youngest infants analyzed, 55% did not always wash their hands with soap before preparing infant formula, 32% did not adequately wash bottle nipples between uses, 35% heated formula bottles in a microwave oven, and 6% did not always discard formula left standing for >2 hours. The prevalence of these unsafe practices was similar among mothers of older infants. No consistent pattern of maternal characteristics was associated with unsafe practices. Many mothers do not follow safe practices when preparing infant formula. Additional research is needed to understand why more mothers do not follow safe formula-handling recommendations.
Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula
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Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar
2014-10-01
Conclusion: Evaluation of patients receiving Milatech standard formula showed that diarrhea wasn’t seen in hospitalized patients. Diarrhea was reported by the nurses may refer to other diarrhea genic causes including of long length of stay, entral duration or medical side effects or infections.
Clinical trial of osteoarthritis jamu formula compare to piroxicam
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Danang Ardiyanto
2016-12-01
is a lack of evidence of its efficacy and safety. The objectives of study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of a traditional formula for OA. Methods: Design of the study was a randomized clinical trial (RCT involved 123 patients (subjects for 28 days intervention. This study was conducted between March - December 2014 with 30 physicians were participated at 20 regencies in Indonesia. The variables measured were VAS score, PGAP functional status assessment (FSA, and Short Form (SF-36 to assess jamu efficacy in comparison to piroxicam. To evaluate the safety of jamu formula using values of SGOT, SGPT, BUN, and creatinine. Result: The jamu formula administration effects can reduce VAS significantly (p<0.05 if it was compared to baseline. FSA score of jamu formula group was decreased significantly (p=0.000 when compared to the start of intervention. Short Form (SF-36 of jamu formula group were significantly improved when compared with baseline value. The result of the three parameters between jamu group and piroxicam group should not significantly different. There was no difference in those parameters between both groups (p>0.05. In biological parameters, SGPT, SGOT, BUN, and creatinine level, showed normal range in both groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the efficacy and safety of jamu formula was clinically comparable to piroxicam after 28 days of treatment. Keywords: efficacy, safety, RCT, jamu formula
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Paola de Souza
2009-07-01
Many studies have emphasized the need of trace elements during infancy and their adequate availability in human milk. Deficiency of minor and trace elements can lead to various disorders in infants. During early childhood trace element requirements, are more critical due to faster growth rates. In this study, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in human colostrum samples from mothers of preterm and full-term newborns. Samples were collected by manual expression from the first to the fifth day after birth. After collection, human colostrum samples were frozen and freeze-dried for analyses. Few of the most commonly commercialized were also analyzed. The essential element concentrations were determined in 30 colostrum samples and 17 milk formula brands by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Multivariate analyses were applied and the results were separated in two clusters. However the separation was not related to the corresponding gestational age. Results of this study showed that the concentration levels of the essential element Ca, K and Na in the milk formula samples analyzed were in agreement with the printed information on the labels. All concentration levels were also within ANVISA and Codex Allimentarius recommended values and thus adequate for infant nutritional needs. (author)
Modified Atkins diet vs classic ketogenic formula in intractable epilepsy.
El-Rashidy, O F; Nassar, M F; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Shatla, R H; Abdel-Hamid, M H; Gabr, S S; Mohamed, S G; El-Sayed, W S; Shaaban, S Y
2013-12-01
The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) whether classic 4:1 formula or the modified Atkins diet (MAD) in intractable childhood epilepsy. Anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile were measured upon enrollment and after 3 and 6 months in 40 patients with symptomatic intractable epilepsy. Fifteen were given MAD diet, ten were kept on classic 4:1 ketogenic liquid formula, and the rest were allowed to eat as desired. The liquid ketogenic formula group showed significantly higher body mass index compared with those who did not receive KD after 6 months. The lipid profile of KD patients was within normal limits for age and sex during the study period. The rate of change of frequency and severity of seizures showed best improvement in ketogenic liquid formula patients followed by the MAD group than the patients on anti-epileptic medications alone. The KD whether classic 4:1 or MAD is a tolerable, safe, and effective adjuvant therapy for intractable symptomatic childhood epilepsy with limited adverse effects on the growth parameters and accepted changes in the lipid profile. The liquid ketogenic formula patients showed better growth pattern and significantly more seizure control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.
Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D
2016-05-01
A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marunycz John D
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335 were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7% was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1% was significantly different (P = 0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120
Effects of Ciji Hua'ai Baosheng Granule Formula (CHBGF) on life ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Ciji Hua'ai Baosheng Granule Formula (CHBGF) is a traditional Chinese empirical formula that can help the tumor patients who have received chemotherapy antagonize the toxin and side-effects so as to improve and prolong the life. This study is to evaluate the effects of. CHBGF on improving life quality in ...
Effects of Ciji Hua'Ai Baosheng formula on apoptosis correlation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Side effects of chemotherapy are major issues for cancer patients and there are few methods to release these. However, traditional Chinese medicine is one of the options for these patients. This study is to evaluate one traditional Chinese empirical formula – the Ciji Hua'ai Baosheng Formula (CHBF) on ...
The Barcan Formula in Metaphysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ori Simchen
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The Barcan formula (BF is commonly paraphrased as the schematic conditional that if it is possible that there be a phi then something or other is possibly a phi. It is validated by the most straightforward systems of quantified modal logic. It is also widely considered to pose a threat to the commonsensical metaphysical view that there are no non-actual (or ‘merely possible’ things. I show how BF can be cleared of such a charge by construing it as a bridge principle connecting modality de dicto and modality de re while retaining a Russellian robust sense of reality in modal matters.
Dualizing the Poisson summation formula.
Duffin, R J; Weinberger, H F
1991-01-01
If f(x) and g(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair, then the Poisson summation formula can be written as 2sumfrominfinityn = 1g(n) + g(0) = 2sumfrominfinityn = 1f(n) + f(0). The concepts of linear transformation theory lead to the following dual of this classical relation. Let phi(x) and gamma(x) = phi(1/x)/x have absolutely convergent integrals over the positive real line. Let F(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1phi(n/x)/x - integralinfinity0phi(t)dt and G(x) = sumfrominfinityn = 1gamma (n/x)/x - integralinfinity0 gamma(t)dt. Then F(x) and G(x) are a Fourier cosine transform pair. We term F(x) the "discrepancy" of phi because it is the error in estimating the integral phi of by its Riemann sum with the constant mesh spacing 1/x. PMID:11607208
Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rate....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....
A General Framework for Probabilistic Characterizing Formulae
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sack, Joshua; Zhang, Lijun
2012-01-01
Recently, a general framework on characteristic formulae was proposed by Aceto et al. It offers a simple theory that allows one to easily obtain characteristic formulae of many non-probabilistic behavioral relations. Our paper studies their techniques in a probabilistic setting. We provide...... a general method for determining characteristic formulae of behavioral relations for probabilistic automata using fixed-point probability logics. We consider such behavioral relations as simulations and bisimulations, probabilistic bisimulations, probabilistic weak simulations, and probabilistic forward...
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2017-01-01
The first measurement of the jet mass [Formula: see text] of top quark jets produced in [Formula: see text] events from pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] is reported for the jet with the largest transverse momentum [Formula: see text] in highly boosted hadronic top quark decays. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the lepton+jets channel in which the products of the semileptonic decay [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is an electron or muon, are used to select [Formula: see text] events with large Lorentz boosts. The products of the fully hadronic decay [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] are reconstructed using a single Cambridge-Aachen jet with distance parameter [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text] cross section as a function of [Formula: see text] is unfolded at the particle level and is used to test the modelling of highly boosted top quark production. The peak position of the [Formula: see text] distribution is sensitive to the top quark mass [Formula: see text], and the data are used to extract a value of [Formula: see text] to assess this sensitivity.
Girvin, Mike
2013-01-01
Designed with Excel gurus in mind, this handbook outlines how to create formulas that can be used to solve everyday problems with a series of data values that standard Excel formulas cannot or would be too arduous to attempt. Beginning with an introduction to array formulas, this manual examines topics such as how they differ from ordinary formulas, the benefits and drawbacks of their use, functions that can and cannot handle array calculations, and array constants and functions. Among the practical applications surveyed include how to extract data from tables and unique lists, how to get resu
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Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Scherzer, M I; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt, E; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schneider, B; Schnellbach, Y J; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schroeder, C; Schuh, N; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwegler, Ph; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Sciacca, F G; Scifo, E; Sciolla, G; Scott, W G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Sellers, G; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Serre, T; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shochet, M J; Short, D; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Shushkevich, S; Sicho, P; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simoniello, R; Simonyan, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sipica, V; Siragusa, G; Sircar, A; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skottowe, H P; Skovpen, K Yu; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Sliwa, K; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, K M; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solc, J; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Song, H Y; Soni, N; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soueid, P; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spearman, W R; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; Denis, R D St; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Stavina, P; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Struebig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tannenwald, B B; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; 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A search for a massive [Formula: see text] gauge boson decaying to a top quark and a bottom quark is performed with the ATLAS detector in [Formula: see text] collisions at the LHC. The dataset was taken at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] and corresponds to [Formula: see text] of integrated luminosity. This analysis is done in the hadronic decay mode of the top quark, where novel jet substructure techniques are used to identify jets from high-momentum top quarks. This allows for a search for high-mass [Formula: see text] bosons in the range 1.5-3.0 [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text]-tagging is used to identify jets originating from [Formula: see text]-quarks. The data are consistent with Standard Model background-only expectations, and upper limits at 95 % confidence level are set on the [Formula: see text] cross section times branching ratio ranging from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for left-handed [Formula: see text] bosons, and ranging from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] bosons with purely right-handed couplings. Upper limits at 95 % confidence level are set on the [Formula: see text]-boson coupling to [Formula: see text] as a function of the [Formula: see text] mass using an effective field theory approach, which is independent of details of particular models predicting a [Formula: see text] boson.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alvarez Marina M
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.
[Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].
Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina
2008-09-01
Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.
Sri Lestari; Agus Firmansyah; Zakiudin Munasir
2016-01-01
Background Lactose intolerance is a common complication of diarrhea in young children particularly that due to rotaviral infec- tion. A meta-analysis study evaluated the use of undiluted lactose containing formula or cow’s milk during an episode of diarrhea. It was concluded that routine dilution of milk and the use of lactose- free milk formula are not necessary. Objective To evaluate the effect of lactose free formula compared with lactose-containing milk formula during...
Developmental status of 1-year-old infants fed breast milk, cow's milk formula, or soy formula.
Andres, Aline; Cleves, Mario A; Bellando, Jayne B; Pivik, R T; Casey, Patrick H; Badger, Thomas M
2012-06-01
Although soy formula has been reported to support normal development, concerns exist regarding potential adverse developmental effects of phytochemicals associated with soy protein. This study characterized developmental status (mental, motor, and language) of breastfed (BF), milk-based formula-fed (MF), or soy protein-based formula-fed (SF) infants during the first year of life. Healthy infants (N = 391) were assessed longitudinally at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Development was evaluated by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Preschool Language Scale-3. Mixed effects models were used while adjusting for socioeconomic status, mother's age and IQ, gestational age, gender, birth weight, head circumference, race, age, and diet history. No differences were found between formula-fed infants (MF versus SF). BF infants scored slightly higher than formula-fed infants on the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) score at ages 6 and 12 months (P < .05). Infants who were breastfed also had higher Psychomotor Development Index scores than SF infants at age 6 months and slightly higher Preschool Language Scale-3 scores than MF infants at ages 3 and 6 months (P < .05). In addition, BF infants had a lower probability to score within the lower MDI quartile compared with MF infants and a higher likelihood to score within the upper quartile for the MDI and Psychomotor Development Index compared with SF infants. This unique study showed that all scores on developmental testing were within established normal ranges and that MF and SF groups did not differ significantly. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a slight advantage of BF infants on cognitive development compared with formula-fed infants.
Design Formula for Breakage of Tetrapods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; Jensen, Jacob Birk; Liu, Z.
