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Sample records for evaluated activation cross

  1. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the production parameters for the medically relevant radioisotopes 64Cu and 86Y ... Physics Department, Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759, Egypt; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagzig University, Ash ...

  2. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cross-sections. References. [1] A A Alharbi and A Azzam, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 88 (2012). [2] J Zweit, A M Smith, S Downey and H L Sharma, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 42, 193 (1991). [3] L Daraban, K Abbas, F Simonelli, R Adam-Rebeles and N Gibson, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 261. (2008). [4] M L Bonardi, F Groppi, C Birattari, L Gini, ...

  3. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  4. ACTL: evaluated neutron activation cross section library-evaluation techniques and reaction index. [Tables, 10/sup -10/ to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, M.A.; Howerton, R.J.

    1978-10-17

    A library of evaluated neutron-induced activation cross sections (ACTL) was compiled. The library covers incident neutron energies from 10/sup -10/ to 20 MeV. General descriptions of the evaluation methods and an index to the evaluated cross sections are presented. 21 references.

  5. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  6. Evaluating the competing effects of lithology and sediment supply on the erosional dynamics of rivers crossing active faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alex; Boulton, Sarah; Kent, Emiko; Zondervan, Jesse; Hann, Madeleine; Watkins, Stephen; Bell, Rebecca; Brooke, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Lithology and sediment supply influence the erosional dynamics of rivers crossing active faults and together these effects govern the style, timescale and means by which landscapes respond to their tectono-climatic boundary conditions. Here, for transient bedrock catchments in the Gediz Graben, Turkey, and the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, for which the timing and rate of active faulting is known, we quantify the relative importance of rock strength and sediment supply on models of fluvial incision. We determine rock type, strength and erodibility using a Schmidt hammer and structural measurements of joint density and size. We evaluate the downstream distribution of channel width and stream power and calculate the extent to which the latter scales with tectonic rates and rock strength. Sediment supply is constrained using estimates of bedrock exposure, transport capacities and erosional fluxes. For the Turkish examples, stream powers in the metamorphic rocks are four times greater than in the Neogene sediment units, indicating a four-fold difference in bedrock erodibility, K, for a two-fold variation in in Schmidt hammer hardness. In the Gulf of Corinth examples, we interpret differences in stream powers near the active faults to represent order of magnitude differences in bedrock erodibility between carbonate and sandstone/conglomerate units. We also observe that in both cases, significant along-strike variation in fault slip rate is not associated with an increase in stream power for the sedimentary rocks and we assess the extent to which this stream power deficit may also represent the effects of sediment-flux-dependent incision.

  7. Evaluation of HYLIFE-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566-group neutron transport and activation cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code allow enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross-section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from the FENDL/A-2.0 pointwise data. Neutron spectra have been calculated for the first walls of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero inertial fusion energy power plant designs and have been used in subsequent neutron activation calculations. The results obtained using the two different group structures are compared with each other as well as to those obtained using a 175-group version of the EAF3.1 activation cross-section library.

  8. Cross-Sectional and longitudinal associations of objectively-measured physical activity on blood pressure: evaluation in 37 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menai, Mehdi; Brouard, Benoit; Vegreville, Matthieu; Chieh, Angela; Schmidt, Nicolas; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Lelong, Hélène; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of objectively-measured physical activity (step counts) and blood pressure (BP) among adults spanning 37 countries. Methods: Across 37 countries, we used data from a pool of 9238 adult owners of Withings’ Pulse activity trackers, which measures steps taken each day, and Wireless Blood Pressure Monitor, which measures BP. Analyses were adjusted on age, sex, number of days where the tracker was worn, and number of BP measurements. Data was collected from 2009 to 2013. Results: Subjects had a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 51.6 ± 11.3 years and a body mass index (BMI) of 28.7±5.5 kg/m2. A 1-month increase of more than 3000 steps per day was associated with a decrease of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) among the obese (1.57mm Hg and 1.29 mm Hg respectively, both P<0.001) and the overweight population (0.79 mm Hg and 0.84 mm Hg respectively, both P≤0.001), but not in the normal weight population (P=0.60 and P=0.36 respectively). Conclusion: One-month increases in daily step counts was associated with a decrease of SBP and DBP in a large obese and overweight free living population. PMID:29085795

  9. Cross-Sectional and longitudinal associations of objectively-measured physical activity on blood pressure: evaluation in 37 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Menai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (step counts and blood pressure (BP among adults spanning 37countries.Methods: Across 37 countries, we used data from a pool of 9238 adult owners of Withings’ Pulse activity trackers, which measures steps taken each day, and Wireless Blood Pressure Monitor, which measures BP. Analyses were adjusted on age, sex, number of days where the tracker was worn, and number of BP measurements. Data was collected from 2009 to 2013.Results: Subjects had a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 51.6 ± 11.3 years and a body mass index (BMI of 28.7±5.5 kg/m2. A 1-month increase of more than 3000 steps per day was associated with a decrease of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP among the obese (1.57mm Hg and 1.29 mm Hg respectively, both P<0.001 and the overweight population (0.79mm Hg and 0.84 mm Hg respectively, both P≤0.001, but not in the normal weight population(P=0.60 and P=0.36 respectively.Conclusion: One-month increases in daily step counts was associated with a decrease of SBP and DBP in a large obese and overweight free living population.

  10. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  11. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  12. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  13. Investigation of activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natTl up to 42 MeV: review, new data and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Adam-Rebeles, R.; Walravens, N.; Cichelli, O.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural thallium have been studied for investigation of the production of the medical important 201Tl diagnostic radioisotope. The excitation functions of 204mPb, 203Pb, 202mPb, 201Pb, 200Pb, 199Pb, 202Tl (direct, cumulative), 201Tl (direct, cumulative), 200Tl(direct), and 203Hg were measured up to 42 MeV proton energy by stacked foil technique and activation method. The experimental data were compared with the critically analyzed experime...

  14. Investigation of activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on {sup nat}Mo up to 40 MeV: New data and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excitation function measurement of proton induced reactions on molybdenum up to 40 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model code calculations with EMPIRE, ALICE and TALYS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral production yield calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Medical radioisotope production; {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitor reactions. - Abstract: Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of {sup 93m}Tc, {sup 93g}Tc{sup (m+)}, {sup 94m}Tc, {sup 94g}Tc, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 95g}Tc, {sup 96g}Tc{sup (m+)}, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 90}Mo{sup (cum)}, {sup 93m}Mo, {sup 99}Mo{sup (cum)}, {sup 90}Nb{sup (cum)}, {sup 92m}Nb, {sup 95m}Nb, {sup 95g}Nb, {sup 96}Nb and {sup 88}Zr{sup (cum)}, {sup 89}Zr{sup (cum)} were measured up to 40 MeV proton energy by a using stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to study the production possibility of the medically important {sup 99m}Tc and its {sup 99}Mo parent nucleus, to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of proton beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analysed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes.

  15. Promoting physical activity and health literacy: study protocol for a longitudinal, mixed methods evaluation of a cross-provider workplace-related intervention in Germany (The AtRisk study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Andrea; Dejonghe, Lea; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne; Biallas, Bianca; Froboese, Ingo

    2016-07-22

    Physical activity and health literacy are topics of utmost importance in the prevention of chronic diseases. The present article describes the study protocol for evaluating a cross-provider workplace-related intervention promoting physical activity and health literacy. The RE-AIM Framework will be the conceptual framework of the AtRisk study. A controlled natural experiment and a qualitative study will be conducted. The cross-provider intervention is based on the cooperation of the German Pension Fund Rhineland and cooperating German Statutory Health Insurances. It combines two components: a behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention and the assignment of a health coach. The single-provider intervention only includes the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention. The quantitative study (natural experiment) encompasses three measuring points (T0 = start of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (baseline); T1 = end of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (16 weeks); T2 = 6 month follow-up) and will compare the effectiveness of the cross-provider workplace-related intervention compared with the single provider intervention. Participants are employees with health related risk factors. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the outcome variables leisure time physical (primary outcome) activity and health literacy (secondary outcome). The qualitative study comprises semi-structured interviews, systematic field notes of stakeholder meetings and document analyses. The AtRisk study will contribute towards the claim for cross-provider interventions and workplace-related approaches described in the new Preventive Health Care Act. The results of this study will inform providers, payers and policy makers about the effectiveness of a cross-provider workplace-related lifestyle intervention compared to a single-provider intervention. Beyond, the study will identify challenges for implementing cross-provider preventive

  16. Promoting physical activity and health literacy: study protocol for a longitudinal, mixed methods evaluation of a cross-provider workplace-related intervention in Germany (The AtRisk study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schaller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and health literacy are topics of utmost importance in the prevention of chronic diseases. The present article describes the study protocol for evaluating a cross-provider workplace-related intervention promoting physical activity and health literacy. Methods The RE-AIM Framework will be the conceptual framework of the AtRisk study. A controlled natural experiment and a qualitative study will be conducted. The cross-provider intervention is based on the cooperation of the German Pension Fund Rhineland and cooperating German Statutory Health Insurances. It combines two components: a behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention and the assignment of a health coach. The single-provider intervention only includes the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention. The quantitative study (natural experiment encompasses three measuring points (T0 = start of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (baseline; T1 = end of the behavior-oriented lifestyle intervention (16 weeks; T2 = 6 month follow-up and will compare the effectiveness of the cross-provider workplace-related intervention compared with the single provider intervention. Participants are employees with health related risk factors. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the outcome variables leisure time physical (primary outcome activity and health literacy (secondary outcome. The qualitative study comprises semi-structured interviews, systematic field notes of stakeholder meetings and document analyses. Discussion The AtRisk study will contribute towards the claim for cross-provider interventions and workplace-related approaches described in the new Preventive Health Care Act. The results of this study will inform providers, payers and policy makers about the effectiveness of a cross-provider workplace-related lifestyle intervention compared to a single-provider intervention. Beyond, the study will identify challenges

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Substrate Activity of C-6 Substituted Purine Ribosides with E. coli Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Palladium Mediated Cross-Coupling of Organozinc Halides with 6-Chloropurine Nucleosides [1

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Abdalla E.A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A. I.; Riordan, James M.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Khare, Rashmi; Waud, William R.; Montgomery, John A.; Secrist, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A series of C-6 alkyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl-9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)purines were synthesized and their substrate activities with Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (E. coli PNP) were evaluated. (Ph3P)4Pd-mediated cross-coupling reactions of 6-chloro-9-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-purine (6) with primary alkyl (Me, Et, n-Pr, n-Bu, isoBu) zinc halides followed by treatment with NH3/MeOH gave the corresponding 6-alkyl-9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl) purine derivatives 7–11, respective...

  18. Guidelines for Evaluating Use of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, van der E.A.; Ree, van der R.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife crossing structures help animals cross safely under or over roads or other linear infrastructure and hence play an important role in the conservation of biodiversity. Measuring the rate of use by wildlife is an important first step in almost every evaluation of wildlife crossing structures.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Substrate Activity of C-6 Substituted Purine Ribosides with E. coli Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Palladium Mediated Cross-Coupling of Organozinc Halides with 6-Chloropurine Nucleosides [1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdalla E. A.; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A. I.; Riordan, James M.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Khare, Rashmi; Waud, William R.; Montgomery, John A.; Secrist, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A series of C-6 alkyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl-9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)purines were synthesized and their substrate activities with Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (E. coli PNP) were evaluated. (Ph3P)4Pd-mediated cross-coupling reactions of 6-chloro-9-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-purine (6) with primary alkyl (Me, Et, n-Pr, n-Bu, isoBu) zinc halides followed by treatment with NH3/MeOH gave the corresponding 6-alkyl-9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl) purine derivatives 7–11, respectively, in good yields. Reactions of 6 with cycloalkyl(propyl, butyl, pentyl)zinc halides and aryl (phenyl, 2-thienyl)zinc halides gave under similar conditions the corresponding 6-cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, phenyl, and thienyl -9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)purine derivatives 12–16, respectively in high yields. E. coli PNP showed a high tolerance to the steric and hydrophobic environment at the 6-position of the synthesized purine ribonucleosides. Significant cytotoxic activity was observed for 8, 12, 15, and 16. Evaluation of 12 and 16 against human tumor xenografts in mice did not demonstrate any selective antitumor activity. In addition, 6-methyl-9-(β-d-arabinofuranosyl)purine (18) was prepared and evaluated. PMID:22112758

  20. ITS evaluations and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations are critical in promoting innovative practices which may help to provide a safe and efficient transportation system. By conducting such evaluations, we develop quantifiable measures for those in policy development to appreciate and compre...

  1. Autonomous cross country driving using active vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellkofer, Martin; Hofmann, Ulrich; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    2003-10-01

    For robust and safe cross country driving, an autonomous ground vehicle must be able to handle conflicts, which may arise from limitations of perception performance, of the dynamics of the vehicle's active camera head and from the feasibility of locomotion maneuvers. This paper describes the interaction and coordination of image processing, gaze control and behavior decision. The behavior decision module specifies the perception tasks for the image processing experts according to the mission, the capabilities of the vehicle and the knowledge about the external world accumulated up to the present time. Depending on its perception task received, an image processing expert specifies combinations of so-called regions of attention (RoA) for each object in 3D object coordinates. These RoA cover relevant object parts and should be visible with a resolution and in a manner as required by the measurement techniques applied. The gaze control unit analyzes the combinations of RoA of all image processing experts in order to plan, optimize and perform a sequence of smooth pursuits, interrupted by saccades. This dynamic interaction has been demonstrated in different complex and scalable autonomous missions with the UBM test vehicle VAMORS. The mission described in this paper makes the vehicle meet an unexpected ditch of unknown size and position forcing the vehicle to reactive behavior regarding locomotion, gaze control as well as image processing.

  2. A quasi-experimental cross-disciplinary evaluation of the impacts of education outside the classroom on pupils' physical activity, well-being and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Mygind, Erik; Bølling, Mads

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC) is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren's learning, physical activity (PA), social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve...... and interactions in EOTC as well as classroom teaching were carried out and combined with qualitative interviews about children's perceptions of these practices. DISCUSSION: The TEACHOUT study represents a holistic multidisciplinary approach to educational and school health-promotion research through its study...... will broaden the understanding of the potential benefits of EOTC in school health promotion and primary education. These results can be used to inform and guide future policy and practice....

  3. Cross-Evaluation of Degree Programmes in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to develop and describe the benchmarking approach of enhancement-led evaluation in higher education and to present a cross-evaluation process for degree programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The benchmarking approach produces useful information for the development of degree programmes based on self-evaluation,…

  4. Cross-Informant Evaluations of Preschoolers' Adjustment in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…

  5. genetic evaluation of seed traits from intraspecific crossing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-16

    cross) et F2. Les graines de toutes .... software (SAS, 2006). This test evaluated variability between families, the main effects of location on family production and the interaction between families-locations. Also, Principal ...

  6. Cross-cutting activities: Soil quality and soil metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Motavalli, Peter P.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP cross-cutting activities "Assessing and Managing Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems" and "Soil Metagenomics to Construct Indicators of Soil Degradation." The introduction gives an overview of the extensiveness of soil degradation globally and defines soil quality. The objectives of the soil quality cross cutting activity are: CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  7. Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan

    2017-10-01

    The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  8. Family joint activities in a cross-national perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsche Emmanuel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children – World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC. It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. Methods The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine were surveyed in the 2001–2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1 watching TV or a video, (2 playing indoor games, (3 eating meals, (4 going for a walk, (5 going places, (6 visiting friends or relatives, (7 playing sports, (8 sitting and talking about things (chatting. Results Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family and family wealth. Conclusion Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings

  9. Cross-lingual tagger evaluation without test data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko; Plank, Barbara; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We address the challenge of cross-lingual POS tagger evaluation in absence of manually annotated test data. We put forth and evaluate two dictionary-based metrics. On the tasks of accuracy prediction and system ranking, we reveal that these metrics are reliable enough to approximate test set...

  10. Experimental and evaluated photoneutron cross sections for 197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, V.; Ishkhanov, B.; Orlin, V.

    2017-10-01

    There is a serious well-known problem of noticeable disagreements between the partial photoneutron cross sections obtained in various experiments. Such data were mainly determined using quasimonoenergetic annihilation photon beams and the method of neutron multiplicity sorting at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) and Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Saclay (France). The analysis of experimental cross sections employing new objective physical data reliability criteria has shown that many of those are not reliable. The IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on photonuclear data evaluation was approved. The experimental and previously evaluated cross sections of the partial photoneutron reactions (γ ,1 n ) and (γ ,2 n ) on 197Au were analyzed using the new data reliability criteria. The data evaluated using the new experimental-theoretical method noticeably differ from both experimental data and data previously evaluated using nuclear modeling codes gnash, gunf, alice-f, and others. These discrepancies needed to be resolved.

  11. Evaluating Degradation at Railway Crossings Using Axle Box Acceleration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zilong; Núñez, Alfredo; Li, Zili; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    In this paper, we investigate the capability of an axle box acceleration (ABA) system to evaluate the degradation at railway crossings. For this purpose, information from multiple sensors, namely, ABA signals, 3D rail profiles, Global Positioning System (GPS) and tachometer recordings, was collected from both nominal and degraded crossings. By proper correlation of the gathered data, an algorithm was proposed to distinguish the characteristic ABA related to the degradation and then to evaluate the health condition of crossings. The algorithm was then demonstrated on a crossing with an unknown degradation status, and its capability was verified via a 3D profile measurement. The results indicate that the ABA system is effective at monitoring two types of degradations. The first type is uneven deformation between the wing rail and crossing nose, corresponding to characteristic ABA frequencies of 230-350 and 460-650 Hz. The second type is local irregularity in the longitudinal slope of the crossing nose, corresponding to characteristic ABA frequencies of 460-650 Hz. The types and severity of the degradation can be evaluated by the spatial distribution and energy concentration of the characteristic frequencies of the ABA signals.

  12. Evaluation of cross-platform development for mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Developing an application for several platforms can be time consuming because each platform has its own operating system and different developing language. Cross-platform development makes it possible to develop an ap-plication that will work on several platforms. This report will evaluate this kind of development by doing a case study for the company CGI. The case study will evaluate which cross-platform methodology is the preferred choice for this specific vacation booking application I devel...

  13. Evaluation of F3 generations of the hybrid crosses between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of crosses between vegetable and field cowpea for resistance to the cowpea Bruchids, [Callosobruchus maculatus (F)], was carried out at the Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu southeastern Nigeria. There was a significant difference in the field infestation of the cowpea lines by C.

  14. Evaluation of a Cross Layer Scheduling Algorithm for LTE Downlink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The LTE standard is a leading standard in the wireless broadband market. The Radio Resource Management at the base station plays a major role in satisfying users demand for high data rates and quality of service. This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing...

  15. Comparative neutron cross sections evaluation for N+ 56 Fe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neutron cross sections evaluation for N+ 56Fe reaction around incident energies of 13.5-14.5 MeV using the Optical Model (OM) code scat 2. EF Oyidi, MY Onimisi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.38-43. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coupled-channels optical model code OPTMAN is used as an alternative to experimental approach to evaluate the total reaction cross section for four different isotopes of Plutonium as an example of heavy rotational nuclei of the transuranium elements over an energy range of 10 to 20 MeV. The selected isotopes are the ...

  17. Evaluating degradation at railway crossings using axle box acceleration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the capability of an axle box acceleration (ABA) system to evaluate the degradation at railway crossings. For this purpose, information from multiple sensors, namely, ABA signals, 3D rail profiles, Global Positioning System (GPS) and tachometer recordings, was

  18. Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)

  19. Evaluation for Learning: A Cross-Case Analysis of Evaluator Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; Poth, Cheryl; Searle, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Using a cross-case analysis of three distinct participatory program evaluations, this paper contributes to current discourse on how evaluators create opportunities for learning. Although each team of evaluators intended to promote planned process use, post-evaluation discussions amongst them identified evidence where use emerged throughout the…

  20. Inventive Activity of Researchers: Cross-Country Rating Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Volkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the research capacity of the country and regions has become more active not only from the point of view of their leading components (personnel, financial, information, organizational, material-and-technical ones but also from the perspective of the assessment of productivity and effectiveness of researchers’ work. In the cross-country analysis, the certain highly aggregative parameters, which values, as a rule, are not in favour of Russia, are used. At the same time, at profound studying of this topic, these estimates cannot represent correctly the real trends of inventive activity in the scientific and technological sphere of the country and its regions. Moreover, the measurement of the researchers’ creative potential realization is carried out mainly through the assessment systems of their printing activity. Little attention is paid to the problem of the rating assessments of the researchers’ inventive and patent activity and its products from a cross-country perspective (especially to the detailed ones as well as to its institutional determinants. Therefore, the authors have chosen this subject-matter of the research. Its empirical basis is the statistical materials of both the national database and those which are recognized by the world scientific community. This research has both theoretical and methodological orientations. The purpose is the development of methodological and methodical tools of the research and assessment of researchers’ inventive activity including methodological support of cross-country comparative assessments. The authors have based the hypothesis on their previous research: in the conditions of the decreasing level of financial security, continuous reduction of a number of researchers, institutional restrictions and contradictions, the inventive activity of national researchers is still exist, and in a number of its leading parameters is implemented at the level of the advanced

  1. Image processing and pattern recognition algorithms for evaluation of crossed immunoelectrophoretic patterns (crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis analysis manager; CREAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Hagerup, M

    1987-01-01

    A computerized method for automatic evaluation and comparison of crossed immunoelectrophoretic and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoretic patterns that requires limited hardware resources has been developed. For the initial reading of the plates an ordinary video camera is used. Feature extractors...

  2. Cross-sectional investigation of HEMS activities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, devel...

  3. A quasi-experimental cross-disciplinary evaluation of the impacts of education outside the classroom on pupils’ physical activity, well-being and learning: the TEACHOUT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Nielsen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren’s learning, physical activity (PA, social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem-solving, experimentation, cooperation, PA, and play. EOTC has become common practice for many teachers in Scandinavia; however, only case studies have evaluated its impacts. The TEACHOUT study aims to evaluate the impacts of EOTC on Danish schoolchildren’s PA, social relations, motivation, well-being, and learning. Methods TEACHOUT is a quasi-experimental, cross-disciplinary study. Sixteen schools participated, containing 19 EOTC school classes and 19 parallel non-EOTC classes, with a total of 834 children aged 9 to 13 years. Measures of the children’s social relations, motivation for school, well-being, and academic performance were collected at the beginning and end of the school year. Data on PA levels were collected over ten-day periods during the school year using accelerometers. The amount and characteristics of the actual EOTC provided in both EOTC and non-EOTC classes were monitored day-to-day throughout the school year, using an online teacher survey platform. The effects of EOTC are mainly analysed by comparing EOTC pupils to non-EOTC (i.e. control pupils based on their scores on the outcome variables (i.e. school performance, well-being, motivation, and social relations at the end of the school year, adjusting for the baseline values (from the beginning of the year. The impacts of EOTC on PA are evaluated by comparing the total as well as context-specific amounts of PA of children participating in EOTC to those of children in their parallel non-EOTC classes. Furthermore, the interdependencies between PA, social relations, well-being, motivation, and learning are explored

  4. A quasi-experimental cross-disciplinary evaluation of the impacts of education outside the classroom on pupils' physical activity, well-being and learning: the TEACHOUT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Glen; Mygind, Erik; Bølling, Mads; Otte, Camilla Roed; Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Schipperijn, Jasper; Ejbye-Ernst, Niels; Bentsen, Peter

    2016-10-24

    Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC) is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren's learning, physical activity (PA), social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem-solving, experimentation, cooperation, PA, and play. EOTC has become common practice for many teachers in Scandinavia; however, only case studies have evaluated its impacts. The TEACHOUT study aims to evaluate the impacts of EOTC on Danish schoolchildren's PA, social relations, motivation, well-being, and learning. TEACHOUT is a quasi-experimental, cross-disciplinary study. Sixteen schools participated, containing 19 EOTC school classes and 19 parallel non-EOTC classes, with a total of 834 children aged 9 to 13 years. Measures of the children's social relations, motivation for school, well-being, and academic performance were collected at the beginning and end of the school year. Data on PA levels were collected over ten-day periods during the school year using accelerometers. The amount and characteristics of the actual EOTC provided in both EOTC and non-EOTC classes were monitored day-to-day throughout the school year, using an online teacher survey platform. The effects of EOTC are mainly analysed by comparing EOTC pupils to non-EOTC (i.e. control) pupils based on their scores on the outcome variables (i.e. school performance, well-being, motivation, and social relations) at the end of the school year, adjusting for the baseline values (from the beginning of the year). The impacts of EOTC on PA are evaluated by comparing the total as well as context-specific amounts of PA of children participating in EOTC to those of children in their parallel non-EOTC classes. Furthermore, the interdependencies between PA, social relations, well-being, motivation, and learning are explored using path analysis. To help describe and

  5. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  6. CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS FOR ENDF/B-VII.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERMAN, M.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2006-06-05

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on neutron cross section evaluations for ENDF/B-VII (April 2005-May 2006). The purpose of the contract was to ensure seamless integration of the LANL neutron cross section evaluations in the new ENDF/B-VII library. The following work was performed: (1) LANL evaluated data files submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VII were checked and, when necessary, formal formatting errors were corrected. As a consequence, ENDF checking codes, run on all LANL files, do not report any errors that would rise concern. (2) LANL dosimetry evaluations for {sup 191}Ir and {sup 193}Ir were completed to match ENDF requirements for the general purpose library suitable for transport calculations. A set of covariances for both isotopes is included in the ENDF files. (3) Library of fission products was assembled and successfully tested with ENDF checking codes, processed with NJOY-99.125 and simple MCNP calculations. (4) KALMAN code has been integrated with the EMPIRE system to allow estimation of covariances based on the combination of measurements and model calculations. Covariances were produced for 155,157-Gd and also for 6 remaining isotopes of Gd.

  7. CROSS-SECTIONAL IMAGING EVALUATION OF RENAL REPLACEMENT LIPOMATOSIS (RRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kumar Boruah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Renal replacement lipomatosis is an uncommon benign entity where abundance of fibrofatty tissue proliferation occurs in renal sinus with further extension of proliferated fatty tissues into renal hilum, perinephric and periureteric spaces. It is usually associated with renal atrophy and marked renal parenchymal destruction. Aim of our study was cross-sectional imaging evaluation of Renal Replacement Lipomatosis (RRL. METHODS A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted. The study group comprised of 16 patients presenting to the Departments of Radio-diagnosis, Surgery and Urology in a tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016. All patients were initially evaluated clinically and ultrasonographically followed by cross-sectional imaging modality like Computed Tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI or both. RESULTS Out of 16 patients of renal replacement lipomatosis, 15 patients (93.8% had associated renal pelvic or ureteric calculus while 1 patient (6.2% had left para-aortic mass without associated calculus. Out of fifteen patients of calculus related RRL, 8 patients (53.3% had calculus size more than 40 mm, followed by 4 patients (26.7% who had size from 20 to 40 mm and 3 patients (20% had size less than 20 mm. The mean CT HU value of calculus was 1334±84.5 in our study. Three patients (18.8% had only renal hilar fatty excessive deposition, 1 patient (6.2% had renal hilar and perinephric space fat depositions, 3 patients (18.8% had renal hilar, perinephric and periureteric spaces depositions and 9 patients (56.2% had renal hilar and periureteric excessive fatty depositions. Delayed renal functioning was noted in 9 patients (56%, followed by non-functioning in 5 patients (31.2% and 2 patients (12.5% had normally functioning kidneys. CONCLUSION Cross-sectional imaging like CT and MRI scan helps in diagnosing RRL and proper delineation of extensions of excessive fatty tissue proliferation.

  8. Cross-sectional Assessment of Daily Physical Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Lung Transplant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbrock, Linda; ten Thicken, Nick H. T.; van der Bij, Wim; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; Koeter, Gerard H.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    Background: information about daily physical activity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung transplant patients is relevant for evaluation of the functional recovery of physical capacity after lung transplantation. The objective of this study was to cross-sectionally assess daily

  9. Evaluation of a Cross Layer Scheduling Algorithm for LTE Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Popovska Avramova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The LTE standard is a leading standard in the wireless broadband market. The Radio Resource Management at the base station plays a major role in satisfying users demand for high data rates and quality of service. This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions based on channel conditions, the size of transmission buffers and different quality of service demands. Simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource utilization and provides better guarantees for service quality.

  10. Formulation development and evaluation of lamivudine controlled release tablets using cross-linked sago starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Vikram; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2013-02-01

    Modified starches based polymeric substances find utmost applicability in pharmaceutical formulation development. Cross-linked starches showed very promising results in drug delivery application. The present investigation concerns with the development of controlled release tablets of lamivudine using cross-linked sago starch. The cross-linked derivative was synthesized with phosphorous oxychloride and native sago starch in basic pH medium. The cross-linked sago starch was tested for acute toxicity and drug-excipient compatibility study. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical characteristics, in vitro dissolution release study and in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbit model. In vitro release study showed that the optimized formulation exhibited highest correlation (R) in case of zero order kinetic model and the release mechanism followed a combination of diffusion and erosion process. There was a significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters (T(max), C(max), AUC, V(d), T(1/2), and MDT) of the optimized formulation as compared to the marketed conventional tablet Lamivir®. The cross-linked starch showed promising results in terms of controlling the release behavior of the active drug from the matrix. The hydrophilic matrix synthesized by cross-linking could be used with a variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients for making their controlled/sustained release formulations.

  11. Cross-platform digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A variety of structured assessment tools for use in surgical training have been reported, but extant assessment tools often employ paper-based rating forms. Digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills could potentially offer advantages over paper-based forms, especially in complex assessment situations. In this paper, we report on the development of cross-platform digital assessment forms for use with multiple raters in order to facilitate the automatic processing of surgical skills assessments that include structured ratings. The FileMaker 13 platform was used to create a database containing the digital assessment forms, because this software has cross-platform functionality on both desktop computers and handheld devices. The database is hosted online, and the rating forms can therefore also be accessed through most modern web browsers. Cross-platform digital assessment forms were developed for the rating of surgical skills. The database platform used in this study was reasonably priced, intuitive for the user, and flexible. The forms have been provided online as free downloads that may serve as the basis for further development or as inspiration for future efforts. In conclusion, digital assessment forms can be used for the structured rating of surgical skills and have the potential to be especially useful in complex assessment situations with multiple raters, repeated assessments in various times and locations, and situations requiring substantial subsequent data processing or complex score calculations.

  12. Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Cultural Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Stagl, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural competency, and the underlying communication and affective skills required to develop such expertise, is becoming increasingly important for a wide variety of domains. To address this need, we developed a blended learning platform which combines virtual role-play with tutorials, assessment and feedback. A Middle-Eastern Curriculum (MEC) exemplar for cross-cultural training U.S. military personnel was developed to guide the refinement of an existing game-based training platform. To complement this curriculum, we developed scenario authoring tools to enable end-users to define training objectives, link performance measures and feedback/remediation to these objectives, and deploy experiential scenarios within a game-based virtual environment (VE). Lessons learned from the design and development of this exemplar cross-cultural competency curriculum, as well as formative evaluation results, are discussed. Initial findings suggest that the underlying training technology promotes deep levels of semantic processing of the key information of relevant cultural and communication skills.

  13. Cross-platform digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2015-01-01

    A variety of structured assessment tools for use in surgical training have been reported, but extant assessment tools often employ paper-based rating forms. Digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills could potentially offer advantages over paper-based forms, especially in complex assessment situations. In this paper, we report on the development of cross-platform digital assessment forms for use with multiple raters in order to facilitate the automatic processing of surgical skills assessments that include structured ratings. The FileMaker 13 platform was used to create a database containing the digital assessment forms, because this software has cross-platform functionality on both desktop computers and handheld devices. The database is hosted online, and the rating forms can therefore also be accessed through most modern web browsers. Cross-platform digital assessment forms were developed for the rating of surgical skills. The database platform used in this study was reasonably priced, intuitive for the user, and flexible. The forms have been provided online as free downloads that may serve as the basis for further development or as inspiration for future efforts. In conclusion, digital assessment forms can be used for the structured rating of surgical skills and have the potential to be especially useful in complex assessment situations with multiple raters, repeated assessments in various times and locations, and situations requiring substantial subsequent data processing or complex score calculations.

  14. Evaluation of circulant partial diallel crosses in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, B S; Singh, J

    1978-01-01

    The present study was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) on crosses among 20 diverse parents. The materials were evaluated in four different environments for eight characters. Combining ability analysis was carried out following diallel and partial diallel crosses. The number of crosses per parent (s) varied from 3 to 19 and the results were studied to identify the critical value of s that would provide an adequate information with minimum resources. The S5 partial diallel was as good as the S19 for the detection of differences among general combining ability (GCA) effects. Even the S3 gave adequate information in the case of characters with high heritability. However, partial diallel analysis was less efficient in detecting the differences due to specific combining ability (SCA) effects. These results varied with environments, and characters with low heritability were more prone to misinterpretation. GCA effects showed fluctuations in partial diallel analysis which were more pronounced in S5 and S3, particularly for characters with low heritability. The average standard error of difference between GCA effects increased with a decrease in s, with a steep slope for s diallel analysis was more efficient for the estimation of the variance component of GCA than for SCA, as the estimate of SCA was biased upwards. Estimates of broad sense heritability obtained from the partial diallels agreed with the full diallel analysis better than the narrow sense estimates. Smaller partial diallels gave erratic estimates of heritability, particularly for the characters with low heritability.

  15. Photodetachment cross-section evaluation using asymptotic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilotte, Philippe; Vandevraye, Mickael

    2017-06-01

    Mathematical calculations are given concerning the evaluation of the negative ions photodetachment cross-section σ , into a so-called saturation regime. The interaction between a negative ion particle beam and a laser beam is examined under theoretical aspects. A quantitative criterion S is proposed to define the saturation threshold between the linear and the saturated domains, which are both present in this saturation regime. The asymptotic behaviours extracted at the low and high energy limits are used to determine this threshold quantitative criterion S and to evaluate also the photodetachment cross-section σ . The case of a symmetric gaussian photodetachment laser beam shape is examined according to the proposed formalism, which can be used either for the photo-detachment or photo-ionization processes, and could be potentially used into technological solutions for negative ion neutralisation processes (such as neutral beam injector) in the future fusion energy devices. Estimations onto the errors related to the use of this methodology are given.

  16. Evaluation of Cross-sectional Thickness and Activity of Masseter, Temporalis, Orbicularis Oris and Mentalis Muscles in Normal, High and Low Angle Cases and Its Correlation with Craniofacial Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Ashokrao Verulkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic aspect of the oral cavity, i.e. muscle tissue, cannot be excluded from consideration, as the bony foundation which supports the teeth is powered and remodeled by muscles. Aims and objectives: The study was to correlate the thickness and activity of masseter, temporalis, orbicularis oris and mentalis muscles with craniofacial morphology in high angle, low angle cases with that of normal angle cases. Materials and methods: For selection of sample, the lateral cephalograms were taken in natural head position and 14 craniofacial parameters were analyzed for each subject and accordingly divided into high, low and normal angle cases. Ultrasonographic and electromyographic study were carried out for all subjects. Results: Statistical analysis of results showed that there exist significant differences in cross-sectional thickness and activity of masseter muscle. It was more in low angle cases and less in high angle cases. Conclusion: A positive correlation was found between masseter muscle thickness and activity with cephalometric parameters like-OB, PFH and RH and negative correlation was found with ADH, ī to MP, TFH and LFH.

  17. A quasi-experimental cross-disciplinary evaluation of the impacts of education outside the classroom on pupils’ physical activity, well-being and learning: the TEACHOUT study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Mygind, Erik; Bølling, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Background: Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC) is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren’s learning, physical activity (PA), social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve...... innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem-solving, experimentation, cooperation, PA, and play. EOTC has become common practice for many teachers in Scandinavia; however, only case studies have evaluated its impacts. The TEACHOUT study aims to evaluate the impacts of EOTC on Danish...... in both EOTC and nonEOTC classes were monitored day-to-day throughout the school year, using an online teacher survey platform. The effects of EOTC are mainly analysed by comparing EOTC pupils to non-EOTC (i.e. control) pupils based on their scores on the outcome variables (i.e. school performance, well...

  18. Using Cross Correlation for Evaluating Shape Models of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Eric; Weirich, John; Barnouin, Olivier; Campbell, Tanner; Lambert, Diane

    2017-10-01

    The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) sample return mission to Bennu will be using optical navigation during its proximity operations. Optical navigation is heavily dependent upon having an accurate shape model to calculate the spacecraft's position and pointing. In support of this, we have conducted extensive testing of the accuracy and precision of shape models. OSIRIS-REx will be using the shape models generated by stereophotoclinometry (Gaskell, 2008). The most typical technique to evaluate models is to subtract two shape models and produce the differences in the height of each node between the two models. During flight, absolute accuracy cannot be determined; however, our testing allowed us to characterize both systematic and non-systematic errors. We have demonstrated that SPC provides an accurate and reproducible shape model (Weirich, et al., 2017), but also that shape model subtraction only tells part of the story. Our advanced shape model evaluation uses normalized cross-correlation to show a different aspect of quality of the shape model. In this method, we generate synthetic images using the shape model and calculate their cross-correlation with images of the truth asteroid. This technique tests both the shape model's representation of the topographic features (size, shape, depth and relative position), but also estimates of the surface's albedo. This albedo can be used to determine both Bond and geometric albedo of the surface (Palmer, et al., 2014). A high correlation score between the model's synthetic images and the truth images shows that the local topography and albedo has been well represented over the length scale of the image. A global evaluation, such as global shape and size, is best shown by shape model subtraction.

  19. Evaluation of a school-based nutrition and physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Making the Difference programme (MTDP), an educationand activity-based intervention for Grade 4 learners at primary schools in the Western Cape. Design: This was a cross-sectional, post-intervention survey of an existing programme, using control schools ...

  20. Evaluation of cross-reactive antibody response to HVR1 in chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Bing-Shui; Feng, Xiao-Yan; He, Jing; Wang, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Ying; Zhang, He-Qiu; Song, Xiao-Guo; Chen, Kun; Ling, Shi-Gan; Zhu, Cui-Xia; Wei, Lai; Rao, Hui-Ying

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the presence and cross-reactive antibodies against hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients and its relationship with the progression of the disease. METHODS: Sixteen representative HVR1 proteins selected from a unique set of 1600 natural sequences were used to semiquantitate the cross-reactivity of HVR1 antibodies in the sera of HCV patients. Fifty-five chronic HCV patients including 23 with asymptomatic mild hepatitis, 18 with chronic hepatitis and 16 with liver cirrhosis patients were studied. RESULTS: The degree of the cross-reactivity of anti-HVR1 antibodies in 23 patients with mild asymptomatic hepatitis was 3.09 ± 2.68, which was significantly lower than in those with chronic hepatitis (5.44 ± 3.93, P < 0.05) and liver cirrhosis (7.44 ± 3.90, P < 0.01). No correlation was observed between the broadness of the cross-reactivity anti-HVR1 antibodies and patient’s age, infection time, serum alanine aminotransferase activity, or serum HCV-RNA concentration. It was the breath of cross-reactivity rather than the presence of anti-HVR1 antibody in HCV sera that was associated with the progression of liver disease. CONCLUSION: The broadly cross-reactive HVR1 antibodies generated in natural HCV patients can not neutralize the virus, which results in persistent infection in patients with chronic hepatitis. PMID:20845515

  1. Design and evaluation of interprofessional cross-cultural communication sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Poirier, Therese; Butler, Lakesha; Comrie, Rhonda; Pailden, Junvie

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) call for healthcare professionals to provide quality care and services that are responsive to diverse cultural health beliefs and practices. Accreditation organizations for health professional programs require their curriculum to adequately prepare future practitioners for serving culturally and linguistically diverse populations. Another common curricular need of health professional programs is interprofessional education (IPE). This study presents data that evaluates two IPE culturally competent communication sessions designed for pharmacy and nursing students. Teams of nursing and pharmacy students (n = 160) engaged in case studies focused on developing cross-cultural communication skills, using the LEARN model. Quantitative survey data collected pre-test and post-test measured cultural competency (including subscales of perceived skills, perceived knowledge, confidence in encounter, and attitude) and knowledge related to culturally competent communication. Univariate ANOVA results indicate that actual knowledge as measured by the test and all four Clinical Cultural Competency Questionnaire (CCCQ) subscales significantly increased after the IPE sessions. Pharmacy students scored higher than nursing students on the knowledge pre-test, and nursing students had a more positive attitude at pre-test. The IPE sessions effectively addressed all learning outcomes and will continue in future course offerings. Using cross-cultural communication as a thematic area for IPE program development resulted in educational benefits for the students. To further strengthen nursing and pharmacy students' interprofessional practice, additional IPE opportunities are to be explored.

  2. SigmaCalc recent development and present status of the evaluated cross-sections for IBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    2016-03-15

    A new version of the SigmaCalc Internet site ( (http://sigmacalc.iate.obninsk.ru)) intended to provide evaluated differential cross-sections for spectra simulation is presented. Results of the revision of previously evaluated cross-sections and new evaluations including data for PIGE were made available to the IBA community through a simple interface. New SigmaCalc features allow users to compare evaluated differential cross-sections with the available results of the cross-section measurements taken on-the-fly from the IBANDL database and to validate them against benchmarks. The current status of the evaluated cross-sections for IBA is discussed.

  3. Cross-linked collagen sponges loaded with plant polyphenols with inhibitory activity towards chronic wound enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Francesko; Guillem, Rocasalbas; Sonia, Touriño; Clara, Mattu; Piergiorgio, Gentile; Valeria, Chiono; Gianluca, Ciardelli; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2011-10-01

    Collagen sponges loaded with polyphenols from Hamamelis virginiana were investigated as active materials for chronic wound dressings, evaluating in vitro the inhibition of two major enzymes that impair the wound healing process - myeloperoxidase (MPO) and collagenase. Prior to polyphenols loading, collagen was cross-linked with genipin to improve its biostability. The effect of genipin cross-linking and polyphenol concentration in the development of mechanically and enzymatically stable sponges was studied. The tensile strength of the cross-linked collagen increased with the increase of the cross-linking degree, coupled to decrease in the elongation and the swelling capacity of the sponges. The stability of the sponges to collagenase digestion reached maximum when 1 mM genipin was used. However, the biostability decreased more than 10-fold after loading the sponges with polyphenols (0.5 mg/mL), nevertheless, this effect was partially overcome using higher concentration of polyphenols (1 and 2 mg/mL) to inhibit collagenase. Moreover, the polyphenols released from the sponges were sufficient for complete inhibition of MPO activity. No considerable cytotoxicity of the genipin cross-linked collagen loaded with polyphenols was observed evaluating the NIH 3T3 fibroblasts viability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Evaluation of Cross-Platform Mobile Development ToolsDevelopment of an Evaluation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Öberg, Linus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine what cross-platform mobile development tool that is best suited for Vitec and their mobile application ”Teknisk Förvaltning”. But more importantly we will in this thesis develop a generic evaluation framework for assessing cross-platform mobile development tools. With the purpose of making it easy to select the most appropriate tool for a specific mobile application. This was achieved by first, in consideration with Vitec, selecting Cordova + Ionic and X...