1995-01-01
The paper presents a design formula for Tetrapod armour on a 1:1.5 slope exposed to head-on random wave attack. The formula predicts the relative number of broken Tetrapods as function of: the mass of the Tetrapods, the concrete tensile strength and the wave height in front of the structure. Thus...
Formulas in Physics Have a "Standard" Form
Moelter, Matthew J.; Jackson, Martin
2012-01-01
We discuss the importance of the ordering of symbols in physics formulas and identify implicit conventions that govern the "standard" form for how formulas are written and interpreted. An important part of writing and reading this form is understanding distinctions among constants, parameters, and variables. We delineate these conventions and…
Misconceptions in global reactions and formula writing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stig R. Johansson
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The frequently used concept of “global reaction” is discussed and the reason for the confusion behind explained. The misconception is cleared by formula writing based on the donor–acceptor (donac reaction concept and by applying the Grand Rule of Formula Writing that is based on it.
Borromean surgery formula for the Casson invariant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry
2008-01-01
It is known that every oriented integral homology 3-sphere can be obtained from S3 by a finite sequence of Borromean surgeries. We give an explicit formula for the variation of the Casson invariant under such a surgery move. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing, li...
Graphing formulas: Unraveling experts’ recognition processes
Kop, P.M.G.M.; Janssen, F.J.J.M.; Drijvers, P.H.M.; van Driel, J.H.
2017-01-01
An instantly graphable formula (IGF) is a formula that a person can instantly visualizeusing a graph. These IGFs are personal and serve as building blocks for graphing formulasby hand. The questions addressed in this paper are what experts’ repertoires of IGFs are andwhat experts attend to while
Acidified infant formula explained | Labuschagne | South African ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Exclusive breastfeeding and postponement of complementary foods until the age of six months is recommended for healthy infants. However, at times, infant formula is required. Various types are commercially available. Acidified cow's milk formula has been found to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria and concurring ...
27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121 Section 17.121 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... not be used subsequently. (d) Distribution and retention of approved formulas. One copy of each...
Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.
Spitz, Herman H.
1993-01-01
This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)
101 ready-to-use Excel formulas
Alexander, Michael
2014-01-01
Mr. Spreadsheet has done it again with 101 easy-to-apply Excel formulas 101 Ready-to-Use Excel Formulas is filled with the most commonly-used, real-world Excel formulas that can be repurposed and put into action, saving you time and increasing your productivity. Each segment of this book outlines a common business or analysis problem that needs to be solved and provides the actual Excel formulas to solve the problem-along with detailed explanation of how the formulas work. Written in a user-friendly style that relies on a tips and tricks approach, the book details how to perform everyday Excel tasks with confidence. 101 Ready-to-Use Excel Formulas is sure to become your well-thumbed reference to solve your workplace problems. The recipes in the book are structured to first present the problem, then provide the formula solution, and finally show how it works so that it can be customized to fit your needs. The companion website to the book allows readers to easily test the formulas and provides visual confirmat...
Emergence String and Mass Formulas of Hadrons
Chang, Yi-Fang
2011-01-01
Assume that hadrons are formed from the emergence string. Usual string should possess two moving states: oscillation and rotation, so we propose corresponding potential and the equation of the emergence string, whose energy spectrum is namely the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. These are some relations between the string and observable experimental data.
Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding
... close to you and make eye contact while feeding. Hold the bottle so the nipple and the neck of the bottle are always filled with formula. This will help prevent your child from swallowing air. Throw away leftover formula within 1 hour after a feeding. DO NOT keep it and use again. References ...
The rational formula from the runhydrograph
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2005-03-18
Mar 18, 2005 ... Pilgrim and Cordery (1993) stated that the design situation is exactly suited to the probabilistic approach of the rational formula and has little similarity with the deterministic rational formula, so that the criticisms associated with the deterministic approach are not necessarily valid for the probabilistic design ...
Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Rinella, G Aglieri; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belmont, R; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Berger, M E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Böhmer, F V; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calero Diaz, L; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; 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Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhuo, Zhou; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zyzak, M
The production of the strange and double-strange baryon resonances ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) has been measured at mid-rapidity ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]) in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] 7 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. Transverse momentum spectra for inelastic collisions are compared to QCD-inspired models, which in general underpredict the data. A search for the [Formula: see text] pentaquark, decaying in the [Formula: see text] channel, has been carried out but no evidence is seen.
Gupta, Shalini; Verma, Minni; Singh, Kamaljit
2012-01-01
Estimation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is crucial in management of coronary artery disease patients. Though a number of homogenous assays are available for estimation of LDL-C, use of calculated LDL-C by Friedewald’s formula (FF) is common in Indian laboratories for logistic reasons. Recently Anandaraja and colleagues have derived a new formula for calculating LDL-C. This formula needs to be evaluated before it is extensively applied in diagnosis. We measured LDL-C by homog...
The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M. [Departamento de Fisica dos Solidos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Neto, Jose Abdala Helayeel [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-160 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)
2013-01-15
We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) Circled-Times U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Elie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenboeck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.
The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences
Qian, Li
2015-01-01
Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…
Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula
Chervov, A.; Falqui, G.
2008-05-01
In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [Mij, Mkl] = [Mkj, Mil] (e.g. [M11, M22] = [M21, M12]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: \\det(\\partial_z-L_Gaudin(z)), \\det(1-e^{-\\partial_z}T_Yangian(z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U_crit(\\widehat{gl_n})) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system.
Xi, Peng; Kaifa, Wang; Yong, Zhang; Hong, Yan; Chao, Wang; Lijuan, Song; Hongyu, Wang; Dan, Wu; Hua, Jiang; Shiliang, Wang
2014-01-01
An accurate knowledge of energy consumption in burn patients is a prerequisite for rational nutrition therapy. This study sought to create a formula that accounts for the metabolic characteristics of adult burn patients to accurately estimate energy consumption of patients with different areas and extents of burn and at different times after injury. Resting energy expenditure (REE) data on 66 burn patients, with total body surface area (TBSA) of burns ranging from 4% to 96%, were evaluated at different times after injury. REE values were determined in patients using indirect calorimetry at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injury. We then constructed a mathematical model of REE changes post-burn. Next, established two new formulas (one non-linear and the other linear) for energy consumption estimation using model-based analytical solution and regression analysis. The new formulas were compared with measured REE and commonly used formulas including those of Carlson, Xie, Curreri, and Milner to determine accuracy and reliability. Comparative analysis showed that the new formulas offered significantly higher accuracy and reliability than the Milner formula, which is considered the most accurate of commonly used burn energy consumption estimate formulas. The accuracy of the new nonlinear formula (94.29%) and that of the linear formula (91.43%) were significantly higher than that of Milner formula (72.86%) when compared to measured REE (χ2 = 11.706, P = 0.001; χ2 = 8.230, P = 0.004, respectively). The reliabilities of the new estimation formulas were both 100% and that of Milner formula was 74.24% (χ2 = 19.513, P = 0.000). The new formulas constructed in this study provide reliable simulation of the impact of the degree of burn and post-burn days on energy consumption and offer notably higher accuracy and reliability than other formulas. These formulas will help determine nutritional needs of burn patients. The study was
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Peng Xi
Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of energy consumption in burn patients is a prerequisite for rational nutrition therapy. This study sought to create a formula that accounts for the metabolic characteristics of adult burn patients to accurately estimate energy consumption of patients with different areas and extents of burn and at different times after injury.Resting energy expenditure (REE data on 66 burn patients, with total body surface area (TBSA of burns ranging from 4% to 96%, were evaluated at different times after injury. REE values were determined in patients using indirect calorimetry at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injury. We then constructed a mathematical model of REE changes post-burn. Next, established two new formulas (one non-linear and the other linear for energy consumption estimation using model-based analytical solution and regression analysis. The new formulas were compared with measured REE and commonly used formulas including those of Carlson, Xie, Curreri, and Milner to determine accuracy and reliability.Comparative analysis showed that the new formulas offered significantly higher accuracy and reliability than the Milner formula, which is considered the most accurate of commonly used burn energy consumption estimate formulas. The accuracy of the new nonlinear formula (94.29% and that of the linear formula (91.43% were significantly higher than that of Milner formula (72.86% when compared to measured REE (χ2 = 11.706, P = 0.001; χ2 = 8.230, P = 0.004, respectively. The reliabilities of the new estimation formulas were both 100% and that of Milner formula was 74.24% (χ2 = 19.513, P = 0.000.The new formulas constructed in this study provide reliable simulation of the impact of the degree of burn and post-burn days on energy consumption and offer notably higher accuracy and reliability than other formulas. These formulas will help determine nutritional needs of burn patients.The study
Aviram, A; Yogev, Y; Ashwal, E; Hiersch, L; Danon, D; Hadar, E; Gabbay-Benziv, R
2017-12-01
The sonographic prediction of fetal macrosomia affects obstetrical decision regarding the timing and mode of delivery. We aimed to compare the accuracy of various formulas for prediction of macrosomia at different thresholds. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton gestations at term, with fetal biometrical measurements taken up to 7 days prior to delivery (2007 to 2014). Sonographic estimated fetal weight was calculated using 20 previously published formulas. Macrosomia prediction was evaluated for every formula utilizing: (1) measures of accuracy (sensitivity, specificity and so on); (2) comparison of the systematic and random errors (SE and RE), and the proportion of estimates within 10% of actual birth weight for macrosomic and non-macrosomic neonates. Performance measurements were evaluated for different macrosomia thresholds: 4000, 4250 and 4500 g. Best performing formula for every threshold was defined as the one with the lowest Euclidean distance (=SQRT(SE 2 +RE 2 )). Out of 7977 women who met the inclusion criteria, 754 (9.4%) delivered a neonate weighing ⩾4000 g, 266 (3.3%) delivered a neonate weighing⩾4250 g and 75 (0.9%) delivered a neonate weighing⩾4500 g. Considerable variability was noted between the accuracy parameters of the different formulas, with Woo's formula integrating Abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) as the most sensitive formula with the highest negative predictive value for all thresholds and Woo's formula using AC, FL and biparietal diameter (BPD) as the most specific for all thresholds. The same formula also demonstrated the best overall accuracy. Regardless of threshold chosen, 80% or more of formulas demonstrated negative systematic error, meaning lower EFW than actual birthweight. As for the Euclidean distance, Hadlock's formula (AC, FL and BPD) ranked the highest for the 4000 and 4250 g thresholds, whereas Shepard's formula (AC and BPD) ranked the highest for the 4500 g threshold
Enhanced microbiological safety of acidified infant formulas tested in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
organisms in infant formulas after reconstitution, and comparison of the bacteriostatic effect of acidified formulas obtained through fermentation or by direct addition of lactic acid. Design. Four commercially available infant formulas were ...
Qutb, Ammar; Syed, Ghulam; Tamim, Hani M; Al Jondeby, Mohammad; Jaradat, Maha; Tamimi, Waleed; Al Ghamdi, Ghormullah; Al Qurashi, Salem; Flaiw, Ahmed; Hejaili, Fayez; Al Sayyari, Abdulla A
2009-12-01
There are conflicting reports on the reliability of the various glomerular filtration rate formula in renal allografts, to assess the performance of various glomerular filtration rate formula in estimating renal function of renal allografts. Glomerular filtration rate was measured using an isotope Tc99m DTPA in 97 renal transplant patients and estimated using modification of diet in renal disease, Cockroft-Gault formula, Nankivell, and a cystatin C-based formula. The overall performance of these formula was evaluated by calculating bias, accuracy and precision. Mean age was 39.8 years (-/+ 12.7), body mass index was 26.9 (-/+ 6.3) and serum creatinine was 114.5 micromol/L (-/+ 39.3). The mean measured glomerular filtration rate was 58.1 mL/min (-/+ 25.6). The bias with modification of diet in renal disease was 7.7 (P = .03), with Cockroft-Gault formula it was 3.2 (P = .3), with Nankivell it was 10.3 (P = .0002), and with cystatin C it was 0.31 (P = .9) The precisions (r) for modification of diet in renal disease, Cockroft-Gault formula, Nankivell, and cystatin C were 0.26 (P = .01), 0.26 (P = .01), 0.42 (P = .0001), and 0.60 (P filtration rate on the performance of these 4 formula. The best correlation, highest precision, accuracy, and least bias were seen when using cystatin C. The largest bias was seen when using Nankivell and modification of diet in renal disease formula.
Novel Aerodynamic Design for Formula SAE Vehicles
Sentongo, Samuel; Carter, Austin; Cecil, Christopher; Feier, Ioan
2017-11-01
This paper identifies and evaluates the design characteristics of a novel airfoil that harnesses the Magnus Effect, applying a moving-surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) method to a Formula SAE Vehicle. The MSBC minimizes adverse pressure gradient and delays boundary layer separation through the use of a conveyor belt that interacts with the airfoil boundary layer. The MSBC allows dynamic control of the aerodynamic coefficients by variation of the belt speed, minimizing drag in high speed straights and maximizing downforce during vehicle cornering. A conveyer belt wing measuring approximately 0.9 x 0.9m in planform was designed and built to test the mechanical setup for such a MSBC wing. This study follows the relationship between inputted power and outputted surface velocity, with the goal being to maximize speed output vs. power input. The greatest hindrance to maximizing speed output is friction among belts, rollers, and stationary members. The maximum belt speed achieved during testing was 5.9 m/s with a power input of 48.8 W, which corresponds to 45.8 N of downforce based on 2D CFD results. Ongoing progress on this project is presented. United States Air Force Academy.
"Formula Student" / Malle Jürves
Jürves, Malle, 1950-
2008-01-01
Tehnikakõrgkooli ja tehnikaülikooli tudengite 17-liikmeline võiskond osales tänavu suvel Inglismaal Silverstone'i ringrajakompleksis peetaval tootearendusvõistlusel "Formula Student" omaehitatud vormelautoga
Soy infant formula: is it that bad?
Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry; Hauser, Bruno
2011-02-01
The objective of this study is to review the indications of soy infant formula (SIF). Structured review of publications is made available through standard search engines (Pubmed,…). The medical indications for SIF are limited to galactosaemia and hereditary lactase deficiency. In the treatment of cow's milk allergy, SIF is used for economic reasons, as extensive hydrolysates are expensive. SIF is dissuaded mainly because of its phytooestrogen content. Isoflavone serum levels are much higher in SIF-fed infants than in breastfed or cow milk formula-fed infants. Administration of pure isoflavones to animals causes decreased fertility, but clinically relevant adverse effects of SIF in infants are not reported. Soy infant formula remains an option for feeding of term born infants if breastfeeding is not possible and if standard infant formula is not tolerated. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Missouri S&T formula electric racing.
2014-05-01
The Formula Electric racing team will promote Missouri S&Ts engineering excellence by successfully competing against other top : engineering universities in the US and around the world. Students on the team will have the opportunity to reinforce t...
On Makeham's formula and xed income mathematics
Jensen, Bjarne Astrup
1999-01-01
The return on a bond investment comes from three sources: Interest payments, real- ized capital gains and accrued capital gains. We provide an exact description on how the capital gains can be measured under a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals and study the theoretical properties of such rules, their taxation consequences and the relation between the yield before tax and the yield after tax. The vehicle of our exposition is Makeham's formula, an actuarial formula for the pres...
Some formulae for double Clausenian functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlsson, Per W.
2000-01-01
For certain third-order hypergeometric functions of two variables, reduction and transformation formulae under various conditions upon the parameters are derived from an Euler integral representation that requires one relation between parameters.......For certain third-order hypergeometric functions of two variables, reduction and transformation formulae under various conditions upon the parameters are derived from an Euler integral representation that requires one relation between parameters....
Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)
2017-03-17
Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.
Comparisons of a chicken-based formula with soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy.
Jirapinyo, Pipop; Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Wongarn, Renu; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi
2007-01-01
To determine whether chicken-based formula can replace soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. Thirty-eight infants with cow's milk allergy, aged between 2-24 months of age were randomized to receive either chicken-based formula or soy-based formula for 14 days. In the group of soy-based formula, 12 out of 18 infants had evidence of intolerance and could not continue with the formula. However, only 4 out of 20 infants in the chicken-based formula group had evidence of clinical intolerance. All other 16 infants were fed the chicken-based formula with success. The number of infants who were intolerant to chicken formula was significantly lower than the number of those fed soy-based formula (p = 0.009). Chicken-based formula can be used more effectively than soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy.
Abd-Elhameed, W. M.
2017-07-01
In this paper, a new formula relating Jacobi polynomials of arbitrary parameters with the squares of certain fractional Jacobi functions is derived. The derived formula is expressed in terms of a certain terminating hypergeometric function of the type _4F3(1) . With the aid of some standard reduction formulae such as Pfaff-Saalschütz's and Watson's identities, the derived formula can be reduced in simple forms which are free of any hypergeometric functions for certain choices of the involved parameters of the Jacobi polynomials and the Jacobi functions. Some other simplified formulae are obtained via employing some computer algebra algorithms such as the algorithms of Zeilberger, Petkovsek and van Hoeij. Some connection formulae between some Jacobi polynomials are deduced. From these connection formulae, some other linearization formulae of Chebyshev polynomials are obtained. As an application to some of the introduced formulae, a numerical algorithm for solving nonlinear Riccati differential equation is presented and implemented by applying a suitable spectral method.
Novel formula to measure mean pulmonary artery pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Jose Chacon-Lozsan
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Mean Pulmonary Arterial Pressure (MPAP is an important parameter in evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study is to correlate a new formula using non-invasive blood pressure and Bernoulli’s right ventricle systolic pressure (RVSP with invasive method. To archive the objectives, we enrolled 143 patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension from January 2015 till January 2016; all patients underwent right heart catheter evaluation and simultaneously RVSP by transthoracic echocardiography and non-invasive blood pressure to calculate MPAP by the formula MPAP = Pulse Pressure / (Mean Arterial Pressure/RVSP; and the results were compared using the Pearson’s simple-linear correlation method. We found a significant association between invasive and equation results with a Pearson’s correlation of 0,872 with a confidence interval from 0,795 to 0,921; sensitivity was 1,538% with a 95% confidence of interval (CI from 0,038% to 8,276%, and Specificity was 100% with 95% CI from 94,48% to 100%. Our results suggest that the new formula have a good correlation estimating MPAP compared with invasive right heart catheterization method.
Further summation formulae related to generalized harmonic numbers
Zheng, De-Yin
2007-11-01
By employing the univariate series expansion of classical hypergeometric series formulae, Shen [L.-C. Shen, Remarks on some integrals and series involving the Stirling numbers and [zeta](n), Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 347 (1995) 1391-1399] and Choi and Srivastava [J. Choi, H.M. Srivastava, Certain classes of infinite series, Monatsh. Math. 127 (1999) 15-25; J. Choi, H.M. Srivastava, Explicit evaluation of Euler and related sums, Ramanujan J. 10 (2005) 51-70] investigated the evaluation of infinite series related to generalized harmonic numbers. More summation formulae have systematically been derived by Chu [W. Chu, Hypergeometric series and the Riemann Zeta function, Acta Arith. 82 (1997) 103-118], who developed fully this approach to the multivariate case. The present paper will explore the hypergeometric series method further and establish numerous summation formulae expressing infinite series related to generalized harmonic numbers in terms of the Riemann Zeta function [zeta](m) with m=5,6,7, including several known ones as examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.; Mekhonoshina, M. A. [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr., 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2014-12-09
In the present work we evaluate the accuracy of the Eucken formula and Stokes’ viscosity relation in high temperature non-equilibrium air species with electronic excitation. The thermal conductivity coefficient calculated using the exact kinetic theory methods is compared with that obtained applying approximate formulas in the temperature range 200–20000 K. A modification of the Eucken formula providing a good agreement with exact calculations is proposed. It is shown that the Stokes viscosity relation is not valid in electronically excited monoatomic gases at temperatures higher than 2000 K.
Toddler drinks, formulas, and milks: Labeling practices and policy implications.
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Romo Palafox, Maria J; Harris, Jennifer L
2018-01-12
Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations. In January 2017, we conducted legal research on U.S. food label laws and regulations; collected and evaluated toddler drink packages, including nutrition labels and claims; and compared toddler drink labels with the same brand's infant formula labels. We found that the U.S. has a regulatory structure for food labels and distinct policies for infant formula, but no laws specific to toddler drinks. Toddler drink labels utilized various terms and images to identify products and intended users; made multiple health and nutrition claims; and some stated there was scientific or expert support for the product. Compared to the same manufacturer's infant formula labels, most toddler drink labels utilized similar colors, branding, logos, and graphics. Toddler drink labels may confuse consumers about their nutrition and health benefits and the appropriateness of these products for young children. To support healthy toddler diets and well-informed decision-making by caregivers, the FDA can provide guidance or propose regulations clarifying permissible toddler drink labels and manufacturers should end inappropriate labeling practices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vandenplas, Y; Plaskie, K
2010-08-01
Infants and children with cow's milk-sensitive enteropathy are treated with extensively hydrolyzed formulas. A formula (New Alfaré) was developed by a protein hydrolysis method that yields an amino acid profile that more closely resembles human milk compared to previous formulas, and contains nucleotides. The current study was a prospective, open trial aimed at evaluating the safety and nutritional adequacy of this formula for pediatric patients with clinical indications for the enteral use of semi-elemental diet. Safety was measured as normal growth based on Euro-growth standards for body mass index (BMI)-for-age z-scores, and nutritional adequacy was evaluated based on measurements of blood parameters. Forty-seven patients cow's milk-sensitive enteropathy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Conceição Maria Lauriano Godoy
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de uma fórmula isenta de lactose, elaborada para suprir as necessidades de lactentes desnutridos com intolerâncias complexas e administrada por sonda nasogástrica de forma contínua. Receberam esta fórmula 13 lactentes, 10 do sexo masculino e 3 do sexo feminino, com idade mediana de 5,5 meses, que apresentaram quadro de desnutrição grave e diarréia prolongada. A dieta administrada mostrou-se eficaz, pois os lactentes apresentaram aumento dos valores antropométricos ao final do estudo, promovendo assim um crescimento adequado. Além disso, verificou-se boa oferta energético-protéica, não ocorrendo diarréia e/ou alterações metabólicas durante sua utilização.The utilization of a formula free of lactose, elaborated to cover needs of malnourished infants with chronic diarrhea and complex intestinal intolerances was evaluated. The formula was administered through a nasogastric tube in continuous regimen. Thirteen children, ten males and three females, with median ages of 5.5 months, were studied. They had severe malnutrition and persistent diarrhea. The administered diet was very effective, since the infants showed a good increase in the anthropometric values at the end of the study. Furthermore, a good protein-energy intaken was observed and diarrhea or metabolic disorders did not occur during the use of the formula.
Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Verzini, M J Alconada; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alstaty, M; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Coutinho, Y Amaral; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Santos, S P Amor Dos; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Bella, L Aperio; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Navarro, L Barranco; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Noccioli, E Benhar; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bylund, O Bessidskaia; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; De Mendizabal, J Bilbao; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Sola, J D Bossio; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Madden, W D Breaden; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Toro, R Camacho; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Armadans, R Caminal; Camincher, C; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Camplani, A; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Bret, M Cano; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Garrido, M D M Capeans; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Carbone, R M; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, I; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Casper, D W; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelijn, R; Castelli, A; Gimenez, V Castillo; Castro, N F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavallaro, E; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Alberich, L Cerda; Cerio, B C; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, S K; Chan, Y L; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chatterjee, A; Chau, C C; Barajas, C A Chavez; Che, S; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, H J; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Moursli, R Cherkaoui El; 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Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L
2016-01-01
The luminosity determination for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during pp collisions at [Formula: see text] 8 TeV in 2012 is presented. The evaluation of the luminosity scale is performed using several luminometers, and comparisons between these luminosity detectors are made to assess the accuracy, consistency and long-term stability of the results. A luminosity uncertainty of [Formula: see text] is obtained for the [Formula: see text] of pp collision data delivered to ATLAS at [Formula: see text] 8 TeV in 2012.