  5. Sensibility analysis of Eu{sup 151} and Eu{sup 153} measured activation responses to cross section evaluation; Sensibilite d'un calcul d'activation aux sections efficaces des isotopes {sup 151}Eu et {sup 153}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France); Jacquet, H.P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Conception et Realisation des Experimentations, 91 (France)

    2006-07-01

    An international benchmark exercise was launched by ITER Joint Central Team for an experimental validation of the integral decay power heat for fusion relevant materials irradiated in 14 MeV neutron spectra. In this paper, we compare the results of JAERI/FNS decay heat experiments performed upon Eu{sup 203} sample with calculations done with the inventory code FISPACT-2005 using two different cross section evaluations for the isotope {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu, namely EAF-2005 and BRC6(CEA/DAM). In order to estimate the difference between the calculated and the experimental decay heat values and the impact on the calculation results by the two different activation libraries adopted in the present work, the percentage ratios (C-E)/E % have been deduced and are presented. The outcome is the validation of the BRCD6 europium activation nuclear data by the adopted computational approach which provides a better agreement with the experiment than the EAF one, despite a low energy neutron flux uncertainty. (authors)

  6. Cross-domain active learning for video concept detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Chao; Shi, Yuan; Xiong, Zhang; Hauptmann, Alexander G.

    2011-08-01

    As video data from a variety of different domains (e.g., news, documentaries, entertainment) have distinctive data distributions, cross-domain video concept detection becomes an important task, in which one can reuse the labeled data of one domain to benefit the learning task in another domain with insufficient labeled data. In this paper, we approach this problem by proposing a cross-domain active learning method which iteratively queries labels of the most informative samples in the target domain. Traditional active learning assumes that the training (source domain) and test data (target domain) are from the same distribution. However, it may fail when the two domains have different distributions because querying informative samples according to a base learner that initially learned from source domain may no longer be helpful for the target domain. In our paper, we use the Gaussian random field model as the base learner which has the advantage of exploring the distributions in both domains, and adopt uncertainty sampling as the query strategy. Additionally, we present an instance weighting trick to accelerate the adaptability of the base learner, and develop an efficient model updating method which can significantly speed up the active learning process. Experimental results on TRECVID collections highlight the effectiveness.

  7. Cross-Disciplinarization: A New Talisman for Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on crossing disciplinary lines abound in the scientific community. Can cross-disciplinary approaches, with all their complexity and particularities, provide the way forward in the search for practical solutions to real-world problems? In this article, the author addresses how the debate on cross-disciplinarization pertains to the field…

  8. Teaching cross-cultural communication skills online: a multi-method evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Amy L; Mader, Emily M; Morley, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an online cross-cultural communication module could increase student use of cross-cultural communication questions that assess the patient's...

  9. Cross-education strength and activation after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, Lindsey K; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2014-01-01

    After injury, eccentric exercise of the injured limb is often contraindicated. Cross-education training, whereby the uninvolved limb is exercised, is an alternative that may improve quadriceps muscle strength and activation in the unexercised limb. To determine the effect of eccentric exercise on quadriceps strength and activation gains in the unexercised limb. Eighteen healthy individuals were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or a control group. Quadriceps strength and activation measures were collected at preintervention, midintervention, and postintervention. Eccentric training participants exercised their dominant limb with a dynamometer in eccentric mode at 60°/s, 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Quadriceps strength was quantified at 30° and 60°/s in concentric and eccentric modes. Quadriceps activation was assessed using the burst superimposition technique and quantified via the central activation ratio. A 2 × 3 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect the effects of group and testing session on quadriceps strength and activation. Where appropriate, post hoc Bonferroni multiple-comparisons procedures were used. We found greater eccentric strength in the unexercised limbs of eccentric training participants between preintervention and midintervention and between preintervention and postintervention (preintervention to midintervention: 30°/s P = .05; preintervention to postintervention: 30°/s P = .02, 60°/s P = .02). No differences were noted in concentric strength (P > .05). An overall trend toward greater quadriceps activation in the unexercised knee was detected between preintervention and postintervention (P = .063), with the eccentric training group demonstrating a strong effect (Cohen d = 0.83). Control strength did not change (P > .05). Exercising with eccentric actions resulted in mode-specific and velocity-specific gains in quadriceps strength in the unexercised limb. A trend toward greater quadriceps activation in

  10. Criticality experiments and benchmarks for cross section evaluation: the neptunium case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The 237Np neutron-induced fission cross section has been recently measured in a large energy range (from eV to GeV at the n_TOF facility at CERN. When compared to previous measurement the n_TOF fission cross section appears to be higher by 5-7% beyond the fission threshold. To check the relevance of n_TOF data, we apply a criticality experiment performed at Los Alamos with a 6 kg sphere of 237Np, surrounded by enriched uranium 235U so as to approach criticality with fast neutrons. The multiplication factor ke f f of the calculation is in better agreement with the experiment (the deviation of 750 pcm is reduced to 250 pcm when we replace the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation of the 237Np fission cross section by the n_TOF data. We also explore the hypothesis of deficiencies of the inelastic cross section in 235U which has been invoked by some authors to explain the deviation of 750 pcm. With compare to inelastic large distortion calculation, it is incompatible with existing measurements. Also we show that the v of 237Np can hardly be incriminated because of the high accuracy of the existing data. Fission rate ratios or averaged fission cross sections measured in several fast neutron fields seem to give contradictory results on the validation of the 237Np cross section but at least one of the benchmark experiments, where the active deposits have been well calibrated for the number of atoms, favors the n_TOF data set. These outcomes support the hypothesis of a higher fission cross section of 237Np.

  11. Cross-cultural and construct validity of the Animated Activity Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peter, Wilfred F; Cw de Vet, Henrika; Boers, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) assesses activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis (HKOA), and consisting video animations of which patients choose the animation that best matches their own performance. The AAQ has shown good validity and reliability. This...... between PROMs and performance-based tests showed a good overall cross-cultural validity, and seems to have great potential for international use in research and daily clinical practice in many European countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......OBJECTIVE: The Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) assesses activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis (HKOA), and consisting video animations of which patients choose the animation that best matches their own performance. The AAQ has shown good validity and reliability....... This study aims to evaluate cross-cultural and construct validity of the AAQ. Methods Cross-cultural validity was assessed using ordinal logistic regression analysis to evaluate Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across 7 languages. Construct validity was assessed by testing correlations between the AAQ...

  12. Residual stresses evaluation in a gas-pipeline crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Manoel Messias [COMPAGAS, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The X-rays diffraction technique is a well established and effectiveness method in the determination of the residual and applied stresses in fine grained crystalline materials. It allows to characterize and to quantify the magnitude and direction of the existing surface stresses in the studied point of the material. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the surface stresses in a 10 in diameter Natural Gas Distribution Pipeline manufactured from API 5 L Gr B steel of COMPAGAS company, in a crossing with a Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline, in Araucaria-PR. This kind of evaluation is important to establish weather you have to perform a repositioning of one of the pipeline or not. The measurements had been made in two transversal sections of the pipe, the one upstream (170 mm of the external wall of the pipeline) and another one downstream (840 mm of the external wall of the pipeline). Each transversal section measurements where carried out in 3 points: 9 hours, 12 hours and 3 hours. In each measured point of the pipe surface, the longitudinal and transversal stresses had been measured. The magnitude of the surface residual stresses in the pipe varied of +180 MPa at the -210 MPa. The residual stress state on the surface of the points 12 hours region is characterized by tensile stresses and by compressive stresses in the points of 3 and 9 hours region. The surface residual stresses in gas-pipeline have been measured using X-ray diffraction method, by double exposure technique, using a portable apparatus, with Cr-K-alpha radiation. (author)

  13. Evaluation of milk yield traits of Holstein x Jersey crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Corrêa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding practice between specialized dairy breeds is an usual method for dairy producers and recently the Holstein x Jersey crosses has continuously increased in some regions of Brazil. Motivating factors of this practice include an interest in improving the milk solids content, somatic cell count (SCC, fertility, longevity and calving ease, in addition to reduce the problems of consanguinity. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the milk components and milk yield of Holstein x Jersey crosses. Data set comprised 59,331 monthly records of 6,429 pure Holstein (H and Jersey (J and ½ H x ½ J crossed cows calving from 1992 to 2010. The traits analyzed were test-day milk yields (MT, somatic cell score (SCS and percentages of fat (%F and protein (%P. Since the SCC is not normal distributed it was converted to a logarithmic scale in SCS, using the following equation, SCS = log2 (SCC/100 + 3. The variables MT, SCS, %F and %P were analyzed as dependent variables by least square method using GLM procedure. There were considered linear models containing the effects of breed (H, J and ½ H x ½ J or F1, herd, year and month of test as classificatory variables. Age at calving (AC and days in milk (DM were included as covariates (linear and quadratic effects for all traits. The test-day milk yield was included as covariate for SCS model, %F and %P. All variables included in the model showed significant effects for MT, SCS, %F and %P. The estimated least square means for milk yield (19.13 H; 16.27 JH and 13.39 J showed statistically significant differences for the different genetic groups. The Holstein breed had higher test-day milk yields in comparison to Jersey breed that was an expected result since the frame of Holstein breed is greater and the selection has been practiced more intensively for production in this breed. When compared to F1 cows and Jersey, the mean of crossbreed animals was higher due to heterosis and due to difference of

  14. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  15. Evaluating Seismic Activity in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Asmara; in 1921, Massawa was completely des- troyed (10, 11) and the people of Eritrea remember these years as 11 011 } R:a c)>ac)> ; in 1960, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 hit a few kilometers west of Sheshamane near the dormant volcano. Chabbi; in 1961, the seismic activity was centered in Wollo where Majete ...

  16. 3D methodology for evaluating rail crossing roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Description of Research Project The overall objective of this project is to investigate develop a quantitative method or measure for determining the need to rehabilitate rail crossings. The scope of the project includes investigation of sensor capabi...

  17. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  18. The evaluated gamma-ray activation file (EGAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Belgya, T.; McNabb, D.P.; Sleaford, B.W.

    2004-09-22

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF), a new database of prompt and delayed neutron capture g-ray cross sections, has been prepared as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project to develop a ''Database of Prompt Gamma-rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis.'' Recent elemental g-ray cross-section measurements performed with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor have been combined with data from the literature to produce the EGAF database. EGAF contains thermal cross sections for {approx} 35,000 prompt and delayed g-rays from 262 isotopes. New precise total thermal radiative cross sections have been derived for many isotopes from the primary and secondary gamma-ray cross sections and additional level scheme data. An IAEA TECDOC describing the EGAF evaluation and tabulating the most prominent g-rays will be published in 2004. The TECDOC will include a CD-ROM containing the EGAF database in both ENSDF and tabular formats with an interactive viewer for searching and displaying the data. The Isotopes Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory continues to maintain and update the EGAF file. These data are available on the Internet from both the IAEA and Isotopes Project websites.

  19. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. B.; Molnár, G. L.; Révay, Zs.; Belgya, T.; McNabb, D. P.; Sleaford, B. W.

    2006-03-01

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF), a new database of prompt and delayed neutron capture γ ray cross sections, has been prepared as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project to develop a "Database of Prompt Gamma-rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis". Recent elemental γ-ray cross-section measurements performed with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor have been combined with data from the literature to produce the EGAF database. EGAF contains thermal cross sections for ≈35,000 prompt and delayed γ-rays from 262 isotopes. New precise total thermal radiative cross sections have been derived for many isotopes from the primary and secondary gamma-ray cross sections and additional level scheme data. An IAEA TECDOC describing the EGAF evaluation and tabulating the most prominent γ-rays will be published in 2004. The TECDOC will include a CD-ROM containing the EGAF database in both ENSDF and tabular formats with an interactive viewer for searching and displaying the data. The Isotopes Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory continues to maintain and update the EGAF file. These data are available on the Internet from both the IAEA and Isotopes Project websites.

  20. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  1. Cross-platform digital assessment forms for evaluating surgical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2015-01-01

    assessment situations. In this paper, we report on the development of cross-platform digital assessment forms for use with multiple raters in order to facilitate the automatic processing of surgical skills assessments that include structured ratings. The FileMaker 13 platform was used to create a database...... containing the digital assessment forms, because this software has cross-platform functionality on both desktop computers and handheld devices. The database is hosted online, and the rating forms can therefore also be accessed through most modern web browsers. Cross-platform digital assessment forms were...... developed for the rating of surgical skills. The database platform used in this study was reasonably priced, intuitive for the user, and flexible. The forms have been provided online as free downloads that may serve as the basis for further development or as inspiration for future efforts. In conclusion...

  2. Cross-Cultural and Construct Validity of the Animated Activity Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Wilfred F; de Vet, Henrika C W; Boers, Maarten; Harlaar, Jaap; Roorda, Leo D; Poolman, Rudolf W; Scholtes, Vanessa A B; Steultjens, Martijn; Hendry, Gordon J; Roos, Ewa M; Guillemin, Francis; Benedetti, Maria G; Cavazzuti, Lorenzo; Escobar, Antonio; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Terwee, Caroline B

    2017-09-01

    The Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) assesses activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis and consists of video animations; the patients choose the animation that best matches their own performance. The AAQ has shown good validity and reliability. This study aims to evaluate cross-cultural and construct validity of the AAQ. Cross-cultural validity was assessed using ordinal logistic regression analysis to evaluate differential item functioning (DIF) across 7 languages. Construct validity was assessed by testing correlations between the AAQ and a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) and performance-based tests. Data from 1,239 patients were available. Compared to the Dutch language (n = 279), none of the 17 items showed DIF in English (n = 202) or French (n = 193), 1 item showed uniform DIF in Spanish (n = 99) and Norwegian (n = 62), and 2 items showed uniform DIF in Danish (n = 201). In all these languages, the occurrence of DIF did not influence the total score, which remained comparable with the original Dutch version. For Italian (n = 203) versus Dutch, however, 6 items showed uniform DIF, and 1 item showed nonuniform DIF, indicating some problems with the cross-cultural validity between these countries. With regard to construct validity, the correlations with PROM (0.74) and performance-based tests (0.36-0.68) were partly as expected (>0.60). The AAQ, an innovative tool to measure activity limitations that can be placed on the continuum between PROMs and performance-based tests, showed a good overall cross-cultural validity, and seems to have great potential for international use in research and daily clinical practice in many European countries. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Theoretical Framework for Evaluation of Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1977-01-01

    Considers six types of cross-cultural training including general, specific, affective, cognitive, behavioral and self-insight, and examines the quantity and timing of the training and the attributes of the trainers and the trainees. Available from: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903,…

  4. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  5. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapaptite (nano-HA) coated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Man, Yi; Qu, Yili

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) with desirable biological activities and low antigenicity. Collagen materials have been widely utilized in guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery due to its abilities to maintain space for hard tissue growth. However, pure collagen lacks optimal mechanical properties. In our previous study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, with better biological activities and enhanced mechanical properties, may promote osteoblast proliferation, but their effect on osteoblast differentiation is not very significant. Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) is the main component of mineral bone, which possesses exceptional bioactivity properties including good biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, non-immunogenicity and non-inflammatory behavior. Herein, by analyzing the physical and chemical properties as well as the effects on promoting bone regeneration, we have attempted to present a novel EGCG-modified collagen membrane with nano-HA coating, and have found evidence that the novel collagen membrane may promote bone regeneration with a better surface morphology, without destroying collagen backbone. To evaluate the surface morphologies, chemical and mechanical properties of pure collagen membranes, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, nano-HA coated collagen membranes, nano-HA coated EGCG-collagen membranes, (ii) to evaluate the bone regeneration promoted by theses membranes. In the present study, collagen membranes were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated collagen membranes (2) EGCG cross-linked collagen membranes (3) nano-HA modified collagen membranes (4) nano-HA modified EGCG-collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate surface morphologies and chemical properties, respectively. Mechanical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC

  6. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  7. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiproliferative activity of three extracts obtained from red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus was evaluated against cervical (HeLa), colon (HCT 116), lung (A549), prostate (22Rv-1) and breast (HCC38 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella ...

  8. The Exploration of the Relationship between Participation in Organized Activity and Cross-Group Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Suh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-group friendship is an important element in regard to reducing prejudice and increasing positive interracial interactions among young adults. In order to facilitate the formation of cross-group friendships, organized activity participation (e.g., community service and school-based extracurricular activities may provide an environment that supports positive cross-cultural interactions and contacts. The sample used for this study consisted of 601 college students. We tested whether participation in an organized activity contributes to the formation of cross-group friendships. The results of this study indicate that community service and school-based extracurricular activities significantly contribute to the formation of cross-group friendships among young adults. The findings also suggest that a variety of organized activities should be developed and implemented to facilitate cross-group friendships. We also discuss the practical implications of these findings.

  9. OGSA Globus Toolkits evaluation activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, D; Foster, D; Kalyaev, V; Kryukov, A; Lamanna, M; Pose, V; Rocha, R; Wang, C

    2004-01-01

    An Open Grid Service Architecture (OGSA) Globus Toolkit 3 (GT3) evaluation group is active at CERN since GT3 was available in early beta version (Spring 2003). This activity focuses on the evaluation of the technology as promised by the OGSA/OGSI paradigm and on GT3 in particular. The goal is to study this new technology and its implications with the goal to provide useful input for the large grid initiatives active in the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) project. A particular effort has been devoted to investigate performance and deployment issues, having in mind the LCG requirements, in particular scalability and robustness.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Jin; Seo, Mi Ryoung; Ryu, Hee Jung; Baek, Han Joo

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF, version 2006) questionnaire to the Korean language and to evaluate its reliability and validity in a population of Korean patients with Behcet's disease (BD). A cross-cultural study was conducted among patients with BD who attended our rheumatology clinic between November 2012 and March 2013. There were 11 males and 35 females in the group. The mean age of the participants was 48.5 years and the mean disease duration was 6.4 years. The first BDCAF questionnaire was completed on arrival and the second assessment was performed 20 minutes later by a different physician. The test-retest reliability was analyzed by computing κ statistics. Kappa scores of > 0.6 indicated a good agreement. To assess the validity, we compared the total BDCAF score with the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity and the Korean version of the Behcet's Disease Quality of Life (BDQOL). For the test-retest reliability, good agreements were achieved on items such as headache, oral/genital ulceration, erythema, skin pustules, arthralgia, nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain, and diarrhea with altered/frank blood per rectum. Moderate agreement was observed for eye and nervous system involvement. We achieved a fair agreement for arthritis and major vessel involvement. Significant correlations were obtained between the total BDCAF score with the BDQOL and the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity p disease activity in Korean BD patients.

  11. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  12. Cross-modal evaluative priming: emotional sounds influence the processing of emotion words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D; Larsen, Randy J

    2011-02-01

    Cross-modal priming occurs when a prime presented in one sensory modality influences responses to a target in a different sensory modality. Currently, demonstrations of cross-modal evaluative priming have been sparse and limited. In the present study, we seek to partially rectify this state of affairs by examining cross-modal evaluative priming from auditory primes to visual targets. Significant cross-modal priming effects were found, but only for negative primes. Results are discussed in terms of the negativity bias, and several suggestions are provided for using cross-modal evaluative priming to address theoretically important questions about emotion and cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Activated Brain Endothelial Cells Cross-Present Malaria Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Shanshan W; Poh, Chek Meng; Rénia, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    In the murine model of cerebral malaria caused by P. berghei ANKA (PbA), parasite-specific CD8+ T cells directly induce pathology and have long been hypothesized to kill brain endothelial cells that have internalized PbA antigen. We previously reported that brain microvessel fragments from infected mice cross-present PbA epitopes, using reporter cells transduced with epitope-specific T cell receptors. Here, we confirm that endothelial cells are the population responsible for cross-presentation in vivo, not pericytes or microglia. PbA antigen cross-presentation by primary brain endothelial cells in vitro confers susceptibility to killing by CD8+ T cells from infected mice. IFNγ stimulation is required for brain endothelial cross-presentation in vivo and in vitro, which occurs by a proteasome- and TAP-dependent mechanism. Parasite strains that do not induce cerebral malaria were phagocytosed and cross-presented less efficiently than PbA in vitro. The main source of antigen appears to be free merozoites, which were avidly phagocytosed. A human brain endothelial cell line also phagocytosed P. falciparum merozoites. Besides being the first demonstration of cross-presentation by brain endothelial cells, our results suggest that interfering with merozoite phagocytosis or antigen processing may be effective strategies for cerebral malaria intervention.

  14. Activated Brain Endothelial Cells Cross-Present Malaria Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan W Howland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the murine model of cerebral malaria caused by P. berghei ANKA (PbA, parasite-specific CD8+ T cells directly induce pathology and have long been hypothesized to kill brain endothelial cells that have internalized PbA antigen. We previously reported that brain microvessel fragments from infected mice cross-present PbA epitopes, using reporter cells transduced with epitope-specific T cell receptors. Here, we confirm that endothelial cells are the population responsible for cross-presentation in vivo, not pericytes or microglia. PbA antigen cross-presentation by primary brain endothelial cells in vitro confers susceptibility to killing by CD8+ T cells from infected mice. IFNγ stimulation is required for brain endothelial cross-presentation in vivo and in vitro, which occurs by a proteasome- and TAP-dependent mechanism. Parasite strains that do not induce cerebral malaria were phagocytosed and cross-presented less efficiently than PbA in vitro. The main source of antigen appears to be free merozoites, which were avidly phagocytosed. A human brain endothelial cell line also phagocytosed P. falciparum merozoites. Besides being the first demonstration of cross-presentation by brain endothelial cells, our results suggest that interfering with merozoite phagocytosis or antigen processing may be effective strategies for cerebral malaria intervention.

  15. Activated Brain Endothelial Cells Cross-Present Malaria Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Shanshan W.; Poh, Chek Meng; Rénia, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the murine model of cerebral malaria caused by P. berghei ANKA (PbA), parasite-specific CD8+ T cells directly induce pathology and have long been hypothesized to kill brain endothelial cells that have internalized PbA antigen. We previously reported that brain microvessel fragments from infected mice cross-present PbA epitopes, using reporter cells transduced with epitope-specific T cell receptors. Here, we confirm that endothelial cells are the population responsible for cross-presentation in vivo, not pericytes or microglia. PbA antigen cross-presentation by primary brain endothelial cells in vitro confers susceptibility to killing by CD8+ T cells from infected mice. IFNγ stimulation is required for brain endothelial cross-presentation in vivo and in vitro, which occurs by a proteasome- and TAP-dependent mechanism. Parasite strains that do not induce cerebral malaria were phagocytosed and cross-presented less efficiently than PbA in vitro. The main source of antigen appears to be free merozoites, which were avidly phagocytosed. A human brain endothelial cell line also phagocytosed P. falciparum merozoites. Besides being the first demonstration of cross-presentation by brain endothelial cells, our results suggest that interfering with merozoite phagocytosis or antigen processing may be effective strategies for cerebral malaria intervention. PMID:26046849

  16. Evaluation of nasal symptoms induced by platelet activating factor, after nasal challenge in both healthy and allergic rhinitis subjects pretreated with rupatadine, levocetirizine or placebo in a cross-over study design

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Cano, Rosa; Valero, Antonio; Izquierdo, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, Jaume; Doménech, Alejandro; Bartra, Joan; Mullol, Joaquim; Picado, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by most inflammatory cells and it is involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions. We aimed to assess the anti-PAF effects of rupatadine and levocetirizine in the upper airways. Findings Healthy volunteers (HV, N = 10) and seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR, N = 10) asymptomatic patients were treated out of the pollen season with either rupatadine 20 mg, levocetirizine 10 mg, or placebo once a day during 5 days prior to the PAF nasal cha...

  17. Activation effectiveness evaluation of innovation activity processes of the enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Александровна Плахотник

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the national importance of innovative activity development in Ukraine, clear relationship to the innovative process has not yet formed. There are a number of outstanding issues concerning the methods for activation effectiveness evaluation of innovative activity of the enterprises, identifying priority allocation of financial resources in the course of innovation. The ways of improving analytical methods for activity effectiveness evaluation of innovative activity of the enterprises in different sectors of the national economy are discussed in the article. They are based on the performances of their economic, social and technological development. The practical aspects of implementation of the methodology for effectiveness evaluation of innovative activity are developed. They can be used as the basis for approaches to the formation and evaluation of the implementation of the state industrial policy of Ukraine. It is proved that economy modernization, based on the formation of high-tech resources in the real economy, and effective participation of innovative activities in economic circulation allows economic growth in the conditions of new economy. Technology can effectively develop only under appropriate forms and methods of institutionalization and socialization. The complex nature of the processes of innovative development of domestic enterprises has predetermined the need for effective implementation of innovation level measurement system based on the definition of the integral performance index of their implementation and related sub-indices in its structure, based on a four-level hierarchical model. Integral performance indicator is a vector with the components of the sub-indices by kinds of influence factors. The proposed approach to the analysis of the activation effectiveness of innovative activity of the enterprises can be the basis for approaches to the development and evaluation of the implementation of the state industrial

  18. Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Larsson, Benny; Klausen, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Six Danish male cross-country skiers were studied during the end-of-summer and winter seasons. Their maximal oxygen uptake was measured while running on a treadmill and using a ski ergometer incorporating the double-poling technique. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill running and double......-poling was correlated with performance, expressed as a ranking score during 10 ski races. The tests were undertaken in September, December and April. Upper body maximal oxygen uptake increased 5.8% from September to December, decreasing to 2.3% above the September level in April. Upper body work output (2 min....../leg ratio changed from 87.7% in September to 95.7% in December. In April, the ratio was 91.0%. The maximal oxygen uptake measured using the ski ergometer during double-poling was significantly correlated with performance (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that the upper body ski ergometer can be used...

  19. Selecting the Best of Portfolio Using OWA Operator Weights in Cross Efficiency-Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanei, Masoud; Banihashemi, Shokoofeh

    2014-01-01

    ... it as the overall performance measurement of the DMU. This paper focuses on the evaluation process of the efficiencies in the cross-efficiency matrix and proposes the use of ordered weighted averaging (OWA...

  20. The Exploration of the Relationship between Participation in Organized Activity and Cross-Group Friendships

    OpenAIRE

    Wonseok Suh; Junhyoung Kim

    2011-01-01

    Cross-group friendship is an important element in regard to reducing prejudice and increasing positive interracial interactions among young adults. In order to facilitate the formation of cross-group friendships, organized activity participation (e.g., community service and school-based extracurricular activities) may provide an environment that supports positive cross-cultural interactions and contacts. The sample used for this study consisted of 601 college students. We tested whether parti...

  1. Crossing Borders: Evaluating a Work Integrated Learning Project Involving Australian and Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bernadette; Vo-Tran, Huan; Pittayachawan, Siddhi; Reynolds, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The value of work integrated learning (WIL) is well-established in the education of information management (IM) professionals. Adding value to WIL through cross-cultural or cross-disciplinary experiences is considered in this article. Using online communication, simulation activities, and onsite work, students from RMIT Melbourne and RMIT Ho Chi…

  2. Determination of neutron-induced activation cross sections using nirr-1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal Activation cross-sections for the (n, γ) reaction were experimentally measured using NIRR-1 facilities. The irradiated target isotopes were 71Ga, 109Ag, 55Mn 94Zr; 96Zr; 238U, 74Se, 75As and 48Ca. In order to obtain reliable activation cross sections, careful attention was paid to neutron irradiation and to the ...

  3. Evaluation of nasal symptoms induced by platelet activating factor, after nasal challenge in both healthy and allergic rhinitis subjects pretreated with rupatadine, levocetirizine or placebo in a cross-over study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cano, Rosa; Valero, Antonio; Izquierdo, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, Jaume; Doménech, Alejandro; Bartra, Joan; Mullol, Joaquim; Picado, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by most inflammatory cells and it is involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions. We aimed to assess the anti-PAF effects of rupatadine and levocetirizine in the upper airways. Healthy volunteers (HV, N = 10) and seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR, N = 10) asymptomatic patients were treated out of the pollen season with either rupatadine 20 mg, levocetirizine 10 mg, or placebo once a day during 5 days prior to the PAF nasal challenge. Total 4-nasal symptom score (T4SS) and nasal patency (Vol2-5, by acoustic rhinometry) were assessed from 0 to 240 minutes after a repeated PAF challenge. In SAR patients but not in HV, both rupatadine and levocetirizine showed a trend to decrease PAF-induced T4SS from 60 to 120 minutes. Rupatadine but not levocetirizine caused a significant reduction (p Rupatadine and levocetirizine caused no significant changes on nasal patency compared to placebo. These results suggest that both rupatadine and levocetirizine showed a tendency decrease toward nasal symptoms, but only rupatadine significally reduces the overall nasal symptoms (AUC) induced by PAF in SAR patients.

  4. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project: Cross-site evaluation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...

  5. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…

  6. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Activity Rating Scale for Disorders of the Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Activity Rating Scale (ARS) for disorders of the knee evaluates the level of activity by the frequency of participation in 4 separate activities with high demands on knee function, with a score ranging from 0 (none) to 16 (pivoting activities 4 times/wk). PURPOSE: To translate...... and cross-culturally adapt the ARS into Swedish and to assess measurement properties of the Swedish version of the ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: The COSMIN guidelines were followed. Participants (N = 100 [55 women]; mean age, 27 years) who were undergoing...

  7. Countering countertransference, II: beyond evaluation to cross-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S Pirzada; Pinals, Debra A; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    Countertransference is a clinical term introduced by Freud in 1909. For years, despite mounting criticism, forensic psychiatrists borrowed this clinical concept to explain their emotional experiences and responses to examinees' emotions and behavior. The authors describe the impact of examinee and nonexaminee factors during evaluations and beyond, including during trial and while providing forensic testimony. The suggestion is made that using the term countertransference in forensic psychiatry can be problematic. The authors delineate the complexities of the term as related to forensic psychiatry and consider modified terms to provide a better explanation of these concepts in forensic contexts.

  8. Cross-System Evaluation of Clinical Trial Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Silis Y.; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities. PMID:25954590

  9. Cross-system evaluation of clinical trial search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Silis Y; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities.

  10. Cross-Cutting Activities 2016 on Wind Turbine Noise, Summary Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this report is to summarize activities that took place in year 2016 as part of the Cross-Cutting Activity on Wind Turbine Noise, self-financed by DTU Wind Energy. A short description of the background behind this project (in particular Cross-Cutting Activities conducted in year 2015),......), the main objectives of the various studies and scientific achievements are reported in the introduction. Then, each Work Packages constituting this project are described in more details in the following sections.......The goal of this report is to summarize activities that took place in year 2016 as part of the Cross-Cutting Activity on Wind Turbine Noise, self-financed by DTU Wind Energy. A short description of the background behind this project (in particular Cross-Cutting Activities conducted in year 2015...

  11. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  12. Deriving equity from expectations: A cross-cultural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops and evaluates a new model for predicting just rewards. The model produces point predictions for individual just rewards based on status characteristics and the expected value of a valued good. The equity model borrows from Berger and colleagues' (1998) reward expectations theory the ability to define different reward expectations. Drawing from Melamed and Walker's (2010) recent generalization of the mathematics of reward expectations theory, I illustrate how the model generates a continuous distribution of just rewards. The general model is applied to data from thirteen countries using the International Social Justice Project. The results illustrate the predictive power of the model using data from over 10,000 respondents. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation of dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ratto de Moraes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation (microhardness of dental composites. Specimens of Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE were light-activated by standard or pulse-delay methods. After initial Knoop hardness readings (KHN1, half of specimens (n = 10 for each irradiation method was stored in 100% ethanol, and half in 75% ethanol, during 24 hours, and hardness was determined anew. Hardness deterioration (DKHN was recorded as the difference between pre and post-storage values. KHN1 data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05, and hardness deterioration was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05. For KHN1, no significant differences were detected between the activation modes (p = 0.697. Samples light-activated by the pulse-delay method presented significantly higher softening compared to the standard mode when samples were immersed in 100% ethanol. Conversely, no significant differences between curing modes were detected for samples stored in 75% ethanol.

  14. Measurements and Evaluation of Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections Leading to Various Practical Applications in Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik

    2008-07-15

    This report contains the measurements and evaluation of production cross sections of some medically and technologically important radionuclides over the energy range 1-40 MeV by using a conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe) -ray spectrometry. The irradiations were done by using the external beam line of the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The standard cross sections for monitor reactions were taken from IAEA web site. Integral yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections. Reported data were compared with the available literature data, theoretical calculations by the codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE, and a good overall agreement among them was found.

  15. A framework for evaluating national space activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2012-04-01

    Space technology and resources are used around the world to address societal challenges. Space provides valuable satellite services, unique scientific discoveries, surprising technology applications and new economic opportunities. Many developing countries formally recognize the advantages of space resources and pursue national level activity to harness them. There is limited data or documentation on the space activities of developing countries. Meanwhile, traditional approaches to summarize national space activity do not necessarily capture the types of activity that developing countries pursue in space. This is especially true if they do not have a formal national space program or office. Developing countries pursue national space activity through activities of many types—from national satellite programs to commercial use of satellite services to involvement with international space institutions. This research aims to understand and analyze these trends. This paper introduces two analytical frameworks for evaluating space activity at the national level. The frameworks are specifically designed to capture the activity of countries that have traditionally been less involved in space. They take a broad view of space related activity across multiple societal sectors and disciplines. The discussion explains the approach for using the frameworks as well as illustrative examples of how they can be applied as part of a research process. The first framework is called the Mission and Management Ladders. This framework considers specific space projects within countries and ranks them on "Ladders" that measure technical challenge and managerial autonomy. This first method is at a micro level of analysis. The second framework is called the Space Participation Metric (SPM). The SPM can be used to assign a Space Participation score to countries based on their involvement in various space related activities. This second method uses a macro level of analysis. The authors

  16. Self-evaluation of assessment programs: A cross-case analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2011). Self-evaluation of assessment programs: A cross-case analysis. Evaluation and Program Planning, 34, 206-216. doi: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2011.03.001

  17. Photoneutron reaction cross sections from various experiments - analysis and evaluation using physical criteria of data reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Vladimir; Ishkhanov, Boris; Orlin, Vadim; Peskov, Nikolai; Stepanov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    The majority of photonuclear reaction cross sections important for many fields of science and technology and various data files (EXFOR, RIPL, ENDF, etc.) supported by the IAEA were obtained in experiments using quasimonoenergetic annihilation photons. There are well-known systematic discrepancies between the partial photoneutron reactions (γ, 1n), (γ, 2n), (γ, 3n). For analysis of the data reliability the objective physical criteria were proposed. It was found out that the experimental data for many nuclei are not reliable because of large systematic uncertainties of the neutron multiplicity sorting method used. The experimentally-theoretical method was proposed for evaluating the reaction cross sections data satisfying the reliability criteria. The partial and total reaction cross sections were evaluated for many nuclei. In many cases evaluated data differ noticeably from both the experimental data and the data evaluated before for the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library. Therefore it became evident that the IAEA Library needs to be revised and updated.

  18. THE CONTROL AND EVALUATION OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on importance and benefits of control and evaluation of marketing activities. The control of efficiency review the assessment of the resources for marketing activity, checking also the efficiency of the human resources, advertising, promotion activities and distribution activities. In the analyse of human resources the most important ratio are: the average of costumers visits on a day, the number of custom order received from 100 visits, the number of new customers from a period, the number of lost customers from a period, the marketing human expenditures from all the sales.The strategic control is made to check if the objectives and the company strategy are adapted to the marketing environment.

  19. Dermatological feasibility of multimodal facial color imaging modality for cross-evaluation of facial actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Stuart Nelson, J; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2011-02-01

    Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and a fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, to extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for the cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and as an efficient database management of patient information. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. [The activities of the Russian Society of Red Cross during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, L Ye; Rudoiy, N A

    2013-01-01

    During the First World War, the Russian Society of Red Cross used experience of previous wars expanded its activities. The medical service functioned in the conditions of cruel war. For the first time in history, the weapon of mass destruction was applied The merit of the Russian society of Red Cross was development of specialized medical care.

  1. The Relationship between Cross-Culture Communication Activities and Student Motivation in Studying Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hussein Zanaty Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the positive impact of second language learners' cross-cultural awareness in the target language. More specifically, the pedagogical desired outcomes include: (1) exploring how students can increase their motivation in learning a foreign language by engaging in the cross-cultural activity "Sister…

  2. Polyethylene glycol conjugation enhances the nitrite reductase activity of native and cross-linked hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Francine E; Dong, Pengcheng; Kluger, Ronald

    2008-10-07

    Although stabilized hemoglobins have been evaluated as oxygen-carrying replacements for red cells in transfusions, in vivo evaluations have noted that these materials are associated with vasoactivity, a serious complication. Scavenging of endogenous nitric oxide by the deoxyheme sites of the stabilized proteins is one likely source of vasoactivity. Recent reports indicate that modification of cell-free hemoglobin derivatives with multiple chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppresses vasoactivity. Gladwin and co-workers observed that the nitrite reductase activity of hemoglobin serves as a major endogenous source of nitric oxide. If PEG conjugation leads to enhanced nitrite reductase activity, this could compensate for scavenged endogenous nitric oxide. To test this possibility, the rates of conversion of nitrite ion to nitric oxide by altered hemoglobins with and without PEG were measured at 25 degrees C. Fumaryl (alpha99-alpha99) cross-linked hemoglobin reacts with nitrite with a bimolecular rate constant of 0.52 M (-1) s (-1), which is comparable to that associated with native hemoglobin (0.25 M (-1) s (-1)). Addition of PEG chains to the cross-linked hemoglobin at beta-Cys93 (alphaalpha-Hb-PEG5K 2) results in a material that produces nitric oxide much more rapidly ( k = 1.41 M (-1) s (-1)). R-State-stabilized hemoglobins with multiple PEG chains (Hb-PEG5K 2 and Hb-PEG5K 6) react 10 times faster with nitrite to produce nitric oxide than does native hemoglobin ( k = 2.5 and 2.4 M (-1) s (-1), respectively). These results, showing enhanced production of nitric oxide resulting from an increased proportion of the protein residing in the R-state, are consistent with the decrease in vasoactivity associated with PEG conjugation.

  3. Cross Coupling of Non-Activated Alkyl Halides by a Nickel Pincer Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Xile

    2010-01-01

    Non-activated alkyl halides are challenging substrates for cross-coupling reactions because they are reluctant to undergo oxidative addition and because metal alkyl intermediates are prone to β-H elimination...

  4. Chlamydia control activities in Europe: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Nicola; Cassell, Jackie A; Spencer, Brenda; Bender, Nicole; Hilber, Adriane Martin; van Bergen, Jan; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, Björn; Dubois-Arber, Françoise; Hamers, Françoise F; van de Laar, Marita; Stephenson, Judith M

    2012-08-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe. The objective of the Screening for Chlamydia in Europe (SCREen) project was to describe current and planned chlamydia control activities in Europe. The authors sent a questionnaire asking about different aspects of chlamydia epidemiology and control to public health and clinical experts in each country in 2007. The principles of sexually transmitted infection control were used to develop a typology comprising five categories of chlamydia control activities. Each country was assigned to a category, based on responses to the questionnaire. Experts in 29 of 33 (88%) invited countries responded. Thirteen of 29 countries (45%) had no current chlamydia control activities. Six countries in this group stated that there were plans to introduce chlamydia screening programmes. There were five countries (17%) with case management guidelines only. Three countries (10%) also recommended case finding amongst partners of diagnosed chlamydia cases or people with another sexually transmitted infection. Six countries (21%) further specified groups of asymptomatic people eligible for opportunistic chlamydia testing. Two countries (7%) reported a chlamydia screening programme. There was no consistent association between the per capita gross domestic product of a country and the intensity of chlamydia control activities (P = 0.816). A newly developed classification system allowed the breadth of ongoing national chlamydia control activities to be described and categorized. Chlamydia control strategies should ensure that clinical guidelines to optimize chlamydia diagnosis and case management have been implemented before considering the appropriateness of screening programmes.

  5. Deuteron cross section evaluation for safety and radioprotection calculations of IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blideanu, Valentin [Commissariat a l' energie atomique CEA/IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Garcia, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Joyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.joyer@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' energie atomique CEA/IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Lopez, Daniel; Mayoral, Alicia; Ogando, Francisco [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Ortiz, Felix [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier; Sauvan, Patrick [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of IFMIF/EVEDA activities, a prototype accelerator delivering a high power deuteron beam is under construction in Japan. Interaction of these deuterons with matter will generate high levels of neutrons and induced activation, whose predicted yields depend strongly on the models used to calculate the different cross sections. A benchmark test was performed to validate these data for deuteron energies up to 20 MeV and to define a reasonable methodology for calculating the cross sections needed for EVEDA. Calculations were performed using the nuclear models included in MCNPX and PHITS, and the dedicated nuclear model code TALYS. Although the results obtained using TALYS (global parameters) or Monte Carlo codes disagree with experimental values, a solution is proposed to compute cross sections that are a good fit to experimental data. A consistent computational procedure is also suggested to improve both transport simulations/prompt dose and activation/residual dose calculations required for EVEDA.

  6. Activation Cross-sections of Deuteron-induced Nuclear Reactions on Natural Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M. U.; Haba, H.; Kanaya, J.; Otuka, N.; Kassim, H. A.

    2014-05-01

    Activation cross-sections of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium were measured up to 24-MeV energy using a stacked-foil activation technique in combination with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. Measured cross-sections show an overall good agreement with the earlier measurements, but only a partial agreement with predictions by the TALYS code extracted from the TENDL-2011 library. The new cross-sections of the investigated reaction products find importance in nuclear medicine, accelerator and nuclear technology, and testing of nuclear reaction theories.