Bellco Formula Domus Home Care System.
Trewin, Elizabeth
2004-01-01
There are certain characteristics in a dialysis machine that would be desirable for use in home and limited care environments. These features relate to safety, ease of use, consideration of physical space, and reliability. The Bellco Formula Domus Home Care System was designed to meet all these requirements. Bellco's philosophy of patient treatment centers on global biocompatibility. This is evident in the design of the Formula Domus Home Care System. It has the smallest hydraulic fluid pathway of any dialysis machine on the market. Formula is capable of preparing ultrapure dialysate. The ultrafiltration measurement mechanism, the patented Coriolis flow meter, measures the mass of the dialysate, not the volume. For this reason it is the only dialysis machine that detects actual backfiltration, not just the theoretical possibility of it based on transmembrane pressure. The Coriolis flow meter also ensures that dialysate flow is a true single pass. The operator interface is a single window operating control. It is possible to select up to 14 different languages. There is an online help key to assist patients with troubleshooting. Programmable start-up and shutdown times save time for the patient. Formula is the only dialysis machine to offer a backup battery feature. Formula is capable of communicating with any software available. The focus on global biocompatibility ensures the best quality dialysis treatments for a population of patients who will likely remain on dialysis for a longer period of time than conventional dialysis patients.
The rational formula from the runhydrograph | Parak | Water SA
African Journals Online (AJOL)
catchments. However, as a result of the criticisms, the formula carries with it many cautions. One such caution regards the determination of the formula\\'s runoff coefficient c, which is seen as the main difficulty in the design application of the formula. Mindful of this, it was decided to investigate the calibration of this coefficient, ...
Language and Revolution: Formulae of the Cultural Revolution.
Yuan, Ji Feng; And Others
1990-01-01
Examines changes in formulaic speech in China following the revolution and the Cultural Revolution, by studying politeness formulae and Public Criticism Meetings. Data indicate that routine formulae code cultural norms and that formulaic inventory changes result from the need to code new social facts. (JL)
Identifying a framework for graphing formulas from expert strategies
Kop, P; F, Janssen,; Drijvers, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922; Veenman, M.; van Driel, Jan
2014-01-01
Graphing formulas with paper and pen helps learners to connect the algebraic and graphical representation of a function, which is important in learning to read algebraic formulas. To be able to graph formulas, a repertoire of functions that can be instantly visualized by a graph (formula-graphics)
Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Three compost formulas (formula I, formula II, and formula III) based waste tea leaves and using some activator materials such as wheat bran, chicken manure and pigeon manure were studied for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Some locally available peats such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara and theirs ...
Comparison of the CIELab and CIEDE 2000 Color Difference Formulas on Gingival Color Space.
Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Montero, Javier; Gómez-Polo, Miguel; Martin Casado, Ana
2017-12-22
To evaluate the CIELAB and CIEDE2000 formulas to determine which better reflects the difference in color perception, and whether there are gender differences in color perception. Fifty-six participants grouped 21 different-colored disks made of pink porcelain (color range: from 36.8 to 63.9 for L* , from 16.4 to 35.2 for a* , from 6.2 to 21.6 for b* ), in which the only requirement was that each group be comprised of disks with chromatically indistinguishable colors. Each participant was free to choose the number and composition of the groups. Using the results obtained, a dissimilarity matrix was generated, and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) was applied to obtain the coordinates of the disks within a Euclidean space. The linear correlation coefficient between the interpoint distances of the MDS configuration (MDS_total sample) and the color differences with the CIELAB formula (ΔE*ab ) was 0.719 (p color difference was 0.720 (p color differences was 0.730 (p color differences, calculated with both formulas, were less sensitive, 0.670 for CIELab formula and 0.677 for CIEDE2000 formula. Considering the limitations of this study, the data analyzed indicated that the CIEDE2000 formula reflected the color differences perceived by the human eye similar to the CIELAB formula (ΔE*ab ). Also, women were confirmed to be more sensitive than men to differences in color. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Formula Switch Leads to Enteral Feeding Tolerance Improvements in Children With Developmental Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerard Minor MMS, PA-C
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Children with developmental delays are often dependent on enteral nutrition. The aim of our study was to evaluate improvement in tolerance parameters in these children who were switched from an intact protein formula to a 100% whey, peptide-based formula. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with developmental delays who were failing to reach adequate nutritional goals on standard polymeric formulas were switched to a 100% whey peptide-based formula. Enteral volume goals, caloric goals, and change in medication used to improve feeding tolerance were assessed before and after formula switch. Results: Medical records of 13 children (aged 8.4 ± 4.6 years met criteria. All children had a primary diagnosis of developmental delay, and 77% were fed via gastrostomy tube. Of the 13 children assessed, 92% experienced improved feeding tolerance, and 75% of these reported the time to improvement within 1 week after formula switch. Feeding tolerance parameters that improved were vomiting (86%, gagging and retching (75%, high residual volumes (63%, constipation (43%, diarrhea (100%, and poor weight gain (100%. Conclusion: Switching to a 100% whey, peptide-based formula improved symptoms of feeding intolerance in the majority of these developmentally delayed children.
Minor, Gerard; Ochoa, Juan B; Storm, Heidi; Periman, Seletha
2016-01-01
Background: Children with developmental delays are often dependent on enteral nutrition. The aim of our study was to evaluate improvement in tolerance parameters in these children who were switched from an intact protein formula to a 100% whey, peptide-based formula. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with developmental delays who were failing to reach adequate nutritional goals on standard polymeric formulas were switched to a 100% whey peptide-based formula. Enteral volume goals, caloric goals, and change in medication used to improve feeding tolerance were assessed before and after formula switch. Results: Medical records of 13 children (aged 8.4 ± 4.6 years) met criteria. All children had a primary diagnosis of developmental delay, and 77% were fed via gastrostomy tube. Of the 13 children assessed, 92% experienced improved feeding tolerance, and 75% of these reported the time to improvement within 1 week after formula switch. Feeding tolerance parameters that improved were vomiting (86%), gagging and retching (75%), high residual volumes (63%), constipation (43%), diarrhea (100%), and poor weight gain (100%). Conclusion: Switching to a 100% whey, peptide-based formula improved symptoms of feeding intolerance in the majority of these developmentally delayed children.
Safety of a thickened extensive casein hydrolysate formula.
Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Xinias, I; Vrani, O; Mavroudi, A; Hammoud, M; Al Refai, F; Khalife, M C; Sayad, A; Noun, P; Farah, A; Makhoul, G; Orel, R; Sokhn, M; L'Homme, A; Mohring, M P; Merhi, B Abou; Boulos, J; El Masri, H; Halut, C
2016-02-01
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is treated in formula-fed infants with an extensive protein hydrolysate. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional safety of a non-thickened and thickened extensively casein hydrolyzed protein formula (NT- and T-eCHF) in infants with CMA. Infants younger than 6 mo old with a positive cow milk challenge test, positive IgE, or skin prick test for cow milk were selected. Weight and length were followed during the 6 mo intervention with the NT-eCHF and T-eCHF. A challenge was performed in 50/71 infants with suspected CMA and was positive in 34/50. All children with confirmed CMA tolerated the eCHF. The T-eCHF leads to a significant improvement of the stool consistency in the whole population and in the subpopulation of infants with proven CMA. Height and weight evolution was satisfactory throughout the 6 mo study. The eCHF fulfills the criteria of a hypoallergenic formula and the NT- and T-eCHF reduced CMA symptoms. Growth was within normal range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Warfarin bioavailability with feeding tubes and enteral formula.
Klang, Mark; Graham, Dennis; McLymont, Veronica
2010-01-01
Earlier literature showed reduced efficacy of warfarin when co-administered with enteral nutrition formulas through feeding tubes. This study used an in vitro model for gastric administration of warfarin through a feeding tube to evaluate potential causes for reduced warfarin absorption when administered through feeding tubes. There were 2 phases of the study. The first phase used an artificial stomach model with or without the infusion of enteral nutrition formula. Warfarin was added to the contents either directly into the vessel or passed through a feeding tube. Warfarin tablet dissolution was compared to the injectable formulation, which served as a control. The second phase used chopped feeding tube material added to beakers containing warfarin in increasing amounts. Warfarin injection and tablet formulations showed decreased solubility when combined with acid. The warfarin solubility was higher when enteral formula was added. Warfarin concentration dropped by 35% when the drug was passed through a feeding tube, as opposed to added directly to the flask.In the second study, the warfarin levels were lower in the beakers containing feeding tubes. Doubling the amount of warfarin added did not raise levels to that of the initial dissolved. Doubling the amount of feeding tube material further reduced the concentration dissolved. Feeding-tube administration compromises the total amount of warfarin reaching patients. It appears, from this in vitro study, that the mechanism of the interaction of warfarin may be a result of direct binding to the feeding tube.
The varieties of formulaic diction in Turkic oral epics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reichl Karl
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This article tries to show that the formulaic diction on the level of verse line and formulaic patterning in the composition of scenes are closely related and must be studied together. The analysis is done on the example of Turkic epics. Of the formulaic patterns the most prominent one is the variety of use of the attribute ak (white, which appears to be one of the most common epithets in Turkic epic poetry. It is usually connected with cloth (e.g. caftan, yurt, different parts of body (face, bosom, antelope, the lumps of gold given as bride-price and various kinds of arms (sword, spear etc. It is usually denoted evaluatively as purity and beauty. In this matter Turkic epics share its position with many national epics of the middle ages including Serbian, Old English, Old German etc. The same role is analyzed for the opposite pattern “dust of earth”, and for the two themes: preparation of the hero for his journey and council scenes which are also mutual to many medieval epic traditions such as aforementioned Serbian and others.
Explicit formulas for regularized products and series
Jorgenson, Jay; Goldfeld, Dorian
1994-01-01
The theory of explicit formulas for regularized products and series forms a natural continuation of the analytic theory developed in LNM 1564. These explicit formulas can be used to describe the quantitative behavior of various objects in analytic number theory and spectral theory. The present book deals with other applications arising from Gaussian test functions, leading to theta inversion formulas and corresponding new types of zeta functions which are Gaussian transforms of theta series rather than Mellin transforms, and satisfy additive functional equations. Their wide range of applications includes the spectral theory of a broad class of manifolds and also the theory of zeta functions in number theory and representation theory. Here the hyperbolic 3-manifolds are given as a significant example.
Move! Eat better: try the FIT formula
CERN Medical Service
2013-01-01
In the physics world, some formulas lead to a Nobel prize. In the world of health and physical activity, the Medical Service also has a winning formula... FIT (physical activity) = Frequency x Intensity x Time Frequency = more than 3 times per week. Intensity = physical activity which slightly increases your heart rate and breathing rate. Time = more than 30 minutes (per session). As part of our Move! Eat better campaign, the Medical Service is still offering the use of a pedometer (available on loan from the infirmary), which is a really useful tool to help you reach the winning FIT formula. Interested in borrowing a CERN pedometer? Click here!
Vacuum engineering, calculations, formulas, and solved exercises
Berman, Armand
1992-01-01
This book was written with two main objectives in mind-to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, p
CRC standard mathematical tables and formulae
Zwillinger, Daniel
2002-01-01
New in the 31st edition:Game theory and voting powerHeuristic search techniquesQuadratic fieldsReliabilityRisk analysis and decision rulesA table of solutions to Pell's equationA table of irreducible polynomials in Z2[x]An interpretation of powers of 10A collection of ""proofs without words""Representations of groups of small orderCounting principlesTesselations and tilings…and much more!An indispensable, up-to-date resource, CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae, 31st Edition makes it effortless to find the equations, tables, and formulae you need most often.
Mathematical formulas for industrial and mechanical engineering
Kadry, Seifedine
2014-01-01
Mathematical Formulas For Industrial and Mechanical Engineering serves the needs of students and teachers as well as professional workers in engineering who use mathematics. The contents and size make it especially convenient and portable. The widespread availability and low price of scientific calculators have greatly reduced the need for many numerical tables that make most handbooks bulky. However, most calculators do not give integrals, derivatives, series and other mathematical formulas and figures that are often needed. Accordingly, this book contains that information in an easy way to
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2017-01-01
This paper reports a search for triboson [Formula: see text] production in two decay channels ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]) in proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 [Formula: see text] at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 [Formula: see text] with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events with exactly three charged leptons, or two leptons with the same electric charge in association with two jets, are selected. The total number of events observed in data is consistent with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The observed 95% confidence level upper limit on the SM [Formula: see text] production cross section is found to be 730 fb with an expected limit of 560 fb in the absence of SM [Formula: see text] production. Limits are also set on WWWW anomalous quartic gauge couplings.
Klemola, Timo; Vanto, Timo; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Kalimo, Kirsti; Korpela, Riitta; Varjonen, Elina
2002-02-01
We conducted a prospective, randomized study to evaluate the cumulative incidence of allergy or other adverse reactions to soy formula and to extensively hydrolyzed formula up to the age of 2 years in infants with confirmed cow's milk allergy. Infants (n = 170) with documented cow's milk allergy were randomly assigned to receive either a soy formula or an extensively hydrolyzed formula. If it was suspected that the formula caused symptoms, a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC) with the formula was performed. The children were followed to the age of 2 years, and soy-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies were measured at the time of diagnosis and at the ages of 1 and 2 years. An adverse reaction to the formula was confirmed by challenge in 8 patients (10%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%-18.8%) randomly assigned to soy formula and in 2 patients (2.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.3% to 7.8%) randomly assigned to extensively hydrolyzed formula. Adverse reactions to soy were similar in IgE-associated and non-IgE-associated cow's milk allergy (11% and 9%, respectively). IgE to soy was detected in only 2 infants with an adverse reaction to soy. Adverse reactions to soy formula were more common in younger (Soy formula was well tolerated by most infants with IgE-associated and non-IgE-associated cow's milk allergy. Development of IgE-associated allergy to soy was rare. Soy formula can be recommended as a first-choice alternative for infants >or=6 months of age with cow's milk allergy.
Generalized Heisenberg-Euler formula in Abelian gauge theory with parity violation
Yamashita, Kimiko; Fan, Xing; Kamioka, Shusei; Asai, Shoji; Sugamoto, Akio
2017-12-01
A generalized Heisenberg-Euler formula is given for an Abelian gauge theory having vector as well as axial vector couplings to a massive fermion. So, the formula is applicable to a parity-violating theory. The gauge group is chosen to be U(1). The formula is quite similar to that in quantum electrodynamics, but there is a complexity in which one factor (related to spin) is expressed in terms of the expectation value. The expectation value is evaluated by the contraction with the one-dimensional propagator in a given background field. The formula affords a basis to the vacuum magnetic birefringence experiment, which aims to probe the dark sector, where the interactions of the light fermions with the gauge fields are not necessarily parity conserving.
[Presence of total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Listeria sp. in enteral formulas].
Arias, M L; Monge, R; Rodríguez, J
1998-03-01
The presence of total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Listeria sp. was evaluated in 65 samples of enteral nutrition formulas. In more than the 75% of the samples made up from cooked vegetables, fruits or meat broth, the score level of total coliforms was of 10(4) UFC/g. In 12-31% of the different enteral food formula, E. coli was isolated in levels ranging form 3.0 x 10(2) to 2.1 x 10(4) UFC/g. Enteral nutrition formulas made out of fruits and those elaborated with meal broth presented this agent more frequently and in bigger quantities. Listeria sp. was isolated in 17% of the fruit preparations and in enteral formulas made with milk. L. grayi, L welshimeri and L. innocua were the species found.
Formula milk versus term human milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.
McGuire, W; Anthony, M Y
2001-01-01
Term (mature) human breast milk, compared with artificial formula milks, may provide insufficient nutrition for growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. However, human milk may confer advantages to infants in terms of a decreased incidence of adverse outcomes. To determine if formula milk compared with term human breast milk leads to improved growth and development without significant adverse effects in low birth weight or preterm infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and previous reviews including cross references. Randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus term human milk in low birth weight or preterm infants. Data were extracted using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by each author and synthesis of data using relative risk, risk difference and weighted mean difference. Six trials, all initiated more than 20 years ago, fulfilled the pre-specified inclusion criteria. Four small trials compared feeding with standard calorie formula milk versus unfortified term human milk. Two trials compared feeding with calorie-enriched formula milk versus unfortified term human milk. No trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus nutrient-fortified term human milk were found. Only one trial reported longer term follow up of growth and development. In preterm and low birth weight infants, enteral feeding with formula milk compared with unfortified term human milk resulted in a greater rate of growth in the short term. We did not find a statistically significant difference in the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, but this was evaluated as a pre-defined outcome in only one trial. The single trial that evaluated longer-term outcomes did not find evidence of an effect on longer-term growth and
Wakita, Maki; Masui, Hironori; Ichimaru, Satomi; Amagai, Teruyoshi
2012-02-01
Thickened enteral formula (TEF), which is made by adding thickener to enteral formula, has been used mainly in Japan to reduce the incidence of clinical complications associated with enteral nutrition. However, the optimal viscosity of TEF needed to achieve a high efficiency is different for each medical complication and for individual patients. The viscosity of TEF, which consists of enteral formula and thickener, was determined by 5 factors: (1) formula energy density, (2) formula temperature, (3) stirring speed, (4) stirring time, and (5) time elapsed since preparation. Then, the changing index (CI) was calculated for each of the 5 factors to determine which exerts the most influence on TEF viscosities. The most influential factor (CI ≥-50%) for the decrease in TEF viscosity was formula energy density. In contrast, the most influential factors (CI ≥50%) for the increase in TEF viscosity were stirring time and time elapsed since preparation. The results of this study indicate that formula energy density, stirring time, and time elapsed since preparation are the most influential factors to consider during manipulation of TEF viscosity.
Kavanagh, Katherine F; Cohen, Roberta J; Heinig, M Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G
2008-01-01
Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth measured before (at 1 to 2 months) and after (4 to 5 months) the intervention. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Sacramento, California. 836 caregivers of young infants were screened; 214 were eligible, and 104 agreed to participate. Intervention subjects received education promoting awareness of satiety cues and discouraging bottles containing more than 6 ounces before 4 months of age; intervention and control groups received education regarding introduction and feeding of solid food after 4 months of age. Formula intake (mL/24 hours) and weight gain (g/week). Differences between groups evaluated using 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Sixty-one subjects completed baseline records, 44 attended class, and 38 completed the study. Despite a positive response to the educational intervention, there was no change in bottle-feeding behaviors (formula intake at 4 to 5 months was more than 1100 mL/day in both groups). Infant growth in the intervention group was greater than in the control group (P intervention improved knowledge of the key messages, but further research is needed to understand barriers to modifying bottle-feeding behaviors.
Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz, J R M; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Balasubramanian, S; Baldisseri, A; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Belmont, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belyaev, V; Benacek, P; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Bjelogrlic, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Bossú, F; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calero Diaz, L; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Cerkala, J; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erdemir, I; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fleck, M G; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grachov, O A; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kostarakis, P; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, G R; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Leoncino, M; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martin Blanco, J; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Mcdonald, D; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Minervini, L M; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nellen, L; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Ohlson, A; Okatan, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; 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Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Søgaard, C; Song, J; Song, M; Song, Z; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Souza, R D de; Sozzi, F; Spacek, M; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Szabo, A; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tangaro, M A; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yasar, C; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Yushmanov, I; Zaborowska, A; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zaporozhets, S; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zyzak, M
The production of K[Formula: see text](892)[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text](1020) mesons has been measured in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 5.02 TeV. K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are reconstructed via their decay into charged hadrons with the ALICE detector in the rapidity range [Formula: see text]. The transverse momentum spectra, measured as a function of the multiplicity, have a p[Formula: see text] range from 0 to 15 GeV/ c for K[Formula: see text] and from 0.3 to 21 GeV/ c for [Formula: see text]. Integrated yields, mean transverse momenta and particle ratios are reported and compared with results in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 2.76 TeV. In Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions, K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] probe the hadronic phase of the system and contribute to the study of particle formation mechanisms by comparison with other identified hadrons. For this purpose, the mean transverse momenta and the differential proton-to-[Formula: see text] ratio are discussed as a function of the multiplicity of the event. The short-lived K[Formula: see text] is measured to investigate re-scattering effects, believed to be related to the size of the system and to the lifetime of the hadronic phase.
Proposed Formulae for Determining Blood Transfusion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Blood replacement remains a crucial component of the treatment of severe anaemia irrespective of the cause. The transfusion of an adequate amount of blood is important to prevent under- or over-transfusion. Existing formulae used for the calculation of blood transfusion requirements, while being useful, still ...
Contradiction and Kant's Formula of Universal Law
Kleingeld, Pauline
2017-01-01
Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the
A universal formula for network functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skelboe, Stig
1975-01-01
A linear electrical network can be described in a convenient way by means of the node equations. This letter presents a universal formula which expresses any network function as the quotient of two determinants. The determinants belong to matrices derived from the indefinite nodal admittance...
Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.
Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia
2016-03-01
Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians... ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.31 Distribution... the purpose shall be allotted pro rata in accordance with the distribution method outlined in this...
A rotational integral formula for intrinsic volumes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel; Rataj, J.
2008-01-01
passing through fixed points are related to the geometry of the sectioned object. In particular it is shown how certain weighting factors, appearing in the rotational integral formula, can be expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. Close connections to geometric tomography will be pointed out...
Ameliorative potential of Artemisia Capillaris Formula on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Artemisia Capillaris Formula (ACF), a traditional Chinese medicinal therapy, has been used clinically in China to treat Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) for many years. However, the mechanism of action of this treatment on NAFLD is still unknown. The goal of the present study is to test whether ...
Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A completely new set of formulas,based on matrix algebra,has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms.The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme.
Capacity formulas in MWPC: some critical reflexions
Van Esch, Patrick
2006-01-01
An approximate analytical expression for "capacitance" of MWPC configurations circulates in the literature since decades and is copied over and over again. In this paper we will try to show that this formula corresponds to a physical quantity that is different from what it is usually thought to stand for.
Curious extensions of Ramanujan's summation formula
Guo, Victor J. W.; Schlosser, Michael J.
2007-10-01
We deduce new q-series identities by applying inverse relations to certain identities for basic hypergeometric series. The identities obtained themselves do not belong to the hierarchy of basic hypergeometric series. We extend two of our identities, by analytic continuation, to bilateral summation formulae which contain Ramanujan's summation and a very-well-poised summation as special cases.
Regression Formulae for Predicting Hematologic and Liver ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Femi Olaleye
Full Length Research Article. Regression Formulae for Predicting. Hematologic and Liver Functions from. Years of Exposure to Cement Dust in. Cement Factory Workers in Sokoto, Nigeria. Mojiminiyi, F.B.O.1, Merenu, I.A.2, Njoku, C.H.3, Ibrahim, M.T.O.2. Departments of Physiology1, Community Health2 and Medicine3,.
Pseudo-Canonical Formulae are Classical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caminati Marco B.
2015-02-01
Full Text Available An original result about Hilbert Positive Propositional Calculus introduced in [11] is proven. That is, it is shown that the pseudo-canonical formulae of that calculus (and hence also the canonical ones, see [17] are a subset of the classical tautologies.