  7. Evaluation of the n + 3H Cross Section at En=14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Anderson, J D; Dietrich, F S; McNabb, D P; Hale, G M

    2010-02-10

    The n + {sup 3}H cross section is important for NIF diagnostics. As the d-{sup 3}H fusion at NIF generates neutrons with an energy of 14 MeV, the precise knowledge of the n + {sup 3}H cross section and in particular the elastic cross section at that energy is crucial. Experimental data at E{sub n} = 14 MeV are not accurate with large disagreements among different sets of measurements. On the other hand, the mirror reaction p-{sup 3}He is well studied and accurate data are available in a wide range of proton energies. We use several theoretical approaches to evaluate the n-{sup 3}H cross section by fine-tuning the theory to reproduce the p-{sup 3}He elastic differential cross sections. The good agreement between the R-matrix analysis and scaled ab initio calculations gives us confidence that our evaluated n + {sup 3}H cross section is accurate with an uncertainty on the order of 5%.

  8. A short cross-linker activates human P-glycoprotein missing a catalytic carboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2017-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent drug pump that protects us from toxic agents and confers multidrug resistance. It has a tweezer-like structure with each arm consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates bind to sites within the TMDs to activate ATPase activity by promoting a tweezer-like closing of the gap between the NBDs. The catalytic carboxylates may be critical for NBD movements because the E556Q(NBD1) or E1201Q(NBD2) mutation inhibited drug-stimulated ATPase activity. If the catalytic carboxylates were components of the mechanism to bring the NBDs together, then we predicted that insertion of a flexible cross-linker between the arms would increase ATPase activity of the mutants. We found that cross-linking (between L175C(TMD1) and N820C(TMD2)) with a short flexible cross-linker (7.8Å maximum) restored high levels of drug-stimulated ATPase activity of the E556Q or E1201Q mutants. Cross-linking with a longer cross-linker (22Å maximum) however, did not restore activity. Cross-linking could not rescue all ATPase deficient mutants. For example, cross-linking L175C/N820C with short or long cross-linkers did not activate the H-loop mutants H587A or H1232A or the Walker A K433M or K1076M mutants. The results suggest that the E556 and E1201 catalytic carboxylates are part of a spring-like mechanism that is required to facilitate movements between the open and closed conformations of P-gp during ATP hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using evaluation strategically to promote active learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Rationale: The challenge presented here is how to utilise evaluation to promote active learning. The method used is constructive alignment (Biggs & Tang, 2007) of learning objectives, learning and evaluation along with further considerations including which competences are promoted, the time...... the principle of inductive learning (Prince & Felder, 2006) with the students being presented with the case from the beginning and subsequently achieving the tools to perform the projects. This is both frustrating and motivating for the students as they know why they need to have the tools, but they feel...... they get them too late. The students have formerly been assessed through two group reports (each 25% of final grade) and an individual oral examination (50% of final grade). The students work a lot and learn a lot through working with the reports, but it is also very time consuming to write them as well...

  10. Measurement of neutron-induced activation cross-sections using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... A beam of 1 GeV proton coming from Dubna Nuclotron colliding with a lead target surrounded by 6 cm paraffin produces spallation neutrons. A Th-foil was kept on lead target (neutron spallation source) in a direct stream of neutrons for activation and other samples of 197Au, 209Bi, 59Co, 115In and 181Ta ...

  11. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the U.S. Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [ed.] [comp.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. It`s main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the Us and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  12. Cross-Activation of the Motor Cortex during Unilateral Contractions of the Quadriceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Ashlee M.; Chye, Lilian; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have demonstrated that unilateral muscle contractions in the upper limb produce motor cortical activity in both the contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices. The increase in excitability of the corticomotor pathway activating the resting limb has been termed “cross-activation”, and is of importance due to its involvement in cross-education and rehabilitation. To date, very few studies have investigated cross-activation in the lower limb. Sixteen healthy participants (mean age 29 ± 9 years) took part in this study. To determine the effect of varying contraction intensities in the lower limb, we investigated corticomotor excitability and intracortical inhibition of the right rectus femoris (RF) while the left leg performed isometric extension at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum force output. Contraction intensities of 50% maximal force output and greater produced significant cross-activation of the corticomotor pathway. A reduction in silent period duration was observed during 75% and 100% contractions, while the release of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was only observed during maximal (100%) contractions. We conclude that increasing isometric contraction intensities produce a monotonic increase in cross-activation, which was greatest during 100% force output. Unilateral training programs designed to induce cross-education of strength in the lower limb should therefore be prescribed at the maximal intensity tolerable. PMID:28824401

  13. Cross-Activation of the Motor Cortex during Unilateral Contractions of the Quadriceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee M. Hendy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies have demonstrated that unilateral muscle contractions in the upper limb produce motor cortical activity in both the contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices. The increase in excitability of the corticomotor pathway activating the resting limb has been termed “cross-activation”, and is of importance due to its involvement in cross-education and rehabilitation. To date, very few studies have investigated cross-activation in the lower limb. Sixteen healthy participants (mean age 29 ± 9 years took part in this study. To determine the effect of varying contraction intensities in the lower limb, we investigated corticomotor excitability and intracortical inhibition of the right rectus femoris (RF while the left leg performed isometric extension at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum force output. Contraction intensities of 50% maximal force output and greater produced significant cross-activation of the corticomotor pathway. A reduction in silent period duration was observed during 75% and 100% contractions, while the release of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI was only observed during maximal (100% contractions. We conclude that increasing isometric contraction intensities produce a monotonic increase in cross-activation, which was greatest during 100% force output. Unilateral training programs designed to induce cross-education of strength in the lower limb should therefore be prescribed at the maximal intensity tolerable.

  14. Lexical activation in bilinguals’ speech production is dynamic: How language ambiguous words can affect cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Ormel, E.A.; Besselaar, R. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1

  15. Evaluation of nutrients status of soils under rice cultivation in cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients status of soils under rice cultivation in Cross River State Nigeria was evaluated to ascertain the present status and suggest management practices needed for an increased rice production. A reconnaissance survey of the entire State was undertaken. A total number of eight Local Government Areas, namely ...

  16. Evaluation of chromium neutron and gamma production cross sections for ENDF/IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, A.

    1976-08-01

    A re-evaluation has been made of neutron and gamma production cross sections for reactions of neutrons with /sup 50/,/sup 52/,/sup 53/,/sup 54/Cr and natural Cr. In addition, energy level schemes and Q values are presented. 97 references. (SDF)

  17. Evaluating cross-organizational ERP requirements engineering practices: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Ahituv, Niv; Loucoloulos, P.; Cavarero, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    This focus group study presents our first validation of practices for engineering the coordination requirements in cross-organizational Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects. The study evaluates 13 practices addressing a variety of coordination aspects crucial to ERP projects. These practices

  18. Annotated bibliography covering generation and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, R.W.; Burrows, T.W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature references related to definition, generation, and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty (variance-covariance) files are listed with comments intended primarily to guide the reader toward materials of immediate interest. Papers are also cited that cover covariance information for individual experiments and that relate to production and use of multigroup covariance matrices. Titles are divided among several major categories.

  19. An Evaluative Assessment of Two CrossRoads Alternative Schools Program Sites in Georgia (Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Shary L.; Harnish, Dorothy

    This report describes an exploratory evaluative assessment of the first year of 2 alternative public schools for 117 chronically disruptive, committed, and/or non-attending students (grades 6-12) in Georgia. The CrossRoads program is intended to provide students with the social services, individualized instruction, and/or transitions to other…

  20. An Evaluation Assessment of the CrossRoads Alternative Schools in Georgia (Focus Groups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Shary; Harnish, Dorothy

    This report describes results of focus group evaluation of the first year of Georgia's CrossRoads program, an alternative public school program to provide chronically disruptive, committed, and/or non-attending students (grades 6-12) with the social services and individualized instruction they require and to make the public schools more secure by…

  1. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  2. Mindfulness and satisfaction in physical activity: A cross-sectional study in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafou, Kalliopi-Eleni; De Ridder, Denise Td; van Ee, Raymond; Lacroix, Joyca Pw

    2016-09-01

    Both satisfaction and mindfulness relate to sustained physical activity. This study explored their relationship. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 398 Dutch participants who completed measures on trait mindfulness, mindfulness and satisfaction with physical activity, physical activity habits, and physical activity. We performed mediation and moderated mediation. Satisfaction mediated the effect of mindfulness on physical activity. Mindfulness was related to physical activity only when one's habit was weak. The relation of mindfulness with satisfaction was stronger for weak compared to strong habit. Understanding the relationship between mindfulness and satisfaction can contribute to the development of interventions to sustain physical activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Influence of parental perception of school safety and gender on children's physical activity in Mexico: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Amy; Soltero, Erica G; Barquera, Simón; Lévesque, Lucie; Jauregui, Edtna; López Y Taylor, Juan; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children's physical activity (PA) levels. Parents of school aged Mexican children residing in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Puerto Vallarta, completed surveys about their children's PA measures. The physical activity indicators were evaluated using linear and logistical regression models. Analysis did not indicate that gender moderated the relationship between parental perception of safety and PA measures, but significant gender issues exist with girls participating less than boys in the three measures of PA in this study (pMexico.

  4. MEASUREMENT AND BASIC PHYSICS COMMITTEE OF THE U.S. CROSS-SECTION EVALUATION WORKING GROUP, ANNUAL REPORT 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,D.L.; MCLANE,V.

    1998-10-20

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  5. Determination of Importance Evaluation for the ESF Enhanced Charcterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Goodin

    2002-01-09

    The objective of this DIE is to determine whether the ECRB-Cross-Drift-related activities, as identified in Section 6.0, could potentially impact (1) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) testing or (2) the waste isolation capabilities of a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site. Any controls necessary to limit such potential impacts are also identified herein.

  6. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  7. Pilot Evaluation of the LIK Cross-Curricular Learning Lessons: Methodological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zala Hrast

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe updated Library and Information Knowledge Curriculum (the LIK Curriculum was introduced in Slovenia in the school year 2008/09. For the process of educational transformation, besides the principles and theoretical platforms, the continuous and simultaneous monitoring and the evaluation of pedagogical process implementation are of great importance. For this reason, the pilot evaluation, consisting of two methodological perspectives was led. The first research was conducted on the basis of data gathering from respondents to questionnaires. The second research was based upon the LIK cross-curricular learning lesson observations, applying the structured observation scheme. The purpose of the study is to empirically verify whether the implementation of the cross-curricular learning lessons is in compliance with the set of goals of the updated LIK curriculum. Ten gymnasiums participated in the research, five of them anticipated in the restruction of the curriculum and five of them anticipated in the research only. The combination of two research methods enabled the comparison of some results acquired by both studies, as well as the assessment of concordance / discordance of results in individual fields. All the research participants are aware of the significance of monitoring and evaluation of the LIK cross-curricular learning lessons, required for achieving a higher quality of the educational system. We believe that the questionnaires and the observation scheme will become a useful tool for practice, or to be precise, for the supervision of the LIK cross-curricular learning lessons.

  8. Evaluation of age-related changes with cross-sectional CT imaging of teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Tatsumasa; Kita, Kanade; Kamemoto, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Wataru; Yoshida, Hiroyasu; Iida, Yukihiro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Tooth pulp atrophy occurs with increasing age. An age estimation procedure using dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was developed. Clinical dental CBCT images of 60 patients (aged from 20 to 80 years) were evaluated. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the pulp cavity to the cross-sectional area of the tooth (pulp cavity ratio) was calculated. The pulp cavity ratio in the labio-lingual plane of the mandibular anterior teeth and the mesio-distal plane of the maxillary anterior teeth was strongly correlated with the patients' age. The pulp cavity ratio of anterior teeth may be a useful parameter for estimating age.

  9. Cross-Layer Active Predictive Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Wu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node‟s neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  10. Resveratrol cross-linked chitosan loaded with phospholipid for controlled release and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hun; Samdani, Kunda J; Yoo, Dong Hyuck; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Nam Hoon; Yoo, Il-Soo; Lee, Joong Hee

    2016-12-01

    Despite the therapeutic effects of resveratrol, its clinical application is restricted by its poor oral bioavailability and low water solubility. To overcome these physicochemical and pharmacokinetic limitations, encapsulation of resveratrol (RV) into nanodevices has been explored. Resveratrol cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles modified with phospholipids (RVC-lipid) were synthesized using a double emulsion technique. The surface morphology of RVC-lipid nanoparticles was evaluated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particle size was measured using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed to identify the crystallographic nature and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure changes in the chemical structures of the resveratrol and RVC-lipid nanoparticles. Results showed RVC-lipid nanoparticle had a characteristic amorphous structure, a mean particle sizes of 570nm in DI water and 950nm in ethanol, and an encapsulation efficiency of 63.82% in aqueous medium and 85.59% in ethanol medium. In-vitro release studies demonstrated a slow and sustained release of resveratrol governed by diffusion. Based on assays of antioxidant activity the scavenging activity of RVC-lipid nanoparticles was inferior to that of resveratrol due to its prolonged release. We concluded that phospholipids are the potential carriers for resveratrol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Peres

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI was developed in English and French (original version in both languages for evaluation of the level of the upper limb activity in subjects with hemiparesis after stroke. Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the manual of application and scoring of CAHAI to Portuguese-Brazil. Method: The process included six steps: the translation process with two independent translation; merging of the two translation; layout, typography and grammar review; two independent backtranslations; meeting with the Committee of Experts, and sending to the author of the original version, and pre-testing of the version CAHAI-Brazil (raters: n=5; subjects: n=4. Results: The CAHAI-Brasil version had satisfactory results in the translation and adaptation, and appropriate index of agreement among raters (kappa between 0,76 and 1,00. Some expressions in the manual and some of the materials used for the test had to be adapted to Brazilian culture. Conclusion: This study show the CAHAI-Brazil version was successfully translated and adapted.

  12. Measurement of 14 MeV neutron cross section of {sup 129}I with foil activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Isao; Nakano, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The {sup 129}I, which is one of the most famous fission products (FPs), is of very important concern from the standpoint of waste transmutation due to its extremely long half life. The accurate reaction cross section data of {sup 129}I induced by 14 MeV neutrons are indispensable when evaluating the performance to transmute it in a fusion reactor. However, there was no available experimental data reported until now. We measured 14 MeV neutron induced reaction cross sections of {sup 129}I to give the reference cross section data for evaluation of transmutation performance and nuclear data, using OKTAVIAN facility of Osaka university, Japan. Since the available amount of {sup 129}I as a sample is quite small, probably less than 1 mg, the foil activation method was adopted in the measurement. The sample was a sealed source of {sup 129}I and the {gamma}-rays from the irradiated sample were measured with a Hp-Ge detector. Several {gamma}-rays peaks which could be expected to be caused by two nuclear reactions of {sup 129}I(n,2n) and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) were observed. We confirmed that these peaks corresponded to those of {sup 128}I and {sup 130}I through ascertaining each energy and half life. From the measurement, the cross section of {sup 129}I(n,2n) and the effective production cross section of {sup 130}I produced by the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reaction including the contribution of {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130m}I reaction, that were estimated to be 1.1{+-}0.1 b and 0.032{+-}0.003 b, respectively at 14.8 MeV, were obtained with an acceptable accuracy of about 10 %, though the errors caused by the uncertainty of {gamma} decay scheme data still existed. The measured cross sections were compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. For the {sup 129}I(n,2n) reaction, the evaluations overestimate the cross section by 30-40 %, while for the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) reaction, the evaluations underestimate by at least one order of magnitude

  13. Antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, tumor-homing effect, and hepatotoxicity of a species cross-reactive c-Met antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunkyu; Kim, Donggeon; Son, Eunju; Shin, Sunhwa; Sa, Jason K; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Yoon, Yeup; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2017-12-09

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays critical roles in promoting tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis in various types of cancer and is a promising therapeutic target. The development of a species cross-reactive therapeutic antibody could provide useful to comprehensive preclinical assessment in animal models. Towards this goal, we developed human/mouse cross-reactive c-Met antibodies using an antibody phage library. IRCR201, a c-Met antibody with species cross-reactivity, successfully inhibited the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway via degradation of c-Met and disruption of the binding with its partners, and demonstrated strong in vivo antitumor activity. In pharmacokinetic analysis, IRCR201 exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile and showed rapid serum clearance at low dosage. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging and immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong tumor accumulation of IRCR201. Hepatotoxicity analysis revealed that IRCR201 does not significantly affect primary human and mouse hepatocytes. Serum chemistry analysis demonstrated that the alanine aminotransferase serum level was elevated in mice treated with 30 mg/kg IRCR201 than in PBS-treated mice, whereas the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen did not significantly differ. Thus, IRCR201 is a potent therapeutic antibody that can disrupt the HGF/c-Met signaling axis and its species cross-reactivity would enable to evaluate precise biological activity in animal models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Revise and Re-evaluate Cross Cultural Understanding Curriculum at Akademi Bahasa Asing Balikpapan (Foriegn Language Academy of Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmi Sari Baso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is about the project to revise and re-evaluate the unit of Cross Cultural Understanding curriculum which is taught in the Akademi Bahasa Asing Ballikpapan. The unit is for fifth semester students. The project aimed to provide students' perspectives of cross cultural differences in the workplace with the materials and knowledge that suitable for workplace demands. The information was gained by distributing questionnaires to 2 teachers and 2 employers of multinational companies in Balikpapan. The investigations for teachers were focused on the content, learning activities and materials of the current curriculum. The investigations for the employers were focused on their perspectives on the cross cultural understanding taught in the higher education. The project used Nicholls' cycle model that will be a useful tool to regularly evaluate curriculum based on the situational analysis. As the result, there were some of materials of American business cultural encounter should be revised to meet the companies demands and additional table manners in cultural perspectives should be included in the curriculum. Therefore, the new curriculum will be applied by these materials as the demands of the workplace.

  15. Comparative evaluation of photon cross section libraries for materials of interest in PET Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1999-01-01

    the many applications of Monte Carlo modelling in nuclear medicine imaging make it desirable to increase the accuracy and computational speed of Monte Carlo codes. The accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations strongly depends on the accuracy in the probability functions and thus on the cross section libraries used for photon transport calculations. A comparison between different photon cross section libraries and parametrizations implemented in Monte Carlo simulation packages developed for positron emission tomography and the most recent Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL97) developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed for several human tissues and common detector materials for energies from 1 keV to 1 MeV. Different photon cross section libraries and parametrizations show quite large variations as compared to the EPDL97 coefficients. This latter library is more accurate and was carefully designed in the form of look-up tables providing efficient data storage, access, and management. Toge...

  16. Evaluation of Personnel Activities in CZ, a.s. Company

    OpenAIRE

    Řeřábková, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the company and it's personnel activities, focusing on selected areas (communication, interpersonal relationships and training managers). Evaluation of personnel activities and proposal for improvement.

  17. Evaluation of the degree of cross-linking in UV irradiated porcine valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, H; Lee, W K; Park, J C; Cho, B K

    1999-04-01

    A porcine heart valve was irradiated by Ultraviolet (UV) rays (10 W, 254 nm) for 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours at 4 degrees C to cross-link the structural collagen matrix. The degree of cross-linking was evaluated by assaying the released amount of hydroxyproline (Hyp) from the matrix, and comparing it with the positive controls of valves treated by glutaraldehyde (GA) solution (0.625 wt%) and the negative controls of non-treated fresh valves. The undigested weight ratio of the specimens increased by increasing the UV irradiation time. The undigested weight of the leaflets, tunica interna and tunica externa of the fresh, GA-treated and UV-irradiated specimens after collagenase digestion was compared. As UV irradiation increased, the amount of released hydroxyproline was gradually decreased until 8 hours of irradiation, after which the released hydroxyproline-reduction occurred slightly until 24 hours of irradiation time in this system. A total 47.68% of the hydroxyproline in the valve was cross-linked by UV irradiation after 24 hours, while 73.74% of the hydroxyproline in the positive control was crossed-linked. Light microscopic observation revealed that the typical crimp pattern of collagen fibers decreased and was rearranged into a dense flattened pattern as the UV irradiation induced interfibrilar cross-linking. GA-treated valves demonstrated a denser matrix pattern than the UV-irradiated specimens. Cross-linked collagenous tissue prepared by UV irradiation would be useful for improving durability and reducing the disadvantages related to using a chemical cross-linking agent.

  18. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F T; Araujo Júnior, E; Santana, E F M; Lima, J W O; Cecchino, G N; Silva Costa, F Da

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the total activity performed by women with low-risk pregnancy as well as translate and pursue a cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to the Brazilian reality. We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative study including 305 women between 16 and 40 years of age with low-risk pregnancies. The Department of Public Health, State University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. We applied an adapted version of PPAQ to assess the levels of physical activity and the intensity in the metabolic equivalent task (MET), which could be distinguished as follows: sedentary (6.0 METs). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare energy expenditure (MET) with socio-demographic variables. More than half of the participants performed activities that were classified as light (51.4%). If we group the activities that were categorized as sedentary and light, this value increases to 74.7%, showing a high prevalence of insufficiently active pregnant women. Lower energy expenditure was observed in the third gestational trimester among pregnant women with lower educational level, single women, and mixed-race women (p < 0.05). There is a prevalence of physical inactivity during the three trimesters of pregnancy. The results validate PPAQ for the Brazilian population to serve as a basis for future public policies focused on combating the health problems of mother-infant pairs.

  19. An Evaluation of the Cross-Sectoral Policy Coordination in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, A; Šenfelde, M

    2015-01-01

    Key societal challenges are cross-sectoral and do not correspond to administrative structures. The policy coordination enables synergy or at least prevents overlapping and conflicts of sector policies, which is increasingly important due to growing complexity of many policy issues. The article analyses the notion of policy coordination and offers a classification of the types of policy coordination. It also evaluates the policy coordination in Latvia by analysing national legislation, policy ...

  20. Cross-platform development of smartphone applications : An evaluation of React Native

    OpenAIRE

    Furuskog, Martin; Wemyss, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    During the last ten years the market for smartphones has grown drastically. Because of the current state of the market with different operating systems many smartphone applications need to be developed for several platforms. With this thesis, the goal was ultimately to contribute to the understanding of cross-platform development as a way of developing smartphone applications. React Native has been evaluated as a framework with which development is done for both Android and iOS using the same...

  1. Cross-language Activation and the Phonetics of Code-switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Page Elizabeth

    It is now well established that bilinguals have both languages activated to some degree at all times. This cross-language activation has been documented in several research paradigms, including picture naming, reading, and electrophysiological studies. What is less well understood is how the degree a language is activated can vary in different language environments or contexts. Furthermore, when investigating effects of order of acquisition and language dominance, past research has been mixed, as the two variables are often conflated. In this dissertation, I test how degree of cross-language activation can vary according to context by examining phonetic productions in code-switching speech. Both spontaneous speech and scripted speech are analyzed. Follow-up perception experiments are conducted to see if listeners are able to anticipate language switches, potentially due to the phonetic cues in the signal. Additionally, by focusing on early bilinguals who are L1 Spanish but English dominant, I am able to see what plays a greater role in cross-language activation, order of acquisition or language dominance. I find that speakers do have intermediate phonetic productions in code-switching contexts relative to monolingual contexts. Effects are larger and more consistent in English than Spanish. Similar effects are found in speech perception. Listeners are able to anticipate language switches from English to Spanish but not Spanish to English. Together these results suggest that language dominance is a more important factor than order of acquisition in cross-language activation for early bilinguals. Future models on bilingual language organization and access should take into account both context and language dominance when modeling degrees of cross-language activation.

  2. Evaluation of natural chromium neutron cross sections for ENDF/B-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, A.; Burrows, T.W.

    1979-02-01

    This report describes the evaluation of natural chromium for ENDF/B-V. Neutron cross sections and photon production are presented for the energy range 10/sup -5/ eV to 20 MeV. An extreme effort was made to incorporate all available new experimental data since the previous ENDF/B-IV evaluation. Particular consideration was also given to consistency between calculation and experimental data and are described in detail. Covariance files are given and are based on model code uncertainties along with empirical data.

  3. A Comparison Study of Classifier Algorithms for Cross-Person Physical Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Yago; Baldominos, Alejandro; Isasi, Pedro

    2016-12-30

    Physical activity is widely known to be one of the key elements of a healthy life. The many benefits of physical activity described in the medical literature include weight loss and reductions in the risk factors for chronic diseases. With the recent advances in wearable devices, such as smartwatches or physical activity wristbands, motion tracking sensors are becoming pervasive, which has led to an impressive growth in the amount of physical activity data available and an increasing interest in recognizing which specific activity a user is performing. Moreover, big data and machine learning are now cross-fertilizing each other in an approach called "deep learning", which consists of massive artificial neural networks able to detect complicated patterns from enormous amounts of input data to learn classification models. This work compares various state-of-the-art classification techniques for automatic cross-person activity recognition under different scenarios that vary widely in how much information is available for analysis. We have incorporated deep learning by using Google's TensorFlow framework. The data used in this study were acquired from PAMAP2 (Physical Activity Monitoring in the Ageing Population), a publicly available dataset containing physical activity data. To perform cross-person prediction, we used the leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) cross-validation technique. When working with large training sets, the best classifiers obtain very high average accuracies (e.g., 96% using extra randomized trees). However, when the data volume is drastically reduced (where available data are only 0.001% of the continuous data), deep neural networks performed the best, achieving 60% in overall prediction accuracy. We found that even when working with only approximately 22.67% of the full dataset, we can statistically obtain the same results as when working with the full dataset. This finding enables the design of more energy-efficient devices and facilitates cold

  4. Measurements of Deuteron-Induced Activation Cross Sections for IFMIF Accelerator Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Makoto; Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Ishioka, Noriko S.; Nishitani, Takeo

    2005-05-01

    Activation cross sections for deuteron-induced reactions on aluminum, copper, and tungsten were measured by using a stacked-foil method. The stacked foils were irradiated with deuteron beam at the AVF cyclotron in the TIARA facility, JAERI. We obtained the activation cross sections for 27Al(d,2p)27Mg, 27Al(d,x)24Na, natCu(d,x)62,63Zn, 61,64Cu, and natW(d,x)181-184,186Re, 187W in the 22-40 MeV region. These cross sections were compared with other experimental ones and the data in the ACSELAM library calculated by the ALICE-F code.

  5. Measurements of deuteron-induced activation cross-sections for IFMIF accelerator structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M.; Hori, J.; Ochiai, K.; Kubota, N.; Sato, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Ishioka, N. S.; Nishitani, T.

    2006-06-01

    Activation cross-sections for deuteron-induced reactions in aluminum, iron, copper, tantalum and tungsten were measured by using the stacked-foil method. The stacked foils were irradiated with a deuteron beam at TIARA facility in JAERI. We obtained the activation cross-sections for 27Al(d,x) 22,24Na, natFe(d,x) 55,56Co, natCu(d,x) 61Cu, natCu(d,x) 62Zn, natTa(d,x) 178,180Ta and natW(d,x) 181,183Re in 20-40 MeV region. These cross-sections were compared with other experimental ones and the data in the ACSELAM library calculated by the ALICE-F code.

  6. Zika Virus Infects, Activates, and Crosses Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells, without Barrier Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle P. Papa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has been associated to central nervous system (CNS harm, and virus was detected in the brain and cerebrospinal fluids of microcephaly and meningoencephalitis cases. However, the mechanism by which the virus reaches the CNS is unclear. Here, we addressed the effects of ZIKV replication in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs, as an in vitro model of blood brain barrier (BBB, and evaluated virus extravasation and BBB integrity in an in vivo mouse experimental model. HBMECs were productively infected by African and Brazilian ZIKV strains (ZIKVMR766 and ZIKVPE243, which induce increased production of type I and type III IFN, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Infection with ZIKVMR766 promoted earlier cellular death, in comparison to ZIKVPE243, but infection with either strain did not result in enhanced endothelial permeability. Despite the maintenance of endothelial integrity, infectious virus particles crossed the monolayer by endocytosis/exocytosis-dependent replication pathway or by transcytosis. Remarkably, both viruses' strains infected IFNAR deficient mice, with high viral load being detected in the brains, without BBB disruption, which was only detected at later time points after infection. These data suggest that ZIKV infects and activates endothelial cells, and might reach the CNS through basolateral release, transcytosis or transinfection processes. These findings further improve the current knowledge regarding ZIKV dissemination pathways.

  7. Evaluation of a cross-cultural training program for Pakistani educators: Lessons learned and implications for program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Rebecca; Woodland, Rebecca H

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we share the results of a summative evaluation of PEILI, a US-based adult professional development/training program for secondary school Pakistani teachers. The evaluation was guided by the theories of cultural competence (American Psychological Association, 2003; Bamberger, 1999; Wadsworth, 2001) and established frameworks for the evaluation of professional development/training and instructional design (Bennett, 1975; Guskey, 2002; King, 2014; Kirkpatrick, 1967). The explicit and implicit stakeholder assumptions about the connections between program resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes are described. Participant knowledge and skills were measured via scores on a pre/posttest of professional knowledge, and a standards-based performance assessment rubric. In addition to measuring short-term program outcomes, we also sought to incorporate theory-driven thinking into the evaluation design. Hence, we examined participant self-efficacy and access to social capital, two evidenced-based determinants or "levers" that theoretically explain the transformative space between an intervention and its outcomes (Chen, 2012). Data about program determinants were collected and analyzed through a pre/posttest of self-efficacy and social network analysis. Key evaluation findings include participant acquisition of new instructional skills, increased self-efficacy, and the formation of a nascent professional support network. Lessons learned and implications for the design and evaluation of cross-cultural teacher professional development programs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross activity of orthologous WRKY transcription factors in wheat and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poietti, S.; Bertini, L.; Ent, S. van der; Leon Reyes, H.A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Tucci, M.; Caporale, C.; Caruso, C.

    2011-01-01

    WRKY proteins are transcription factors involved in many plant processes including plant responses to pathogens. Here, the cross activity of TaWRKY78 from the monocot wheat and AtWRKY20 from the dicot Arabidopsis on the cognate promoters of the orthologous PR4-type genes wPR4e and AtHEL of wheat and

  9. Cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; Juel Lau, Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies in six European Union (EU) member states. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of HEPA policies and semi-structured interviews with key policymakers in six European countries. RESULTS: Cross-sector cooperation varied between EU member states within HEPA...

  10. Catalytic Intermolecular Cross-Couplings of Azides and LUMO-Activated Unsaturated Acyl Azoliums

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjun

    2017-02-15

    An example for the catalytic synthesis of densely functionalized 1,2,3-triazoles through a LUMO activation mode has been developed. The protocol is enabled by intermolecular cross coupling reactions of azides with in situ-generated alpha,beta-unsaturated acyl azoliums. High yields and broad scope as well as the investigation of reaction mechanism are reported.

  11. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  12. Power Perceptions and Negotiations in a Cross-National Email Writing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates EFL students' perceptions of power differentials and their negotiation strategies when communicating with native English-speaking students via emails. The study involved 28 Taiwanese and American undergraduates who participated in a semester-long cross-national email writing activity. Findings show that students in…

  13. Acquisition of compound words in Chinese-English bilingual children: Decomposition and cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, C.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese–English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both

  14. On measuring multiple lexical activation using the cross-modal semantic priming technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Esther; Quené, Hugo

    Cross-modal semantic priming with partial auditory primes seems a good technique to assess spoken-word recognition, because it allows tracking the activation of multiple word candidates. However, previous research using this technique has found inconsistent results. First, a priming experiment is

  15. Crown ether activation of cross-linked subtilisin Carlsberg crystals in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Sakodinskaya, I.K.; Sakodinskaya, Inna K.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    The activity of cross-linked subtilisin Carlsberg crystals in the catalysis of peptide bond formation can be significantly enhanced by pretreatment of the enzyme crystals with crown ethers. Soaking of the enzyme crystals in a solution of crown ether in acetonitrile followed by evaporation of the

  16. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OH,S.Y.; CHANG,J.; MUGHABGHAB,S.

    2000-05-11

    Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 155}Gd, and {sup 157}Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of {sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations.

  17. Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection: cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, H; Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G.; Adler, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of patients attending a general practitioner. Active H pylori infection was measured by the 15C-urea breath test and detailed quantitative information on smoking and on alcohol and coffee consumption was obtained by a standardised self administered questionnaire. SETTING: One general practice in Germany. SUBJECTS: 447 patients aged 15-79 who ha...

  18. Interdependence of Physical (In-) Activity, Fitness and Cognition: A Cross-Sectional Study in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Krell-Rösch, Janina

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for possible associations between physical exercise, fitness and cognitive performance in elderly, but research in young adults is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the interdependence between physical (in-) activity, fitness, and cognition in young adults. The methods included a number of physical performance tests, a physical activity questionnaire, and a test battery to measure executive functions and event-related brain potentials.

  19. Teaching cross-cultural communication skills online: a multi-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy L; Mader, Emily M; Morley, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Cultural competency education is an important and required part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an online cross-cultural communication module could increase student use of cross-cultural communication questions that assess the patient's definition of the problem, the way the problem affects their life, their concerns about the problem, and what the treatment should be (PACT). We used multi-method assessment of students assigned to family medicine clerkship blocks that were randomized to receive online cultural competency and PACT training added to their standard curriculum or to a control group receiving the standard curriculum only. Outcomes included comparison, via analysis of variance, of number of PACT questions used during an observed Standardized Patient Exercise, end-of-year OSCE scores, and qualitative analysis of student narratives. Students (n=119) who participated in the online module (n=60) demonstrated increased use of cross-cultural communication PACT questions compared to the control group (n=59) and generally had positive themes emerge from their reflective writing. The module had the biggest impact on students who later went on to match in high communication specialties. Online teaching of cross-cultural communication skills can be effective at changing medical student behavior.

  20. Fibromodulin Interacts with Collagen Cross-linking Sites and Activates Lysyl Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Bihan, Dominique; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Rubin, Kristofer; Farndale, Richard W

    2016-04-08

    The hallmark of fibrotic disorders is a highly cross-linked and dense collagen matrix, a property driven by the oxidative action of lysyl oxidase. Other fibrosis-associated proteins also contribute to the final collagen matrix properties, one of which is fibromodulin. Its interactions with collagen affect collagen cross-linking, packing, and fibril diameter. We investigated the possibility that a specific relationship exists between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase, potentially imparting a specific collagen matrix phenotype. We mapped the fibromodulin-collagen interaction sites using the collagen II and III Toolkit peptide libraries. Fibromodulin interacted with the peptides containing the known collagen cross-linking sites and the MMP-1 cleavage site in collagens I and II. Interestingly, the interaction sites are closely aligned within the quarter-staggered collagen fibril, suggesting a multivalent interaction between fibromodulin and several collagen helices. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase (a major collagen cross-linking enzyme) and mapped the interaction site to 12 N-terminal amino acids on fibromodulin. This interaction also increases the activity of lysyl oxidase. Together, the data suggest a fibromodulin-modulated collagen cross-linking mechanism where fibromodulin binds to a specific part of the collagen domain and also forms a complex with lysyl oxidase, targeting the enzyme toward specific cross-linking sites. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Fibromodulin Interacts with Collagen Cross-linking Sites and Activates Lysyl Oxidase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, Dominique; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Rubin, Kristofer; Farndale, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of fibrotic disorders is a highly cross-linked and dense collagen matrix, a property driven by the oxidative action of lysyl oxidase. Other fibrosis-associated proteins also contribute to the final collagen matrix properties, one of which is fibromodulin. Its interactions with collagen affect collagen cross-linking, packing, and fibril diameter. We investigated the possibility that a specific relationship exists between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase, potentially imparting a specific collagen matrix phenotype. We mapped the fibromodulin-collagen interaction sites using the collagen II and III Toolkit peptide libraries. Fibromodulin interacted with the peptides containing the known collagen cross-linking sites and the MMP-1 cleavage site in collagens I and II. Interestingly, the interaction sites are closely aligned within the quarter-staggered collagen fibril, suggesting a multivalent interaction between fibromodulin and several collagen helices. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase (a major collagen cross-linking enzyme) and mapped the interaction site to 12 N-terminal amino acids on fibromodulin. This interaction also increases the activity of lysyl oxidase. Together, the data suggest a fibromodulin-modulated collagen cross-linking mechanism where fibromodulin binds to a specific part of the collagen domain and also forms a complex with lysyl oxidase, targeting the enzyme toward specific cross-linking sites. PMID:26893379

  2. How to Activate Teachers through Teacher Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…

  3. Evaluated cross-sections of 55Co radionuclide, a non-standard positron emitter for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Ali, Samer K. I.; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza

    2017-11-01

    Production cross-sections of Cobalt-55 (T1/2=17.53 h, Eβ+mean = 570 keV, Iβ+total = 76%), a non-standard positron emitter have been evaluated in the energy range of 40 MeV down to the threshold energy of the 56Fe(p,2n)55Co nuclear reaction due to its significance as a potential PET imaging agent in medical applications. Experimental cross-sections of 55Co radionuclide that lies within the scope of this work were collected from the EXFOR database, and renormalized using the latest agreed values of decay data and monitor cross-sections. Simultaneous Evaluation on KALMAN (SOK) code combined with least-squares method was applied to the corrected cross-sections to obtain evaluated cross-sections together with the covariance information. Knowledge of the underlying uncertainties in evaluated nuclear data, i.e., covariances are useful to improve the accuracy of nuclear data.

  4. ICT PSP 325141 CROSS - D4.1: CONSOLIDATED EVALUATION CRITERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prossini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The idea of this document was to start from how the phenomena of non-market driven activities are self-evaluated now by each single organisation. The concept of self-evaluation is mandatory because volunteers don’t generically accept any other way to evaluate what they are doing. The evaluation is done against the mission of the organisation and the internal objectives established. What could be done at higher level is to evaluate the quality of services provided that could be compared in a w...

  5. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; la Cour, Karen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Ejlersen, Eva Wæhrens

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences in ability to perform activities of daily living. Cross-sectional study. A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence cut-offs were used to divide the participants into 4 subgroups. Clinically relevant differences between subgroups were investigated based on the AMPS, FIQ PF and SF-36 PF. Participants in the 4 AMPS-derived subgroups demon-strated clinically relevant differences in observed activities of daily living motor and process ability. Neither the FIQ PF nor the SF-36 PF could differentiate between subgroups with clinically relevant differences in AMPS activities of daily living process ability. Activities of daily living process skills reflect underlying organizational and adaptive capacities of the individual and are relevant targets for interventions aiming at improving activities of daily living ability. Since self-report instruments do not capture differences in activities of daily living process ability, clinicians should include observations-based assessment of activities of daily living ability in order to individualize interventions offered.

  6. Evaluation of Game Engines for Cross-Platform Development of Mobile Serious Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Carina; Haag, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that serious games for health can improve patient compliance and help to increase the quality of medical education. Due to a growing availability of mobile devices, especially the development of cross-platform mobile apps is helpful for improving healthcare. As the development can be highly time-consuming and expensive, an alternative development process is needed. Game engines are expected to simplify this process. Therefore, this article examines the question whether using game engines for cross-platform serious games for health can simplify the development compared to the development of a plain HTML5 app. At first, a systematic review of the literature was conducted in different databases (MEDLINE, ACM and IEEE). Afterwards three different game engines were chosen, evaluated in different categories and compared to the development of a HTML5 app. This was realized by implementing a prototypical application in the different engines and conducting a utility analysis. The evaluation shows that the Marmalade engine is the best choice for development in this scenario. Furthermore, it is obvious that the game engines have great benefits against plain HTML5 development as they provide components for graphics, physics, sounds, etc. The authors recommend to use the Marmalade Engine for a cross-platform mobile Serious Game for Health.

  7. Evaluation of neutron total and capture cross sections on 99Tc in the unresolved resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Katabuchi, Tatsuya

    2017-09-01

    Long-lived fission product Technetium-99 is one of the most important radioisotopes for nuclear transmutation. The reliable nuclear data are indispensable for a wide energy range up to a few MeV, in order to develop environmental load reducing technology. The statistical analyses of resolved resonances were performed by using the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution, coupled-channels optical model, nuclear level density model and Bayes' theorem on conditional probability. The total and capture cross sections were calculated by a nuclear reaction model code CCONE. The resulting cross sections have statistical consistency between the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The evaluated capture data reproduce those recently measured at ANNRI of J-PARC/MLF above resolved resonance region up to 800 keV.

  8. PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION OF CROSS-LAYER OPTIMIZATION - A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION BASED ON SWARM INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja Gokul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In distributed systems real time optimizations need to be performed dynamically for better utilization of the network resources. Real time optimizations can be performed effectively by using Cross Layer Optimization (CLO within the network operating system. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Cross Layer Optimization (CLO in comparison with the traditional approach of Single-Layer Optimization (SLO. In the parallel implementation of the approaches the experimental study carried out indicates that the CLO results in a significant improvement in network utilization when compared to SLO. A variant of the Particle Swarm Optimization technique that utilizes Digital Pheromones (PSODP for better performance has been used here. A significantly higher speed up in performance was observed from the parallel implementation of CLO that used PSODP on a cluster of nodes.