An Automatic Proof of Euler's Formula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Zhang
2005-05-01
Full Text Available In this information age, everything is digitalized. The encoding of functions and the automatic proof of functions are important. This paper will discuss the automatic calculation for Taylor expansion coefficients, as an example, it can be applied to prove Euler's formula automatically.
Composition formulas in the Weyl calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Ørsted, Bent; Pevzner, Michael
2009-01-01
In pseudodifferential analysis, the usual composition formula, which has asymptotic value, extends that valid for differential operators. The one developed here is based instead on the decomposition of symbols (functions in Rn×Rn ) as integral superpositions of homogeneous ones, of degrees lying ...
Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk
... this stage, solids should be fed after a bottle-feeding session, not before. That way, your baby fills ... by beginning to replace bottles of formula with bottles — or sippy cups — of ... babies do well with additional feedings. But you may want to offer your infant ...
From Navigation to Star Hopping: Forgotten Formulae
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
mining distances. The same formulae found ap- plication in a totally different field – astronomy, for instance in finding the angular separation be- tween stars or .... His astronomical treatise Siddhanta Shiromani and mathematical work. Lilavati are very popular. 'Lilavati' has more than 35 commentaries. Bhaskara's text.
Rotational versions of the Crofton formula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Eva B. Vedel
1995-01-01
Inspired by recent developments in stereology, rotational versions of the Crofton formula are derived. The first version involves rotation averages of Minkowski functionals. It is shown that for the special case where the Minkowski functional is surface area, the rotation average can be expressed...
Detecting Code Smells in Spreadsheet Formulas
Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.
2011-01-01
Spreadsheets are used extensively in business processes around the world and just like software, spreadsheets are changed throughout their lifetime causing maintainability issues. This paper adapts known code smells to spreadsheet formulas. To that end we present a list of metrics by which we can
Overtopping of Berm Breakwaters Extension of Overtopping Formula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.
2005-01-01
In this paper is presented an improved version of the overtopping formula by Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004)valid for berm breakwaters with initial slopes of 1:1.25. In the present paper guidelines is given on how to modify the formula to take into account the initial slope angle. Further...... the formula is improved so it gives reliable estimates also for more stable structures. The extension of the overtopping formula is based on analysis of front slope stability data from many different data sets. In most cases there is only a small difference between the Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004......) formula and the present improved formula. However, for a more stable structure and low wave steepness the improved formula performs better. Six different data sets are used to study the validity of the Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2004) formula, the present improved formula and the CLASH neural network...
Jaudzems, Gregory G
2015-01-01
A direct potentiometric method involving titration against a standard volumetric silver nitrate solution using a silver electrode to detect the end point was evaluated for the determination of chloride in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. It was assessed for compliance against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR®) established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted as a first step in the process to validate the method. In this SLV, 17 SPIFAN matrixes representing a range of infant formula and adult nutritional products were evaluated for their chloride content. The analytical range was found to be between 1.4 and 1060 mg/100 g reconstituted product or ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. The LOQ was estimated as 1.4 mg/100 g. Method repeatability was between 0.03 and 1.60% in the range of 20 to 167 mg/100 g RTF, and intermediate precision was between 0.09 and 2.77% in the same range. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of chloride ranged from 99.0 to 103% for 15 different SPIFAN products. Evaluation of trueness was performed on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a (Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula) and showed 97.2% of the theoretical value, with no bias at the 95% confidence level. Based on the results of the SLV, the method met the SMPR and was approved as a First Action method by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals on March 17, 2015.
Stephan, R.; Van Trappen, S.; Cleenwerck, I.; Iversen, C; Joosten, H.; de Vos, P.; A. Lehner
2008-01-01
Six Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming isolates of coccoid rods were obtained from fruit powder (n=3), infant formula (n=2) and infant formula production environment (n=1) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB sequence analysis, allocated the isolates to the Enterobacteriaceae. The highest rpoB sequence similarities (91.2-95.8 %) were obtained with Enterobacter helveticus, Enterobacter radicincitan...
Liu, Xun; Xu, Haixia; Zheng, Zebin; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Cailian; Shi, Chenggang; Gong, Yihong; Li, Ming; Lou, Tanqi
2013-01-01
The aim of the present study was to evaluate modified glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction formulae in an elderly Chinese population with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 378 elderly Chinese patients with CKD were enrolled. The GFR was estimated with six modified GFR prediction formulae. The performances of the estimated GFRs were compared with those of the standard GFRs measured by technetium-99m diethyl-enetraminepentaacetic acid. Biases were similar for Chinese formula 1, the Asian formula, and Chinese formula 2 (median difference, 2.22 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 2.59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for Chinese formula 1 and the Asian formula, respectively, versus (vs) 3.69 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for Chinese formula 2 [P = 0.298 and P = 0.913, respectively]). Precision was improved with the Japanese formula (interquartile range of the difference, 3.14 mL/min/1.73 m(2) of the Japanese formula versus 15.53-23.06 mL/min/1.73 m(2) of the other formulae). The accuracy of Chinese formula 2 was the highest (30% accuracy, 59.3% vs range 37.8-54.0% [P formulae surpassed the acceptable tolerance (>70%), and the GFR category misclassification rates for all the formulae exceeded 50%. Our findings suggest that all six modified formulae developed in Asian populations may show great bias in elderly Chinese patients with CKD. Also, our study suggests the need for uniform measures for the assessment of CKD in the elderly to guarantee better sensitivity and specificity.
Wu, Lei; Chen, Yuanbin; Xu, Yinji; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie Changli; Wen, Zehuai; Lin, Lin
2013-01-01
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral Huangqi formulae for the treatment of stable COPD. Methods. The major databases were searched until September 2010 and supplemented with a manual search. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of oral Huangqi formulae that reported on lung function, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, symptom improvement and/or frequency of exacerbations were extracted by two reviewers. The Cochrane tool was used for the assessment of risk of bias in the included trials. Data were analyzed with RevMan 5.1.2 software. Results. 25 RCTs (1,661 participants) were included. Compared with conventional therapy (CT) alone, oral Huangqi formulae plus CT increased FEV1, and a similar result was found comparing Huangqi formulae with no treatment. Improvements in SGRQ total score, COPD-related symptoms and reduction of frequency of exacerbations were found in patients receiving Huangqi formulae plus CT compared to those receiving CT alone or CT plus placebo. No serious adverse events were reported. However, there were some methodological inadequacies in the included studies. Conclusions. The benefits of Huangqi formulae for stable COPD were promising, but its efficacy and safety have not been established due to methodological weakness and possible bias in the reported results. Further rigorously designed studies are warranted.
Extension of elastic stiffness formula for leaf type holddown spring assembly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Kee Nam; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1998-09-01
Based on the Euler beam theory and the strain energy method, an elastic stiffness formula of the holddown spring assembly consisting of several leaves was previously derived. The formula was known to be useful to estimate the elastic stiffness of the holddown spring assembly only with the geometric data and the material properties of the leaf. Recently, it was reported that the elastic stiffness from the formula deviated much from the test results as the number of leaves was increased. In this study, in order to resolve such an increasing deviation as the increasing number of leaves, the formula has been extended to be able to consider normal forces and friction forces acting on interfaces between the leaves. The elastic stiffness analysis on specimens of leaf type holddown springs has been carried out using the extended formula and the analysis results are compared with the test results. As a result of comparisons, it is found that the extended formula is able to evaluate the elastic stiffness of the holddown spring assembly within an error range of 10%, irrespective of the number of leaves. In addition, it is found that the effect of shear forces and axial forces on the elastic stiffness of the holddown spring assembly is only below 0.2% of the elastic stiffness, and therefore the greatest portion of the elastic stiffness of the holddown spring assembly is attributed to the bending moment. (author). 13 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.
Interest Rate Swaptions: A Review and Derivation of Swaption Pricing Formulae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas Burgess
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we outline the European interest rate swaption pricing formula from first principles using the Martingale Representation Theorem and the annuity measure. This leads to an expression that allows us to apply the generalized Black-Scholes result. We show that a swaption pricing formula is nothing more than the Black-76 formula scaled by the underlying swap annuity factor. Firstly, we review the Martingale Representation Theorem for pricing options, which allows us to price options under a numeraire of our choice. We also highlight and consider European call and put option pricing payoffs. Next, we discuss how to evaluate and price an interest swap, which is the swaption underlying instrument. We proceed to examine how to price interest rate swaptions using the martingale representation theorem with the annuity measure to simplify the calculation. Finally, applying the Radon-Nikodym derivative to change measure from the annuity measure to the savings account measure we arrive at the swaption pricing formula expressed in terms of the Black-76 formula. We also provide a full derivation of the generalized Black-Scholes formula for completeness.
Shepherd, Scott T C; Gillen, Gerry; Morrison, Paula; Forte, Carla; Macpherson, Iain R; White, Jeff D; Mark, Patrick B
2014-03-01
Single cycle carboplatin, dosed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is standard adjuvant therapy for stage 1 seminoma. Accurate measurement of GFR is essential for correct dosing. Isotopic methods remain the gold standard for the determination of GFR. Formulae to estimate GFR have improved the assessment of renal function in non-oncological settings. We assessed the utility of these formulae for carboplatin dosing. We studied consecutive subjects receiving adjuvant carboplatin for stage 1 seminoma at our institution between 2007 and 2012. Subjects underwent 51Cr-ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) measurement of GFR with carboplatin dose calculated using the Calvert formula. Theoretical carboplatin doses were calculated from estimated GFR using Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI), Management of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formulae with additional correction for actual body surface area (BSA). Carboplatin doses calculated by formulae were compared with dose calculated by isotopic GFR; a difference formula had greatest accuracy. The CKD-EPI formula, corrected for actual BSA, performed best; 45.9% of patients received within 10% of correct carboplatin dose. Patients predicted as underdosed (13.5%) by CKD-EPI were more likely to be obese (p=0.013); there were no predictors of the 40.5% receiving an excess dose. Our data support further evaluation of the CKD-EPI formula in this patient population but clinically significant variances in carboplatin dosing occur using non-isotopic methods of GFR estimation. Isotopic determination of GFR should remain the recommended standard for carboplatin dosing when accuracy is essential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bevc, Sebastjan; Hojs, Radovan; Ekart, Robert; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Puklavec, Ludvik
2011-06-01
Despite the fact that the serum creatinine level is notoriously unreliable for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the elderly, the serum creatinine concentration and serum creatinine-based formulas, such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation (MDRD) are the most commonly used markers to estimate GFR. Recently, serum cystatin C-based formulas, the newer creatinine formula (the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (CKD-EPI creatinine formula), and an equation that uses both serum creatinine and cystatin C (CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin formula) were proposed as new GFR markers. The aim of our study was to compare the MDRD formula, CKD-EPI creatinine formula, CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin formula, and simple cystatin C formula (100/serum cystatin C) against (51) Cr-EDTA clearance in the elderly. A total of 317 adult Caucasian patients aged >65 years were enrolled. In each patient, (51) Cr-EDTA clearance, serum creatinine, and serum cystatin C were determined, and the GFR was calculated using the MDRD formula, CKD-EPI formulas, and simple cystatin C formula. Statistically significant correlations between (51) Cr-EDTA clearance and all formulas were found. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with a cut-off of GFR 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), a higher diagnostic accuracy was achieved with the equation that uses both serum creatinine and cystatin C (CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin formula) than the MDRD formula (P formula (P formula (P = 0.335). Bland and Altman analysis for the same cut-off value showed that the creatinine formulas underestimated and the simple cystatin C formula overestimated measured GFR. All equations lacked precision. The accuracy within 30% of estimated (51) Cr-EDTA clearance values differ according to the stage of CKD. Analysis of the ability to correctly predict GFR below and above 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) showed a high prediction for all formulas. Our results indicate
Constrained Clar formulas of coronoid hydrocarbons.
Aihara, Jun-ichi; Makino, Masakazu
2014-02-20
Aromatic character of coronoid hydrocarbons is greatly influenced by the shapes of outer and inner peripheries. The most aromatic rings in coronoids are jutting benzene rings on the armchair edges, if any. Clar formulas of many coronoids conform to the aromaticity patterns. However, placement of all aromatic sextets on highly aromatic rings is sometimes forbidden by the presence of the central cavity. The magnitude of aromatic stabilization energy due to macrocyclic conjugation [SSE(mc)] and the NICS(1) value at the center of the cavity strongly depend on the structure of the superposed Clar formula. Localization of π-electrons in fixed aromatic sextets effectively suppresses macrocyclic conjugation. The sign of SSE(mc) is determined by the number of carbon atoms that form the hub cycle.
SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.F. Lukushkina
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141
Chantry, Caroline J; Dewey, Kathryn G; Peerson, Janet M; Wagner, Erin A; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A
2014-06-01
To evaluate in-hospital formula supplementation among first-time mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed and determined if in-hospital formula supplementation shortens breastfeeding duration after adjusting for breastfeeding intention. We assessed strength of breastfeeding intentions prenatally in a diverse cohort of expectant primiparae and followed infant feeding practices through day 60. Among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed their healthy term infants for ≥1 week, we determined predictors, reasons, and characteristics of in-hospital formula supplementation, and calculated the intention-adjusted relative risk (ARR) of not fully breastfeeding days 30-60 and breastfeeding cessation by day 60 with in-hospital formula supplementation (n = 393). Two hundred ten (53%) infants were exclusively breastfed during the maternity stay and 183 (47%) received in-hospital formula supplementation. The most prevalent reasons mothers cited for in-hospital formula supplementation were: perceived insufficient milk supply (18%), signs of inadequate intake (16%), and poor latch or breastfeeding (14%). Prevalence of not fully breastfeeding days 30-60 was 67.8% vs. 36.7%, ARR 1.8 (95% CI, 1.4-2.3), in-hospital formula supplementation vs exclusively breastfed groups, respectively, and breastfeeding cessation by day 60 was 32.8% vs. 10.5%, ARR 2.7 (95% CI, 1.7-4.5). Odds of both adverse outcomes increased with more in-hospital formula supplementation feeds (not fully breastfeeding days 30-60, P = .003 and breastfeeding cessation, P = .011). Among women intending to exclusively breastfeed, in-hospital formula supplementation was associated with a nearly 2-fold greater risk of not fully breastfeeding days 30-60 and a nearly 3-fold risk of breastfeeding cessation by day 60, even after adjusting for strength of breastfeeding intentions. Strategies should be sought to avoid unnecessary in-hospital formula supplementation and to support breastfeeding when in-hospital formula
Cholongitas, Evangelos; Ioannidou, Maria; Goulis, Ioannis; Chalevas, Parthenis; Ntogramatzi, Fani; Athanasiadou, Zoi; Notopoulos, Athanasios; Alevroudis, Manolis; Sinakos, Emmanouil; Akriviadis, Evangelos
2017-01-01
Evaluation of renal function, that is, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), has become very important, but conventional mathematical formulae for GFR assessment are inaccurate in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to compare serum creatinine (sCr)-based and serum cystatin C (cysC)-based estimated GFR (eGFR) formulae with 51 Chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid GFR (51 Chr-GFR) in patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis. In 129 Caucasian patients with decompensated cirrhosis, we assessed sCr-based GFRs [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and chronic kidney disease-epidemiology (CKD-EPI)-sCr formulae], cysC-based GFRs [Hoek, Larsson, and CKD-EPI-cysC equations], and the mathematical formulae, which combined both sCr and cysC [i.e. CKD-EPI-sCr-cysC and the specific for cirrhotics formula recently proposed by Mindikoglu et al. (Mindikoglu-eGFR)]. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used for GFR predictors in our cohort. The correlations between 51 Chr-GFR and all mathematical formulae were good (Spearman r2 > 0.68, P formulae had greater precision (17.1 and 17.3, respectively), compared with the other eGFRs. CKD-EPI-sCr and Mindikoglu-eGFR had higher accuracy (39% and 41%, respectively), compared with the other eGFRs. The factors independently associated with the 51 Chr-GFR were age, cysC, and sCr, and the new derived formula had lower bias (0.89) and similar precision (17.2) and accuracy (41%) with Mindikoglu-eGFR formula. The specific mathematical formulae derived from patients with cirrhosis seem to provide superior assessment of renal function, compared with the conventional used sCr-based and cysC-based formulae. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
A generalization of d'Alembert formula
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
One may say u(t) is either a strong or mild solution of (1.1) and we ignore this issue for the moment. Recently, the abstract d'Alembert formula has been broadly applied to equipartition of energy and scattering theory (see for e.g. [3–5]); it also has been extended to semigroups that are not strongly continuous (see [6]).
Perturbative Semiclassical Trace Formulae for Harmonic Oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller-Andersen, Jakob; Ögren, Magnus
2015-01-01
U(D) to O(D) symmetry breaking. We derive the gross structure of the semiclassical spectrum from periodic orbit theory, in the form of a perturbative (ħ → 0) trace formula. We then show how to apply the results to even-order polynomial potentials, possibly including mean-field terms. We have drawn...... the conclusion that the gross structure of the quantum spectrum is determined from only classical circular and diameter orbits for this class of systems....
Analogues of Euler and Poisson summation formulae
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Their results are similar to our results for. ∑ a
Genista L. nothosect. Spades formula nova
Llamas García, Félix
1986-01-01
Ante la publicación de la nothoespecie Genista x rivasgodayana Andrés & Llamas, Lagascalia 13 (2): 187-191 (1985) y teniendo en cuenta lo señalado en el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Botánica (1983) para las categorías supraespecíficas, validamos la nothosect. Spades formula nova = Genista sect. Erinacoides Spach x sect. Spartioides Spach, que de momento incluye sólo la nothoespecie antes citada.
A Handbook of Essential Mathematical Formulae
Davies, Alan
2005-01-01
Intended for students of mathematics as well as of engineering, physical science, economics, business studies, and computer science, this handbook contains vital information and formulas for algebra, geometry, calculus, numerical methods, and statistics. Comprehensive tables of standard derivatives and integrals, together with the tables of Laplace, Fourier, and Z transforms are included. A spiral binding that allows the handbook to lay flat for easy reference enhances the user-friendly design.
Universal Lie Formulas for Higher Antibrackets
Manetti, Marco; Ricciardi, Giulia
2016-06-01
We prove that the hierarchy of higher antibrackets (aka higher Koszul brackets, aka Koszul braces) of a linear operator Δ on a commutative superalgebra can be defined by some universal formulas involving iterated Nijenhuis-Richardson brackets having as arguments Δ and the multiplication operators. As a byproduct, we can immediately extend higher antibrackets to noncommutative algebras in a way preserving the validity of generalized Jacobi identities.
Communicative Pragmatic Parameters of Manipulative Formulas in the Advertising Text
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Areshenkova Oleksandra
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Advertising communication tends to shorten the use of the language means. This characteristic explains the deliberate usage of such linguistic constructions that primarily influence the potential consumer. The role of advertising has increased in the modern world. Its strengthening intensifies the interest in the study of this social phenomenon among the scientists in various fields. The relevance of the study is obvious due to the fact that the issues of verbal influence on the recipient remains unexplored in modern Ukrainian linguistics. Purpose: clarifying the role of manipulative formulas in pragmatic implementation of advertisement guidelines. Results: This article makes an attempt to define and describe a set of basic communicative and pragmatic properties in modern advertising texts. The research represents main communicative and speech characteristics of advertising texts. The author analyzes the role of evaluation in producing the impact of communicative effect on the recipient. Also it reveals the efficiency of using impact-oriented language means in advertising texts. Discussion: Hidden evaluation of the advertised goods / services is an effective communicative pragmatic tool influencing the buyer. The latent assessment is provided by manipulative formulas (all, million; №1, leader; 100%; professional, expert.
Osmolality of products and formulas for nutritional therapy
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris; Dini, Elizabeth
2009-01-01
.... The samples were grouped as follows: infant formulas, premature infant, follow up, 1 to 4 years, soy based, lactose free, anti-reflux, hypoallergenic, complete beverages, polymeric formulas, semi-elemental, caloric and protein modules...
Sum formulas for reductive algebraic groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2008-01-01
\\supset V^1 \\cdots \\supset V^r = 0$. The sum of the positive terms in this filtration satisfies a well known sum formula. If $T$ denotes a tilting module either for $G$ or $U_q$ then we can similarly filter the space $\\Hom_G(V,T)$, respectively $\\Hom_{U_q}(V,T)$ and there is a sum formula for the positive......Let $V$ be a Weyl module either for a reductive algebraic group $G$ or for the corresponding quantum group $U_q$. If $G$ is defined over a field of positive characteristic $p$, respectively if $q$ is a primitive $l$'th root of unity (in an arbitrary field) then $V$ has a Jantzen filtration $V=V^0...... terms here as well. We give an easy and unified proof of these two (equivalent) sum formulas. Our approach is based on an Euler type identity which we show holds without any restrictions on $p$ or $l$. In particular, we get rid of previous such restrictions in the tilting module case....
Pocket book of integrals and mathematical formulas
Tallarida, Ronald J
2008-01-01
Convenient Organization of Essential Material so You Can Look up Formulas Fast Containing a careful selection of standard and timely topics, the Pocket Book of Integrals and Mathematical Formulas, Fourth Edition presents many numerical and statistical tables, scores of worked examples, and the most useful mathematical formulas for engineering and scientific applications. This fourth edition of a bestseller provides even more comprehensive coverage with the inclusion of several additional topics, all while maintaining its accessible, clear style and handy size. New to the Fourth Edition An expanded chapter on series that covers many fascinating properties of the natural numbers that follow from number theory New applications such as geostationary satellite orbits and drug kinetics An expanded statistics section that discusses nonlinear regression as well as the normal approximation of the binomial distribution Revised f...
The Arrhenius formula in kinetic theory and Witten's spectral asymptotics
Kozyrev, S. V.; Volovich, I.V.
2010-01-01
A new approach to the proof of the Arrhenius formula of kinetic theory is proposed. We prove this formula starting from the equation of diffusion in a potential. We put this diffusion equation in the form of evolutionary equation generated by some Schroedinger operator. We show that the Arrhenius formula for the rate of over the barrier transitions follows from the formula for the rate of quantum tunnel transitions for the considered Schroedinger operator. Relation of the proposed approach an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakazato Masamitsu
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background For cachectic patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD, conventional enteral nutrition formula is an optional treatment to maintain energy balance. The molecular mechanisms by which enteral nutrition formula controls appetite and weight remain unknown. We examined whether enteral nutrition formula rich in octanoic acids would increase plasma levels of ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating hormone produced in the stomach, in cachectic patients with CRD. Methods Plasma ghrelin profiles in cachectic patients with CRD were assessed and compared with those in age- and sex-matched controls. Plasma levels of acyl-ghrelin, an active ghrelin modified by octanoic acids, and desacyl-ghrelin were measured separately. We examined changes in 24-h plasma ghrelin profiles before and after single administration of the formula. We also evaluated the effects of 2-week administration of the formula on plasma ghrelin levels and nutritional status in patients. Results The ratio of acyl-ghrelin to desacyl-ghrelin in plasma was lower in patients than in controls. Single administration of the formula did not change plasma desacyl-ghrelin levels, but induced an increase in acyl-ghrelin levels. Two-week treatment with the formula was effective in increasing weight and acyl-ghrelin, along with improving nutritional status in patients. Conclusion These results show that the formula contributes to increased weight, which may be associated with induction of acyl-ghrelin production in cachectic patients with CRD.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Wen Kuo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Apoptosis involves in the pathogenesis of various cardiac abnormalities. This study intends to evaluate the effects of Li-Fu formula on cardiac apoptosis induced by hyper-cholesterol diet. Twenty-four male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into Control, Cholesterol and Li-Fu formula groups. Histopathological analysis, western blotting and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were performed to measure the effects of Li-Fu formula on left ventricle. Significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cells and mitochondria- dependent apoptosis were observed in the left ventricle of hamsters from Li-Fu formula group compared to the Cholesterol group. Additionally, induced cardiac insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR-dependent survival pathway was detected in the Li-Fu formula group compared to the Cholesterol group. Besides, minor fibrosis, increased collagen deposition, and myofibril disarray was detected in the Cholesterol group, whereas the reductions of collagen deposition and myofibril disarray were observed in the Li-Fu formula group. This study demonstrated that Li-Fu formula not only reduced the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and fibrosis, but also enhanced the IGF-I survival pathway in the left ventricle from high cholesterol-fed hamsters. We suggest the protective effects of Li-Fu formula on cardiac apoptosis and therapeutic potentials against cardiovascular disease.