  9. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural hafnium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, S., E-mail: s.takacs@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-12-01

    Highlights: {yields} Cross sections of proton induced reactions on natural hafnium. {yields} Production of Ta, Hf and Lu isotopes. {yields} Comparison of experimental cross sections with results of TENDL-2010 calculations. {yields} Thick target yields. {yields} Production of {sup 177g}Lu for medical use is not feasible. - Abstract: In a systematic study of light charged particle induced nuclear reactions we investigated the excitation functions of proton induced reactions on natural hafnium targets. Experimental excitation functions of proton induced reactions up to 36 MeV on high purity natural hafnium were determined using the stacked foil activation technique. High resolution off-line gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to assess the activity of each foil. From the measured activity independent and/or cumulative elemental or isotopic cross section data for production of Ta, Hf and Lu radioisotopes were determined. The experimental data were compared to the data published earlier by other authors and to results of TALYS theoretical code taken from TENDL-2010 database. Thick target yields of the investigated radionuclides were calculated from the excitation function that was deduced as an analytical fit to our experimental cross section data points.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a gel tube agglutination major cross-match method in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarnovo, Dania; Burton, Shelley A; Horney, Barbara S; MacKenzie, Allan L; Vanderstichel, Raphaël

    2016-09-01

    A major cross-match gel tube test is available for use in dogs yet has not been clinically evaluated. This study compared cross-match results obtained using the gel tube and the standard tube methods for canine samples. Study 1 included 107 canine sample donor-recipient pairings cross-match tested with the RapidVet-H method gel tube test and compared results with the standard tube method. Additionally, 120 pairings using pooled sera containing anti-canine erythrocyte antibody at various concentrations were tested with leftover blood from a hospital population to assess sensitivity and specificity of the gel tube method in comparison with the standard method. The gel tube method had a good relative specificity of 96.1% in detecting lack of agglutination (compatibility) compared to the standard tube method. Agreement between the 2 methods was moderate. Nine of 107 pairings showed agglutination/incompatibility on either test, too few to allow reliable calculation of relative sensitivity. Fifty percent of the gel tube method results were difficult to interpret due to sample spreading in the reaction and/or negative control tubes. The RapidVet-H method agreed with the standard cross-match method on compatible samples, but detected incompatibility in some sample pairs that were compatible with the standard method. Evaluation using larger numbers of incompatible pairings is needed to assess diagnostic utility. The gel tube method results were difficult to categorize due to sample spreading. Weak agglutination reactions or other factors such as centrifuge model may be responsible. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Status of reliability in determining SDDR for manual maintenance activities in ITER: Quality assessment of relevant activation cross sections involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R., E-mail: rgarciam@ind.uned.es [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M. [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pampin, R. [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, J. [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of manual maintenance activities in ITER port cell and port interspace. • Activation of relevant materials and components placed in the current ITER model. • Dominant radionuclides and pathways for shutdown dose rate in ITER. • Quality analysis of typically used EAF and TENDL activation libraries is performed. • EAF performance found as trustworthy with slight recommended improvements. - Abstract: This paper assesses the quality of the EAF-2007 and 2010 activation cross sections for relevant reactions in the determination of the Shutdown Dose Rate (SDDR) in the Port Cell (PC) and Port Interspace (PI) areas of ITER. For each of relevant ITER materials, dominant radionuclides responsible of SDDR and their production pathways are listed. This information comes from a review of the recent reports/papers about SDDR in ITER and own calculations. A total of 26 relevant pathways are found. The quality of these cross sections pathways is assessed following EAF validation procedure, and for those found as not validated last TENDL library versions have been investigated in order to check possible improvements when compared to EAF. The use of EAF libraries is found as trustworthy and it is recommended for the prediction of SDDR in the ITER PC and PI. However, 3 cross section reactions are considered for further improvement: Co59(n,2n)Co58, Cu63(n,g)Cu64 and Cr50(n,g)Cr51.

  12. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Railway Level Crossing Attributes on Accident Causation in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu O Dina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the contribution of Railway Level Crossing (RLCphysical attributes to accident occurrence using the12 major level crossings within the Lagos metropolis. The 48km single track mainline section under consideration which barely make up 1.1% of the entire narrow gauge track network of the country within a 5 year period contributed about 45% of the total National crossing accidents recorded in Nigeria. The method of investigation involved recording the individual attributes of each RLC such asgates, pedestrian traffic, car traffic light, proximity of signage to crossing, vehicular traffic as dummy variables.The regression analysis  was used to measure their effect on accidents.The result indicates gates, pedestrians and the location of signage had significant impact on accidents occurrence at level crossings within Lagos metropolis. Based on the findings, enhancement of active warning systems among other recommendations was suggested as potent counter measures for RLC accident reduction. Abstrak Penelitian menguji tingkat kontribusi atribut fisik dari perlintasan jalan kereta api terhadap kejadian kecelakaan menggunakan 12 perlintasan utama dalam kota metropolis Lagos. 48 km jalan utama tunggal menjadi pertimbangan yang hampir meningkat 1.1% dari seluruh trek sempit jaringan negara dalam jangka waktu 5 tahun menyumbang sekitar 45% dari total kecelakaan perlintasan secara Nasional di Nigeria. Metode penelitian melibatkan catatan dari masing-masing atribut RLC seperti pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, lampu lalu lintas mobil, kedekatan tanda penyebarangan, lalu lintas kendaraan sebagai variabel dumi. Analisis regresi digunakan untuk mengukur pengaruh dari atribut terhadap kecelakaan. Hasilnya menunjukkan pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, dan lokasi tanda perlintasan mempunyai dampak signifikan pada kecelakaan dalam kota metropolis Lagos.Berdasarkan penemuan tersebut, perbaikan dari sistem peringatan aktif disarankan sebagai upaya

  14. Acoustic radiation force for noninvasive evaluation of corneal biomechanical changes induced by cross-linking therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Raksha; Lloyd, Harriet O; Silverman, Ronald H

    2014-08-01

    To noninvasively measure changes in corneal biomechanical properties induced by ultraviolet-activated riboflavin cross-linking therapy using acoustic radiation force (ARF). Cross-linking was performed on the right eyes of 6 rabbits, with the left eyes serving as controls. Acoustic radiation force was used to assess corneal stiffness before treatment and weekly for 4 weeks after treatment. Acoustic power levels were within US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for ophthalmic safety. Strain, determined from ARF-induced displacement of the front and back surfaces of the cornea, was fit to the Kelvin-Voigt model to determine the elastic modulus (E) and coefficient of viscosity (η). The stiffness factor, the ratio of E after treatment to E before treatment, was calculated for treated and control eyes. At the end of 4 weeks, ex vivo thermal shrinkage temperature analysis was performed for comparison with in vivo stiffness measurements. One-way analysis of variance and Student t tests were performed to test for differences in E, η, the stiffness factor, and corneal thickness. Biomechanical stiffening was immediately evident in cross-linking-treated corneas. At 4 weeks after treatment, treated corneas were 1.3 times stiffer and showed significant changes in E (P= .006) and η (P= .007), with no significant effect in controls. Corneal thickness increased immediately after treatment but did not differ significantly from the pretreatment value at 4 weeks. Our findings demonstrate a statistically significant increase in stiffness in cross-linking-treated rabbit corneas based on in vivo axial stress/strain measurements obtained using ARF. The capacity to noninvasively monitor corneal stiffness offers the potential for clinical monitoring of cross-linking therapy. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Acoustic Radiation Force for Noninvasive Evaluation of Corneal Biomechanical Changes Induced by Cross-linking Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Raksha; Lloyd, Harriet O.; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To noninvasively measure changes in corneal biomechanical properties induced by ultraviolet-activated riboflavin cross-linking therapy using acoustic radiation force (ARF). Methods Cross-linking was performed on the right eyes of 6 rabbits, with the left eyes serving as controls. Acoustic radiation force was used to assess corneal stiffness before treatment and weekly for 4 weeks after treatment. Acoustic power levels were within US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for ophthalmic safety. Strain, determined from ARF-induced displacement of the front and back surfaces of the cornea, was fit to the Kelvin-Voigt model to determine the elastic modulus (E) and coefficient of viscosity (η). The stiffness factor, the ratio of E after treatment to E before treatment, was calculated for treated and control eyes. At the end of 4 weeks, ex vivo thermal shrinkage temperature analysis was performed for comparison with in vivo stiffness measurements. One-way analysis of variance and Student t tests were performed to test for differences in E, η, the stiffness factor, and corneal thickness. Results Biomechanical stiffening was immediately evident in cross-linking–treated corneas. At 4 weeks after treatment, treated corneas were 1.3 times stiffer and showed significant changes in E(P= .006) and η (P= .007), with no significant effect in controls. Corneal thickness increased immediately after treatment but did not differ significantly from the pretreatment value at 4 weeks. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a statistically significant increase in stiffness in cross-linking–treated rabbit corneas based on in vivo axial stress/strain measurements obtained using ARF. The capacity to noninvasively monitor corneal stiffness offers the potential for clinical monitoring of cross-linking therapy. PMID:25063407

  16. The etiology of mathematical self-evaluation and mathematics achievement: understanding the relationship using a cross-lagged twin study from age 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu L L; Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The genetic and environmental origins of individual differences in mathematical self-evaluation over time and its association with later mathematics achievement were investigated in a UK sample of 2138 twin pairs at ages 9 and 12. Self-evaluation indexed how good children think they are at mathematical activities and how much they like those activities. Mathematics achievement was assessed by teachers based on UK National Curriculum standards. At both ages self-evaluation was approximately 40% heritable, with the rest of the variance explained by non-shared environment. The results also suggested moderate reciprocal associations between self-evaluation and mathematics achievement across time, with earlier self-evaluation predicting later performance and earlier performance predicting later self-evaluation. These cross-lagged relationships were genetically rather than environmentally mediated.

  17. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were positively correlated with the age of onset of hearing aid use and were negatively correlated with the percentage of lifetime hearing aid use in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that earlier and longer hearing aid use may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early deaf subjects. Granger

  18. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based on Cross-Evaluation with Uncertain Decision Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple attribute decision making (MADM problem is one of the most common and popular research fields in the theory of decision science. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with such problems. Nevertheless, many of them assumed that attribute weights are determined by different types of additional preference information which will result in subjective decision making. In order to solve such problems, in this paper, we propose a novel MADM approach based on cross-evaluation with uncertain parameters. Specifically, the proposed approach assumes that all attribute weights are uncertain. It can overcome the drawback in prior research that the alternatives’ ranking may be determined by a single attribute with an overestimated weight. In addition, the proposed method can also balance the mean and deviation of each alternative’s cross-evaluation score to guarantee the stability of evaluation. Then, this method is extended to a more generalized situation where the attribute values are also uncertain. Finally, we illustrate the applicability of the proposed method by revisiting two reported studies and by a case study on the selection of community service companies in the city of Hefei in China.

  19. The effects of different crossing-linking conditions of genipin on type I collagen scaffolds: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiujie; Chen, Xueying; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Naili; Dong, Li; Ma, Shaoying; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Mo; Li, Baoxing

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the properties of fabricating rat tail type I collagen scaffolds cross-linked with genipin under different conditions. The porous genipin cross-linked scaffolds are obtained through a two step freeze-drying process. To find out the optimal cross-link condition, we used different genipin concentrations and various cross-linked temperatures to prepare the scaffolds in this study. The morphologies of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope, and the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were evaluated under dynamic compression. Additionally, the cross-linking degree was assessed by ninhydrin assay. To investigate the swelling ratio and the in vitro degradation of the collagen scaffold, the tests were also carried out by immersion of the scaffolds in a PBS solution or digestion in a type I collagenase respectively. The morphologies of the non-cross-linked scaffolds presented a lattice-like structure while the cross-linked ones displayed a sheet-like framework. The morphology of the genipin cross-linked scaffolds could be significantly changed by either increasing genipin concentration or the temperature. The swelling ratio of each cross-linked scaffold was much lower than that of the control (non-cross-linked).The ninhydrin assay demonstrated that the higher temperature and genipin concentration could obviously increase the cross-linking efficiency. The in vitro degradation studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can effectively elevate the biostability of the scaffolds. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by culturing rat chondrocytes on the scaffold in vitro and by MTT. The results of MTT and the fact that the chondrocytes adhered well to the scaffolds demonstrated that genipin cross-linked scaffolds possessed an excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. Based on these results, 0.3 % genipin concentrations and 37 °C cross-linked temperatures are

  20. Activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced in germanium by alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, M.P.; Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with E{sub α} = 20.7 and E{sub α} = 51.25 MeV, I{sub α} = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the {sup 72,73,75}Se, {sup 71,72,74,76,78}As, and {sup 69}Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.

  1. Effect of activation cross-section uncertainties on the radiological assessment of the MFE/DEMO first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabellos, O. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cabellos@din.upm.es; Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Youssef, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sawan, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-02-15

    A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross-sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 6}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.

  2. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apocynaceae) has been used for the treatment of cancer, skin infections, diabetes and liver disorder. The present study is aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of chloroform and methanol extract (CEIF and MEIF) of whole plant of I.

  3. An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development

  4. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  5. Evaluation of safety effectiveness of multiple cross sectional features on urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates the safety effectiveness of multiple roadway cross-section elements on urban arterials for different crash types and severity levels. In order to consider the nonlinearity of predictors and obtain more reliable estimates, the generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) were developed using 5-years of crash records and roadway characteristics data for urban roadways in Florida. The generalized linear models (GLMs) were also developed to compare model performance. The cross-sectional method was used to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) for various safety treatments. The results from this paper indicated that increasing lane, bike lane, median, and shoulder widths were safety effective to reduce crash frequency. In particular, the CMFs for changes in median and shoulder widths consistently decreased as their widths increased. On the other hand, the safety effects of increasing lane and bike lane widths showed nonlinear variations. It was found that crash rates decrease as the lane width increases until 12ft width and it increases as the lane width exceeds 12ft. The crash rates start to decrease again after 13ft. It was also found that crash rates decreases as the bike lane width increases until 6ft width and it increases as the bike lane width exceeds 6ft. This paper demonstrated that the GNMs clearly captured the nonlinear relationship between crashes and multiple roadway cross-sectional features, which cannot be reflected by the estimated CMFs from the GLMs. Moreover, the GNMs showed better model fitness than GLMs in general. Therefore, in order to estimate more accurate CMFs, the proposed methodology of utilizing the GNMs in the cross-sectional method is recommended over using conventional GLMs when there are nonlinear relationships between the crash rate and roadway characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; de Anderson, S. Sant' Ana; Nauta, Maarten

    Can a promising cross contamination model be successfully applied to any condition of meat grinding? To answer this question we performed different challenge tests and developed a set of evaluation approaches....

  7. Oxygen Activated, Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyzed, Ultrafast Cross-Coupling of Organolithium Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Dorus; Tosi, Filippo; Vila, Carlos; Stuart, Marc C A; Elsinga, Philip H; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-03-13

    The discovery of an ultrafast cross-coupling of alkyl- and aryllithium reagents with a range of aryl bromides is presented. The essential role of molecular oxygen to form the active palladium catalyst was established; palladium nanoparticles that are highly active in cross-coupling reactions with reaction times ranging from 5 s to 5 min are thus generated in situ. High selectivities were observed for a range of heterocycles and functional groups as well as for an expanded scope of organolithium reagents. The applicability of this method was showcased by the synthesis of the [ 11 C]-labeled PET tracer celecoxib. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Green's function approximation from cross-correlation of active sources in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Laura A; Gerstoft, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Green's function approximation via ocean noise cross-correlation, referred to here as ocean acoustic interferometry, has been demonstrated experimentally for passive noise sources. Active sources offer the advantages of higher frequencies, controllability, and continuous monitoring. Experimental ocean acoustic interferometry is described here for two active source configurations: a source lowered vertically and one towed horizontally. Results are compared and contrasted with cross-correlations of passive noise. The results, in particular, differences between the empirical Green's function estimates and simulated Green's functions, are explained with reference to theory and simulations. Approximation of direct paths is shown to be consistently good for each source configuration. Secondary (surface reflection) paths are shown to be more accurate for hydrophones with a greater horizontal separation.

  9. Objectively measured physical activity and cardiac biomarkers: A cross sectional population based study in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2018-03-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT) are markers of cardiac injury used in diagnosis of heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since physical activity is protective against cardiovascular disease and heart failure, we investigated whether higher levels of physical activity, and less sedentary behaviour were associated with lower NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Cross sectional study of 1130 men, age 70-91years, from the British Regional Heart Study, measured in 2010-2012. Fasting blood samples were analysed for NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured using ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. Relationships between activity and NT-proBNP or hsTnT were non-linear; biomarker levels were lower with higher total activity, steps, moderate/vigorous activity and light activity only at low to moderate levels of activity. For example, for each additional 10min of moderate/vigorous activity, NT-proBNP was lower by 35.7% (95% CI -47.9, -23.6) and hsTnT by 8.4% (95% CI -11.1, -5.6), in men who undertook <25 or 50min of moderate/vigorous activity per day respectively. Biomarker levels increased linearly with increasing sedentary behaviour, but not independently of moderate/vigorous activity. Associations between biomarkers and moderate/vigorous activity (and between hsTnT and light activity) were independent of sedentary behaviour, suggesting activity is driving the relationships. In these older men with concomitantly low levels of physical activity, activity may be more important in protecting against cardiac health deterioration in less active individuals, although reverse causality might be operating. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of concrete activation with IFMIF-like neutron irradiation: Status of EAF and TENDL neutron activation cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mauricio; Sauvan, Patrick; García, Raquel; Ogando, Francisco; Sanz, Javier

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to check the performance of last versions of EAF and TENDL libraries (EAF2007, EAF2010, and TENDL2014) in the prediction of concrete activation under the neutron irradiation environment expected in IFMIF, an accelerator-based neutron source conceived for fusion materials testing. For this purpose Activity and dose rate responses of three types of concrete (ITER-Bioshield kind, barite and magnetite concretes) have been studied. For these quantities, dominant nuclides and production pathways have been determined and, then, a qualitative analysis of the relevant activation cross-sections involved has been performed by comparing data from mentioned libraries with experimental data from EXFOR database. Concrete activation studies have been carried out with IFMIF-like neutron irradiation conditions using the ACAB code and EAF and TENDL libraries. The cooling times assessed are related to safety and maintenance operations, specifically 1 hour, 1 day and 12 days. Final conclusions are focused on the recommendations for the activation library to be used among those analyzed and cross-section data to be improved.

  11. Evaluation of cross-linked aggregates from purified Bacillus subtilis levansucrase mutants for transfructosylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Soto, Maria Elena; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Rodriguez-Alegria, Maria Elena; Munguia, Agustin Lopez

    2009-07-27

    Increasing attention has been focused on inulin and levan-type oligosaccharides, including fructosyl-xylosides and other fructosides due to their nutraceutical properties. Bacillus subtilis levansucrase (LS) catalyzes the synthesis of levan from sucrose, but it may also transfer the fructosyl moiety from sucrose to acceptor molecules included in the reaction medium. To study transfructosylation reactions with highly active and robust derivatives, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) were prepared from wild LS and two mutants. CLEAs combine the catalytic features of pure protein preparations in terms of specific activity with the mechanical behavior of industrial biocatalysts. Two types of procedures were used for the preparation of biocatalysts from purified wild type LS (WT LS) B. subtilis and the R360K and Y429N LS mutants: purified enzymes aggregated with glutaraldehyde (cross-linked enzyme aggregates: CLEAs), and covalently immobilized enzymes in Eupergit C. The biocatalysts were characterized and used for fructoside synthesis using xylose as an acceptor model. CLEAs were able to catalyze the synthesis of fructosides as efficiently as soluble enzymes. The specific activity of CLEAs prepared from wild type LS (44.9 U/mg of CLEA), R360K (56.5 U/mg of CLEA) and Y429N (1.2 U/mg of CLEA) mutants were approximately 70, 40 and 200-fold higher, respectively, than equivalent Eupergit C immobilized enzyme preparations (U/mg of Eupergit), where units refer to global LS activity. In contrast, the specific activity of the free enzymes was 160, 171.2 and 1.5 U/mg of protein, respectively. Moreover, all CLEAs had higher thermal stability than corresponding soluble enzymes. In the long term, the operational stability was affected by levan synthesis. This is the first report of cross-linked transglycosidases aggregates. CLEAs prepared from purified LS and mutants have the highest specific activity for immobilized fructosyltransferases (FTFs) reported in the literature. CLEAs

  12. NEW ENDF/B-VII.0 EVALUATIONS OF NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS FOR 32 FISSION PRODUCTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIM,H.; LEE, Y.-O.; HERMAN, M.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.

    2007-04-22

    Neutron cross sections for fission products play important role not only in the design of extended burnup core and fast reactors, but also in the study of the backend fuel cycle and the criticality analysis of spent fuel. New evaluations in both the resonance and fast neutron regions were performed by the KAERI-BNL collaboration for 32 fission products. These were {sup 95}Mo, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, and complete isotope chains of {sup 142-148,150}Nd, {sup 144,147,148-154}Sm, and {sup 156,158,160-164}Dy. The evaluations cover a large amount of reaction channels, including all those needed for neutronics calculations. Also, they cover the entire energy range, from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV, including the thermal, resolved, and unresolved resonance regions, and the fast neutron region.

  13. Evaluation of a cross-sector community initiative partnership: delivering a local sport program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihl, Lisa A; Tainsky, Scott; Babiak, Kathy; Bang, Hyejin

    2014-06-01

    Corporate community initiatives (CCI) are often established via cross-sector partnerships with nonprofit agencies to address critical social problems. While there is a growing body of literature exploring the effectiveness and social impact of these partnerships, there is a limited evaluative research on the implementation and execution processes of CCIs. In this paper, we examined the implementation and operational processes in the delivery of a professional sport organization's CCI initiative using program theory evaluation. The findings showed discrepancies between the associate organization and the implementers regarding understanding and fulfilling responsibilities with performing certain aspects (maintaining accurate records and program marketing) of the service delivery protocol. Despite program stakeholders being satisfied overall with the program delivery, contradictions between program stakeholders' satisfaction in the quality of program delivery was found in critical components (marketing and communications) of the service delivery. We conclude that ongoing evaluations are necessary to pinpoint the catalyst of the discrepancies along with all partners valuing process evaluation in addition to outcome evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EVALUATION OF NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS FOR A COMPLETE SET OF Nd ISOTOPES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIM,H.; HERMAN, M.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; LEE. Y.-O.

    2007-10-29

    Neutron cross sections for a complete set of Nd isotopes, {sup 142,143,144,145,146,147,148,150}Nd, were evaluated in the incident energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV. In the low energy region, including thermal and resolved resonances, our evaluations are based on the latest data published in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. In the unresolved resonance region we performed additional evaluation by using the averages of the resolved resonances and adjusting them to the experimental data. In the fast neutron region, we used the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE-2.19 validated against the experimental data. The results are compared to the existing nuclear data libraries, including ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1, and to the available experimental data. The new evaluations are suitable for neutron transport calculations and they were adopted by the new evaluated nuclear data file of the United States, ENDF/B-VII.0, released in December 2006.

  15. In vitro Antiglycation and Cross-Link Breaking Activities of Sri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antiglycation and cross-link breaking activities of Sri Lankan low-grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L) Methods: Five concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 or 100.0 ìg/ml) of Black tea brew (BTB) were made using Sri Lankan low-grown Orange Pekoe (O.P.) grade ...

  16. Cross-cultural differences in information disclosure evaluated through the EORTC questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Greimel, Eva; Chie, Wei-Chu; Sezer, Orhan; Bergenmar, Mia; Costantini, Anna; Young, Teresa; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic; Velikova, Galina

    2013-02-01

    Informational needs among cancer patients are similar, but the degree of information disclosure in different cultural areas varies. In this paper, we present the results of a cross-cultural study on information received. The EORTC information questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-INFO25, was administered during the treatment process. This questionnaire evaluates the information that patients report they have received. Cross-cultural differences in information have been evaluated using statistical tests such as Kruskall-Wallis and multivariate models with covariates to account for differences in clinical and demographic characteristics across areas. Four hundred and fifty-one patients from three cultural areas, North-Middle Europe, South Europe, and Taiwan, were included in the study. Significant differences among the three cultural areas appeared in eight QLQ-INFO25 dimensions: information about the disease; medical tests; places of care; written information; information on CD/tape/video; satisfaction; wish for more information; and information helpfulness. North-Middle Europe patients received more written information (mean = 67.2 (North) and 33.8 (South)) and South Europe patients received more information on different places of care (mean = 24.7 (North) and 35.0 (South)). Patients from North-Middle Europe and South Europe received more information than patients from Taiwan about the disease (mean = 57.9, 60.6, and 47.1, respectively) and medical tests (70.9, 70.4, and 54.5), showed more satisfaction (64.8, 70.2, and 35.0), and considered the information more helpful (71.9, 73.9, and 50.4). These results were confirmed when adjusting for age, education, and disease stage. There are cross-cultural differences in information received. Some of these differences are based on the characteristics of each culture. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of Epithelial Integrity with Various Transepithelial Corneal Cross-Linking Protocols for Treatment of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphi Taneri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL has been demonstrated to stiffen cornea and halt progression of ectasia. The original protocol requires debridement of central corneal epithelium to facilitate diffusion of a riboflavin solution to stroma. Recently, transepithelial CXL has been proposed to reduce risk of complications associated with epithelial removal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of various transepithelial riboflavin delivery protocols on corneal epithelium in regard to pain and epithelial integrity in the early postoperative period. Methods. One hundred and sixty six eyes of 104 subjects affected by progressive keratoconus underwent transepithelial CXL using 6 different riboflavin application protocols. Postoperatively, epithelial integrity was evaluated at slit lamp and patients were queried regarding their ocular pain level. Results. One eye had a corneal infection associated with an epithelial defect. No other adverse event including endothelial decompensation or endothelial damage was observed, except for epithelial damages. Incidence of epithelial defects varied from 0 to 63%. Incidence of reported pain varied from 0 to 83%. Conclusion. Different transepithelial cross-linking protocols have varying impacts on epithelial integrity. At present, it seems impossible to have sufficient riboflavin penetration without any epithelial disruption. A compromise between efficacy and epithelial integrity has to be found.

  18. Analysis of spontaneous EEG activity in Alzheimer's disease using cross-sample entropy and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos; Poza, Jesus; Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Bachiller, Alejandro; Juan-Cruz, Celia; Tola-Arribas, Miguel A; Carreres, Alicia; Cano, Monica; Hornero, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to analyze spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by means of Cross-Sample Entropy (Cross-SampEn) and two local measures derived from graph theory: clustering coefficient (CC) and characteristic path length (PL). Five minutes of EEG activity were recorded from 37 patients with dementia due to AD and 29 elderly controls. Our results showed that Cross-SampEn values were lower in the AD group than in the control one for all the interactions among EEG channels. This finding indicates that EEG activity in AD is characterized by a lower statistical dissimilarity among channels. Significant differences were found mainly for fronto-central interactions (p graph theory measures revealed diverse neural network changes, i.e. lower CC and higher PL values in AD group, leading to a less efficient brain organization. This study suggests the usefulness of our approach to provide further insights into the underlying brain dynamics associated with AD.

  19. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Active Lions: A Campaign to Promote Active Travel to a University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Sims, Dangaia; Matthews, Stephen A; Rovniak, Liza S; Poole, Erika; Colgan, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    To outline the development, implementation, and evaluation of a multistrategy intervention to promote active transportation, on a large university campus. Single group pilot study. A large university in the Northeastern United States. University students (n = 563), faculty and staff (employees, n = 999) were included in the study. The Active Lions campaign aimed to increase active transportation to campus for all students and employees. The campaign targeted active transport participation through the development of a smartphone application and the implementation of supporting social marketing and social media components. Component-specific measures included app user statistics, social media engagement, and reach of social marketing strategies. Overall evaluation included cross-sectional online surveys preintervention and postintervention of student and employee travel patterns and campaign awareness. Number of active trips to campus were summed, and the percentage of trips as active was calculated. T tests compared the differences in outcomes from preintervention to postintervention. Students had a higher percentage of active trips postintervention (64.2%) than preintervention (49.2%; t = 3.32, P = .001), although there were no differences for employees (7.9% and 8.91%). Greater awareness of Active Lions was associated with greater active travel. This multistrategy approach to increase active transportation on a college campus provided insight on the process of developing and implementing a campaign with the potential for impacting health behaviors among campus members.

  20. pyrimidines and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and evaluation of their antimicrobial .... each product. Common reagent grade chemicals were either commercially purchased and used without fur- ther purification or were prepared by standard literature ... completely forms a eutectic mixture without by-product formation.

  1. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the pharmacological evaluation of the effects of intraperitoneal injection of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta (AM) on diarrhoea, intestinal fluid secretion and gastrointestinal transit time, induced by castor oil in rodents. The results of the study revealed that AM (50-200 mg/kg) produced a ...

  2. Concordance and correlation of activity indices in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in northwestern Colombia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Correa, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Padilla, Libia M; Zapata-Castellanos, Aura L; Ocampo, Andrea; García, Juan J; Muñoz-Grajales, Carolina; Pinto-Peñaranda, Luis F; Márquez-Hernández, Javier D; Mesa-Navas, Miguel A; Velásquez-Franco, Carlos J

    2017-11-19

    To determine the correlation and concordance between different clinimetric scores in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in two high-complexity reference centers in northwestern Colombia. A cross-sectional study in adults diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was conducted according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism Classification Criteria, between January and June, 2013. The correlation was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient, and concordance with quadratic weighted kappa with the respective confidence intervals, for which patients were classified into different categories of disease activity. One hundred patients were included, of whom 83% were women; 58 and 75% received methotrexate and glucocorticoids, respectively. Most individuals were in remission or low activity. High correlations between Disease Activity Score of 28 joints - erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) values with DAS28 C-reactive protein and Simple Disease Activity Index (SDAI) with Clinical Disease Activity Index (P correlated well with gold standard values for remission (SDAI), where the correlation with DAS28-ESR was slightly lower. Excellent concordance among all clinimetric scores was observed, although it was lower among DAS28-ESR and SDAI. Clinimetric indices had high concordance and correlation, especially for rheumatoid arthritis patients in remission or low disease activity, without being interchangeable among them. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disorder that affects cellular metabolism in variety of ways, and coagulation indices are reported to be adversely affected. In the current study prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were investigated in treated and untreated diabetics as well as in non ...

  4. Hepatoprotective Activity Evaluation Of Cichorium glandulosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EtOAc extract was further studied and esculetin was isolated and identified from the fraction. Keywords: Cichorium glandulosum, Compositae, hepatoprotective activity, paracetamol, esculetin, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol. 11 2007 ...

  5. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities and phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The ethanol extracts produce strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi A ... exclusively found in China and Japan. Some African countries have also made ... pulp with sugar or honey and water, left to mature for several days. The pulp is pleasant to ...

  6. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-26

    Feb 26, 2013 ... Antimicrobial peptides are not only the potent antibiotics, but also have activity of killing viruses and cancerous cells. They are gaining attention as antimicrobial alternatives to antibiotics (Dolashka et al., 2011). Giant African land snails are known to play significant roles in the life and culture of rural dwellers ...

  7. Evaluation of Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACTS: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disorder that affects cellular metabolism in variety of ways, and coagulation indices are reported to be adversely affected. In the current study prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were investigated in treated and untreated diabetics as ...

  8. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural palladium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Baba, M.

    2012-01-01

    Activation cross-sections for deuteron induced reactions were measured on natural palladium up to 40 MeV with the activation method using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-spectrometry. Excitation functions are reported for the reactions producing the radionuclides 111Ag, 110mAg, 106mAg, 105Ag, 111mPd, 109Pd, 101Pd, 100Pd, 105Rh, 102gRh, 101mRh, 100Rh and 99gRh. Comparisons with earlier published data and theoretical results of ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and the TALYS codes are presented. Calculated yield curves and activity versus depth distributions are also presented for practical applications such as isotope production or thin layer activation.

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and in vitro lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar-well diffusion method while mineral content was evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Significant ...

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the combined anticonvulsant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, local Nigerian plants (Newbouldia laevis, Melissa officinalis, Musa paradisiaca) used folklorically against epilepsy, were evaluated for combined anticonvulsant activity in combination. Their anticonvulsant activity, individually and in combination was evaluated in mice using the pentylene tetrazole model ...

  11. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Helgadóttir

    Full Text Available Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity.The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9. Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns.No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts.The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  12. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadóttir, Björg; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity. The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9). Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns. No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts. The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  13. A cross-sectional evaluation of seasonality as a determinant of endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Y R; Han, K A; Lteif, A A; Wallace, J P; Mather, K J

    2011-10-30

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in obese versus lean humans. We set out to evaluate whether agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation varies by season in a cross-sectional dataset of lean and obese humans, and whether this effect differed by obesity status. All vascular studies performed in our laboratory over a 12 year period from 1997 to 2009 were evaluated. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was measured invasively using thermodilution in the leg as the response to intra-arterially infused methacholine chloride. Resting blood pressure was measured concurrently by cuff and intra-arterially. The association of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and blood pressure measurements with season was evaluated, comparing responses in lean and obese subjects. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation differed between lean and obese subjects, and varied across seasons (p=0.02), but without an interaction between season effect and obesity status. The proportion of obese versus lean subjects differed significantly across seasons in our dataset, and after adjusting for this factor the apparent seasonal variation in endothelium-dependent vasodilation was lost (p=0.12), and was not present in either lean or obese subjects separately. Systolic arterial blood pressure varied across seasons, and this effect remained significant after adjusting obesity status (p=0.019 and p=0.043 for blood pressures measured intra-arterially and by cuff respectively). In our cross-sectional dataset, seasonal variations in blood pressure were seen but we did not observe an association between season and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in lean or obese subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cisplatin-loaded core cross-linked micelles: comparative pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Hardeep S; Nukolova, Natalia V; Laquer, Frederic C; Poluektova, Larisa Y; Huang, Jiangeng; Alnouti, Yazen; Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L; Kabanov, Alexander V; Cohen, Samuel M; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2012-01-01

    Polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores are shown here to improve the therapeutic performance of the platinum-containing anticancer compound cisplatin. Biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and toxicity of cisplatin-loaded core cross-linked micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(methacrylic acid) were evaluated in a mouse ovarian cancer xenograft model. Cisplatin-loaded micelles demonstrated prolonged blood circulation, increased tumor accumulation, and reduced renal exposure. Improved antitumor response relative to free drug was seen in a mouse model. Toxicity studies with cisplatin-loaded micelles indicate a significantly improved safety profile and lack of renal abnormalities typical of free cisplatin treatment. Overall, the study supports the fundamental possibility of improving the potential of platinum therapy using polymer micelle-based drug delivery.

  15. The activation energy for the FCC rolling texture transition and the activation energy for cross slip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, T.; Pedersen, O.B.

    2002-01-01

    Already in 1968 one of the present authors determined the activation energy for the rolling-texture transition in Cu-5%Zn as a spin off of an investigation of the strain-rate dependence of the rolling texture. In the present work this determination of theactivation energy is explained and discussed...

  16. An evaluation of the cross-check principle using visual reinforcement audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, and tympanometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Stacey M; Gajewski, Byron J; Widen, Judith E

    2010-03-01

    Early intervention to reduce the effects of congenital hearing loss requires accurate description of hearing loss. In pediatric audiology, a cross-check principle is used to compare behavioral and physiological tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correspondence of visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) minimal response levels (MRLs), otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), tympanometry, and VRA test reliability to determine the odds of obtaining the expected cross-check results. We hypothesized that (1) when MRLs were within normal limits (WNL), OAEs would be present; (2) in the event of normal MRLs and absent OAEs, tympanograms would be abnormal; and (3) in the event of elevated MRLs and present OAEs, the tester's confidence in the MRLs would be judged to be only fair, rather than good. This was a retrospective study. A previous study provided data from 993 infants who had diagnostic audiologic evaluations at 8-12 mo of age. The data were analyzed to compare VRA MRLs with OAE signal-to-noise ratios at 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the three hypotheses related to the correspondence among MRLs, OAEs, tympanometry, and the reliability of MRLs. The probability that OAEs would be present when MRLs were WNL varied from 12 to 26 to 1, depending on the test frequency. When OAEs were absent in the presence of normal MRLs, the odds of abnormal tympanometry varied from 5 to 10 to 1, depending on the test frequency. When MRLs were elevated (>20 dB HL), the odds suggested that examiners judged the MRLs at 1 and 2 kHz to lack reliability. The results suggest that the cross-check principle is effective when employing VRA, OAE, and tympanometry to rule out or determine the degree, type, and configuration of hearing loss in infants. American Academy of Audiology.

  17. Fundamental research on the evaluation of muscle activity state

    OpenAIRE

    遠藤, 厚志

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental research results obtained by adding the sensory information to the activity state evaluation of muscle movement. The purpose of this study is to show the engineering evaluation results of the activity state of the muscle by sEMG(surface ElectroMyoGraphy) using the visual information that biofeedback is made. No evaluation method has the visual information, from being affected by the auxiliary cooperative muscles, not efficient. How to sEMG and biofeedback ...

  18. Caffeine and amphetamine produce cross-sensitization to nicotine-induced locomotor activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Eylem; Uzbay, I Tayfun; Karakas, Sirel

    2006-01-01

    Sensitization development is linked to the addictive potential of the drugs. The same mechanisms might play a role in sensitization development to the different addictive drugs. The aim of the study was to investigate the development of cross-sensitization to caffeine and amphetamine in nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Caffeine (2.5-20 mg/kg), amphetamine (1-16 mg/kg) or saline were injected to Swiss-Webster mice and locomotor activity was recorded for 30 min. Nicotine (0.5-2 mg/kg) or saline were injected to mice and locomotor activity was recorded for 30 min. Process was applied for 19 days, every other day (10 sessions). Caffeine (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (4 mg/kg) or saline were challenged to the different groups of nicotine-sensitized mice 2 days later on the last nicotine injection, and locomotor activity was recorded. Repetitive injections of nicotine (0.5-2 mg) produced locomotor sensitization in mice. After caffeine and amphetamine challenge injections, locomotor activity of the nicotine-sensitized mice was found to be significantly higher than saline-pretreated mice. Saline challenge did not produce any significant effect in nicotine- or saline-pretreated mice. Our results suggest that a cross-sensitization developed to both caffeine and amphetamine in nicotine-sensitized mice. In conclusion, similar central mechanisms may be responsible for the development of addiction to these substances.

  19. Active ultrasonic cross-correlation flowmeters for mixed-phase pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, S. H.; Raptis, A. C.

    Two ultrasonic flowmeters which employ the active cross-correlation technique and use a simple clamp-on transducer arrangement are discussed. The flowmeter for solid/liquid flows was tested over a wide range of coal concentration in water and oil. The measured velocity based on the peak position of the cross-correlation function is consistently higher by about 15% than the average velocity measured by flow diversion. The origin of the difference results mainly from the flow velocity profiles and the transit-time probability distribution. The flowmeter that can measure particle velocity in a solid/gas flow requires acoustic decoupling arrangement between two sensing stations. The measured velocity is mainly associated with the particles near the wall. Performance of both flowmeters is presented.

  20. Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

    2013-08-01

    In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

  1. Users' experiences of wearable activity trackers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol; Ryan, Jillian; Ambrosi, Christina; Edney, Sarah

    2017-11-15

    Wearable activity trackers offer considerable promise for helping users to adopt healthier lifestyles. This study aimed to explore users' experience of activity trackers, including usage patterns, sharing of data to social media, perceived behaviour change (physical activity, diet and sleep), and technical issues/barriers to use. A cross-sectional online survey was developed and administered to Australian adults who were current or former activity tracker users. Results were analysed descriptively, with differences between current and former users and wearable brands explored using independent samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney, and chi square tests. Participants included 200 current and 37 former activity tracker users (total N = 237) with a mean age of 33.1 years (SD 12.4, range 18-74 years). Fitbit (67.5%) and Garmin devices (16.5%) were most commonly reported. Participants typically used their trackers for sustained periods (5-7 months) and most intended to continue usage. Participants reported they had improved their physical activity (51-81%) more commonly than they had their diet (14-40%) or sleep (11-24%), and slightly more participants reported to value the real time feedback (89%) compared to the long-term monitoring (78%). Most users (70%) reported they had experienced functionality issues with their devices, most commonly related to battery life and technical difficulties. Results suggest users find activity trackers appealing and useful tools for increasing perceived physical activity levels over a sustained period.

  2. Carbon emission analysis and evaluation of industrial departments in China: An improved environmental DEA cross model based on information entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongming; Long, Chang; Geng, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Keyu

    2018-01-01

    Environmental protection and carbon emission reduction play a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. However, the environmental efficiency analysis and evaluation based on the traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) cross model is subjective and inaccurate, because all elements in a column or a row of the cross evaluation matrix (CEM) in the traditional DEA cross model are given the same weight. Therefore, this paper proposes an improved environmental DEA cross model based on the information entropy to analyze and evaluate the carbon emission of industrial departments in China. The information entropy is applied to build the entropy distance based on the turbulence of the whole system, and calculate the weights in the CEM of the environmental DEA cross model in a dynamic way. The theoretical results show that the new weight constructed based on the information entropy is unique and optimal globally by using the Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, compared with the traditional environmental DEA and DEA cross model, the improved environmental DEA cross model has a better efficiency discrimination ability based on the data of industrial departments in China. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain the potential of carbon emission reduction of industrial departments to improve the energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  4. Evaluation of Cohen's cross-section trichometer for measuring hair quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Maria A E; Geerts, Paulus A F; Dercksen, Marcus W; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Breed, Wim P M

    2012-04-01

    Until now, there has been no reliable, simple method available for measuring hair quantity that is suitable in clinical practice. Recently, the cross-section trichometer by Cohen has been introduced. This study was designed to test its clinical utility. The hair mass index (HMI) is ratio of the cross-sectional area of an isolated bundle of hair and the premeasured area of skin from which it was taken using the trichometer device. The intra- and interobserver reproducibility of measurements at the same location and after relocation were evaluated. For intraobserver reproducibility, the HMI ranged from 3 to 120 (mean difference .2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.7-5.1, correlation coefficient [r] = .99. For interobserver reproducibility, the HMI ranged from 18 to 119 (mean difference -.4, 95% CI = -8,0-7,2, r = .98). With relocation, the HMI ranged from 2 to 113 (mean difference -1.0, 95% CI = -10.1-8.1, r = .97). Measurements took 5-10 minutes per area. Measurements were simple to perform, and the data showed high reproducibility. The trichometer is a promising technology for hair quantity measurements and has multiple clinical and research applications. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Healthcare Providers’ Recommendations for Physical Activity among US Arthritis Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamly Austin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We examined racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare providers’ recommendations for physical activity among individuals with arthritis and evaluated this association among groups of individuals who adhered to physical activity guidelines and those who did not. Methods. With a cross-sectional design based on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we analyzed individuals with self-reported physician-diagnosed arthritis, ≥18 years of age (n = 83,376. Outcome variable was healthcare providers’ recommendations for physical activity. Race/ethnicity was categorized as African American, Hispanic, and White. Associations were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results. African Americans (Adjusted OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55–0.79 and Hispanics (Adjusted OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.56–0.83 were less likely to receive providers’ recommendations. Conclusions. Although the importance of physical activity to improve health outcomes for adults with arthritis, as well as providers’ influence on individuals’ behavior change, is well established, providers are less likely to recommend physical activity to minorities. Further studies are required to identify the causes for this quality-of-care issue.