A family of inversion formulas in thermoacoustic tomography
Nguyen, Linh
2009-10-01
We present a family of closed form inversion formulas in thermoacoustic tomography in the case of a constant sound speed. The formulas are presented in both time-domain and frequency-domain versions. As special cases, they imply most of the previously known filtered backprojection type formulas. © 2009 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES.
A new perspective of ground band energy formulae
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The soft rotor formula and variable moment of inertia model, the a b and p q formulae, the rotation vibration interaction and power index formulae are illustrated. Here, a new perspective is presented, with emphasis on the limitation of the region of their physical validity and on deriving useful meaning of their parameters.
7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.
2010-01-01
... preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based infant formula... participation data. (vi) Infant formula usage rates by type (e.g., milk-based or soy-based), form (e.g... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a soy...
Ultradiscrete soliton equations derived from ultradiscrete permanent formulae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Shinya, E-mail: s-nakamura@moegi.waseda.jp [Major in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Graduate School of Fundamental Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2011-07-22
We propose formulae of ultradiscrete permanent. Utilizing the formulae, ultradiscrete soliton equations and their multi-soliton solutions are obtained by a simple process. Changing variables and parameters of the formulae, we can derive the ultradiscrete Toda, KdV and hungry Lotka-Volterra equations. An extended version of the ultradiscrete hungry Lotka-Volterra equation is also proposed.
A new perspective of ground band energy formulae
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J B GUPTA
2017-08-07
Aug 7, 2017 ... The soft rotor formula and variable moment of inertia model, the ab and pq formulae, the rotation vibration interaction and power index formulae are illustrated. Here, a new perspective is presented, with emphasis on the limitation of the region of their physical validity and on deriving useful meaning of their ...
27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.
2010-04-01
... quantity or range of usage in an approved formula; (5) Change an approved processing, filtration, or other... formulas. 25.58 Section 25.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.58 New and...
27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Eight...
A Rademacher Type Formula for Partitions and Overpartitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew V. Sills
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A Rademacher-type convergent series formula which generalizes the Hardy-Ramanujan-Rademacher formula for the number of partitions of and the Zuckerman formula for the Fourier coefficients of 4(0∣−1 is presented.
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Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Cakir, I Turk; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L
A search is presented for direct top squark pair production using events with at least two leptons including a same-flavour opposite-sign pair with invariant mass consistent with the [Formula: see text] boson mass, jets tagged as originating from [Formula: see text]-quarks and missing transverse momentum. The analysis is performed with proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2012 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text]. No excess beyond the Standard Model expectation is observed. Interpretations of the results are provided in models based on the direct pair production of the heavier top squark state ([Formula: see text]) followed by the decay to the lighter top squark state ([Formula: see text]) via [Formula: see text], and for [Formula: see text] pair production in natural gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios where the neutralino ([Formula: see text]) is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle and decays producing a [Formula: see text] boson and a gravitino ([Formula: see text]) via the [Formula: see text] process.
Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
AJB SERVER
2007-01-18
Jan 18, 2007 ... back on the pile. Day –0: Added half quantitiy of wheat bran (formula I), chicken manure (formula II) and pigeon manure (Formula III), urea and ammonium nitrate and proper ... Compost was cut from each end with front loader and put equally in the central portion after passing through the turnning machine ...
27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amended or revised formulas. 17.122 Section 17.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE.... Minor changes may be made to a current formula on TTB Form 5154.1 with retention of the original formula...
Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
WLS formula is a promising adjunct to surgical and medical management of kidney stones. Active therapy with WLS formula has a positive effect on diuresis without leading to electrolyte imbalance. Key words: Calcium oxalate, Urinary Stone, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wu-Ling-San Formula, Nephrolithiasis.
An index formula for measuring development in second language ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Criteria for an index formula are formulated, and the unit of analysis, the T-unit, is discussed. Grade 12 compositions were analysed and the statistical procedures used in the analysis (correlation, stepwise regression and discriminant analysis) are described. The proposed index formula is Length x EFT/T. This formula can ...
27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall maintain records showing by transaction date the details of production...
40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance deduction formula. 72.95... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.95 Allowance deduction formula. The following formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar year...
An extension of the Clark-Ocone formula
Said Ngobi; Aurel Stan
2004-01-01
A white noise proof of the classical Clark-Ocone formula is first provided. This formula is proven for functions in a Sobolev space which is a subset of the space of square-integrable functions over a white noise space. Later, the formula is generalized to a larger class of operators.
Fanian, Sahar; Young, Stephanie K; Mantla, Mason; Daniels, Anita; Chatwood, Susan
2015-01-01
Background The creative arts - music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others - are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop's areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Design Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Results Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Conclusions Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North.
Galilean Bobillier Formula for One-Parameter Planar Motions
GURSES, NURTEN (BAYRAK); Mucahit AKBIYIK; Yuce, Salim
2015-01-01
In this present paper, Galilean Euler-Savary formula for the radius of curvature of the trajectory of a point in the moving Galilean plane (or called Isotropic plane) during one-parameter planar motion is taken into consideration. Galilean Bobillier formula is obtained by using the geometrical interpretation of the Galilean Euler-Savary formula.Moreover, a direct way is chosen to obtain Bobillier formula without using the Euler-Savary formula in the Galilean plane. As a consequence, the Galil...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elahe Bordbar
2015-02-01
Conclusion: Previous studies reported different sensitivities and specificities for the formulas. This can be attributed to different kinds of β-gene mutations in various populations. As a result of this variation, RBC indices and mathematical formulas are variable in different populations. Undoubtedly, physicians in different areas should evaluate the accuracy of published formulas for their own populations in the discrimination of BTM from other causes of microcytic hypochromic anemia.
Soy infant formula and seizures in children with autism: a retrospective study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cara J Westmark
Full Text Available Seizures are a common phenotype in many neurodevelopmental disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and autism. We hypothesized that phytoestrogens in soy-based infant formula were contributing to lower seizure threshold in these disorders. Herein, we evaluated the dependence of seizure incidence on infant formula in a population of autistic children. Medical record data were obtained on 1,949 autistic children from the SFARI Simplex Collection. An autism diagnosis was determined by scores on the ADI-R and ADOS exams. The database included data on infant formula use, seizure incidence, the specific type of seizure exhibited and IQ. Soy-based formula was utilized in 17.5% of the study population. Females comprised 13.4% of the subjects. There was a 2.6-fold higher rate of febrile seizures [4.2% versus 1.6%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3], a 2.1-fold higher rate of epilepsy comorbidity [3.6% versus 1.7%, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7] and a 4-fold higher rate of simple partial seizures [1.2% versus 0.3%, OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.0-23] in the autistic children fed soy-based formula. No statistically significant associations were found with other outcomes including: IQ, age of seizure onset, infantile spasms and atonic, generalized tonic clonic, absence and complex partial seizures. Limitations of the study included: infant formula and seizure data were based on parental recall, there were significantly less female subjects, and there was lack of data regarding critical confounders such as the reasons the subjects used soy formula, age at which soy formula was initiated and the length of time on soy formula. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the use of soy-based infant formula may be associated with febrile seizures in both genders and with a diagnosis of epilepsy in males in autistic children. Given the lack of data on critical confounders and the retrospective nature of the study, a prospective study is
Wang, Ying; Wang, Kun; Lu, Yang Young; Sun, Fengzhu
2017-09-20
Metagenomics sequencing provides deep insights into microbial communities. To investigate their taxonomic structure, binning assembled contigs into discrete clusters is critical. Many binning algorithms have been developed, but their performance is not always satisfactory, especially for complex microbial communities, calling for further development. According to previous studies, relative sequence compositions are similar across different regions of the same genome, but they differ between distinct genomes. Generally, current tools have used the normalized frequency of k-tuples directly, but this represents an absolute, not relative, sequence composition. Therefore, we attempted to model contigs using relative k-tuple composition, followed by measuring dissimilarity between contigs using [Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text] was designed to measure the dissimilarity between two long sequences or Next-Generation Sequencing data with the Markov models of the background genomes. This method was effective in revealing group and gradient relationships between genomes, metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. With many binning tools available, we do not try to bin contigs from scratch. Instead, we developed [Formula: see text] to adjust contigs among bins based on the output of existing binning tools for a single metagenomic sample. The tool is taxonomy-free and depends only on k-tuples. To evaluate the performance of [Formula: see text], five widely used binning tools with different strategies of sequence composition or the hybrid of sequence composition and abundance were selected to bin six synthetic and real datasets, after which [Formula: see text] was applied to adjust the binning results. Our experiments showed that [Formula: see text] consistently achieves the best performance with tuple length k = 6 under the independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) background model. Using the metrics of recall, precision and ARI (Adjusted Rand Index), [Formula: see
Formula milk versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.
Quigley, M A; Henderson, G; Anthony, M Y; McGuire, W
2007-10-17
When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. Feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula milk might increase nutrient input and growth rates. However, since feeding with formula milk may be associated with a higher incidence of feeding intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, this may adversely affect growth and development. To determine the effect of formula milk compared with donor human breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus donor breast milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. Data were extracted using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two reviewer authors, and synthesis of data using relative risk, risk difference and weighted mean difference. Eight trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only one trial used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. Enteral feeding with formula milk compared with donor breast milk resulted in higher rates of growth in the short term. There was no evidence of an effect on long-term growth rates or neurodevelopmental outcomes. Meta-analysis of data from five trials demonstrated a statistically significantly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in the formula fed group: typical relative risk 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2, 5.1); typical risk difference: 0.03 (95% confidence interval 0.01, 0.06; number needed to harm: 33 (95
Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.
Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C
1985-02-01
An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.
Rigalleau, Vincent; Lasseur, Catherine; Perlemoine, Caroline; Barthe, Nicole; Raffaitin, C; Liu, Chung; Chauveau, Phillipe; Baillet-Blanco, Laurence; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Combe, C; Gin, Henri
2005-04-01
The Cockcroft-Gault formula is recommended for the evaluation of renal function in diabetic patients. The more recent Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation seems more accurate, but it has not been validated in diabetic patients. This study compares the two methods. In 160 diabetic patients, we compared the Cockcroft-Gault formula and MDRD equation estimations to glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) measured by an isotopic method ((51)Cr-EDTA) by correlation studies and a Bland-Altman procedure. Their accuracy for the diagnosis of moderately (GFR formula (r = 0.74; P formula. Analysis of ROC curves showed that the MDRD equation had a better maximal accuracy for the diagnosis of moderate (areas under the curve [AUCs] 0.868 for the Cockcroft-Gault formula and 0.927 for the MDRD equation; P = 0.012) and severe renal failure (AUC 0.883 for the Cockcroft-Gault formula and 0.962 for the MDRD equation; P = 0.0001). In the 87 patients with renal insufficiency, the MDRD equation estimation was better correlated with isotopic GFR (Cockcroft-Gault formula r = 0.57; the MDRD equation r = 0.78; P < 0.01), and it was not biased as evaluated by the Bland-Altman procedure. Although both equations have imperfections, the MDRD equation is more accurate for the diagnosis and stratification of renal failure in diabetic patients.
Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Zeid, S Abu; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; 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