  6. Development and evaluation of a teaching and learning approach in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination in university nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Brown, Lucinda; Duff, Carmel; Nesbitt, Pat; Hepner, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination are vital to ethical effective health systems. Nurses require quality educational preparation in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination. Limited evidence-based research is available to guide teachers. To develop, implement and evaluate an evidence-based teaching and learning approach in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination for undergraduate nursing students. A quantitative design using pre- and post-survey measures was used to evaluate the teaching and learning approach. The Bachelor of Nursing program in an Australian university. Academics and second year undergraduate nursing students. A literature review and consultation with academics informed the development of the teaching and learning approach. Thirty-three students completed a survey at pre-measures and following participation in the teaching and learning approach at post-measures about their confidence to practice cross-cultural nursing (Transcultural Self-efficacy Tool) and about their discriminatory attitudes (Quick Discrimination Index). The literature review found that educational approaches that solely focus on culture might not be sufficient in addressing discrimination and racism. During consultation, academics emphasised the importance of situating cross-cultural nursing and antidiscrimination as social determinants of health. Therefore, cross-cultural nursing was contextualised within primary health care and emphasised care for culturally diverse communities. Survey findings supported the effectiveness of this strategy in promoting students' confidence regarding knowledge about cross-cultural nursing. There was no reported change in discriminatory attitudes. The teaching and learning approach was modified to include stronger experiential learning and role playing. Nursing education should emphasise cross-cultural nursing and antidiscrimination. The study describes an evaluated teaching and learning approach and demonstrates how evaluation

  7. Physical activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: a cross-sectional study of 203 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Stéphanie; Molto, Anna; Dadoun, Sabrina; Rein, Christopher; Hudry, Christophe; Kreis, Sarah; Fautrel, Bruno; Pertuiset, Edouard; Gossec, Laure

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is recommended in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) but may be insufficiently performed. The objective of this study was to assess physical activity in axial spondyloarthritis and to explore its explanatory factors. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with definite axSpA. The level of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long form, IPAQ-L), type of aerobic exercise and the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Score were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explain levels of exercise at least as recommended by the World Health Organization. In all, 203 patients were included: mean age 46.0 ± 11.6 years, 108 (53.2 %) males, mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (0-100) 37.8 ± 19.9; 137 (68.8 %) were treated with TNF-inhibitors. In all, 111 patients (54.7 %) were exercising at least as recommended; 96 (47.2 %) were in the 'high physical activity' category. Aerobic exercise >30 min was performed at least once a week by 61 (30.0 %) patients; the most frequent activities were energetic walking (31.0 %) and swimming (21.2 %). Main perceived benefits of exercising were improving physical fitness and functioning of the cardiovascular system, and the main barrier was physical exertion. Patients with paid employment had lower levels of physical activity whereas other demographic variables, disease activity/severity or TNF-inhibitor treatment were not predictive. One half of these patients performed enough physical activity according to the recommendations, similarly to the French population. Levels of physical activity did not appear to be explained by disease-related variables. Physical activity should be encouraged in axSpA.

  8. Consumers' evaluations of socially responsible activities in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2003-01-01

    The authors approached Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a process in which particular CSR activities impact on consumers’ store evaluation and trust. They hypothesized that consumers classify CSR activities along two dimensions: (1) the beneficiary of the activity and (2) the intrinsic

  9. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR. These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both

  10. Evaluating Fourier Cross-Correlation Sub-Pixel Registration in Landsat Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Almonacid-Caballer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-temporal analysis is one of the main applications of remote sensing, and Landsat imagery has been one of the main resources for many years. However, the moderate spatial resolution (30 m restricts their use for high precision applications. In this paper, we simulate Landsat scenes to evaluate, by means of an exhaustive number of tests, a subpixel registration process based on phase correlation and the upsampling of the Fourier transform. From a high resolution image (0.5 m, two sets of 121 synthetic images of fixed translations are created to simulate Landsat scenes (30 m. In this sense, the use of the point spread function (PSF of the Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper sensor in the downsampling process improves the results compared to those obtained by simple averaging. In the process of obtaining sub-pixel accuracy by upsampling the cross correlation matrix by a certain factor, the limit of improvement is achieved at 0.1 pixels. We show that image size affects the cross correlation results, but for images equal or larger than 100 × 100 pixels similar accuracies are expected. The large dataset used in the tests allows us to describe the intra-pixel distribution of the errors obtained in the registration process and how they follow a waveform instead of random/stochastic behavior. The amplitude of this waveform, representing the highest expected error, is estimated at 1.88 m. Finally, a validation test is performed over a set of sub-pixel shorelines obtained from actual Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and Landsat-8 OLI (Operation Land Imager scenes. The evaluation of the shoreline accuracy with respect to permanent seawalls, before and after the registration, shows the importance of the registering process and serves as a non-synthetic validation test that reinforce previous results.

  11. Influence of production circumstances and economic evaluation criteria on economic comparison of breeds and breed-crosses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahi, A.K.; Koskey, I.S.; Cardoso, V.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ranking of genotypes (i.e., breeds and breed crosses) for economic performance depends on the production circumstances of the herd and the criteria for economic evaluation. In this study, the effects of evaluation criteria and production circumstance are quantified using data from the literature

  12. Cross-person activity recognition using reduced kernel extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Zheng, Qing-Hua; Wang, Zhong-Min

    2014-05-01

    Activity recognition based on mobile embedded accelerometer is very important for developing human-centric pervasive applications such as healthcare, personalized recommendation and so on. However, the distribution of accelerometer data is heavily affected by varying users. The performance will degrade when the model trained on one person is used to others. To solve this problem, we propose a fast and accurate cross-person activity recognition model, known as TransRKELM (Transfer learning Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine) which uses RKELM (Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine) to realize initial activity recognition model. In the online phase OS-RKELM (Online Sequential Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine) is applied to update the initial model and adapt the recognition model to new device users based on recognition results with high confidence level efficiently. Experimental results show that, the proposed model can adapt the classifier to new device users quickly and obtain good recognition performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  14. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  15. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  16. Evaluation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes and concerns on osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiang, Lin; Wu, Yingying [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wei, Xiawei [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Laboratory for Aging Research, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Qu, Yili [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Man, Yi, E-mail: manyi780203@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Collagen membranes have ideal biological and mechanical properties for supporting infiltration and proliferation of osteoblasts and play a vital role in guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, pure collagen can lead to inflammation, resulting in progressive bone resorption. Therefore, a method for regulating the level of inflammatory cytokines at surgical sites is paramount for the healing process. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a component extracted from green tea with numerous biological activities including an anti-inflammatory effect. Herein, we present a novel cross-linked collagen membrane containing different concentrations of EGCG (0.0064%, 0.064%, and 0.64%) to regulate the level of inflammatory factors secreted by pre-osteoblast cells; improve cell proliferation; and increase the tensile strength, wettability, and thermal stability of collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope images show that the surfaces of collagen membranes became smoother and the collagen fiber diameters became larger with EGCG treatment. Measurement of the water contact angle demonstrated that introducing EGCG improved membrane wettability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses indicated that the backbone of collagen was intact, and the thermal stability was significant improved in differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties of 0.064% and 0.64% EGCG-treated collagen membranes were 1.5-fold greater than those of the control. The extent of cross-linking was significantly increased, as determined by a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assay. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and live/dead assays revealed that collagen membrane cross-linked by 0.0064% EGCG induced greater cell proliferation than pure collagen membranes. Additionally, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that EGCG significantly affected the production of inflammatory factors secreted by MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, our

  17. Experimental studies of the deuteron-induced activation cross-sections on natAg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Baba, M; Hagiwara, M; Tarkanyi, F; Ditroi, F; Takacs, S; Hermanne, A

    2006-09-01

    Excitation functions were measured for the (nat)Ag(d,x)(105,106m,110m)Ag, (nat)Ag(d,x)(107,109)Cd and (27)Al(d,x)(24)Na reactions by the stacked-foil activation technique and high-resolution gamma-spectroscopy over the energy range 0.44-40 MeV. The thick target integral yields were deduced using the measured cross-sections. No experimental data on the (nat)Ag+d process are available in the literature above 27 MeV. The nuclides (105)Ag, (106m)Ag and (109)Cd produced with deuteron induced activation of natural silver have suitable yields and decay characteristics important for thin layer activation (TLA) analysis. The cross-section for the production of (107)Cd and (109)Cd is significantly large. Therefore, the Ag+d process can be an efficient route for the production of isotope with a medium energy accelerator. The results of the model calculation using the TALYS code are not consistent with the present data. A large shift in the incident energy is found in TALYS calculations.

  18. A methodology to leverage cross-sectional accelerometry to capture weather's influence in active living research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun R; Rainham, Daniel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-27

    While active living interventions focus on modifying urban design and built environment, weather variation, a phenomenon that perennially interacts with these environmental factors, is consistently underexplored. This study's objective is to develop a methodology to link weather data with existing cross-sectional accelerometry data in capturing weather variation. Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear neighbourhoods. Thereafter, 137 Actical accelerometers were used to derive moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) data from 455 children in 25 sequential one-week cycles between April and June, 2010. This sequential deployment was necessary to overcome the difference in the ratio between the sample size and the number of accelerometers. A data linkage methodology was developed, where each accelerometry cycle was matched with localized (Saskatoon-specific) weather patterns derived from Environment Canada. Statistical analyses were conducted to depict the influence of urban design on MVPA and SB after factoring in localized weather patterns. Integration of cross-sectional accelerometry with localized weather patterns allowed the capture of weather variation during a single seasonal transition. Overall, during the transition from spring to summer in Saskatoon, MVPA increased and SB decreased during warmer days. After factoring in localized weather, a recurring observation was that children residing in fractured grid-pattern neighbourhoods accumulated significantly lower MVPA and higher SB. The proposed methodology could be utilized to link globally available cross-sectional accelerometry data with place-specific weather data to understand how built and social environmental factors interact with varying weather patterns in influencing active living.

  19. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  20. Patients' evaluations of patient safety in English general practices: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Marsden, Kate S; Avery, Anthony J; Bell, Brian G; Kadam, Umesh T; Reeves, David; Slight, Sarah P; Perryman, Katherine; Barnett, Jane; Litchfield, Ian; Thomas, Sally; Campbell, Stephen M; Doos, Lucy; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2017-07-01

    Description of safety problems and harm in general practices has previously relied on information from health professionals, with scarce attention paid to experiences of patients. To examine patient-reported experiences and outcomes of patient safety in primary care. Cross-sectional study in 45 general practices across five regions in the north, centre, and south of England. A version of the Patient Reported Experiences and Outcomes of Safety in Primary Care (PREOS-PC) questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 6736 patients. Main outcome measures included 'practice activation' (what a practice does to create a safe environment); 'patient activation' (how proactive are patients in ensuring safe healthcare delivery); 'experiences of safety events' (safety errors); 'outcomes of safety' (harm); and 'overall perception of safety' (how safe patients rate their practice). Questionnaires were returned by 1244 patients (18.4%). Scores were high for 'practice activation' (mean [standard error] = 80.4 out of 100 [2.0]) and low for 'patient activation' (26.3 out of 100 [2.6]). Of the patients, 45% reported experiencing at least one safety problem in the previous 12 months, mostly related to appointments (33%), diagnosis (17%), patient provider communication (15%), and coordination between providers (14%). Twenty-three per cent of the responders reported some degree of harm in the previous 12 months. The overall assessment of level of safety of practices was generally high (86.0 out of 100 [16.8]). Priority areas for patient safety improvement in general practices in England include appointments, diagnosis, communication, coordination, and patient activation. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  1. Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life: cross-sectional and longitudial associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, A.J.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies that relate change in physical activity to change in health-related quality of life in the general population are needed to confirm associations suggested by cross-sectional studies. In the present study, cross-sectional as well as longitudinal associations between leisure time physical

  2. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (iii) The term “related entity” may also apply to a State, or an agency or institution of a State... for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CROSS-WAIVER OF LIABILITY § 1266.102 Cross-waiver of...

  3. Performance Evaluation, Emulation, and Control of Cross-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Robert J.

    Cross-flow hydrokinetic turbines are a promising option for effectively harvesting energy from fast-flowing streams or currents. This work describes the dynamics of such turbines, analyzes techniques used to scale turbine properties for prototyping, determines and demonstrates the limits of stability for cross-flow rotors, and discusses means and objectives of turbine control. Novel control strategies are under development to utilize low-speed operation (slower than at maximum power point) as a means of shedding power under rated conditions. However, operation in this regime may be unstable. An experiment designed to characterize the stability of a laboratory-scale cross-flow turbine operating near a critically low speed yields evidence that system stall (complete loss of ability to rotate) occurs due, in part, to interactions with turbulent decreases in flow speed. The turbine is capable of maintaining 'stable' operation at critical speed for short duration (typically less than 10 s), as described by exponential decay. The presence of accelerated 'bypass' flow around the rotor and decelerated 'induction' region directly upstream of the rotor, both predicted by linear momentum theory, are observed and quantified with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements conducted upstream of the turbine. Additionally, general agreement is seen between PIV inflow measurements and those obtained by an advection-corrected acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) further upstream. Performance of a turbine at small (prototype) geometric scale may be prone to undesirable effects due to operation at low Reynolds number and in the presence of high channel blockage. Therefore, testing at larger scale, in open water is desirable. A cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine with a projected area (product of blade span and rotor diameter) of 0.7 m2 is evaluated in open-water tow trials at three inflow speeds ranging from 1.0 m/s to 2.1 m/s. Measurements of the inflow velocity, the rotor mechanical

  4. Cross-spectral analysis of physiological tremor and muscle activity; 2, Application to synchronized EMG

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, J; Pfleger, W; Deuschl, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between synchronized muscle activity and tremor time series in (enhanced) physiological tremor by cross-spectral analysis. Special attention is directed to the phase spectrum and its possibilities to clarify the contribution of reflex mechanisms to physiological tremor. The phase spectra are investigated under the assumptions that the EMG synchronization was caused by a reflex, respectively a central oscillator. In comparison of these results to phase spectra of measured data we found a significant contribution of reflexes. But reflexes only modify existing peaks in the power spectrum. The main agents of physiological tremor are an efferent pace and the resonant behavior of the biomechanical system.

  5. Xanthine Dehydrogenase (XDH) cross-reacting material in mutants of Drosophila melanogaster deficient in XDH activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, L W; Tucker, L; Wilkes, J

    1982-02-01

    Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to estimate xanthine dehydrogenase cross-reacting material (XDH-CRM) in strains containing the cin and cin mutant genes, which are deficient in XDH enzymatic activity. CRM levels were determined as percentages of CRM in the Oregon-R wild-type strain. The mutant strains contain 72 and 76% of Oregon-R CRM, respectively. CRM levels in strains containing the XDH-deficient mutant genes lxd and mal are 93 and 105%, respectively. The high levels of CRM in these four mutant strains indicate that the primary effects of the mutant genes are on the function of XDH protein rather than its accumulation.

  6. Activation cross sections on cadmium: Deuteron induced nuclear reactions up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F.; Király, B.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Csikai, J.; Hermanne, A.; Uddin, M. S.; Hagiwara, M.; Baba, M.; Ido, T.; Shubin, Yu. N.; Kovalev, S. F.

    2007-06-01

    Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions were measured up to 40 MeV using the standard stacked-foil irradiation method and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross sections and derived integral yields are reported for the reactions natCd(d,x)107g,108g,108m,109g,110g,110m,111g,112m,113m,114m,115m,116m1In, natCd(d,x)111m,115g,115m,117g,117mCd and natCd(d,x)105g,106m,110m,111gAg. No experimental data measured on natural cadmium have been found in the literature for the isotopes 107g,108g,108m,112m,115mIn, 111m,115m,117g,117mCd and 105g,106m,110m,111gAg. The experimental data are analyzed with and compared to the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE. Applications of the cross sections for data validation, medical radioisotope production, thin-layer activation and dose calculation are discussed.

  7. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Manwoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan 619-953 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the {sup 110,113g,117m}Sn, {sup 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117g}In, and {sup 111m,115g}Cd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  8. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2014-08-01

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on natCd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the 110,113g,117mSn, 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117gIn, and 111m,115gCd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  9. Measurement of activation cross sections for quasi-monoenergetic neutron induced reactions of {sup 89}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Nadeem, Muhammad [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Lee, Manwoo [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The neutron induced cross sections of the {sup 89}Y(n, 2n){sup 88}Y, {sup 89}Y(n, 3n){sup 87}Y and {sup 89}Y(n, 4n){sup 86}Y reactions were measured in the neutron energy range of 15.2 to 37.2 MeV by using an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The quasi-monoenergetic neutrons used for the above reactions are based on a {sup 9}Be(p, n) reaction. Simulations of the neutron spectra from the Be target were done using the MCNPX 2.6.0 program. Theoretical calculations were performed for the {sup 89}Y(n, 2n){sup 88}Y, {sup 89}Y(n, 3n){sup 87}Y and {sup 89}Y(n, 4n){sup 86}Y reaction cross sections using nuclear model code Talys 1.8. The measured and calculated cross sections were compared with the literature data given in EXFOR and the TENDL-2015 data libraries. The present data of the {sup 89}Y(n, xn) reaction were also compared with the similar data of the {sup 89}Y(γ, xn) reaction to examine the effect of the entrance channel parameters as well as the role of projectiles and ejectiles. (orig.)

  10. 360° Operative Videos: A Randomised Cross-Over Study Evaluating Attentiveness and Information Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Cuan M; Kavanagh, Dara O; Wright Ballester, Gemma; Wright Ballester, Athena; Dicker, Patrick; Traynor, Oscar; Hill, Arnold; Tierney, Sean

    2017-11-06

    Although two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional videos have traditionally provided foundations for reviewing operative procedures, the recent 360º format may provide new dimensions to surgical education. This study sought to describe the production of a high quality 360º video for an index-operation (augmented with educational material), while evaluating for variances in attentiveness, information retention, and appraisal compared to 2D. A 6-camera synchronised array (GoPro Omni, [California, United States]) was suspended inverted and recorded an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 2016. A single-blinded randomised cross-over study was performed to evaluate this video in 360º vs 2D formats. Group A experienced the 360º video using Samsung (Suwon, South-Korea) GearVR virtual-reality headsets, followed by the 2D experience on a 75-inch television. Group B were reversed. Each video was probed at designated time points for engagement levels and task-unrelated images or thoughts. Alternating question banks were administered following each video experience. Feedback was obtained via a short survey at study completion. The New Academic and Education Building (NAEB) in Dublin, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, July 2017. Preclinical undergraduate students from a medical university in Ireland. Forty students participated with a mean age of 23.2 ± 4.5 years and equal sex involvement. The 360º video demonstrated significantly higher engagement (p video as their learning platform of choice. Mean appraisal levels for the 360º platform were positive with mean responses of >8/10 for the platform for learning, immersion, and entertainment. This study describes the successful development and evaluation of a 360º operative video. This new video format demonstrated significant engagement and attentiveness benefits compared to traditional 2D formats. This requires further evaluation in the field of technology enhanced learning. Copyright © 2017 Association of

  11. Enhanced esterification activity through interfacial activation and cross-linked immobilization mechanism of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in a nonaqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Funda

    2016-07-08

    Interfacial activation via surfactant (Tween 80, Triton X-100) treatment was conducted to improve the esterification activity of Rhizopus oryzae lipase that had undergone immobilization through cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA®) technique. Surfactant pretreated immobilized enzymes exhibited better esterification activity compared to free and non-pretreated immobilized enzyme (Control CLEAs) since higher conversion rates were obtained within shorter times. The superiority of surfactant pretreated CLEAs, especially Tween 80 pretreated CLEAs (T 80 PT CLEAs), were clearly pronounced when longer alcohols were used as substrates. Conversion values exceeded 90% for octyl octanoate, oleyl octanoate and oleyl oleate synthesis with T 80 PT CLEAs whereas Control CLEAs and free enzyme showed no activity. Maximum conversions were achieved in the case equal molars of the substrates or in the case excess of the alcohol to acid in cyclohexane. In solvent free medium containing equal molars of substrates the conversion rates were 85% and 87% with T 80 PT CLEAs respectively for octyl octanoate and oleyl oleate within 2 hours. T 80 PT CLEAs showed 59% of its original activity after 7 consecutive usage for oleyl oleate synthesis. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:899-904, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Physical activity and bone turnover markers: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Fiore, Carmelo Erio; Nuti, Ranuccio; Luisetto, Giovanni; Ponte, Marco; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-12-01

    Strenuous physical activity in young individuals has an important effect on both bone mass and bone turnover but the effect of moderate physical activity in adults remains uncertain. In a large cohort (N = 530) of healthy premenopausal women, bone formation markers (osteocalcin and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen [P1NP]), but not serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (sCTX), were found to be significantly associated with the level of physical activity, and this association remained significant after adjusting the data (ANCOVA) by age and body mass index. Mean spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) values were positively associated with physical activity but this was statistically significant (P = 0.050) only for adjusted values of spine BMD. Twenty-four healthy sedentary premenopausal women, subscribing to participate in a community exercise program lasting a month, and 18 age-matched controls were included in the longitudinal study. Serum osteocalcin and P1NP, but not sCTX, rose significantly, by ca. 25%, only in the active group after a month of exercise. The changes in the two bone formation markers remained statistically significant for values adjusted for body weight, which fell significantly in the exercise group. In conclusion, both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal parts of our study demonstrate that even minor changes in physical activity are associated with a clear effect on bone formation markers.

  13. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  14. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Julie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-03

    Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls' participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=-0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=-0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the development of family-based interventions to improve

  15. Stress optimization of leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots for an active Gurney flap mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Gómez, Jon; Booker, Julian D.; Mellor, Phil H.

    2015-04-01

    The EU's Green Rotorcraft programme is pursuing the development of a functional and airworthy Active Gurney Flap (AGF) for a full-scale helicopter rotor blade. Interest in the development of this `smart adaptive rotor blade' technology lies in its potential to provide a number of aerodynamic benefits, which would in turn translate into a reduction in fuel consumption and noise levels. The AGF mechanism selected employs leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots. These provide important advantages over bearings as they are not susceptible to seizing and do not require maintenance (i.e. lubrication or cleaning). A baseline design of this mechanism was successfully tested both in a fatigue rig and in a 2D wind tunnel environment at flight-representative deployment schedules. For full validation, a flight test would also be required. However, the severity of the in-flight loading conditions would likely compromise the mechanical integrity of the pivots' leaf-springs in their current form. This paper investigates the scope for stress reduction through three-dimensional shape optimization of the leaf-springs of a generic crossed flexure pivot. To this end, a procedure combining a linear strain energy formulation, a parametric leaf-spring profile definition and a series of optimization algorithms is employed. The resulting optimized leaf-springs are proven to be not only independent of the angular rotation at which the pivot operates, but also linearly scalable to leaf-springs of any length, minimum thickness and width. Validated using non-linear finite element analysis, the results show very significant stress reductions relative to pivots with constant cross section leaf-springs, of up to as much as 30% for the specific pivot configuration employed in the AGF mechanism. It is concluded that shape optimization offers great potential for reducing stress in crossed flexure pivots and, consequently, for extending their fatigue life and/or rotational range.

  16. Cellular Density Evaluation for Malignant Lymphoma Using Equivalent Cross-Relaxation Rate Imaging - Initial Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Morishima, Yasuo [Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Equivalent cross-relaxation rate (ECR) imaging is an MRI technique used to evaluate quantitatively a change in the protein-water interaction. We aimed to evaluate retrospectively the usefulness of ECR imaging for the histologic classification of malignant lymphoma (ML). Institutional Review Board approval was obtained and all patients provided informed consent. The study subjects included 15 patients with untreated ML who were histologically diagnosed with follicular lymphoma (FL; n = 8) or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; n = 7). All patients underwent ECR imaging and the offset frequency was set at 7 ppm. The median ECR values were 71% (range; 60.7 to 75.5) in FL and 54% (50.8 to 59.4) in DLBCL (p = 0.001). The median cellular density was 1.5 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup 6} / mm{sup 2} in FL and 1.0 {+-} 0.70 x 10{sup 6} / mm{sup 2} in DLBCL (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between the ECR values and cellular density in ML was 0.88 (p = 0.001). In FL and DLBCL, assuming ECR value cut-off points of 60%, both sensitivity and specificity were 100%. A strong correlation between ECR and cellular density in ML is demonstrated and the ECR may be a useful technique to differentiate between FL and DLBCL.

  17. New Standard Evaluated Neutron Cross Section Libraries for the GEANT4 Code and First Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, Emilio; Koi, Tatsumi; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of neutrons with matter relies on evaluated nuclear data libraries and models. The evaluated libraries are compilations of measured physical parameters (such as cross sections) combined with predictions of nuclear model calculations which have been adjusted to reproduce the experimental data. The results obtained from the simulations depend largely on the accuracy of the underlying nuclear data used, and thus it is important to have access to the nuclear data libraries available, either of general use or compiled for specific applications, and to perform exhaustive validations which cover the wide scope of application of the simulation code. In this paper we describe the work performed in order to extend the capabilities of the GEANT4 toolkit for the simulation of the interaction of neutrons with matter at neutron energies up to 20 MeV and a first verification of the results obtained. Such a work is of relevance for applications as diverse as the simulation of a n...

  18. The path from process to outcomes: a cross-site evaluation of 24 family connection grantee projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Jennifer; Tipon, Grace; DeWolfe, Joanna; Sullins, Carolyn; Park, Chi Connie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents process and outcome results from 24 federally-funded grants designed to reconnect family members with children in or at risk of entering foster care. Authors used local evaluation designs, data collection, analyses, and grantee reporting, along with site visits and interviews, to implement a cross-site evaluation. Target populations; service models; parent, child, and family-level outcomes; and organizational and system-level outcomes are summarized. Limitations of the evaluation and recommendations to the field are discussed.

  19. Parenting stress: a cross-sectional analysis of associations with childhood obesity, physical activity, and TV viewing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walton, Kathryn; Simpson, Janis Randall; Darlington, Gerarda; Haines, Jess

    2014-01-01

    ...) as well as obesity risk factors, physical activity and television (TV) viewing. We used cross-sectional data from 110 parent-child dyads participating in a community-based parenting intervention...

  20. Cross-evaluation of modelled and remotely sensed surface soil moisture with in situ data in southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergel, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; de Rosnay, P.; Balsamo, G.; Wagner, W.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Martin, E.; Bazile, E.; Bouyssel, F.; Mahfouf, J.-F.

    2010-11-01

    The SMOSMANIA soil moisture network in Southwestern France is used to evaluate modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture products. The surface soil moisture (SSM) measured in situ at 5 cm permits to evaluate SSM from the SIM operational hydrometeorological model of Météo-France and to perform a cross-evaluation of the normalised SSM estimates derived from coarse-resolution (25 km) active microwave observations from the ASCAT scatterometer instrument (C-band, onboard METOP), issued by EUMETSAT and resampled to the Discrete Global Grid (DGG, 12.5 km gridspacing) by TU-Wien (Vienna University of Technology) over a two year period (2007-2008). A downscaled ASCAT product at one kilometre scale is evaluated as well, together with operational soil moisture products of two meteorological services, namely the ALADIN numerical weather prediction model (NWP) and the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) analysis of Météo-France and ECMWF, respectively. In addition to the operational SSM analysis of ECMWF, a second analysis using a simplified extended Kalman filter and assimilating the ASCAT SSM estimates is tested. The ECMWF SSM estimates correlate better with the in situ observations than the Météo-France products. This may be due to the higher ability of the multi-layer land surface model used at ECMWF to represent the soil moisture profile. However, the SSM derived from SIM corresponds to a thin soil surface layer and presents good correlations with ASCAT SSM estimates for the very first centimetres of soil. At ECMWF, the use of a new data assimilation technique, which is able to use the ASCAT SSM, improves the SSM and the root-zone soil moisture analyses.

  1. Cross-evaluation of modelled and remotely sensed surface soil moisture with in situ data in southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The SMOSMANIA soil moisture network in Southwestern France is used to evaluate modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture products. The surface soil moisture (SSM measured in situ at 5 cm permits to evaluate SSM from the SIM operational hydrometeorological model of Météo-France and to perform a cross-evaluation of the normalised SSM estimates derived from coarse-resolution (25 km active microwave observations from the ASCAT scatterometer instrument (C-band, onboard METOP, issued by EUMETSAT and resampled to the Discrete Global Grid (DGG, 12.5 km gridspacing by TU-Wien (Vienna University of Technology over a two year period (2007–2008. A downscaled ASCAT product at one kilometre scale is evaluated as well, together with operational soil moisture products of two meteorological services, namely the ALADIN numerical weather prediction model (NWP and the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS analysis of Météo-France and ECMWF, respectively. In addition to the operational SSM analysis of ECMWF, a second analysis using a simplified extended Kalman filter and assimilating the ASCAT SSM estimates is tested. The ECMWF SSM estimates correlate better with the in situ observations than the Météo-France products. This may be due to the higher ability of the multi-layer land surface model used at ECMWF to represent the soil moisture profile. However, the SSM derived from SIM corresponds to a thin soil surface layer and presents good correlations with ASCAT SSM estimates for the very first centimetres of soil. At ECMWF, the use of a new data assimilation technique, which is able to use the ASCAT SSM, improves the SSM and the root-zone soil moisture analyses.

  2. Post graduate clinical placements: evaluating benefits and challenges with a mixed methods cross sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiend, Jenny; Tracy, Derek K; Sreenan, Brian; Cardi, Valentina; Foulkes, Tina; Koutsantoni, Katerina; Kravariti, Eugenia; Tchanturia, Kate; Willmott, Lucy; Shergill, Sukhi; Reedy, Gabriel

    2016-02-16

    Systematic evaluations of clinical placements are rare, especially when offered alongside academic postgraduate courses. An evidence-based approach is important to allow pedagogically-driven provision, rather than that solely governed by opinion or market demand. Our evaluation assessed a voluntary clinical placement scheme allied to a mental health course. Data were collected over academic years 2010/11- 2013/14, from participating students (n = 20 to 58) and clinician supervisors (n = 10-12), using a mixed-methods cross-sectional design. Quantitative evaluation captured information on uptake, dropout, resource use, attitudes and experience, using standardized (the Placement Evaluation Questionnaire; the Scale To Assess the Therapeutic Relationship - Clinical version and the University of Toronto Placement Supervisor Evaluation) and bespoke questionnaires and audit data. Qualitative evaluation comprised two focus groups (5 clinicians, 5 students), to investigate attitudes, experience, perceived benefits, disadvantages and desired future developments. Data were analysed using framework analysis to identify a priori and emergent themes. High uptake (around 70 placements per annum), low dropout (2-3 students per annum; 5 %) and positive focus group comments suggested placements successfully provided added value and catered sufficiently to student demand. Students' responses confirmed that placements met expectations and the perception of benefit remained after completion with 70 % (n = 14) reporting an overall positive experience, 75 % (n = 15) reporting a pleasant learning experience, 60 % (n = 12) feeling that their clinical skills were enhanced and 85 % (n = 17) believing that it would benefit other students. Placements contributed the equivalent of seven full time unskilled posts per annum to local health care services. While qualitative data revealed perceived 'mutual benefit' for both students and clinicians, this was qualified by

  3. A Method for Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cheryl; Carpenter, Dick; Tucker, Elizabeth; Luna, Carmen; Donovan, John; Behrens, Timothy K

    2017-09-14

    Providing opportunities for students to be physically active during the school day leads to increased academic performance, better focus, and fewer behavioral problems. As schools begin to incorporate more physical activity programming into the school day, evaluators need methods to measure how much physical activity students are being offered through this programming. Because classroom-based physical activity is often offered in 3-minute to 5-minute bouts at various times of the day, depending on the teachers' time to incorporate it, it is a challenge to evaluate this activity. This article describes a method to estimate the number of physical activity minutes provided before, during, and after school. The web-based tool can be used to gather data cost-effectively from a large number of schools. Strategies to increase teacher response rates and assess intensity of activity should be explored.

  4. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Biochemical parameters vary in subjects with different hemoglobin phenotypes, compared with normal controls. Aim: The aim was to evaluate serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and inorganic phosphate concentrations in Nigerian adults with homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin phenotypes.

  5. Evaluation of traffic control devices : fifth-year activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project was established to provide a means of conducting limited scope evaluations of numerous traffic : control device issues. During the fifth, and final, year of the project, researchers conducted four activities: : improving the interface fo...

  6. Evaluation of mutagenic/antimutagenic activity of conjugated linoleic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of mutagenic/antimutagenic activity of conjugated linoleic acid in mice by micronucleus test. LBD Carvalho-Silva, MDV Oliveira, DT Konichi, MR Maróstica JR, PCB Lollo, J Amaya-Farfán ...

  7. In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum dc (Asteraceae) and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the republic of Congo.

  8. Evaluation of simulated cross-formational travel times using water age measurements in layered aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Alexandros; Ewing, John; Deeds, Neil; Kreitler, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    The recent hydrologic droughts in the southwestern USA have brought forward the necessity for sustainable management of groundwater that was recharged several thousands of years ago, also known as fossil water, as this resource is not directly rechargeable even through heavy rain events. Groundwater age studies can enable water authorities to map the origins of groundwater, quantify water ages in aquifers and plan sustainable water resource policies on local and regional scales. In this study, numerical groundwater availability models (GAMs) are combined with water age measurements to perform a water age analysis of the Wilcox, Carrizo, Queen City, Sparta, Jackson and Yegua aquifers that span central Texas dipping toward the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The 3D GAMs have initially been calibrated using well data. The water age analysis is carried out using 2D simulations to characterize down dip flow, cross-formational flow in the aquifers and the impact on associated water ages in representative transects extracted from the 3D models, including a discussion on bridging the gap between the 3D hydrogeological system and its simplified 2D representations. A systematic quantification of water age sensitivity to formation hydraulic conductivities and recharge at the aquifer outcrops is performed, whereby travel times in the simulated aquifers are compared to water age measurements obtained from C-14 and Tritium age dating techniques. The analysis therefore delivers the spectrum of water age isolines under consideration of model parameter uncertainty, evaluating the predictive ability of cross-formational water age studies when using 2D transect models.

  9. Using the decision ladder to understand road user decision making at actively controlled rail level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Christine M; Salmon, Paul M; Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-09-01

    Rail level crossings (RLXs) represent a key strategic risk for railways worldwide. Despite enforcement and engineering countermeasures, user behaviour at RLXs can often confound expectations and erode safety. Research in this area is limited by a relative absence of insights into actual decision making processes and a focus on only a subset of road user types. One-hundred and sixty-six road users (drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians) completed a diary entry for each of 457 naturalistic encounters with RLXs when a train was approaching. The final eligible sample comprised 94 participants and 248 encounters at actively controlled crossings where a violation of the active warnings was possible. The diary incorporated Critical Decision Method probe questions, which enabled user responses to be mapped onto Rasmussen's decision ladder. Twelve percent of crossing events were non-compliant. The underlying decision making was compared to compliant events and a reference decision model to reveal important differences in the structure and type of decision making within and between road user groups. The findings show that engineering countermeasures intended to improve decision making (e.g. flashing lights), may have the opposite effect for some users because the system permits a high level of flexibility for circumvention. Non-motorised users were more likely to access information outside of the warning signals because of their ability to achieve greater proximity to the train tracks and the train itself. The major conundrum in resolving these issues is whether to restrict the amount of time and information available to users so that it cannot be used for circumventing the system or provide more information to help users make safe decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity analyses of stopping distance for connected vehicles at active highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Jen; Jones, Elizabeth G

    2017-02-01

    This paper performs sensitivity analyses of stopping distance for connected vehicles (CVs) at active highway-rail grade crossings (HRGCs). Stopping distance is the major safety factor at active HRGCs. A sensitivity analysis is performed for each variable in the function of stopping distance. The formulation of stopping distance treats each variable as a probability density function for implementing Monte Carlo simulations. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the initial speed is the most sensitive factor to stopping distances of CVs and non-CVs. The safety of CVs can be further improved by the early provision of onboard train information and warnings to reduce the initial speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  12. Preparation and biological activity studies of resveratrol loaded ionically cross-linked chitosan-TPP nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Yaping; Yang, Hao; Liu, Xiangyu; Lu, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Nanoparticles with size range of 10-500nm can be efficiently delivered into cancer cells by the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Here, we prepared resveratrol (Res) loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles with the size of 172-217nm by an ionic cross-linking method, with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as the cross-linking agent, to improve the stability, solubility and tumors targeting of the natural anti-cancer drug Res. The prepared Res loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles presented long-term storage stability and UV light stability. The cumulative drug release from nanoparticles in mimetic tumor tissue condition (pH 6.5) was higher than that in physiological condition (pH 7.4). Further, Res-loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles maintained the antioxidant activity of Res even after UV light irradiation. Cell viability study shows that the as prepared drug loaded nanoparticles had similar antiproliferative activity on hepatocellular carcinoma cells SMMC 7721 and lower cytotoxicity on normal hepatocyte cells L02 compared with free Res. Fluorescence microscopy observation revealed that the nanoparticles were efficiently taken in by SMMC 7721 cells. This work indicates the potential use of drug loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles for the efficient delivery of bioactive Res for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-activation and detraining effects of tongue exercise in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaser, Allison J; Ciucci, Michelle R; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-01-15

    Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Healthcare students' evaluation of the clinical learning environment and supervision - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Salla; Kääriäinen, Maria; Oikarainen, Ashlee; Tuomikoski, Anna-Maria; Elo, Satu; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Saarikoski, Mikko; Kärsämänoja, Taina; Mikkonen, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of clinical placements and supervision is to promote the development of healthcare students´ professional skills. High-quality clinical learning environments and supervision were shown to have significant influence on healthcare students´ professional development. This study aimed to describe healthcare students` evaluation of the clinical learning environment and supervision, and to identify the factors that affect these. The study was performed as a cross-sectional study. The data (n = 1973) were gathered through an online survey using the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale during the academic year 2015-2016 from all healthcare students (N = 2500) who completed their clinical placement at a certain university hospital in Finland. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. More than half of the healthcare students had a named supervisor and supervision was completed as planned. The students evaluated the clinical learning environment and supervision as 'good'. The students´ readiness to recommend the unit to other students and the frequency of separate private unscheduled sessions with the supervisor were the main factors that affect healthcare students` evaluation of the clinical learning environment and supervision. Individualized and goal-oriented supervision in which the student had a named supervisor and where supervision was completed as planned in a positive environment that supported learning had a significant impact on student's learning. The clinical learning environment and supervision support the development of future healthcare professionals' clinical competence. The supervisory relationship was shown to have a significant effect on the outcomes of students' experiences. We recommend the planning of educational programmes for supervisors of healthcare students for the enhancement of supervisors' pedagogical competencies in supervising students in

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation, evaluation and validation of the Spouse Response Inventory: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Steinmetz, Dorit; Scharnagel, Rüdiger; Jensen, Mark P; Balck, Friedrich; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2014-10-14

    Since the response of spouses has been proven to be an important reinforcement of pain behaviour and disability it has been addressed in research and therapy. Fordyce suggested pain behaviour and well behaviour be considered in explaining suffering in chronic pain patients. Among existing instruments concerning spouse's responses the aspect of well behaviour has not been examined so far. The SRI (Spouse Response Inventory) tries to consider pain behaviour and well behaviour and appears to be acceptable because of its brevity and close proximity to daily language. The aim of the study is the translation into German, followed by evaluation and validation, of the SRI on a German sample of patients with chronic pain. The study is comprehensively designed: initially, the focus will lie on the translation of the instrument following the guidelines for cross-cultural translation and adaptation and evaluation of the German version according to the source study. Subsequently, a validation referring to predictive, incremental and construct validation will be conducted using instruments based on similar or close but different constructs. Evaluation of the resulting SRI-G (SRI-German) will be conducted on a sample of at least 30 patients with chronic pain attending a comprehensive pain centre. For validation at least 120 patients with chronic headache, back pain, cancer related pain and somatoform pain disorder shall be included, for a total of 480 patients. Separate analyses according to specific pain diagnoses will be performed to ensure psychometric property, interpretability and control of diagnosis of specific limitations. Analyses will include comprehensive investigation of psychometric property of the scale by hierarchical regression analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate analysis of variance and exploratory factor analyses (SPSS). The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Dresden (EK 335 122008) based on the Helsinki declaration

  16. Overestimation of physical activity level is associated with lower BMI: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corder Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor recognition of physical inactivity may be an important barrier to healthy behaviour change, but little is known about this phenomenon. We aimed to characterize a high-risk population according to the discrepancies between objective and self-rated physical activity (PA, defined as awareness. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of PA awareness using baseline data collected from 365 ProActive participants between 2001 and 2003 in East Anglia, England. Self-rated PA was defined as 'active' or 'inactive' (assessed via questionnaire. Objective PA was defined according to achievement of guideline activity levels (≥30 minutes or Results 63.3% of participants (N = 231 were inactive according to objective measurement. Of these, 45.9% rated themselves as active ('Overestimators'. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age and smoking, males (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.98, those with lower BMI (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84, 0.95, younger age at completion of full-time education (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.93 and higher general health perception (OR = 1.02 CI = 1.00, 1.04 were more likely to overestimate their PA. Conclusions Overestimation of PA is associated with favourable indicators of relative slimness and general health. Feedback about PA levels could help reverse misperceptions.

  17. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excitation function measurement of deuteron induced reactions on natural palladium up to 40 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model code calculations with EMPIRE, ALICE and TALYS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral production yield calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin layer activation (TLA) with the produced isotopes. - Abstract: Activation cross-sections for deuteron induced reactions were measured on natural palladium up to 40 MeV with the activation method using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-spectrometry. Excitation functions are reported for the reactions producing the radionuclides {sup 111}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 106m}Ag, {sup 105}Ag, {sup 111m}Pd, {sup 109}Pd, {sup 101}Pd, {sup 100}Pd, {sup 105}Rh, {sup 102g}Rh, {sup 101m}Rh, {sup 100}Rh and {sup 99g}Rh. Comparisons with earlier published data and theoretical results of ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and the TALYS codes are presented. Calculated yield curves and activity versus depth distributions are also presented for practical applications such as isotope production or thin layer activation.

  18. Evaluation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes and concerns on osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Xiang, Lin; Wu, Yingying; Wei, Xiawei; Qu, Yili; Man, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Collagen membranes have ideal biological and mechanical properties for supporting infiltration and proliferation of osteoblasts and play a vital role in guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, pure collagen can lead to inflammation, resulting in progressive bone resorption. Therefore, a method for regulating the level of inflammatory cytokines at surgical sites is paramount for the healing process. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a component extracted from green tea with numerous biological activities including an anti-inflammatory effect. Herein, we present a novel cross-linked collagen membrane containing different concentrations of EGCG (0.0064%, 0.064%, and 0.64%) to regulate the level of inflammatory factors secreted by pre-osteoblast cells; improve cell proliferation; and increase the tensile strength, wettability, and thermal stability of collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope images show that the surfaces of collagen membranes became smoother and the collagen fiber diameters became larger with EGCG treatment. Measurement of the water contact angle demonstrated that introducing EGCG improved membrane wettability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses indicated that the backbone of collagen was intact, and the thermal stability was significant improved in differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties of 0.064% and 0.64% EGCG-treated collagen membranes were 1.5-fold greater than those of the control. The extent of cross-linking was significantly increased, as determined by a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assay. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and live/dead assays revealed that collagen membrane cross-linked by 0.0064% EGCG induced greater cell proliferation than pure collagen membranes. Additionally, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that EGCG significantly affected the production of inflammatory factors secreted by MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, our

  19. [How are resident physicians evaluated? The residents' computerized activity record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Aracil, Xavier; Navarro Soto, Salvador; Artigau Nieto, Eva; Rebasa Cladera, Pere; Hernando Tavira, Rubén; Moreno Matías, Juan; Aparicio Rodríguez, Oscar; Hermoso Bosch, Judit; Montmany Vioque, Sandra

    2006-09-01

    Because of the developments that have occurred in surgery in the last few years, updates are required not only in the content of resident physicians' training but also in evaluation of the knowledge acquired. The present article aims to present our experience of an integral evaluation model. This model is based on evaluation of theoretical knowledge and surgical skills. The training program for resident physicians (medico interno residente [MIR]) has four main branches: clinical work, continuing training, research (doctorate) and evaluation of the activity performed (computerized activity record). This record allows the theoretical knowledge and skills acquired to be evaluated at the end of each rotation. Through 6-monthly evaluations, each resident's activity can be quantified over time and compared with that of other residents. The system was introduced in July 2004. Each resident was given his or her own database. All the activities performed were then introduced into the database. The results of overall activity and that of each resident are presented. The method used allows residents' integral progress to be followed-up and a completely objective evaluation to be made at the end of each year and at the end of the residency period. Widespread use of this system, or a similar system, would enable comparisons with other centers to be made under similar premises. This system could also help to unify criteria and identify deviations in training.

  20. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Compendium of Physical Activity: Thai Translation and Content Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayondeja, Chutima; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Vachalathiti, Roongtiwa; Bovonsunthonchai, Sunee; Sakulsriprasert, Prasert; Kaewkhuntee, Watsinee; Bunprajun, Tipwadee; Upiriyasakul, Rujiret

    2015-06-01

    To translate the compendium physical activity (compendium) proposed by Ainsworth to Thai and to validate the Thai translated version. Five steps of cross-cultural adaption were conducted as follows: (1) forward translation, (2) group review, (3) backward translation, (4) group review and final decision and (5) a pilot study. Eight hundred and twenty-one activities ofthe compendium were translated to Thai by two independents translators. Thai translated version was considered by 23 persons who have studied physical activity for at leastfive years. Backward translation was carried out by two bilingual translators. The research team completed the final Thai translation by comparing original and translated versions. For pilot study the Thai translated version was validated by 22 allied health persons. Data was analyzed by multi-rater agreement (Fleiss's kappa) and qualitative analysis. For translations and group review, recommendations included; (a) changing to lay language with the same meaning, (b) converting the U.S. customary unit to the metric unit, and (c) using consistent language. More than 80% of 22 persons accepted the Thai translation and the Kappa agreement rangedfrom 0.187 to 0.694. Some activities demonstratedpoor multi-rater agreement and required additional definitions. Thai translated compendium physical activity was constructed to reduce the language barrier and promote physical activity in Thailand. The poor to moderate agreement of each major heading of translation may partly be due to Western culture. Many activities in the compendium were assembled but they were not recognized by Thais. Hence, Thai compendium physical activity should to be developed in afuture study.

  1. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Tantut; Rahmawati, Iis; Wuryaningsih, Emi Wuri; Saito, Ruka; Syahrul; Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Sugama, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6%) than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%). Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage]) were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys) and attitudes on RH (girls) as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  2. Users’ experiences of wearable activity trackers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wearable activity trackers offer considerable promise for helping users to adopt healthier lifestyles. This study aimed to explore users’ experience of activity trackers, including usage patterns, sharing of data to social media, perceived behaviour change (physical activity, diet and sleep, and technical issues/barriers to use. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was developed and administered to Australian adults who were current or former activity tracker users. Results were analysed descriptively, with differences between current and former users and wearable brands explored using independent samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney, and chi square tests. Results Participants included 200 current and 37 former activity tracker users (total N = 237 with a mean age of 33.1 years (SD 12.4, range 18–74 years. Fitbit (67.5% and Garmin devices (16.5% were most commonly reported. Participants typically used their trackers for sustained periods (5–7 months and most intended to continue usage. Participants reported they had improved their physical activity (51–81% more commonly than they had their diet (14–40% or sleep (11–24%, and slightly more participants reported to value the real time feedback (89% compared to the long-term monitoring (78%. Most users (70% reported they had experienced functionality issues with their devices, most commonly related to battery life and technical difficulties. Conclusions Results suggest users find activity trackers appealing and useful tools for increasing perceived physical activity levels over a sustained period.

  3. Neutron cross section evaluations of europium isotopes in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range. Format - validation - comparison; Evaluation de sections efficaces pour des neutrons incidents sur des isotopes d'europium aux energies 1 keV - 30 MeV. Format - validation - comparaison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C.; Bauge, E. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents neutron cross section evaluations of Europium isotopes. The cross sections are evaluated in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range for the isotopes {sup 146}Eu, {sup 147}Eu, {sup 148}Eu, {sup 149}Eu, {sup 150}Eu, {sup 151}Eu, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 154}Eu in their ground state. This evaluation includes cross section productions of the long life isomeric states. Special attention is put on the options used for the description of the files written in ENDF-6 format. The final issue is a proposal of a new breed of ENDF-6 formatted neutron activation file. (authors)

  4. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  5. Making program evaluation activities family-centered: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Cousins, J Bradley

    2014-01-01

    This study explored ways in which program evaluation activities in pediatric rehabilitation settings can become congruent with family-centered service (FCS) philosophy. Two Canadian pediatric rehabilitation centers participated in this study, which included focus groups with staff members and interviews with parents. Participants identified seven ways in which program evaluation practices could be made congruent with FCS. Suggestions included: (a) the inclusion of a diverse group of program recipients, (b) the use of processes that facilitate family involvement, (c) the recruitment of family champions, (d) the involvement of families in program development, (e) the establishment of evaluations that are relevant to families (f) the development of center-wide statements about family involvement in evaluation and (g) the compensation of families for their active participation in evaluation. For program evaluation practices to be useful and relevant, they should be improved and made consistent with FCS philosophy. Those evaluating pediatric rehabilitation programs need to use approaches and activities that respect the needs, characteristics, cultures and diversity of the program recipients. Such actions will help to improve the quality of care provided, the nature of program evaluation activities, as well as the overall level of FCS in pediatric rehabilitation settings.

  6. Evaluation of Emotional Literacy Activities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Yucel

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate impact of the emotional literacy activities through participant student's experiences. Emotional literacy activities, including social-emotional skills Goleman's emotional intelligence and Fapuel's emotional literacy model designed and conducted for 2 months on primary school students, who study in 4th grade. The…

  7. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on Culex Mosquito Found in Sokoto. SB Manga, M Galadima. Abstract. Studies on the larvicidal activities of Bacillus sphaericus, against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes found in this area (Sokoto), was carried out. The B. sphaericus (SPH 88) was obtained ...

  8. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most available reports on the biological activity of Adenanthera pavonina (AP) are on the bark or leaves and very few are on the seeds. In particular, there are no reports on the biological effects of the chromatographic fractions of A. pavonina seeds hence the present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the ...

  9. Evaluation of local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Cinchona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of an aqueous extract of Cinchona officinalis (C. officinalis) in experimental animal models. Methods: Various doses of the aqueous extract was tested for its local anesthetic activity in guinea pigs and frogs using intracutaneous and plexus anesthesia, ...

  10. In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum dc (Asteraceae) and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in ... a strong and a moderate inhibitory activity on the growth of Dd2 and 3D7 at 2.8 ìg/ml and 9.2 ìg/ml concentrations respectively with a selectivity index >10.

  11. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF...

  12. Evaluation of Anticaries Activity of Selected Mouthwash Marketed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticaries evaluation revealed that 0.047 % thymol in ethanol displayed the highest degree of anticaries activity against all the Streptococcal species tested. Incorporation of preservatives in mouthwashes may adversely affect their anticaries activity as indicated by the fact that the preserved mouthwash exhibited lower ...

  13. Actively Secure Two-Party Evaluation of Any Quantum Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Salvail, Louis

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first two-party protocol allowing Alice and Bob to evaluate privately even against active adversaries any completely positive, trace-preserving map , given as a quantum circuit, upon their joint quantum input state . Our protocol leaks no more to any active adversary than an ideal...

  14. Evaluation of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of dichloromethane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Croton bonplandianum Baill as a probable remedy for the management of diabetes. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts were prepared and screened for their α-glucosidae inhibitory activity using standard in vitro α-glucosidae inhibition assay.

  15. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Evaluation of Biological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on total flavonoids content to evaluate the quality of the herb F. philippinensis and explore the antitumor activity. In this study, ultrasonic- assisted extraction of total flavonoids and antioxidant and antitumor activity of the flavonoids isolated from F. philippinensis were.

  16. Outcome Evaluation of Active Support Training in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Harman, Anthony D.; Lin, Chwen-Jen; Lee, Wan-ping; Chang, Shu-chuan; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Active Support was implemented for the first time in Taiwan in March, 2009. This study aims to evaluate whether the supervisors and front line managers of residential services receiving Active Support Training (AST) caused a positive impact on their users with intellectual disabilities (ID) while comparing this with their counterparts with ID…

  17. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  18. Active transportation and bullying in Canadian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, Ioana; Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-02-07

    Bullying is a recognized social problem within child populations. Engagement in childhood bullying often occurs in settings that are away from adult supervision, such as en route to and from school. Bullying episodes may also have a negative impact on school childrens' decisions to engage in active transportation. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed reports from the 2009/10 cycle of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Records from this general health survey were obtained for 3,997 urban students in grades 6-10 who lived in close proximity of their school and were hence ineligible for school bussing. Students who indicated walking or bicycling to school were classified as engaged in active transportation. Victims and perpetrators of bullying were defined using standard measures and a frequency cut-off of at least 2-3 times per month. Analyses focused on relations between bullying and active transportation, as well as barriers to active transportation as perceived by young people. 27% of young people indicated being victimized, and 12% indicated that they engaged in bullying. Girls were more likely to be victimized than boys, and younger students were more likely to be victimized than older students. Engagement in active transportation was reported by 63% of respondents, of these, 68% indicated that worrying about bullying on the way to school was an impediment to such transportation methods. Victimization by bullying (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.59) was reported more frequently by children who used active transportation. Health promotion efforts to promote engagement in active transportation of students to school have obvious value. The potential for modest increases in exposure to bullying should be considered in the planning of such initiatives.

  19. Evaluation of the COPD Assessment Test and GOLD patient types: a cross-sectional analysis

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    Lopez-Campos JL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Luis Lopez-Campos,1,2,* Alberto Fernandez-Villar,3,* Carmen Calero-Acuña,1 Cristina Represas-Represas,3 Cecilia Lopez-Ramírez,1 Virginia Leiro Fernández,3 Juan Jose Soler-Cataluña,2,4 Ricard Casamor5 On behalf of the On-Sint study group 1Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; 2CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; 3Servicio de Neumología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Vigo (IBIV, Complexo Hospitalario de Vigo, Vigo, Spain; 4Servicio de Neumología Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, Spain; 5Departamento Médico de Novartis Farmacéutica, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The COPD Assessment Test (CAT has been recently developed to quantify COPD impact in routine practice. However, no relationship with other measures in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD strategy has been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship of the CAT with other GOLD multidimensional axes, patient types, and the number of comorbidities.Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (On-Sint study. The CAT score was administered to all participants at the inclusion visit. A GOLD 2011 strategy consisting of modified Medical Research Council scale (MRC scores was devised to study the relationship between the CAT, and GOLD 2011 axes and patient types. The relationship with comorbidities was assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index, grouped as zero, one to two, and three or more.Results: The CAT questionnaire was completed by 1,212 patients with COPD. The CAT maintained a relationship with all the three axes, with a ceiling effect for dyspnea and no distinction between mild and

  20. Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel-Vos, G C W; Schuit, A J; Tijhuis, M A R; Kromhout, D

    2004-04-01

    Studies that relate change in physical activity to change in health-related quality of life in the general population are needed to confirm associations suggested by cross-sectional studies. In the present study, cross-sectional as well as longitudinal associations between leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life were studied in an apparently healthy population. The present study showed cross-sectional associations between at least moderately intense leisure time physical activity and general health perceptions, vitality, physical functioning and role limitations due to physical health problems. No associations were present for total leisure time physical activity. Change in leisure time physical activity was associated with change in social functioning in men as well as in women, irrespective of the intensity of physical activity. Only in men, change in total leisure time physical activity was associated with change in vitality and general mental health. In our study, cross-sectional associations were not confirmed by longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional associations were mainly found for physical components of health-related quality of life, whereas longitudinal associations were predominantly observed for mental components of health-related quality of life. Confirmation of our results by those of other studies is needed in order to quantify health promotion messages.

  1. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

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    Harri Luchsinger

    Full Text Available Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing.To compare biathletes (serving as experts and cross-country skiers (novices and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting.EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill.Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01. Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044, but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72.Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  2. Cross-sectional evaluation of a longitudinal consultation skills course at a new UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Alexia; Miles, Susan; Fromage, Michelle; Kemmy, Julie; Leinster, Sam J

    2011-08-08

    Good communication is a crucial element of good clinical care, and it is important to provide appropriate consultation skills teaching in undergraduate medical training to ensure that doctors have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with patients and other key stakeholders. This article aims to provide research evidence of the acceptability of a longitudinal consultation skills strand in an undergraduate medical course, as assessed by a cross-sectional evaluation of students' perceptions of their teaching and learning experiences. A structured questionnaire was used to collect student views. The questionnaire comprised two parts: 16 closed questions to evaluate content and process of teaching and 5 open-ended questions. Questionnaires were completed at the end of each consultation skills session across all year groups during the 2006-7 academic year (5 sessions in Year 1, 3 in Year 2, 3 in Year 3, 10 in Year 4 and 10 in Year 5). 2519 questionnaires were returned in total. Students rated Tutor Facilitation most favourably, followed by Teaching, then Practice & Feedback, with suitability of the Rooms being most poorly rated. All years listed the following as important aspects they had learnt during the session: • how to structure the consultation • importance of patient-centredness • aspects of professionalism (including recognising own limits, being prepared, generally acting professionally). All years also noted that the sessions had increased their confidence, particularly through practice. Our results suggest that a longitudinal and integrated approach to teaching consultation skills using a well structured model such as Calgary-Cambridge, facilitates and consolidates learning of desired process skills, increases student confidence, encourages integration of process and content, and reinforces appreciation of patient-centredness and professionalism.

  3. Evaluation of bending performance for cross laminated timber (CLT made out of poplar (Populus alba

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    akbar Rostampour Haftkhani1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bending strength is a critical property of cross laminated timber (CLT in structural applications, especially in floor of multi-story buildings. Therefore, this study was targeted to evaluate bending strength of CLT made out of poplar (populous alba. Polyurethane adhesive was used for constructing of CLT (300 g/m2. The thickness of planks was used in this study was 16 mm. The results have indicated that modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE of CLT with 45o alternating transverse layer were increased 14 and 15%, respectively in comparison with 90o layers. Also, modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE of CLT consist of layers with 4cm in width were increased 14 and 5%, respectively in comparison with layers 9cm in width. The results concluded that by layers with lower width, and also 45o alternating layer configuration could be constructed CLT from fast growing trees such as poplar with a considerable bending strength.

  4. [Evaluation of the Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire in patients with chronic venous ulcers in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafernaberry, Gabriela; Otero, Gabriela; Agorio, Caroline; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous ulcers (CVU) represent a frequent condition, with difficult therapeutic approaches, that impact on patients’ quality of life, and generate an economic burden to patients and health systems. To perform the cultural adaptation and initial evaluation of the Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire (CCVUQ) for Uruguay, and to study the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with CVU. The translated and culturally adapted version of the CCVUQ was applied to a convenience sample of 50 patients. In addition, the PROMIS Global Health Survey was included in the assessment. Both questionnaires showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alfa > 0.70). A statistically significant association was observed between the CCVUQ total scores, its subscales and both dimensions of the PROMIS: Global Physical (GPH) and Global Mental Health (GMH) (rho ≥ 0.40). The CCVUQ mean score was 54.9 ± 42 points while GPH and GMH mean scores were 37.9 ± 29 points, and 43.1 ± 35.1 points respectively. Simple linear regression showed that patients with higher income reported better emotional well-being, while in younger patients, ulcers had a higher impact on Emotional Status and Cosmetics. The translated and adapted version of the CCVUQ was easy to comprehend and apply, showing good psychometric properties. When used in association with the PROMIS Global Health Measure it provides complementary information. HRQL was severely affected in the study sample.

  5. Evaluation of accelerated collagen cross-linking for the treatment of melting keratitis in ten cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famose, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Melting keratitis is a serious condition presenting a high risk of permanent blindness and is caused by infectious or noninfectious factors. In humans, the clinical efficacy of collagen cross-linking (CXL) has been described in the treatment of refractory infectious keratitis by arresting keratomalacia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of accelerated CXL for the treatment of melting keratitis in cats. Ten cats were treated for unilateral melting keratitis by accelerated CXL. Corneas were irradiated by UVA (370 nm) at 30 mW/cm² irradiance for 3 min after soaking with 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran for 30 min (D1). Follow-up was conducted 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after treatment. Pain improvement was noted for all cases at D4 examination. Epithelial healing was observed at D8 for 9 of 10 cases and at D15 for 1 of 10 cases. Resolution of cellular infiltration was observed for all cases at D8 examination. The corneal vascularization was reduced for 9 of 10 cats by D31. At D31, all cases presented a variable degree of corneal fibrosis, but all eyes had visual function. No recurrent infection was observed. Accelerated CXL appears to be a valuable option for the treatment of melting keratitis in cats. All the cases have reached a satisfactory outcome despite the individual differences in the conditions prior to the CXL treatment and the variable presence of infectious agents. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Cardiovascular evaluation, including resting and exercise electrocardiography, before participation in competitive sports: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Capalbo, Andrea; Pucci, Nicola; Giuliattini, Jacopo; Condino, Francesca; Alessandri, Flavio; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Califano, Sergio

    2008-07-03

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of complete preparticipation cardiovascular screening in a large cohort of sports participants. Cross sectional study of data over a five year period. Institute of Sports Medicine in Florence, Italy. 30,065 (23,570 men) people seeking to obtain clinical eligibility for competitive sports. Results of resting and exercise 12 lead electrocardiography. Resting 12 lead ECG patterns showed abnormalities in 1812 (6%) participants, with the most common abnormalities (>80%) concerning innocent ECG changes. Exercise ECG showed an abnormal pattern in 1459 (4.9%) participants. Exercise ECG showed cardiac anomalies in 1227 athletes with normal findings on resting ECG. At the end of screening, 196 (0.6%) participants were considered ineligible for competitive sports. Among the 159 participants who were disqualified at the end of the screening for cardiac reasons, a consistent proportion (n=126, 79.2%) had shown innocent or negative findings on resting 12 lead ECG but clear pathological alterations during the exercise test. After adjustment for possible confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that age >30 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of being disqualified for cardiac findings during exercise testing. Among people seeking to take part in competitive sports, exercise ECG can identify those with cardiac abnormalities. Follow-up studies would show if disqualification of such people would reduce the incidence of CV events among athletes.

  7. Cross-Cultural adaptation of an instrument to computer accessibility evaluation for students with cerebral palsy

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    Gerusa Ferreira Lourenço

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The specific literature indicates that the successful education of children with cerebral palsy may require the implementation of appropriate assistive technology resources, allowing students to improve their performance and complete everyday tasks more efficiently and independently. To this end, these resources must be selected properly, emphasizing the importance of an appropriate initial assessment of the child and the possibilities of the resources available. The present study aimed to translate and adapt theoretically an American instrument that evaluates computer accessibility for people with cerebral palsy, in order to contextualize it for applicability to Brazilian students with cerebral palsy. The methodology involved the steps of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of this instrument, as well as the construction of a supplementary script for additional use of that instrument in the educational context. Translation procedures, theoretical and technical adaptation of the American instrument and theoretical analysis (content and semantics were carried out with the participation of professional experts of the special education area as adjudicators. The results pointed to the relevance of the proposal of the translated instrument in conjunction with the script built to the reality of professionals involved with the education of children with cerebral palsy, such as occupational therapists and special educators.

  8. Preparation of cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch and evaluation as a tablet disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongpatana, Nisit; Suwakon, Janta; Kittipongpatana, Ornanong

    2011-10-01

    The main purposes of this study are to prepare cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch (CL-CMJF) and to evaluate its pharmaceutical property as a tablet disintegrant. CL-CMJF was prepared by a dual carboxymethyl-crosslinking reaction in a flask containing jackfruit seed starch (JFS), chloroacetic acid (CAA), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). The reaction was carried out using methanol as a solvent for 60 min at 70°C and at JFS:CAA:NaOH:STMP ratio of 1.0:0.29:0.28:0.07. The obtained CL-CMJF, with degree of substitution and degree of crosslinking calculated to be 0.34 and 0.06, respectively, was insoluble but swellable in water. Rheological study revealed a decreased in solution viscosity compared to the non-crosslinked CMJF. The water uptake of CL-CMJF was 23 times higher than that of native starch and was comparable to that of a commercial superdisintegrant, sodium starch glycolate (SSG). The swelling ability of CL-CMRS was similar to that of crosscarmellose sodium (CCS), another commercial superdisintegrant. Disintegration test of aspirin tablets containing 2%w/w of JFS, CL-CMJF, SSG and CCS showed disintegration times in the order of SSG < CCS ~ CL-CMJF < JFS. The results suggested that CL-CMJF could be developed as a tablet disintegrant.

  9. An Interlaboratory Evaluation of Drift Tube Ion Mobility–Mass Spectrometry Collision Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stow, Sarah M. [Department; Causon, Tim J. [Division; Zheng, Xueyun [Biological; Kurulugama, Ruwan T. [Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California 95051, United States; Mairinger, Teresa [Division; May, Jody C. [Department; Rennie, Emma E. [Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California 95051, United States; Baker, Erin S. [Biological; Smith, Richard D. [Biological; McLean, John A. [Department; Hann, Stephan [Division; Fjeldsted, John C. [Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California 95051, United States

    2017-08-14

    Collision cross section (CCS) measurements resulting from ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) experiments provide a promising orthogonal dimension of structural information in MS-based analytical separations. As with any molecular identifier, interlaboratory standardization must precede broad range integration into analytical workflows. In this study, we present a reference drift tube ion mobility mass spectrometer (DTIM-MS) where improvements on the measurement accuracy of experimental parameters influencing IM separations provide standardized drift tube, nitrogen CCS values (DTCCSN2) for over 120 unique ion species with the lowest measurement uncertainty to date. The reproducibility of these DTCCSN2 values are evaluated across three additional laboratories on a commercially available DTIM-MS instrument. The traditional stepped field CCS method performs with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.29% for all ion species across the three additional laboratories. The calibrated single field CCS method, which is compatible with a wide range of chromatographic inlet systems, performs with an average, absolute bias of 0.54% to the standardized stepped field DTCCSN2 values on the reference system. The low RSD and biases observed in this interlaboratory study illustrate the potential of DTIM-MS for providing a molecular identifier for a broad range of discovery based analyses.

  10. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Masayo; Haruna, Megumi; Ota, Erika; Yeo, SeonAe; Murayama, Ryoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Japanese version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) that consisted of 36 items. We translated and adapted the PPAQ to the Japanese culture. This procedure included a forward step (stages I and II, translations and synthesis), quality control (stage III, back translation, and stage IV, expert committee review), and pre-testing (stage V). In the pre-test, the preliminary Japanese version was tested on ten Japanese pregnant subjects. The content, semantic, technical, conceptual, and experiential equivalents of cultural adaptation were discussed by the research members at each step. In the results section, one new item was added to address "riding a bicycle in order to go to a certain place other than for recreation or exercise", because many Japanese women often use a bicycle. The average age of the pregnant subjects in the pre-test was 32.7 years of age. The response time ranged from 5 to 15 min. Two subjects responded that they rode a bicycle under the new item. The preliminary Japanese version of the questionnaire was revised to reflect the opinions of pregnant subjects for cross-cultural adaptation, including the semantic, experiential, and technical equivalents. The consensus of content and conceptual equivalents of the pre-final version of PPAQ by discussion among the research members was obtained throughout these processes. The original developer approved all revisions. In conclusion, the pre-finalized Japanese version of the PPAQ was indicated to have cross-cultural equivalency with the original English version.

  11. Pharmacological Evaluation and Antifertility Activity of Jatropha gossypifolia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Pharmacological and antifertility activity evaluation of Jatropha gossypifolia in rats. Methods. The antifertility activity of the extracts of Jatropha gossypifolia in rats was evaluated using two experimental animal models. Estrogenic activity was evaluated in immature female rats using ethinyl estradiol as standard. Anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity was performed in female Wistar rats by determining the number of implantations and implantation resorptions. Results. In estrogenic activity evaluations, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts offered significant estrogen-like activity at 400 mg kg−1 p.o. by increasing the uterine weight compared to vehicle control group. Ethanolic extract (400 mg kg−1, p.o. treatment significantly decreased the number of implants and increased the number of resorptions compared to vehicle control group. Conclusion. The results of the present study provide the evidence of the anti-fertility activity of Jatropha gossypifolia as claimed in the traditional use. The results are consistent with the literature reports related to the antifertility effect of flower extracts of Jatropha gossypifolia.

  12. Physical activity evaluation in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Christine; Harris, Kevin C

    2017-09-01

    Significant advances in the management of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have resulted in marked improvements in survival and life expectancy. Thus, there is an increased emphasis on promoting physical activity to optimise healthy development and long-term cardiovascular health. Evaluation of physical activity levels as part of ongoing clinical care is recommended to facilitate physical activity counselling and/or exercise prescription. Physical activity is a complex health behaviour that is challenging to evaluate. We provide an overview of techniques for measuring physical activity in children with CHD with a focus on how to do this in the clinical context. Accelerometers are devices that objectively assess intensity and duration of physical activity under free living conditions. They enable evaluation against physical activity guidelines, but are costly and require advanced technical expertise. Pedometers are a simple-to-use and cost-effective alternative, but an outcome metric of daily step count limits classification against guidelines. Commercial wearable activity trackers offer an appealing user experience and can provide valid estimates in children. Furthermore, activity trackers enable remote monitoring of physical activity levels, which may facilitate exercise prescription and activity counselling. Questionnaires are the most cost-effective and time-effective method, but recall error in younger children is a consideration. Routine exercise testing in children with CHD provides important insight into functional status but should not be viewed as a proxy measure of habitual physical activity. Understanding the spectrum and role of physical activity measurement tools is important for clinicians focused on optimising cardiovascular health in children with CHD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. App use, physical activity and healthy lifestyle: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga, Joan Martine; Mennes, Matthijs; Alpay, Laurence; Bijwaard, Harmen; Baart de la Faille-Deutekom, Marije

    2015-08-28

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health concern. Use of mobile applications (apps) may be a powerful tool to encourage physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. For instance, apps may be used in the preparation of a running event. However, there is little evidence for the relationship between app use and change in physical activity and health in recreational runners. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the use of apps and changes in physical activity, health and lifestyle behaviour, and self-image of short and long distance runners. A cross sectional study was designed. A random selection of 15,000 runners (of 54,000 participants) of a 16 and 6.4 km recreational run (Dam tot Damloop) in the Netherlands was invited to participate in an online survey two days after the run. Anthropometrics, app use, activity level, preparation for running event, running physical activity (RPA), health and lifestyle, and self-image were addressed. A chi-squared test was conducted to analyse differences between app users and non-app users in baseline characteristics as well as in RPA, healthy lifestyle and perceived health. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine if app use could predict RPA, perceived health and lifestyle, and self-image. Of the 15,000 invited runners, 28% responded. For both distances, app use was positively related to RPA and feeling healthier (p sport behaviour (p < 0.05). These results suggest that use of mobile apps has a beneficial role in the preparation of a running event, as it promotes health and physical activity. Further research is now needed to determine a causal relationship between app use and physical and health related behaviour.

  14. The Use of Social Networking Sites in Job Related Activities: A Cross-cultural Comparison

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    Małgorzata Bartosik-Purgat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the paper is to identify the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs in job related activities and indicate the interdependencies between these activities and age, gender, as well as education in culturally diversified markets (China, Poland, Turkey, the United States. Research Design & Methods: In the exploratory empirical study the authors used two research methods: PAPI (Paper and Pen Personal Interview and CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview. The empirical data were collected in 2016 and the total number of respondents from four culturally diversified countries was 1246. Findings: The analysis with the use of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests showed that the Turkish respondents most often use SNSs for job related activities, while it is the least often done by the studied Americans. Moreover, from among the studied factors (gender, age and education level that differentiate the SNSs usage for job related activities in a statistically significant way age is of greatest importance. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the research provide implications for the recruitment policy of multinational enterprises (MNEs. Since more and more enterprises use SNSs in order to look for new employees and advertise themselves as employers (employer branding, the identified interdependencies between the SNSs activities and the analysed factors can support firm attempts to develop the proper recruitment policy taking into account the cultural diversity of potential workers. Contribution & Value Added: There are not many studies in the literature which present the usage of SNSs for job related activities from the perspective of individual users in the cross-cultural approach. The majority of studies are related to the usage of SNSs by enterprises in the recruitment process.

  15. Preparation, activity and structure of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) with nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Zheng, Debing; Yin, Lingyu; Wang, Fei

    2017-12-01

    Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have emerged as an interesting biocatalyst design for enzyme immobilization. However, the commercialization of CLEAs is often hampered by their shortcomings, such as poor-controlled particle size, low activity and sticky characteristic. In order to overcome these drawbacks, five nanoparticles (NPs) (nano-TiO2, nano-MgO, nano-Ni, nano-Cu and nano-Fe3O4) were used to improve CLEAs activity and structure in this study. Results showed that moderate dosage of nano-TiO2 addition increased CLEAs activity, and the most increment was 15.2% relative to CLEAs without NPs. This was possibly due to more channels and smaller size particle of CLEAs after nano-TiO2 addition. Moreover, nano-TiO2 addition not only decreased fluorescence intensity but also caused the red shift in tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Typ) residues. Nano-TiO2 addition decreased Km and increased Vmax of CLEAs. These changes were benefit to the activity and structure of CLEAs. However, addition of other four NPs (nano-MgO, nano-Ni, nano-Cu and nano-Fe3O4) did not increase CLEAs activity and even decrease CLEAs activity due to less amorphous cavities and larger or discrete particle size than CLEAs without NPs. In addition, FT-IR results showed that NPs addition increases the content of regular structure of CLEAs, and causes a partial transformation of β-turn into β-sheet. This study showed that it was potential to improve CLEAs performance by nano-TiO2 addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transitions, cross sections and neutron binding energy in 186Re by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, A. G.; Hurst, A. M.; Firestone, R. B.; Revay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; McHale, S. R.; McClory, J. W.; Detwiler, B.; Carroll, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    The nuclide 186Re possesses an isomer with 200,000 year half-life while its ground state has a half-life of 3.718 days. It is also odd-odd and well-deformed nucleus, so should exhibit a variety of other interesting nuclear-structure phenomena. However, the available nuclear data is rather sparse; for example, the energy of the isomer is only known to within + 7 keV and, with the exception of the J?=1- ground state, every proposed level is tentative in the ENSDF. Previously, Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) was utilized to study natRe with 186,188Re being produced via thermal neutron capture. Recently, an enriched 185Re target was irradiated by thermal neutrons at the Budapest Research Reactor to build on those results. Prompt (primary and secondary) and delayed gamma-ray transitions were measured with a large-volume, Compton-suppressed HPGe detector. Absolute cross sections for each gamma transition were deduced and corrected for self attenuation within the sample. Fifty-two primary gamma-ray transitions were newly identified and used to determine a revised value of the neutron binding energy. DICEBOX was used to simulate the decay scheme and the total radiative thermal neutron capture cross section was found to be 97+/-3 b Supported by DTRA (Detwiler) through HDTRA1-08-1-0014.

  17. How connectivity, background activity, and synaptic properties shape the cross-correlation between spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Brunel, Nicolas; Hakim, Vincent

    2009-08-19

    Functional interactions between neurons in vivo are often quantified by cross-correlation functions (CCFs) between their spike trains. It is therefore essential to understand quantitatively how CCFs are shaped by different factors, such as connectivity, synaptic parameters, and background activity. Here, we study the CCF between two neurons using analytical calculations and numerical simulations. We quantify the role of synaptic parameters, such as peak conductance, decay time, and reversal potential, and analyze how various patterns of connectivity influence CCF shapes. In particular, we find that the symmetry of the CCF distinguishes in general, but not always, the case of shared inputs between two neurons from the case in which they are directly synaptically connected. We systematically examine the influence of background synaptic inputs from the surrounding network that set the baseline firing statistics of the neurons and modulate their response properties. We find that variations in the background noise modify the amplitude of the cross-correlation function as strongly as variations of synaptic strength. In particular, we show that the postsynaptic neuron spiking regularity has a pronounced influence on CCF amplitude. This suggests an efficient and flexible mechanism for modulating functional interactions.

  18. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  19. Activation measurement of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section at low energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bemmerer, D; Costantini, H; Formicola, A; Gyürky, G; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Laubenstein, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Lozza, V; Marta, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C R; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Gyurky, Gy.; Fulop, Zs.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear physics input from the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section is a major uncertainty in the fluxes of 7Be and 8B neutrinos from the Sun predicted by solar models and in the 7Li abundance obtained in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations. The present work reports on a new precision experiment using the activation technique at energies directly relevant to big-bang nucleosynthesis. Previously such low energies had been reached experimentally only by the prompt-gamma technique and with inferior precision. Using a windowless gas target, high beam intensity and low background gamma-counting facilities, the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section has been determined at 127, 148 and 169 keV center-of-mass energy with a total uncertainty of 4%. The sources of systematic uncertainty are discussed in detail. The present data can be used in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations and to constrain the extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astrophysical S-factor to solar energies.

  20. Viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus keratocytes after cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefei; Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm(2)) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours.

  1. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  2. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  3. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (pshooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  4. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malana Muhammad A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Methods Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Results and major conclusion Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled

  5. The Release Behavior and Kinetic Evaluation of Tramadol HCl from Chemically Cross Linked Ter Polymeric Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Malana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels.MethodsTer-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol % EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.Results and major conclusion: Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n>0.5>1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of

  6. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the

  7. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Julie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222 and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042 and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002 parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033 parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048 and week day (p=0.013 MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006; and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004, highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can

  8. Barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschny Anna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse barriers to physical activity in a cohort of older adults, allowing comparisons between men and women, and age groups. Methods 1,937 older adults with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years (53.3% female took part in the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort. Participants who stated that they did not get enough physical activity were surveyed with respect to barriers to physical activity. Barriers were analysed for all respondents, as well as by sex and age group for cases with complete data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate differences between sexes and age groups. The level of significance (alpha Results 1,607 (83.0% participants stated that they were sufficiently physically active. 286 participants rated their physical activity as insufficient and responded to questions on barriers to physical activity completely. The three most frequently cited barriers were poor health (57.7%, lack of company (43.0%, and lack of interest (36.7%. Lack of opportunities for sports or leisure activities (30.3% vs. 15.6%, and lack of transport (29.0% vs. 7.1% were more frequently stated by female respondents than male respondents. These differences between men and women were significant (p = .003; p Conclusions The present study provides relevant data on barriers to physical activity in older adults. By revealing appreciable differences between men and women, and age groups, this study has implications for efforts to increase older adults' physical activity. Promotion and intervention strategies should consider the barriers and tailor measures to the specific needs of older adults in order to reduce their constraints to physical activity.

  9. Impact of estrogenic compounds on DNA integrity in human spermatozoa: Evidence for cross-linking and redox cycling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetts, L.E.; De Iuliis, G.N.; Nixon, B.; Kime, M.; Zelski, K. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); McVicar, C.M.; Lewis, S.E. [Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Aitken, R.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia)], E-mail: jaitken@mail.newcastle.edu.au

    2008-05-10

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked DNA damage in human spermatozoa with adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced fertility and high rates of miscarriage. Although oxidative stress is thought to make a significant contribution to DNA damage in the male germ line, the factors responsible for creating this stress have not been elucidated. One group of compounds that are thought to be active in this context are the estrogens, either generated as a result of the endogenous metabolism of androgens within the male reproductive tract or gaining access to the latter as a consequence of environmental exposure. In this study, a wide variety of estrogenic compounds were assessed for their direct effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. DNA integrity was assessed using the Comet and TUNEL assays, lesion frequencies were quantified by QPCR using targets within the mitochondrial and nuclear ({beta}-globin) genomes, DNA adducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and redox activity was monitored using dihydroethidium (DHE) as the probe. Of the estrogenic and estrogen analogue compounds evaluated, catechol estrogens, quercetin, diethylstilbestrol and pyrocatechol stimulated intense redox activity while genistein was only active at the highest doses tested. Other estrogens and estrogen analogues, such as 17{beta}-estradiol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene were inactive. Estrogen-induced redox activity was associated with a dramatic loss of motility and, in the case of 2-hydroxyestradiol, the induction of significant DNA fragmentation. Mass spectrometry also indicated that catechol estrogens were capable of forming dimers that can cross-link the densely packed DNA strands in sperm chromatin, impairing nuclear decondensation. These results highlight the potential importance of estrogenic compounds in creating oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line and suggest that further exploration of these compounds in the aetiology of

  10. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective...

  11. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...

  12. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Sant'Ana, A.S.; Hansen, Solvej Katrine Holm

    2016-01-01

    A cross contamination model was challenged and evaluated applying a new approach.•QMRA and Total Transfer Potential (TTP) were included.•Transfer estimates were not applicable for unlike processing.•The risk of disease may be reduced when using a stainless steel grinder.•Well-sharpened knife, and...

  13. Continuous Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Suspensions via Dynamic Cross-Flow Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Toschkoff, Gregor; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Over the last years, continuous manufacturing has created significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Continuous filtration at low flow rates and high solid loadings poses, however, a significant challenge. A commercially available, continuously operating, dynamic cross-flow filtration device (CFF) is tested and characterized. It is shown that the CFF is a highly suitable technology for continuous filtration. For all tested model active pharmaceutical ingredients, a material-specific strictly linear relationship between feed and permeate rate is identified. Moreover, for each tested substance, a constant concentration factor is reached. A one-parameter model based on a linear equation is suitable to fully describe the CFF filtration performance. This rather unexpected finding and the concentration polarization layer buildup is analyzed and a basic model to describe the observed filtration behavior is developed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Cross-talk between ROS and calcium in regulation of nuclear activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazars, Christian; Thuleau, Patrice; Lamotte, Olivier; Bourque, Stéphane

    2010-07-01

    Calcium and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are acknowledged as crucial second messengers involved in the response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it is still not clear how these two compounds can play a role in different signaling pathways leading the plant to a variety of processes such as root development or defense against pathogens. Recently, it has been shown that the concept of calcium and ROS signatures, initially discovered in the cytoplasm, can also be extended to the nucleus of plant cells. In addition, it has been clearly proved that both ROS and calcium signals are intimately interconnected. How this cross-talk can finally modulate the translocation and/or the activity of nuclear proteins leading to the control of specific genes expression is the main focus of this review. We will especially focus on how calcium and ROS interact at the molecular level to modify their targets.

  15. Experimental determination of activation cross section of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natPt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Shubin, Yu. N.; Kovalev, S.

    2006-10-01

    Alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions that result in the generation of several Hg (mass numbers 192, 193m, 193g, 195m, 195g, 197m, 197g, 199m) and Au (mass numbers 194, 195m, 195g, 196n, 196g, 198m, 198g, 199, 200m) radionuclides were investigated. The stacked-foil activation technique on natural platinum targets was used. Excitation functions are reported for Eα from threshold up to 37 MeV. Cross sections are reported for the first time for reactions of the type natPt(α, xn) ∗Hg ( x = 1-5) and natPd(α,p xn) ∗Au ( x = 1-5). The experimental results are compared with literature values and with model calculations performed with the ALICE-IPPE code. Use of the data for possible applications in comparison with our earlier results for proton and deuteron induced reactions is discussed.

  16. Evaluation of physical activity in the health promotion for brazilian teenagers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Adolfo Duarte Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the methodological designs of national studies that assessed the level of physical activity for promoting adolescent health. Methods: a systematic literature review of original researches and publications of MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS and ADOLEC electronic databases. It focused on determinant aspects of physical activity for health promotion using the following keywords: physical activity, physical fitness, physical activity, physical exercise, motor activity, sedentary and sedentariness, adolescent, adolescence, young, youth, teenager, and teenage, Brazil, Brazilian, South America, Low-middle income and country(ies. Data analysis covered the period from 2005 to 2011. First, 449 studies were identified. After analyzing the titles of the manuscripts, 130 articles were eligible for abstract evaluation and subsequent full text analysis. In the end, 31 articles met all inclusion criteria. Results: A total of 93.6% (n=29 of the evaluated studies used cross-sectional design, with samples ranging from 92 to 5028 subjects, and all of them used questionnaires for measuring physical activity. The main analysis of the studies was based on the association between physical activity, biodemographic data (age, gender and socioeconomic data (income, social class and parental education. Conclusion: The national studies assessing the level of physical activity for promoting adolescent health appear with great methodological variability since there is no standardization in the methodological design, instrument and definition of variables, highlighting the need for longitudinal studies in this area. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p426

  17. Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Prevalence and Associated Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Kirkman, Maggie; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function

  18. A cross sectional evaluation of an alcohol intervention targeting young university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Burns

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous drinking has been found to be higher among young university students compared to their non-university peers. Although young university students are exposed to new and exciting experiences, including greater availability and emphasis on social functions involving alcohol there are few multi strategy comprehensive interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods Random cross sectional online surveys were administered to 18–24 year old students studying at the main campus of a large metropolitan university in Perth, Western Australia. Prior to the completion of the second survey an alcohol intervention was implemented on campus. Completed surveys were received from 2465 (Baseline; T1 and 2422 (Post Year 1: T2 students. Students who consumed alcohol in the past 12 months were categorised as low risk or hazardous drinkers using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Due to the cross sectional nature of the two samples two-tailed two-proportion z-test and two sample t-tests were employed to determine statistical significance between the two time periods for categorical and continuous variables respectively. Results At T1 and T2 89.1 % and 87.2 % of the total sample reported drinking alcohol in the past month respectively. Hazardous levels of alcohol consumption reduced slightly between T1 (39.7 % and T2 (38 %. In both time periods hazardous drinkers reported significantly higher mean scores for experienced harm, second-hand harm and witnessed harm scores compared to low risk drinkers (p <0.001. Hazardous drinkers were significantly more likely to experience academic problems due to their alcohol consumption and to report more positive alcohol expectations than low risk drinkers at both time periods (p <0.001. Conclusions Harms and problems for students who report hazardous drinking are of concern and efforts should be made to ensure integrated and targeted strategies reach higher risk

  19. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of New Benzimidazolehydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Onnis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new benzimidazole derivatives bearing an hydrazone mojety at the 2-position is described. The new N′-(4-arylidene-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carbohydrazides were evaluated for their cytostatic activity toward the murine leukemia (L1210, human T-cell leukemia (CEM, human cervix carcinoma (HeLa and human pancreas carcinoma cells (Mia Paca-2. A preliminary structure-activity relationship could be defined. Some of the compounds possess encouraging and consistent antiproliferative activity, having IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  20. Release effect of the active ingredients using a radiation cross linking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seung Hyun; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Seok; Jeong, Sung In; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Yun [Dept. of Bioengineering, Division of Applied Chemical and Bio Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Typical radiation cross-linked hydrogels has the characteristic that high water content, but low emission efficiency of active ingredients. Therefore, the hydrogel was prepared by the addition to collagen, which is closely related to the formation of skin wrinkles in biocompatibility and highly water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC) in order to preparation of hydrogels has excellent emission efficiency of active ingredients. Hydrogels were prepared by dissolving CMC and collagen each of 0.5%, 10% concentration in deionized water. Then, prepared hydrogels are performed by gamma-radiation at 1, 3, 5 kGy irradiation dose. The results showed that the gel fraction of after irradiated 3 kGy hydrogel was higher than before irradiated gelation as long as the 55.3%. The swelling rate of irradiated 3 kGy hydrogel was lower than the non-irradiated sample. The compressive strength of 3 kGy irradiated hydrogel was the highest. The visco-elastic did not show any significant differences, even after irradiation. The CMC hydrogel in this study suggested a potential use as a material for the mask pack for improved emission efficiency of the active ingredient and anti-wrinkles.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Impact of Spasticity on Daily Activities in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethoux, Francois; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2016-12-01

    Spasticity is frequently reported by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A previously published survey of participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry showed that higher levels of spasticity were associated with higher MS-related disability and lower quality of life, but did not investigate the impact of spasticity on daily activities, and only partially assessed spasticity management. A new cross-sectional survey was distributed to 15,679 eligible NARCOMS participants. We inquired about the degree of bother from symptoms associated with spasticity, interference with a variety of daily activities, as well as past and current treatments for spasticity. Among the 10,353 responders (66 % response rate), over 80 % reported experiencing spasticity, and more than 35 % were moderately or greatly bothered by stiffness, spasms, or pain, predominantly in the lower extremities. More severe spasticity was associated with worse disability, mobility, bladder function, and fatigue. Spasticity was most frequently reported to interfere with stair climbing, walking, and sleep. Most individuals reported receiving treatment for spasticity (mainly oral medications, stretching, home exercise, and physical therapy), yet fewer than half reported being satisfied with their current treatment. Spasticity was reported by a large majority of patients with MS, and found to interfere with many daily activities. At the same time, patients were often dissatisfied with the effects of treatments for spasticity. Prospective studies are needed to better characterize the impact of spasticity in individuals with MS, and to optimize treatment strategies.

  2. Microtubule cross-linking activity of She1 ensures spindle stability for spindle positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yili; An, Xiaojing; Tomaszewski, Alexis; Hepler, Peter K; Lee, Wei-Lih

    2017-08-09

    Dynein mediates spindle positioning in budding yeast by pulling on astral microtubules (MTs) from the cell cortex. The MT-associated protein She1 regulates dynein activity along astral MTs and directs spindle movements toward the bud cell. In addition to localizing to astral MTs, She1 also targets to the spindle, but its role on the spindle remains unknown. Using function-separating alleles, live-cell spindle assays, and in vitro biochemical analyses, we show that She1 is required for the maintenance of metaphase spindle stability. She1 binds and cross-links MTs via a C-terminal MT-binding site. She1 can also self-assemble into ring-shaped oligomers. In cells, She1 stabilizes interpolar MTs, preventing spindle deformations during movement, and we show that this activity is regulated by Ipl1/Aurora B phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. Our data reveal how She1 ensures spindle integrity during spindle movement across the bud neck and suggest a potential link between regulation of spindle integrity and dynein pathway activity. © 2017 Zhu et al.

  3. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013 activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA. Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60% reported base characteristics only and 73 (51% sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36% and trauma (36% prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission. Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions; endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network.

  4. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  5. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  6. A cross-sectional evaluation of computer literacy among medical students at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchabhai, T S; Dangayach, N S; Mehta, V S; Patankar, C V; Rege, N N

    2011-01-01

    Computer usage capabilities of medical students for introduction of computer-aided learning have not been adequately assessed. Cross-sectional study to evaluate computer literacy among medical students. Tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, India. Participants were administered a 52-question questionnaire, designed to study their background, computer resources, computer usage, activities enhancing computer skills, and attitudes toward computer-aided learning (CAL). The data was classified on the basis of sex, native place, and year of medical school, and the computer resources were compared. The computer usage and attitudes toward computer-based learning were assessed on a five-point Likert scale, to calculate Computer usage score (CUS - maximum 55, minimum 11) and Attitude score (AS - maximum 60, minimum 12). The quartile distribution among the groups with respect to the CUS and AS was compared by chi-squared tests. The correlation between CUS and AS was then tested. Eight hundred and seventy-five students agreed to participate in the study and 832 completed the questionnaire. One hundred and twenty eight questionnaires were excluded and 704 were analyzed. Outstation students had significantly lesser computer resources as compared to local students (Pcomputer resources or inadequate training to use computers for learning. Providing additional resources would benefit the subset of outstation students with lesser computer resources. This weak correlation between the attitudes and practices of all students needs to be investigated. We believe that this gap can be bridged with a structured computer learning program.

  7. Evaluation of sexual attitude and sexual function in menopausal age; a population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause and its physical, hormonal and psychosocial changes could affect women’s sexual function. There are controversial results regarding relationship between sexual attitudes and function. Objective: We aimed to evaluate sexual attitudes and sexual function among Iranian menopausal age women. Materials and Methods: This population based cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 menopausal women, aged 45-65 years. Based on a self-made questionnaire data were collected about women’s socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. Data were analyzed using SPSS and sexual function was compared between three groups of women who had positive, medium and negative attitudes regarding sexuality. Results: The mean age of women was 53.11±4.56 years. Seventy percent of them had at least one sexual problem. Feeling of dyspareunia was significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality (p=0.03. Comparing data obtained on their attitudes, sexual desire, orgasm and dyspareunia demonstrated significant differences (p=0.03, 0.04, and 0.04 respectively. Conclusion: Attitude regarding sexual function has a great impact on sexual activity of postmenopausal women that need to be considered in their health care programming.

  8. Antibodies against Marinobacter algicola and Salmonella typhimurium flagellins do not cross-neutralize TLR5 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Terron-Exposito

    Full Text Available Flagellins evoke strong innate and adaptive immune responses. These proteins may play a key role as radioprotectors, exert antitumoral activity in certain types of tumor and reduce graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Notwithstanding, flagellins are highly immunogenic, and repeated use leads to their neutralization by systemic antibodies. This neutralization is not prevented by using functional deleted flagellins. These observations led us to explore the possibility of preventing initial neutralization by means of another functional flagellin that does not belong to common pathogenic bacteria but that has the capacity to activate TLR5. Here we characterized the functional capacity of the two-phase Marinobacter algicola (MA-derived flagellins (F and FR as systemic and mucosal adjuvants and compared their performance with that of Salmonella typhimurium (STF flagellins (FljB and FliC. We also report for the first time on the in vitro and in vivo capacity of various flagellins to trigger TLR5 activation in the presence of species-specific anti-flagellin antibodies, the cross-neutralization mediated by these antibodies, and the sequential use of these flagellins for TLR5 activation. Our results showed that MA flagellins behave in a similar way to STF ones, inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL8, CCL20, CCL2 and evoking a strong in vivo antibody response against a model epitope. More importantly, MA flagellins were fully functional, in vitro or in vivo, in the presence of a high concentration of neutralizing anti-flagellin STF antibodies, and STF flagellin was not inhibited by neutralizing anti-flagellin MA antibodies. The use of active flagellins from distinct bacteria could be a useful approach to prevent systemic neutralization of this group of adjuvants and to facilitate the rational design of flagellin-based vaccines and/or other therapeutic treatments (against ischemia, acute renal failure

  9. Practice of Physical Activity among Future Doctors: A Cross Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chythra R; Darshan, Bb; Das, Nairita; Rajan, Vinaya; Bhogun, Meemansha; Gupta, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Non communicable diseases (NCD) will account for 73% of deaths and 60% of the global disease burden by 2020. Physical activity plays a major role in the prevention of these non-communicable diseases. The stress involved in meeting responsibilities of becoming a physician may adversely affect the exercise habits of students. So, the current study aimed to study the practice of physical activity among undergraduate medical students. A cross sectional study was conducted among 240 undergraduate medical students. Quota sampling method was used to identify 60 students from each of the four even semesters. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for data entry and analysis and results are expressed as percentages and proportions. In our study, 55% were 20 to 22 years old. Over half of the students were utilizing the sports facilities provided by the university in the campus. Majority of students 165 (69%) had normal body mass index (BMI), (51) 21% were overweight, while 7 (3%) were obese. Of the 62% who were currently exercising, the practice of physical activity was more among boys as compared to girls (62% v/s 38%). Lack of time 46 (60.5%), laziness (61.8%), and exhaustion from academic activities (42%) were identified as important hindering factors among medical students who did not exercise. A longitudinal study to follow-up student behavior throughout their academic life is needed to identify the factors promoting the practice of physical activity among students.

  10. Is visual function associated with cognitive activity engagement in middle-aged and elderly individuals? : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bleijenberg, Nienke; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether visual function is associated with cognitive activity engagement and mild cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly individuals. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 individuals aged 50-89. The Florida Cognitive Activity Scale

  11. Determination of neutron capture cross sections of 232Th at 14.1 MeV and 14.8 MeV using the neutron activation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chang-Lin; Zhang, Yi; Lv, Tao; Xie, Bao-Lin; Peng, Meng; Yao, Ze-En; Chen, Jin-Gen; Kong, Xiang-Zhong

    2017-04-01

    The 232Th(n, γ)233Th neutron capture reaction cross sections were measured at average neutron energies of 14.1 MeV and 14.8 MeV using the activation method. The neutron flux was determined using the monitor reaction 27Al(n,α)24Na. The induced gamma-ray activities were measured using a low background gamma ray spectrometer equipped with a high resolution HPGe detector. The experimentally determined cross sections were compared with the data in the literature, and the evaluated data of ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u+, and CENDL-3.1. The excitation functions of the 232Th(n,γ)233Th reaction were also calculated theoretically using the TALYS1.6 computer code. Supported by Chinese TMSR Strategic Pioneer Science and Technology Project-The Th-U Fuel Physics Term (XDA02010100) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205076, 21327801)

  12. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  13. Evaluated cross-section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Cox, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Young, P.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meigooni, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    1995-04-11

    A program is being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop high-energy evaluated nuclear data libraries for use in Monte Carlo simulations of cancer radiation therapy. In this report we describe evaluated cross sections and kerma factors for neutrons with incident energies up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C. The aim of this effort is to incorporate advanced nuclear physics modeling methods, with new experimental measurements, to generate cross section libraries needed for an accurate simulation of dose deposition in fast neutron therapy. The evaluated libraries are based mainly on nuclear model calculations, benchmarked to experimental measurements where they exist. We use the GNASH code system, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms. The libraries tabulate elastic and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated production spectra for light ejectiles with A{le}and kinetic energies given to light ejectiles and heavy recoil fragments. The major steps involved in this effort are: (1) development and validation of nuclear models for incident energies up to 100 MeV; (2) collation of experimental measurements, including new results from Louvain-la-Nueve and Los Alamos; (3) extension of the Livermore ENDL formats for representing high-energy data; (4) calculation and evaluation of nuclear data; and (5) validation of the libraries. We describe the evaluations in detail, with particular emphasis on our new high-energy modeling developments. Our evaluations agree well with experimental measurements of integrated and differential cross sections. We compare our results with the recent ENDF/B-VI evaluation which extends up to 32 MeV.

  14. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simony Lira Nascimento

    Full Text Available To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy.For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR, with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI, followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%.Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1% (p = 0.01. Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6% and third trimesters (13.4%. Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%. Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60, primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07, exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96, and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57. Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women.The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt

  15. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt an

  16. Leisure-time physical activity in youth as a predictor of adult leisure physical activity among Japanese workers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Hagi, Noriko; Mashiko, Tomoe; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2017-01-01

    Background Workers in Japan are not sufficiently active; however, it remains unclear how their leisure-time physical activity habits may be developed. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship of age- and intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity in youth to adulthood leisure-time physical activity habits among Japanese workers. Methods In 2012, 968 workers (333 males and 635 females) from three companies and six hospitals in the Tokai region of Japan agreed to complete...

  17. Cross cultural equivalence testing of the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) for an Arabic speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sarah Jane; Buis, Arjan

    2012-06-01

    There are currently no published prosthetic-related outcome measurement tools (OMT) available in the Arabic language. The aim of this study was to translate the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) into Arabic, ensuring cross-cultural equivalence with the original English language version. Psychometric property testing. The PEQ was culturally and linguistically adapted from English to Arabic using a process of forward translation, backward translation, committee review and pre-testing. Pre-testing was carried out in a clinical trial where subjects each completed the questionnaire in Arabic and English, and underwent random probe questioning. The data were compared and analysed, using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland Altman plots. Seven patients gave consent and completed the study. For all nine PEQ scales, the ICC point estimate scores were above 0.8, indicating a good degree of correlation. However, for some scales, the 95% confidence interval was wide, indicating a large level of variation. The Bland Altman plots displayed a good distribution around the mean for most of the scales, although the results were affected by the small sample size. The results of the analysis showed that the Arabic version of the PEQ was linguistically equivalent to the original version, although further testing with a larger sample group is recommended. The availability of a prosthetic outcome measurement tool in Arabic will enable clinicians to collect evidence that can be used to monitor and improve patient care. As there is currently little information available about amputees in the Gulf region, this tool will be a useful resource to both clinicians and decision makers.

  18. Evaluation of accelerated collagen cross-linking for the treatment of melting keratitis in eight dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famose, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Melting keratitis is serious condition presenting a high risk of permanent blindness and is caused by infectious or noninfectious factors. In humans, the clinical efficacy of collagen cross-linking (CXL) has been described in the treatment of refractory infectious keratitis by arresting keratomalacia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of accelerated CXL for the treatment of melting keratitis in dogs. Eight dogs were treated for unilateral melting keratitis by accelerated CXL. Corneas were irradiated by UVA (370 nm) at 30 mW/cm² irradiance for 3 min after soaking by 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran for 30 min. Follow-up was conducted 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after treatment. Pain improvement was observed for all cases within 3 days after treatment. Epithelial healing was observed within 15 days for all cases. Disappearance of cellular infiltration was observed for all cases at day 7. The corneal vascularization disappeared for 4 of 8 dogs and was reduced for 4 of 8 dogs within 1 month. At 1 month, all cases presented a variable degree of corneal scarring, but all eyes had visual function. No recurrent infection was observed. The main observation of this study is that all the cases have presented with the same clinical result regardless of the presence and the sensitivity of the infectious agents and regardless of the duration of the condition prior to CXL treatment. Accelerated CXL appears to be a valuable option for the treatment of melting keratitis. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Evaluating Scientific Research Knowledge and Attitude among Medical Representative in Jordan: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukattash, Tareq; Alattar, Meys; Farha, Rana Abu; Alsous, Mervat; Jarab, Anan; El-Hajii, Feras; Mukattash, Ibrahim L

    2017-08-28

    Pharmaceutical companies provide a broad range of different mandatory trainings to their medical representatives to keep the business running, however research related training has often been neglected by these companies. Thus, this study was developed to assess the amount of scientific research knowledge and interest among pharmacy medical representatives in Jordan. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. During the study period, a questionnaire was administered to 250 medical representatives working in pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their scientific research knowledge and attitudes. The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and believe that it will increase the value of their work, but a considerable number of medical representatives did not detail clinical trials on every visit and found difficulty in answering clinical trials and research related questions asked by health care professionals. Most of the medical representatives did not have a complete understanding of some basic research terminologies. Medical representatives working in multinational companies seemed to have a significantly better understanding of research and terminologies compared to local companies (P-value= 0.000). Also Medical representatives with higher educational degrees seemed to have significantly better understanding of basic research terminologies (P-value= 0.023). The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and found that it will increase the value of their work, but still there is a gap in their frequency of detailing. Thus, local pharmaceutical companies need to invest more in research and clinical trials knowledge kind of training. Also, universities need to include research related courses and subject in their bachelors' program curriculum in order to make pharmacists equipped in terms of research knowledge

  20. OMI Ozone Profile and Tropospheric Ozone and Cross Evaluations with Chemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Liu, J.; Duncan, B. N.; Yang, K.; Strahan, S. E.; Chance, K.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2013-05-01

    About five years of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone (October 2004-December 2009) from OMI are presented. The seasonal and inter-annual variations of tropospheric ozone in different regions are analyzed. To improve our understanding about processes controlling tropospheric ozone, we cross-evaluate the consistency of ozone profiles from the stratosphere to the troposphere between OMI retrievals, GMI combo model simulations (with two GMAO meteorological fields, GEOS-4 and MERRA reanalysis, called Aura4 and MERRA runs, respectively), and the GEOS-Chem model simulations, and investigate their differences in spatiotemporal distribution. The GMI ozone fields in both runs and the GEOS-Chem simulations generally show consistent seasonal, latitudinal variation and global distribution. Aura4 total ozone show positive biases of 10-30 DU at southern middle and high latitudes and negative biases of ~10-30 DU in the tropics, most of the biases originating from the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (up to 20-50%). However, tropospheric ozone column usually agrees well to within 5 DU. MERRA total ozone generally compares well with OMI total ozone except with positive biases of ~10-20 DU at northern high latitudes. MERRA ozone profiles generally show positives of ~10-30% from the southern hemisphere to 20N. Aura-4 tropospheric ozone columns generally agree well with OMI to within 5 DU except in the tropics, where MERRA run has some positive biases of 5-10 DU. Differences between Aura4 and MERRA tropospheric ozone are investigated by examining various ozone precursors. The larger MERRA tropical tropospheric ozone likely results from the weak convection in the MERRA, which causes stronger stratospheric tropospheric exchange and weaker convection transport of typically poorer ozone and richer CO tropical air near the surface.

  1. Evaluation of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bathla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A; Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Beck′s Suicide Intent Scale (BSI. Descriptive statistics; Pearson′s Chi-square test; Multiple ANOVA; Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In a total of 258 dental undergraduate students, academic areas of stress that were found to be statistically significant were long teaching hours (P = 0.002; high workload (P ≤ 0.001; frequency of tests (P ≤ 0.001 and competition/fear of failure (P = 0.009. Lack of interest in the profession was a statistically significant nonacademic area for stress (P ≤ 0.001. The students of first and final year reported higher anxiety (HAM-A 13.93 ± 6.908 and 16.44 ± 7.637 respectively and depression (HDRS 14.29 ± 6.302 and 14.22 ± 5.422; whereas suicidal intent was reported almost the same throughout the study sample (BSI 5.65 ± 5.465. Conclusion: An increasing level of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent due to various stressors in undergraduate dental students indicate a need to modify current education system and timely help to have psychological healthy dental professionals in future.

  2. Evaluation of chronic stress indicators in geriatric and oncologic caregivers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Sira; García, Esther; Arza, Adriana; Garzón-Rey, Jorge M; Aguiló, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Caregiving induces chronic stress with physical and psychological impact on informal caregivers health. Therefore, subjective and objective indicators are needed for the early diagnosis of pathologic stress to prevent the risk of developing stress-related diseases in caregivers. Our aim was to assess the self-perceived stress, that is, how and how much the stressor affects the individual, through endocrine, metabolic, and immunologic biomarkers levels in geriatric and oncologic informal caregivers. Informal caregivers and non-caregivers were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at the Clinic Hospital of Barcelona. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics, self-perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Stress Visual Analogue Scale), and biomarkers (copeptin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), cholesterol, triglycerides, α-amylase, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and Interleukins (IL-6 and IL-10)) were evaluated. Descriptive and non-parametric statistical data analysis were performed. Fifty-six subjects (19 non-caregivers, 17 geriatric caregivers, and 20 oncologic caregivers) participated. Median age (IQR) was 57 years (47-66) and 71.46% were women. Self-perceived stress was higher in oncologic caregivers than geriatric caregivers in all psychometric test analyzed (Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, p value  .05). These findings suggest that perceived stress is not homogeneous in the caregivers community and thus these two groups could be differentiated. These results provide the baseline information to initiate social actions addressed to each group of caregivers to increase their wellbeing.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF POPULUS DELTOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Jha, *, Nagalakshmi N.C., Shiva Kumar Swamy , Bishnu Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaves extract of P. deltoides. Method: The P. deltoides ethanolic leaves extract was tested for the presence of various phytoconstituents using standard procedure. The leaves extract was tested for its hypoglycaemic property in healthy albino rats and glucose loaded rats. The effect of extract was evaluated for its antidiabetic action in alloxan induced rats. The effect of extract on heart and kidney was determine...

  4. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Clevenger

    2010-03-01

    can be an important tool for the conservation value of wildlife crossings for other taxa, and we urge others to carry out evaluations of this emerging methodology.

  5. Cross-border merger & acquisition activity and revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S.; Garretsen, H.; van Marrewijk, C.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an important implication of oligopolistic international trade modeling for the predicted pattern of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Our core argument is that cross-border M&As are, among other factors, driven by cross-country differences in comparative advantage. We find

  6. Evaluation of fusion-evaporation cross-section calculations arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, B.; Seis, F.; Delahaye, P.

    Calculated fusion-evaporation cross sections from five different codes are compared to experimental data. The present comparison extents over a large range of nuclei and isotopic chains to investigate the evolution of experimental and calculated cross sections. All models more or less overestimate the experimental cross sections. We found reasonable agreement by using the geometrical average of the five model calculations and dividing the average by a factor of 11.2. More refined analyses are made for example for the 100Sn region.

  7. Bridge pier foundation evaluation using cross-hole seismic tomographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchibabu, B.; Sandeep, N.; Sivaram, Y. V.; Jha, P. C.; Khan, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    An ambitious project connecting Jammu and Srinagar through a railway link in tectonically active and geologically complex Himalayan Mountain terrain is under progress. Under this project, the world's highest (359 m) railway arch-bridge is under construction across the River Chenab in the northern territory of India. This mega engineering structure has a two-fold ribbed arch design, comprising of steel girders. During the excavation for one of the concrete pillars on the right abutment, wide open joints and weak/shear zones were noticed. The width of these joints varies from 30 to 50 cm, trending along N170° with a dip of 65°. The foundation area of this pillar is 13 m × 24 m and on the cut slopes of the right bank of Chenab River. These exposed joints and weak zones were treated with consolidation grouting to strengthen the foundation area. To delineate the extent of these joints and weak zones below the foundation level, seismic tomography was carried out in five boreholes drilled for this purpose to cover the 300 sq-m area. The results of cross-hole seismic tomography reveals the presence of three low velocity (≤ 2600 m/s) anomalous zones below the foundation area. This also ascertained the efficacy of grouting in consolidating the joints and weak zones. Later, rock-mass quality (Q) was determined based on the relationship between the P-wave velocity and the Q-value (Barton, 2002) to infer the support system for the slope stabilization below the foundation. 3-D visualization of the seismic velocity demarcates the extent of weak or untreated zones. This methodology facilitates to update the design parameters according to Q-values during the construction stage and estimate the required level of reinforcement and support system. Similar methodology can be applicable in other areas under same site conditions.

  8. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie L; Wilson, Alexandra H; Perlmutter, Lisa S; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2012-04-30

    Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents' transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. 857 adolescents (aged 13-15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further 'extreme group analysis' was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results revealed that adolescents' perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational parenting behaviors (HIGH-LOW TP group

  9. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  10. Energy expenditure and physical activity of obese children: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C W; Sung, R Y T; So, R; Lam, K; Nelson, E A S; Li, A M C; Yuan, Y; Lam, P K W

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the total daily energy expenditure and physical activity pattern of a group of obese and non-obese Hong Kong children. Cross-sectional study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. Eighteen obese children aged 6 to 17 years and 18 age- and sex-matched non-obese children in the local Hong Kong community. Total daily energy expenditure and physical activity pattern were estimated for 3 days using heart rate monitoring. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In obese children, both total fat mass and fat-free mass were greater than in non-obese children. Total daily energy expenditure and its sleep and sedentary components were higher in absolute terms (by 42%, 43%, and 126%, respectively) for obese children. When normalised for body weight, the basal metabolic rate was no different between obese and non-obese children, while the total daily energy expenditure of the obese children was significantly lower (by 22%) than that of non-obese children. When normalised for fat-free mass, the basal metabolic rate and the sedentary component of total daily energy expenditure were significantly higher for obese children. Obese children spent 12% less time asleep, but 51% more time in sedentary activity and 30% less time physically active: a ratio of active-to-sedentary waking time of 0.6 for obese children and 1.9 for non-obese children. Although the basal metabolic rate may be influenced by body composition, the finding of a normal basal metabolic rate when normalised for body weight suggests that an intrinsic difference of metabolic rate is not a major contributory cause of obesity. The study pointed particularly to the potential benefit of increasing physical exercise time relative to sedentary activities to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity. Obese and non-obese children had similar basal metabolic rates when adjusted by fat-free mass and fat mass. Obese children spent more time in sedentary activities.

  11. Antioxidant activity of flavonoids evaluated with myoglobin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Masaaki; Kakuno, Yuri; Kitano, Naruho; Matsuoka, Chiharu; Murase, Mayumi; Togo, Naoko; Watanabe, Ryoko; Matsumura, Saki

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidant activities of four flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol) and two non-flavonoids (chlorogenic acid and pyrocatechol) against four reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been measured with a myoglobin method developed by our group. The myoglobin method uses the absorbance changes of myoglobin (a probe molecule) due to the reaction with the ROS as an indicator for the antioxidant activity measurement. Myoglobin protective ratio (MPR) was defined to express the antioxidant activities of the specimens. Antioxidant activities against hypochlorite ion, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, and peroxynitrite were measured with the myoglobin method. The antioxidant activities were comprehensively evaluated by plotting MPR against four ROS and vitamin C equivalent concentration evaluated by DPPH quenching method in 5-axe cobweb charts. The four flavonoids show a very similar pattern in the 5-axe cobweb charts, while the patterns of two non-flavonoids are quite different from that of the flavonoids. This procedure combining the myoglobin method with the cobweb charts is useful in the evaluation of antioxidant activities of plant-derived food, and also can be extended to monitor antioxidant condition of media for plant cell cultures.

  12. Remote C−H Activation of Quinolines through Copper-Catalyzed Radical Cross-Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun

    2016-01-12

    Achieving site selectivity in carbon-hydrogen (C-H) functionalization reactions is a formidable challenge in organic chemistry. Herein, we report a novel approach to activating remote C-H bonds at the C5 position of 8-aminoquinoline through copper-catalyzed sulfonylation under mild conditions. Our strategy shows high conversion efficiency, a broad substrate scope, and good toleration with different functional groups. Furthermore, our mechanistic investigations suggest that a single-electron-transfer process plays a vital role in generating sulfonyl radicals and subsequently initiating C-S cross-coupling. Importantly, our copper-catalyzed remote functionalization protocol can be expanded for the construction of a variety of chemical bonds, including C-O, C-Br, C-N, C-C, and C-I. These findings provide a fundamental insight into the activation of remote C-H bonds, while offering new possibilities for rational design of drug molecules and optoelectronic materials requiring specific modification of functional groups. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. ACTIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING FOR ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Cultural Understanding (CCU is one of required courses in English Language Teaching which aims at connecting language and culture so that language learners can use foreign language appropriately, i.e. appropriate forms of language for appropriate context of situation. However, some obstacles usually occur during the course, for examples: students’ lack of understanding that lead to opinions stating that this is a boring and useless course, and large number of students within a class where lecturer must teach more than 40 students in one class. Considering the importance of CCU course as well as the needs to overcome the problems during this course, this paper proposes some particular teaching strategies to help students in apprehending CCU materials through students’ active participations. Active learning strategies are preferred by means of raising students’ participation and critical thinking so that the class would run more effectively. Other consideration in composing the strategies is to prepare English Education students to be future English language teachers by training their ability in teaching performance as well as connecting language and culture in English Language Teaching (ELT.   Keywords: language, culture, strategies, media, ELT

  14. Thermally activated superradiance and intersystem crossing in the water-soluble chlorophyll binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, T; Madjet, M E; Müh, F; Trostmann, I; Schmitt, F-J; Theiss, C; Paulsen, H; Eichler, H J; Knorr, A; Renger, G

    2009-07-23

    The crystal structure of the class IIb water-soluble chlorophyll binding protein (WSCP) from Lepidium virginicum is used to model linear absorption and circular dichroism spectra as well as excited state decay times of class IIa WSCP from cauliflower reconstituted with chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b. The close agreement between theory and experiment suggests that both types of WSCP share a common Chl binding motif, where the opening angle between pigment planes in class IIa WSCP should not differ by more than 10 degrees from that in class IIb. The experimentally observed (Schmitt et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 13951) decrease in excited state lifetime of Chl a homodimers with increasing temperature is fully explained by thermally activated superradiance via the upper exciton state of the dimer. Whereas a temperature-independent intersystem crossing (ISC) rate is inferred for WSCP containing Chl a homodimers, that of WSCP with Chl b homodimers is found to increase above 100 K. Our quantum chemical/electrostatic calculations suggest that a thermally activated ISC via an excited triplet state T4 is responsible for the latter temperature dependence.

  15. Evaluating the impact of grade crossing safety factors through signal detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    The purpose of this effort was to apply signal detection theory to descriptively model the impact : of five grade crossing safety factors to understand their effect on driver decision making. The : safety factors consisted of: improving commercial mo...

  16. Recreational Physical Activity and Premenstrual Syndrome in Young Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee R Kroll-Desrosiers

    Full Text Available It is estimated that up to 75% of premenopausal women experience at least one premenstrual symptom and 8-20% meet clinical criteria for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome substantially reduces quality of life for many women of reproductive age, with pharmaceutical treatments having limited efficacy and substantial side effects. Physical activity has been recommended as a method of reducing menstrual symptom severity. However, this recommendation is based on relatively little evidence, and the relationship between physical activity, premenstrual symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome remains unclear.We evaluated the relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual symptoms among 414 women aged 18-31. Usual premenstrual symptom experience was assessed with a modified version of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences. Total, physical, and affective premenstrual symptom scores were calculated for all participants. Eighty women met criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome, while 89 met control criteria. Physical activity, along with dietary and lifestyle factors, was assessed by self-report.Physical activity was not significantly associated with total, affective, or physical premenstrual symptom score. Compared to the women with the lowest activity, women in tertiles 2 and 3 of activity, classified as metabolic equivalent task hours, had prevalence odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6-3.7 and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.4, respectively (p-value for trend = 0.85.We found no association between physical activity and either premenstrual symptom scores or the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome.

  17. School travel and children?s physical activity: a cross-sectional study examining the influence of distance

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Guy; Stone, Michelle; Buliung, Ron; Wong, Bonny; Mitra, Raktim

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between school travel mode and physical activity using a sampling frame that purposefully locates schools in varying neighbourhoods. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 785 children (10.57???0.7?years) in Toronto, Canada. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and travel mode was self-reported by parents. Linear regression models accounting for s...

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the exercise identity scale among Greek adults and cross-cultural validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Kaperoni, Maria; Moustaka, Frederiki C; Anderson, Dean F

    2008-09-01

    The present study reported on translating the Exercise Identity Scale (EIS: Anderson & Cychosz, 1994) into Greek and examining its psychometric properties and cross-cultural validity based on U.S. individuals' EIS responses. Using four samples comprising 33, 103, and 647 Greek individuals, including exercisers and nonexercisers, and a similar sample comprising 800 U.S. individuals, the concurrent validity, factor structure, internal reliability, test-retest reliability, external validity, gender invariance, and cross-cultural validity of the EIS responses were examined using confirmatory factor analytical procedures. The results supported the concurrent validity, an adequate unidimensional factor structure for the translated EIS and the internal reliability and test-retest reliability over a 6-week interval. Further, cross-gender configural, partial metric, partial strong factorial, and partial strict factorial invariance and cross-cultural configural and partial metric invariance supported the cross-cultural equivalence of the EIS versions. Moreover, the external validity of the translated EIS responses was also supported. Overall, the findings supported the validity of the exercise identity construct outside North American boundaries and the EIS items' equivalence, providing initial evidence for its cross-cultural applicability.

  19. A cross-sectional survey of participation of asthmatic children in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo-Li; Huang, Ying; Shu, Chang; Lou, Xiao-Li; Fu, Zhou; Zhao, Jing

    2010-08-01

    Physical exercise has been proven to be beneficial to children with asthma, but the traditional view in China is that asthmatic children should not take part in sports. This study was undertaken to investigate the current status of children with asthma taking part in exercise in China. One hundred and twenty-three asthmatic children (7-14 years old) who had visited our asthma control center between February 2009 and June 2009 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Each child had a pulmonary function test and his/her health-related quality of life was assessed. The children also finished a questionnaire about their physical activity. As a control group, 109 nonasthmatic children from a primary school were surveyed about their level of activity. Asthmatic children took part in less exercise than their healthy peers, and 62.6% (77/123) of the children with asthma never reached the criteria of exercise prescription for patients with asthma advised by the American College of Sports Medicine. The asthmatic children were divided into two groups based on the level of activity; compared with the group with a higher physical activity level, more children in the group with lower activity believed that exercise could make asthma worse, more parents and teachers restricted the children's exercise, and fewer doctors approved them participating in exercise. All of the parameters of basic lung function were higher in the group with higher activity level. Moreover, the children with a higher exercise level had a higher score on all parts of the pediatric asthma quality-of-life questionnaire. About 78.5% (96/123) of children ever experienced coughing, chest distress, dyspnea, or gasping during exercise, but 49.6% (61/123) had these symptoms occasionally. Our study reveals that children with asthma do not have enough exercise in China. The concept that children, parents, teachers and doctors have about exercise for patients with asthma is urgent to be updated. We need to

  20. Composite multi-lobe descriptor for cross spectral face recognition: matching active IR to visible light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2015-05-01

    Matching facial images across electromagnetic spectrum presents a challenging problem in the field of biometrics and identity management. An example of this problem includes cross spectral matching of active infrared (IR) face images or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. This paper describes a new operator named Composite Multi-Lobe Descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction in cross spectral matching of near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) against visible light images. The new operator is inspired by the design of ordinal measures. The operator combines Gaussian-based multi-lobe kernel functions, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), generalized LBP (GLBP) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) and modifies them into multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods. The new operator encodes both the magnitude and phase responses of Gabor filters. The combining of LBP and WLD utilizes both the orientation and intensity information of edges. Introduction of multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods further makes the proposed operator robust against noise and poor image quality. Output templates are transformed into histograms and then compared by means of a symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric resulting in a matching score. The performance of the multi-lobe descriptor is compared with that of other operators such as LBP, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), ordinal measures, and their combinations. The experimental results show that in many cases the proposed method, CMLD, outperforms the other operators and their combinations. In addition to different infrared spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated in this paper. Performance of CMLD is evaluated for of each of the three cases of distances.

  1. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of novel fluorinated 7-ethyl-10-phenothiazines, their sulphones and ribofuranosides. Naveen Gautam Abhilasha ... 10-phenothiazines on refluxing with 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid gave 10-phenothiazines-5, 5-dioxides (sulphones).

  3. Evaluation of Apoptotic and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Phloretin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro anti-proliferative activity and probable mechanism of phloretin in human gastric cancer BGC823 cell lines. Methods: Phloretin was isolated from apple tree leaves and identified by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry ...

  4. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of 80% methanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lantana camara L. is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity of the 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions using mice model of diarrhoea. The 80% methanol extract was prepared by maceration and the fractions ...

  5. An in vitro evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Checker Board Technique (CBT) was used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of two penicillins; ampicillin and cloxacillin, against ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Tubes of liquid medium were arranged in columns and rows, with the concentration of one antibiotic decreasing from left to right in ...

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The tests for the minimum inhibitory concentration and modulation of microbial resistance, with the use of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Padina Sanctae-cruces combined with drugs of the class of aminoglycosides and antifungal were used to evaluate the activity against the cited microorganisms. Results: ...

  7. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical. Constituents of Mimusops elengi. Faheem Amir1*, Keng Chong Wong1, Ibrahim Eldeen2,3, Mohammad Zaini. Asmawi2 and Hasnah Osman1. 1School of Chemical Sciences, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains ...

  8. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Syzygium cordatum fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The harvested fruits were separated into fruit-pulp and seeds, dried and extracted with methanol using Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were phytochemically screened and micro dilution assay was used to evaluate antibacterial activity of the fruit-pulp and seed extracts against the selected GIT infecting bacteria. The crude ...

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate(EA) extract of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) was analysed phytochemically and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against 17 pathogenic species isolated from patient: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, ...

  10. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive activities of methanol extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive activities of methanol stem bark extract of Annoa squamosa L. (Annonaceae) with their respective reversibility in male rats. Proven fertile male rats were gavaged 100% methanol extract of A. squamosa stem bark at the dose level of 50, 100 and 200 mg/rat/day ...

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of some organic acids on bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of some organic acids on bacteria. OO Ojo, CR Falegan, TO Femi-Ola, CD Nwobi. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 17(1&2) 2005: 22-26. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Biochemical parameters vary in subjects with different hemoglobin phenotypes, compared with normal controls. Aim: The aim was to evaluate serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and inorganic phosphate concentrations in Nigerian adults with homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin phenotypes. Subjects ...

  13. Evaluation of the wound healing activity of Cinnamomum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... with dental caries and periodontal disease (Cai and Wu,. 1996), and a large number of other bacteria (Burt and. Reinders, 2003; Larhsini et al., 2001; Cressy et al., 2003;. Friedman et al., 2002) and virus (Kim et al., 2001). The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of cinnamon and its ...

  14. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  15. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maesobotrya barteri is a medicinal plant that is used by the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria, to treat various ailments including malaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions of M. barteri root in Plasmodium berghei berghei infected Swiss albino mice.

  16. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Gongronema latifolium was evaluated. The ethanol extract of the leaves of G. latifolium were fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and ethanol. Phytochemical screening of the dried fractions were carried and then acute toxicity ...

  17. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extracts of ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activities of Aqueous extract of Occimum. Gratissimum leaves in rats were evaluated. These studies were carried out to determine the folkoric medicinal values of the plant leaves. Extraction of crude extract was done using standard method. LD50 was determined using the Locke Dietrich Method.

  18. Evaluating coagulant activity of locally available Syzygium cumini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating coagulant activity of locally available Syzygium cumini , Artocarpus heterophyllus and Moringa oleifera for treatment of community drinking water, ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  19. Evaluation of Antitumor Activity of Cuscuta Reflexa Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On day 21, six animals in each group were sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity and the remaining animals were observed to determine host the life span. Antitumor effect was determined by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count and hematological parameters of the host. The standard ...

  20. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal disease. In the present study, Psidium guajava L. leaf which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities and then formulated with ...

  1. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-enterobacterial potential of nine ethnobotanically selected plants traditionally used in different parts of India for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as cholera, diarrhea or dysentery. Methods: The methanol extracts of these plants were screened for antibacterial activity against 11 ...

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize and evaluate Schiff base Tin (II) complexes for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Methods: The complexes of Tin (II) chloride with various Schiff base derivative of 2-Hydroxy-1- naphthaldehyde (HN) were synthesized and characterized by various physiochemical techniques, including elemental ...

  3. Pharmacognostic evaluation and antisickling activity of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) together with condiments from natural sources serve as antisickling remedies in Nigeria. This study was aimed at establishing the pharmacognostic profile as well as the antisickling activity of the leaves of S. virosa Roxb. ex Willd (Euphorbiaceae). Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and ...

  4. Evaluation of pyracantha crenulata roem for antiurolithogenic activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pyracantha crenulata roem for antiurolithogenic activity in albino rats. Y.M Bahuguna, M.S.M Rawat, V Juyal, K Gusain. Abstract. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of juice extract and alcohol extract of fruit of Pyracantha crenulata (D.Don) Roem (Rosaceae) against ethylene ...

  5. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Biological Activities of Extracts and Chemical. Constituents of Mimusops elengi. Faheem Amir1*, Keng Chong Wong1, Ibrahim Eldeen2,3, Mohammad Zaini. Asmawi2 and Hasnah Osman1. 1School of Chemical Sciences, 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, ...

  6. Evaluation of antagonistic activities of trichoderma isolates against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of antagonistic activities of trichoderma isolates against Fusarium wilt ( Fusarium oxysporum ) of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) isolates. ... The antagonistic effect of Trichoderma isolates against the test pathogen was tested both in vitro and in vivo conditions. From the three tomato varieties, Miya was ...

  7. Evaluation of activated sludge treatment and settleability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater discharged from the edible oil industry contains a very concentrated amalgamation of organic and inorganic materials making it a problematic effluent to treat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activated sludge treatment of edible oil effluent from a sunflower oil processing company in KwaZulu-Natal.

  8. Evaluation of activated sludge treatment and settleability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... Wastewater discharged from the edible oil industry contains a very concentrated amalgamation of organic and inorganic materials making it a problematic effluent to treat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activated sludge treatment of edible oil effluent from a sunflower oil processing company in ...

  9. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 38; Issue 4. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of selected actinorhizal fruits growing in the forests of Northeast India. Arvind K Goyal Tanmayee Mishra Malay Bhattacharya Pallab Kar Arnab Sen. Articles Volume 38 Issue 4 November 2013 pp ...

  10. Lipid fraction constituents and evaluation of anti-anaphylactic activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipid fraction constituents as well as evaluation of anti-anaphylactic activity of Prunus mahaleb L. Kernels were studied. Prunus mahaleb L. kernels were obtained from the local market in Cairo, Egypt. Investigation of the fatty acids revealed that oleic and linoleic acids are the major constituents. 12 compounds were ...

  11. Assessment of physical activity levels, fitness and perceived barriers to physical activity practice in adolescents: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Isabel; Canet, Olga; Giné-Garriga, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of rapid physical, psychological and social changes. Recent studies show that, at this stage, there is a decrease in physical activity (PA) levels, along with high rates of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess PA levels and physical condition (PC) related to perceived barriers (PB) and limiting factors for PA practice in a randomised sample of adolescents in Barcelona (Spain) considering overweight status and gender. One hundred and forty-three adolescents (53.8 % boys; median age of 15 years) of Secondary Education in public schools located in a randomly selected district (Sants - Montjuïc) in Barcelona (Spain) participated in a cross-sectional study. Variables assessed were (a) PC (ALPHA-Fitness), (b) PA levels (Physical Activity Questionnaire PAQ-A), and (c) perceived barriers (Self-Reported Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity questionnaire). The different variables were tested by calculating means and standard deviations, with the presence/absence of overweight, and according to the adolescents' gender. Means between groups were compared using Student's t test. Significant differences in most results suggest a correlation between being overweight or obese and having a worse PC. The variables gender (being a girl) and body mass index (overweight or obese) showed a direct correlation to perceive significantly greater barriers to PA practice. What is known: • Epidemiological studies indicate that there is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity linked to an insufficient amount of physical activity (PA) practice in children and adolescents, which is accompanied higher rates of abandonment of the common PA practice as they grow up. • Perceived barriers to regular PA practice had increased in the adolescent population, accompanied with lower levels of PA practice. What is new: • This study shows for the first time the correlation between physical condition, PA levels, and perceived barriers to

  12. Experimental evidence of giant pure optical activity in a metasurface based on a complementary twisted cross configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José; Hibbins, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of giant and pure optical activity in a periodic structure consisting of twisted crosses and complementary crosses patterned on the sides of a copper coated dielectric board. Additionally, a multilayer system is proposed and numerically studied to broaden the transmission bandwidth. Our results show that a dual band behavior can be obtained due to coupling effects between the layers whilst maintaining the dispersionless giant optical activity and negligible circular dichroism. We theoretically study the effect of the separation between layers and its influence on the transmission spectra.

  13. Polanyi Evaluation of Adsorptive Capacities of Commercial Activated Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Surma, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial activated carbons from Calgon (207C and OVC) and Cabot Norit (RB2 and GCA 48) were evaluated for use in spacecraft trace contaminant control filters. The Polanyi potential plots of the activated carbons were compared using to those of Barnebey-Cheney Type BD, an untreated activated carbon with similar properties as the acid-treated Barnebey-Sutcliffe Type 3032 utilized in the TCCS. Their adsorptive capacities under dry conditions were measured in a closed loop system and the sorbents were ranked for their ability to remove common VOCs found in spacecraft cabin air. This comparison suggests that these sorbents can be ranked as GCA 48 207C, OVC RB2 for the compounds evaluated.

  14. Evaluation of cross-connected waveguides as transfer standards of transmission at high millimetre-wave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, Nick; Clarke, Roland; Huang, Hui; Zinal, Sherko

    2016-08-01

    At the present time, transfer and verification standards of transmission coefficient (or, equivalently, transmission loss) are not readily available at high millimetre-wave frequencies (i.e. at frequencies ranging typically from 100 GHz to 300 GHz). In recent years, cross-connected waveguide devices have been proposed to provide calculable standards of transmission loss at these frequencies. This paper investigates the viability of these cross-connected waveguides as transfer standards of transmission for inter-laboratory measurement comparison exercises. This relates to their potential use in activities such as international key comparison exercises and measurement audit programmes. A trial inter-laboratory comparison involving four laboratories using two cross-connected waveguides in the WR-05 waveguide size (covering frequencies from 140 GHz to 220 GHz) is described and includes an analysis of the measurement results obtained during the comparison exercise.

  15. ANITA-IEAF activation code package – updating of the decay and cross section data libraries and validation on the experimental data from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisoni Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ANITA-IEAF is an activation package (code and libraries developed in the past in ENEA-Bologna in order to assess the activation of materials exposed to neutrons with energies greater than 20 MeV. An updated version of the ANITA-IEAF activation code package has been developed. It is suitable to be applied to the study of the irradiation effects on materials in facilities like the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF and the DEMO Oriented Neutron Source (DONES, in which a considerable amount of neutrons with energies above 20 MeV is produced. The present paper summarizes the main characteristics of the updated version of ANITA-IEAF, able to use decay and cross section data based on more recent evaluated nuclear data libraries, i.e. the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library and the EAF-2010 neutron activation cross section library. In this paper the validation effort related to the comparison between the code predictions and the activity measurements obtained from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron is presented. In this integral experiment samples of two different steels, SS-316 and F82H, pure vanadium and a vanadium alloy, structural materials of interest in fusion technology, were activated in a neutron spectrum similar to the IFMIF neutron field.

  16. ANITA-IEAF activation code package - updating of the decay and cross section data libraries and validation on the experimental data from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    ANITA-IEAF is an activation package (code and libraries) developed in the past in ENEA-Bologna in order to assess the activation of materials exposed to neutrons with energies greater than 20 MeV. An updated version of the ANITA-IEAF activation code package has been developed. It is suitable to be applied to the study of the irradiation effects on materials in facilities like the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and the DEMO Oriented Neutron Source (DONES), in which a considerable amount of neutrons with energies above 20 MeV is produced. The present paper summarizes the main characteristics of the updated version of ANITA-IEAF, able to use decay and cross section data based on more recent evaluated nuclear data libraries, i.e. the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library and the EAF-2010 neutron activation cross section library. In this paper the validation effort related to the comparison between the code predictions and the activity measurements obtained from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron is presented. In this integral experiment samples of two different steels, SS-316 and F82H, pure vanadium and a vanadium alloy, structural materials of interest in fusion technology, were activated in a neutron spectrum similar to the IFMIF neutron field.

  17. Evaluation of lead and essential elements in whole blood during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Mao, X; Shi, J; Lu, Y; Liu, C

    2016-08-01

    Physiological concentrations of some elements fluctuate during pregnancy due to the increased requirements of growing fetus and changes in the maternal physiology. The aim of the study is to evaluate the distribution at different stages of pregnancy in healthy Chinese women and to show the association between trace elements and gestational age-specific reference intervals. A cross-sectional study was performed in 1089 pregnant women and 677 nonpregnant control women. Five element concentrations, including Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb in the blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to assess the relationship between weeks of gestation and blood element concentrations. The mean levels of Cu and Mg were 23.64 ± 4.69 μmol/L and 1.36 ± 0.12 mmol/L, respectively, in the control women. While 0.68 % of all pregnant women showed Cu levels below the normal ranges, the levels of Mg were comparable in different groups. Though the overall mean blood zinc and Ca concentrations (83.84 ± 17.50 μmol/L and 1.60 ± 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) increased gradually with the progress of gestation, the Zn and Ca deficiency levels (16.6 and 3.6 %, respectively) decreased with the advance of gestation. Compared with nonpregnant group, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb during the different stages of pregnancy, as a whole, were significantly different. Positive correlations were observed between weeks of gestation and blood Cu, Ca, Pb concentrations (r = 0.301, 0.221, 0.223; P gestation (r = -0.321; P gestation (r = 0.125; P < 0.05). The importance of Cu and Mg deficiency and supplementation is well realized, but, Zn/Ca deficiency and Pb exposure is still exist; the overall deficiency of pregnant women was not so optimistic. During pregnancy, the established reference values will provide an important guidance for the reasonable supplementation of essential elements and surveillance of lead overexposure.

  18. Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Academic Performance: Cross-Lagged Associations from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Sari; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Kujala, Urho M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity and academic performance are positively associated, but the direction of the association is poorly understood. This longitudinal study examined the direction and magnitude of the associations between leisure-time physical activity and academic performance throughout adolescence and young adulthood. The participants were Finnish twins (from 2,859 to 4,190 individuals/study wave) and their families. In a cross-lagged path model, higher academic performance at ages 12, 14 and 17 predicted higher leisure-time physical activity at subsequent time-points (standardized path coefficient at age 14: 0.07 (p academic performance. A cross-lagged model of co-twin differences suggested that academic performance and subsequent physical activity were not associated due to the environmental factors shared by co-twins. Our findings suggest that better academic performance in adolescence modestly predicts more frequent leisure-time physical activity in late adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:27976699

  19. Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Academic Performance: Cross-Lagged Associations from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Sari; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-12-15

    Physical activity and academic performance are positively associated, but the direction of the association is poorly understood. This longitudinal study examined the direction and magnitude of the associations between leisure-time physical activity and academic performance throughout adolescence and young adulthood. The participants were Finnish twins (from 2,859 to 4,190 individuals/study wave) and their families. In a cross-lagged path model, higher academic performance at ages 12, 14 and 17 predicted higher leisure-time physical activity at subsequent time-points (standardized path coefficient at age 14: 0.07 (p academic performance. A cross-lagged model of co-twin differences suggested that academic performance and subsequent physical activity were not associated due to the environmental factors shared by co-twins. Our findings suggest that better academic performance in adolescence modestly predicts more frequent leisure-time physical activity in late adolescence and young adulthood.

  20. Undiagnosed Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Pilgrims during the 2015 Hajj Mass Gathering: A Prospective Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezli, Saber; Zumla, Alimuddin; Yassin, Yara; Al-Shangiti, Ali M; Mohamed, Gamal; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Alotaibi, Badriah

    2017-11-01

    Mass gatherings pose a risk for tuberculosis (TB) transmission and reactivation of latent TB infection. The annual Hajj pilgrimage attracts 2 million pilgrims many from high TB-endemic countries. We evaluated the burden of undiagnosed active pulmonary TB in pilgrims attending the 2015 Hajj mass gathering. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for nonhospitalized adult pilgrims from five high TB-endemic countries. Enrollment criteria were the presence of a cough and the ability to produce a sputum sample. Sputum samples were processed using the Xpert MTB-RIF assay. Data were analyzed for drug-resistant TB, risk factors, and comorbidities by the country of origin. Of 1,164 consenting pilgrims enrolled from five countries: Afghanistan (316), Bangladesh (222), Nigeria (176), Pakistan (302), and South Africa (148), laboratory results were available for 1,063 (91.3%). The mean age of pilgrims was 54.5 (range = 18-94 years) with a male to female ratio of 2.6:1; 27.7% had an underlying comorbidity, with hypertension and diabetes being the most common, 20% were smokers, and 2.8% gave a history of previous TB treatment. Fifteen pilgrims (1.4%) had active previously undiagnosed drug-sensitive pulmonary TB (Afghanistan [12; 80%], Pakistan [2; 13.3%], and Nigeria [1; 6.7%]). No multidrug-resistant TB cases were detected. Pilgrims from high TB-endemic Asian and African countries with undiagnosed active pulmonary TB pose a risk to other pilgrims from over 180 countries. Further studies are required to define the scale of the TB problem during the Hajj mass gathering and the development of proactive screening, treatment and prevention guidelines.

  1. Evaluation of cross-reactivity between Holoptelea integrifolia and Parietaria judaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Panzani, R C; Gaur, S N; Ariano, R; Singh, A B

    2005-02-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia and Parietaria judaica belong to the family Urticaceae, but are geographically distantly located. H. integrifolia is an important pollen allergen of India and sensitizes almost 10% of the atopic population in Delhi. P. judaica, on the other hand, is a very dominant pollen allergen of the Mediterranean region, sensitizing almost 80% of the allergic population. Since both these important pollen allergens belong to the family Urticaceae, the objective of the present study was to assess cross-reactivity between these two pollen allergens from different geographical regions. Cross-reactivity between these two pollen allergens was assessed on the basis of skin prick tests and ELISA, ELISA inhibition and immunoblot inhibition studies. Out of 44 atopic Indian patients skin prick tested with H. integrifolia extract, 34% were found to be sensitized. All the patients sensitized to H. integrifolia also showed varying degrees of skin positivity to P. judaica pollen extract. ELISA and ELISA inhibition studies suggested strong cross-reactivity between H. integrifolia and P. judaica pollen. Immunoblot inhibition studies revealed that 14-, 16-, 28-, 38-, 42- and 46-kDa proteins are the cross-reactive proteins in H. integrifolia and P. judaica. However, Par j 1, the major allergen of P. judaica, is absent in H. integrifolia pollen. H. integrifolia and P. judaica pollens share cross-reactive as well as unique epitopes. The major allergen of P. judaica, Par j 1, seems to be absent in H. integrifolia pollen allergen. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Measurement of aluminum activation cross section and gas production cross section for 0.4 and 3-GeV protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meigo Shin-ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the lifetime and the radiation dose of the proton beam window used in the spallation neutron source at J-PARC, it is necessary to understand the accuracy of the production cross section of 3-GeV protons. To obtain data on aluminum, the reaction cross section of aluminum was measured at the entrance of the beam dump placed in the 3-GeV proton synchrotron. Owing to the use of well-calibrated current transformers and a well-collimated beam, the present data has good accuracy. After irradiation, the cross sections of Al(p,x7Be, Al(p,x22Na-22 and Al(p,x24Na were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a Ge detector. It was found that the evaluated data of JENDL/HE-2007 agree well with the current experimental data, whereas intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, INCL-4.6, and JAM with the GEM statistical decay model underestimate by about 30% in general. Moreover, gas production, such as T and He, and the cross sections were measured for carbon, which was utilized as the muon production target in J-PARC. The experiment was performed with 3-GeV proton having beam power of 0.5 MW, and the gasses emitted in the process were observed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer in the vacuum line for beam transport to the mercury target. It was found that the JENDL/HE-2007 data agree well with the present experimental data.

  3. Physical Activity and Nutrition Program for Seniors (PANS): process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Linda; Jancey, Jonine M; Howat, Peter; Lee, Andy H; Shilton, Trevor

    2013-07-01

    The Physical Activity and Nutrition Program for Seniors (PANS) program aimed to increase levels of physical activity and improve the diet of insufficiently active community-based seniors aged 60 to 70 years using a range of strategies. Comprehensive process evaluation was used to determine the suitability and appropriateness of the resources and effectiveness of the strategies. Process evaluation data (qualitative and quantitative) were collected on the program strategies and resources throughout, and at the conclusion of the intervention period. The program strategies/resources were found to be relevant to the population, assisting participants to increase their level of physical activity and improve their diet. Participants reported that the program resources were suitable for their age-group (84%), encouraged them to think about physical activity (78%), and nutrition (70%). Participants reported that they used the pedometer (91%) and recorded daily steps (78%). Moreover, the provision of group guides facilitated individuals to set and achieve personal goals. The PANS strategies and resources were appropriate, which supported the seniors in identifying, establishing, and achieving their physical activity and nutrition goals. Minor refinements of the program were recommended based on the findings.

  4. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  5. Study of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on rhodium up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Excitation function measurement of deuteron induced reactions on rhodium up to 40 MeV. {yields} Model code calculations with EMPIRE, ALICE and TALYS. {yields} Integral production yield calculation. {yields} Thin layer activation (TLA) with the produced isotopes. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the {sup 103}Rh(d,x) {sup 100,101,103}Pd, {sup 100g,101m,101g,102m,102g}Rh and {sup 103g}Ru reactions were determined up to 40 MeV. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. Excitation functions of the contributing reactions were calculated using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated and compared with experimental integral yield data reported in the literature. From the measured cross-sections and previous data, activation curves were deduced to support thin layer activation (TLA) on rhodium and Rh containing alloys.

  6. Web content accessibility of consumer health information web sites for people with disabilities: a cross sectional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Parmanto, Bambang

    2004-06-21

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become an increasingly essential resource for health information consumers. The ability to obtain accurate medical information online quickly, conveniently and privately provides health consumers with the opportunity to make informed decisions and participate actively in their personal care. Little is known, however, about whether the content of this online health information is equally accessible to people with disabilities who must rely on special devices or technologies to process online information due to their visual, hearing, mobility, or cognitive limitations. To construct a framework for an automated Web accessibility evaluation; to evaluate the state of accessibility of consumer health information Web sites; and to investigate the possible relationships between accessibility and other features of the Web sites, including function, popularity and importance. We carried out a cross-sectional study of the state of accessibility of health information Web sites to people with disabilities. We selected 108 consumer health information Web sites from the directory service of a Web search engine. A measurement framework was constructed to automatically measure the level of Web Accessibility Barriers (WAB) of Web sites following Web accessibility specifications. We investigated whether there was a difference between WAB scores across various functional categories of the Web sites, and also evaluated the correlation between the WAB and Alexa traffic rank and Google Page Rank of the Web sites. We found that none of the Web sites we looked at are completely accessible to people with disabilities, i.e., there were no sites that had no violation of Web accessibility rules. However, governmental and educational health information Web sites do exhibit better Web accessibility than the other categories of Web sites (P health information Web sites shows that no Web site scrupulously abides by Web accessibility specifications, even for entities

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of physicochemical properties of cross-linked sago starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh V; Nath, Lila K

    2012-01-01

    Highly substituted sago starch phosphate was synthesized using POCl(3) as cross-linking reagent. Titrimetric and Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectral analysis were used to characterize the substitution. Studying the different factors affecting the reaction parameters showed that the optimal conditions for starch phosphorylation were: 4h reaction time and reagent concentration 1.5% (w/w). The physicochemical properties of cross-linked sago starch (CLSS) were done using Scanning electron micrograph (SEM), X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that crystalline nature of native sago starch was transformed after cross-linking. TGA report exhibited higher thermal stability, which makes it suitable for various industrial applications. Swelling behavior showed high swelling at low temperature (30 and 60°C) as compared to high temperature (90°C). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Talys calculations for evaluation of neutron-induced single-event upset cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourselier, Jean-Christophe

    2005-08-15

    The computer code TALYS has been used to calculate interactions between cosmic-ray neutrons and silicon nuclei with the goal to describe single-event upset (SEU) cross sections in microelectronics devices. Calculations for the Si(n,X) reaction extend over an energy range of 2 to 200 MeV. The obtained energy spectra of the resulting residuals and light-ions have been integrated using several different critical charges as SEU threshold. It is found that the SEU cross section seems largely to be dominated by {sup 28}Si recoils from elastic scattering. Furthermore, the shape of the SEU cross section as a function of the energy of the incoming neutron changes drastically with decreasing critical charge. The results presented in this report stress the importance of performing studies at mono-energetic neutron beams to advance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms causing SEUs.

  9. THE PRINCIPLE OF CROSS-CULTURAL DIALOGUE IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE DIALOGICAL SPEECH ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Tatyana Petrovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the necessity of taking into account such social and pedagogical principle as the principle of cross-cultural dialogue when teaching a foreign language, in particular when teaching foreign language dialogical speech activity. The purpose of the work is to study this social and pedagogical principle from the communicative point of view, based on the last researches in the field of linguistics, pedagogic and techniques of teaching foreign languages. Today the concept of culture is considered by the majority of scientists not only as the product of a certain group of people or as the system of signs reflecting the world, but also as the standard way of thinking and acting, as information, a set of knowledge, ideas apprehended and realized by people. We consider culture through a prism of the language, and the language as the main means of reflection and expression of culture when interrelating a foreign language training and the corresponding culture, and also when studying the native culture at foreign language classes. Thus, it is necessary to pay due attention to the problem of teaching both culture and foreign languages in the era of globalization as it is one of the leading social and pedagogical purposes of the higher education.

  10. Implementing healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study evaluating a team initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kristin; Krevers, Barbro; Bendtsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable diseases are a leading cause of death and can largely be prevented by healthy lifestyles. Health care organizations are encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. This study evaluates the impact of a team initiative on healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care. Methods: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design compared three intervention centres that had implemented lifestyle teams with three control centres that used a traditional ...

  11. Physical activity and associated factors from a cross-sectional survey among adults in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice John

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient physical activity (PA is a major contributing factor in the growing problem of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in urban and rural Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to determine PA and associated factors among adults in Northern Tanzania. Methods We analyzed secondary data from a cross-sectional serological survey nested within the Magu health and demographic sentinel surveillance population in Magu District Northwestern Tanzania. All resident adults aged 15 years and older were invited to participate in the study, and physical activity data were analyzed for 5663 participants. Data were analyzed using Stata version 13.0. We used logistic regression to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for risk factors associated with differences in PA. Results In this mainly rural population, 96% reported sufficient PA, with a higher proportion in males (97.3% compared to females (94.8%. In males the odds of sufficient PA were lower in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 0.19; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 0.08–0.42, while in females the odds of sufficient PA were higher in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.59–3.24. Leisure-related activity was low compared to work-related and transport-related activity. Farmers had a higher odds of sufficient PA than those in professional jobs in both males (OR = 9.75; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 3.68–5.82 and females (OR = 2.83; P = 0.021; 95% CI = 1.17–6.86. Conclusion The prevalence of PA in this population was high. However, there is need for PA programs to maintain the high level of compliance during and following the transition to a more urban-based culture.

  12. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-04-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume - in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work.

  13. In vitro evaluation of cross-strain inhibitory effects of IgY polyclonal antibody against H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhi, Roya; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Khafri, Abolfazl; Rezaeifard, Morteza; Aminian, Mahdi

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro cross-strain inhibitory effects of IgY polyclonal antibody on both growth and urease enzyme of four local strains of H. pylori. Leghorn chickens were immunized with whole cells of four different strains of H. pylori, separately. Rising of specific IgY was detected by ELISA. The IgY purified using polyethylene glycol method and the purity was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Each strain was treated with its own-specific and also other strain-specific IgYs. The strain-specific IgY could inhibit the growth of specific strains by 49-72% and also other different strains of H. pylori by 29-86%. Our findings revealed that strain-specific IgY could inhibit urease activity of its own by 64-72% and other different strains by 49-79%. These findings confirmed strain-specific and also cross-strain inhibitory effects of the IgY polyclonal antibody on both growth and urease activity of H. pylori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CROSS: A GDSS for the Evaluation and Prioritization of Engineering Support Requests and Advanced Technology Projects at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid; Lee, Seunghee

    1996-01-01

    Objective evaluation and prioritization of engineering support requests (ESRs) is a difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Project Engineering Office. The difficulty arises from the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The purpose of this project is to implement the consensus ranking organizational support system (CROSS), a multiple criteria decision support system (DSS) developed at KSC that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. CROSS utilizes the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), subjective probabilities, entropy concept, and maximize agreement heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluation ESRs. Some of the preliminary goals of the project are to: (1) revisit the structure of the ground systems working team (GWST) steering committee, (2) develop a template for ESR originators to provide more comple and consistent information to the GSWT steering committee members to eliminate the need for a facilitator, (3) develop an objective and structured process for the initial screening of ESRs, (4) extensive training of the stakeholders and the GWST steering committee to eliminate the need for a facilitator, (5) automate the process as much as possible, (6) create an environment to compile project success factor data on ESRs and move towards a disciplined system that could be used to address supportability threshold issues at the KSC, and (7) investigate the possibility of an organization-wide implementation of CROSS.

  15. Evaluation of the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system, Gokwe North district, Zimbabwe, 2015: a descriptive cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Annamercy; Chemhuru, Milton; Gombe, Notion; Shambira, Gerald; Juru, Tsitsi; Bangure, Donewell; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    AFP surveillance was adopted globally as a key strategy for monitoring the progress of the polio eradication initiative. Gokwe North district with an estimated 119 655 children AFP in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively against a target of 5 cases per year. We therefore set out to evaluate the system and find out why it was failing to detect at least 5 cases per year. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out. All three hospitals in the district were purposively selected. Twelve of the nineteen health facilities were randomly selected and forty nine health workers were purposively recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire and key informant interview guide were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using Epi info. Out of the 49 respondents, 17(34.7%) knew the target age group for AFP surveillance. Twelve (24.5%) knew the number of notification forms to be filled. Seven (14.3%) and ten (20.4%) respondents knew when to follow up an AFP case and when an AFP case should be followed up and completely notified and investigated respectively. Forty one (83.7%) respondents were not trained on AFP surveillance. Nineteen (39%) had AFP notification forms at the clinic and 33(67%) had displayed AFP case definitions. All the 22 health facilities in the district participate in AFP surveillance; however, all have hard to reach areas. Seventeen (34.7%) reportedly took public health actions based on AFP data. The system was found to be useful, simple, acceptable, timely, unstable, not representative and not sensitive. The system was threatened by lack of health worker knowledge and community active search. Advocacy, communication and social mobilization on AFP surveillance might improve the performance of the system in Gokwe North district.

  16. Activation cross sections of proton and deuteron induced nuclear reactions on holmium and erbium, related to the production of (161)Er and (160)Er medical isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Baba, M

    2016-09-01

    Experimental excitation functions for long-lived products in proton induced reactions were measured with the activation method in the 37-65MeV energy range on natural holmium. Stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma spectrometry were used in order to measure cross-section data for the production of (161)Er, (160)Er and (1)(59,157)Dy. For comparison of the production routes of medically related (161)Er and (160)Er radioisotopes new experimental cross section data were deduced for the (162)Er(p,x)(161,160)Er and (162)Er(d,x)(161,160)Er reactions by re-evaluating gamma-ray spectra from earlier measurements. No earlier data were found in the literature for these reactions. The experimental data are compared with results of TALYS theoretical code reported in TENDL-2015. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cross-linked ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... there is no evidence of any inflammation, any foreign body granuloma or any necrosis or hemorrhage. Tissue configuration remains unaltered after 30 days of implantation. So, it can be suggested that cross-linked CH films of above said composition can be used as implant for long term application in depression and ...

  18. Cross-modal preference acquisition: Evaluative conditioning of pictures by affective olfactory and auditory cues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reekum, C.M.; van den Berg, H.; Frijda, N.H.

    1999-01-01

    A cross-modal paradigm was chosen to test the hypothesis that affective olfactory and auditory cues paired with neutral visual stimuli bearing no resemblance or logical connection to the affective cues can evoke preference shifts in those stimuli. Neutral visual stimuli of abstract paintings were

  19. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Distance Education Students' Learning Styles and Critical Thinking Dispositions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Ismail; Türkses, Ercüment

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine distance education students' learning styles and critical thinking dispositions. This cross sectional survey was conducted on 114 Turkish distance education students from various departments in a state university. The data of the study were collected through Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Style Scale (GRSLSS) and…

  20. Evaluated displacement and gas production cross-sections for materials irradiated with intermediate energy nucleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konobeyev Alexander Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic displacement and gas production cross-sections were obtained for a number of materials to calculate radiation damage and gas production rate in nuclear- and fusion reactors, and neutron spallation sources. An advanced atomistic modelling approach was applied for calculations of the number of stable displacements in materials.

  1. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  2. Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

  3. Evaluation of erosion control BMPs on ditched haul road stream crossing approaches following reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Lang; W.M. Aust; M.C. Bolding; E.B. Schilling

    2016-01-01

    Ditched forest roads leading to stream crossings and used for log transportation have recently been a topic of water quality concern and legal controversy. Best management practices (BMPs) can reduce potential water quality issues, yet few research studies have quantified BMP costs and reductions in sediment from implementing specific ditch BMPs. Researchers...

  4. Empirical relationship between inlet cross-sectional area and tidal prism : A re-evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; Ji, L.; Brouwer, R.L.; Van de Kreeke, J.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The well-known empirical relationship between the equilibrium cross-sectional area of tidal inlet entrances (A) and the tidal prism (P), first developed by O’Brien (1931), has been extensively reviewed. Our theoretical investigations indicate that a unique A-P relationship should only be expected

  5. Cross-Border Health Care in the European Union: Evaluation of Different Financing Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Walter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the financing arrangements for planned cross-border health care within the European Union. A financial arrangement is taken to provide a financial incentive but may also involve payment risks and administrative burden. For the pathways given by the Social Security Regulations (883/2004 and 987/2009 and the EU Directive 2011/24/EU, we investigate how the associated financial arrangements act on providers, patients and on publicly funded health insurance. First, the Regulations can induce cross-border health care that will increase domestic health care expenditure and may threaten national health policy by setting an incentive for patients to go abroad for health care not covered by domestic health insurance. Second, the financial arrangement of the Directive may induce cross-border health care which will lower domestic health care expenditure. However, due to considerable payment risks and administrative burden on both patients and providers, these benefits will not be reaped in full. Moreover, in the presence of national cost containment policies, the Directive may provide an incentive for cross-border health care that is too strong. Finally, due to the requirement to pay upfront, the financial arrangement also suffers from a lack of equity of access to health care provision abroad.

  6. Evaluation of n + 16 Fe reaction cross section at 14 MeV incident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross section calculations have been carried out by some earlier scientists independent of energy surface imaginary potential. These have been characterized by a lot of disparity between authors and literature values. In this work, special attention was devoted to the increase in the accuracy of the calculation of nuclear ...

  7. Characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cross-linked ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aim of the present study is to develop cross-linked chitosan (CH) films that can release drug over an extended period of time and that too in a controlled manner. A solution of different percentages of CH, is prepared in 1% lactic acid, followed by addition of citalopram (CTP) and then reacted with increasing ...

  8. Evaluation of Native and Cross-Linked Acacia Senegal Gums as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies indicated the compatibility of the gums with the model drug, theophylline. Dissolution studies showed AS, Cross-linked var. karensis (CAS) and var. senegal (CAH) can sustain the release of the drug beyond 12 h at higher gum concentrations (p < 0.05) indicating the ...

  9. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with adolescent sexual activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, R.; Das, R. C.; Prabhu, H. R. A.; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.; Seema, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Adolescents constitute about 20% of our population and increasingly more of them are initiating sexual activity at an early age. Several behaviors associated with adolescence like masturbation, expression of masculinity/femininity, lifestyle habits like attending late night parties, and consumption of alcohol have been variously implicated in initiating sexual activities. Sexual abuse can also lead to premature sexualization. In view of few worthwhile studies from India that have dealt with these issues this study was undertaken. Aims: To elicit information from two co-education schools adolescent boys and girls on matters related to pubescence, sexual experiences, and sexual health. Settings and Design: Study subjects involved students from class IX to XII in two co-education schools. Consent of parents was taken to administer the questionnaire to their wards. Materials and Methods: A total of 586 out of 1580 students completed a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Statistical Analysis EpiInfo6 Software was used. Results: Significant association was found among those holding the view that having sex proves their masculinity, being sexually abused, masturbation among boys, and sexual activity. A significantly large number of boys and girls are unaware of role of alcohol on sexual activity and that pregnancy can be caused by single intercourse. Conclusions: This was probably the first such comparative study from India. Mechanisms need to be evaluated to help adolescents understand their sexual attitudes and situations that are likely to provoke sexual activity. Therefore, not only more detailed and longitudinal studies are needed to understand these relations in a better perspective, but also a well-planned educational program for adolescents is a need of the hour. PMID:22988320

  10. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with adolescent sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, R; Das, R C; Prabhu, H R A; Srivastava, K; Bhat, P S; Prakash, J; Seema, P

    2012-04-01

    Adolescents constitute about 20% of our population and increasingly more of them are initiating sexual activity at an early age. Several behaviors associated with adolescence like masturbation, expression of masculinity/femininity, lifestyle habits like attending late night parties, and consumption of alcohol have been variously implicated in initiating sexual activities. Sexual abuse can also lead to premature sexualization. In view of few worthwhile studies from India that have dealt with these issues this study was undertaken. To elicit information from two co-education schools adolescent boys and girls on matters related to pubescence, sexual experiences, and sexual health. Study subjects involved students from class IX to XII in two co-education schools. Consent of parents was taken to administer the questionnaire to their wards. A total of 586 out of 1580 students completed a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Statistical Analysis EpiInfo6 Software was used. Significant association was found among those holding the view that having sex proves their masculinity, being sexually abused, masturbation among boys, and sexual activity. A significantly large number of boys and girls are unaware of role of alcohol on sexual activity and that pregnancy can be caused by single intercourse. This was probably the first such comparative study from India. Mechanisms need to be evaluated to help adolescents understand their sexual attitudes and situations that are likely to provoke sexual activity. Therefore, not only more detailed and longitudinal studies are needed to understand these relations in a better perspective, but also a well-planned educational program for adolescents is a need of the hour.

  11. Making It All Count: A Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration Model Incorporating Scholarship, Creative Activity, and Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Rocky; Hauschild-Mork, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This study takes a grounded theory approach as a basis for a case study examining a cross-disciplinary artistic and academic collaborative project involving faculty from the areas of English, music, dance, theatre, design, and visual journalism resulting in the creation of research, scholarly, and creative activity that fosters student engagement…

  12. Compensation of Cross-Coupling Stiffness and Increase of Direct Damping in Multirecess Journal Bearings using Active Hybrid Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Watanabe, F.Y.

    2004-01-01

    journal bearings (HJB). When part of hydrostatic pressure is also dynamically modified by means of hydraulic control systems, one refers to the active lubrication. The main contribution of the present theoretical work is to show that it is possible to reduce cross-coupling stiffness and increase...

  13. Recombination in Escherichia coli V. Genetic analysis of recombinants from crosses with recipients deficient in ATP-dependent exonuclease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, P.G. de; Hoekstra, W.P.M.; Verhoef, C.

    A genetic analysis of recombinants from crosses with recombination-deficient recipients, lacking the ATP-dependent exonuclease activity, demonstrated differences in the inheritance pattern of donor markers compared with a Rec+ recipient. In particular the donor markers proximal to the transfer

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of zein protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Zhuang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Zein protein was extracted from the by-product corn gluten meal. The obtained zein protein was 1st hydrolyzed by 4 different proteases. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates or peptides were evaluated by free radical scavenging activity, metal ion chelating activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory capacity. Among hydrolysates produced, alkaline protease hydrolysates exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. A regression model was established by uniform design to optimize the alkaline protease hydrolysis conditions. The hydrolysates with molecular weight antioxidant activities in all relevant assays. The hydrolysates with molecular weight antioxidant activities. Two peptides were identified from fraction F3 using LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS as Pro-Phe (263.13 Da) and Leu-Pro-Phe (375.46 Da). These peptides exhibited good free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. The results clearly indicated that zein protein fractions are good sources for the development of natural antioxidants for the food industry. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  16. The role of daily physical activity and nutritional status on bone turnover in cystic fibrosis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tejero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Nutritional status and daily physical activity (PA may be an excellent tool for the maintenance of bone health in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Objective To evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, daily physical activity and bone turnover in cystic fibrosis patients. Method A cross-sectional study of adolescent and adult patients diagnosed with clinically stable cystic fibrosis was conducted. Total body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone metabolism markers ALP, P1NP, PICP, and ß-CrossLaps. PA monitoring was assessed for 5 consecutive days using a portable device. Exercise capacity was also determined. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin K were also determined in all participants. Results Fifty patients (median age: 24.4 years; range: 16-46 were included. BMI had positive correlation with all BMD parameters, with Spearman’s coefficients ranging from 0.31 to 0.47. Total hip bone mineral density and femoral neck BMD had positive correlation with the daily time spent on moderate PA (>4.8 metabolic equivalent-minutes/day; r=0.74, p7.2 metabolic equivalent-minutes/day; r=0.45 p<0.001, body mass index (r=0.44, p=0.001, and muscle mass in limbs (r=0.41, p=0.004. Levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen were positively associated with the daily time spent on moderate (r=0.33 p=0.023 and vigorous PA (r=0.53, p<0.001. Conclusions BMI and the daily time spent on moderate PA were found to be correlated with femoral neck BMD in CF patients. The association between daily PA and biochemical markers of bone formation suggests that the level of daily PA may be linked to bone health in this patient group. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Long-term evaluation of cross-sex hormone treatment in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Mueller, Sven; Weyers, Steven; Van Caenegem, Eva; Roef, Greet; Heylens, Gunter; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2012-10-01

    Long-term effects and side effects of cross-sex hormone treatment in transsexual persons are not well known. The aim of this study is to describe the effects and side effects of cross-sex hormone therapy in both transsexual men and women. Hormone levels were measured by immunoassays. Physical health was assessed by physical examination and questionnaires on general health and specific side effects, areal bone parameters by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Single center cross-sectional study in 100 transsexual persons post-sex reassignment surgery and on average 10 years on cross-sex hormone therapy. Transsexual men did not experience important side effects such as cardiovascular events, hormone-related cancers, or osteoporosis. In contrast, a quarter of the transsexual women had osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and radius. Moreover, 6% of transsexual women experienced a thromboembolic event and another 6% experienced other cardiovascular problems after on average 11.3 hormone treatment years. None of the transsexual women experienced a hormone-related cancer during treatment. Cross-sex hormone treatment appears to be safe in transsexual men. On the other hand, a substantial number of transsexual women suffered from osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and distal arm. Twelve percent of transsexual women experienced thromboembolic and/or other cardiovascular events during hormone treatment, possibly related to older age, estrogen treatment, and lifestyle factors. In order to decrease cardiovascular morbidity, more attention should be paid to decrease cardiovascular risk factors during hormone therapy management. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of excimer laser ablation of cross-linked porcine cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking (CXL and excimer laser ablation is a promising therapy for treating corneal ectasia. The cornea is strengthened by cross-linking, while the irregular astigmatism is reduced by laser ablation. This study aims to compare the efficacy of excimer laser ablation on porcine corneas with and without cross-linking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The porcine cornea was de-epithelialized and treated with 0.1% riboflavin solution for 30 minutes. A half of the cornea was exposed to UVA-radiation for another 30 minutes while the controlled half of the cornea was protected from the UVA using a metal shield. Photo therapeutic keratectomy (PTK was then performed on the central cornea. Corneal thickness of 5 paired locations on the horizontal line, ± 0.5, ± 1.0, ± 1.5, ± 2.0, and ± 2.5 mm from the central spot, were measured using optical coherence tomography prior to and after PTK. The ablation depth was then determined by the corneal thickness. There was a 9% difference (P<0.001 in the overall ablation depth between the CXL-half corneas (158 ± 22 µm and the control-half corneas (174 ± 26 µm. The ablation depths of all 5 correspondent locations on the CXL-half were significantly smaller (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the laser ablation seems to be lower in cross-linked cornea. Current ablation algorithms may need to be modified for cross-linked corneas.

  19. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal

    2017-10-17

    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  20. Single-unit activity, threshold crossings, and local field potentials in motor cortex differentially encode reach kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perel, Sagi; Sadtler, Patrick T; Oby, Emily R; Ryu, Stephen I; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Batista, Aaron P; Chase, Steven M

    2015-09-01

    A diversity of signals can be recorded with extracellular electrodes. It remains unclear whether different signal types convey similar or different information and whether they capture the same or different underlying neural phenomena. Some researchers focus on spiking activity, while others examine local field potentials, and still others posit that these are fundamentally the same signals. We examined the similarities and differences in the information contained in four signal types recorded simultaneously from multielectrode arrays implanted in primary motor cortex: well-isolated action potentials from putative single units, multiunit threshold crossings, and local field potentials (LFPs) at two distinct frequency bands. We quantified the tuning of these signal types to kinematic parameters of reaching movements. We found 1) threshold crossing activity is not a proxy for single-unit activity; 2) when examined on individual electrodes, threshold crossing activity more closely resembles LFP activity at frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz than it does single-unit activity; 3) when examined across multiple electrodes, threshold crossing activity and LFP integrate neural activity at different spatial scales; and 4) LFP power in the "beta band" (between 10 and 40 Hz) is a reliable indicator of movement onset but does not encode kinematic features on an instant-by-instant basis. These results show that the diverse signals recorded from extracellular electrodes provide somewhat distinct and complementary information. It may be that these signal types arise from biological phenomena that are partially distinct. These results also have practical implications for harnessing richer signals to improve brain-machine interface control. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Stress-induced traveltime variations at SAFOD revealed by continuous cross-well active source monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Niu, F.; Daley, T. M.; Taira, T.

    2016-12-01

    The time-varying stress/strain field at seismogenic depths is arguable the single most important property controlling the sequencing and nucleation of seismic events. The measurement of stress, however, is notoriously difficult, particularly at seismogenic depths. Seismic imaging, in principle, has the capability to provide this critical depth component. Numerous laboratory studies over the last few decades have shown that the elastic properties of crustal rocks clearly exhibit stress dependence. Such dependence is attributed to the opening/closing of fluid-filled cracks in response to changes in the stress normal to the crack surface. Temporal changes in stress are thus, in principle, measurable through seismic imaging of changes in elastic properties, such as seismic velocity field. We have been conducting continuous cross-well active source experiments utilizing the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) pilot and main holes to develop a seismic stress meter to monitor the subsurface stress field by exploring the velocity-stress sensitivity. In a two-month period in 2005-2006, we found a 0.3% change in the average S-wave velocity, which shows a good correlation with barometric pressure, corresponding to a stress sensitivity of 2.4x10-7Pa-1. We also observed two large excursions in the delay time measurement, corresponding to 0.55% and 0.15% decreases of seismic velocity, that are coincident with two earthquakes that are among those predicted to produce the largest coseismic stress changes. The two excursions started approximately 10 and 2 hours before the events, respectively, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture stress induced changes in crack properties, as observed in early laboratory studies. We repeated the experiment in early 2010 with a slightly different experiment configuration, and collected 40-days data. The new data confirmed the negative correlation between traveltime and barometric pressure. The estimated stress sensitivity is

  2. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-09-29

    Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST

  3. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Van der Geest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an

  4. Cross-cultural validity of the animated activity questionnaire (AAQ) that assesses activity limitations in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peter, W. F.; De Vet, R.; Boers, M.

    2015-01-01

    . Objectives: To evaluate cross-cultural validity of the AAQ. Methods: In 7 European countries patients were asked to complete the AAQ. An example of an item of the AAQ is shown on: http://kmin-vumc.nl/-14-0.html. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate DIF across languages (Dutch versus 6 other...... languages). As a criterion for uniform DIF we used an odds ratio outside the interval 0.53-1.89. An significant interaction term (p-value...

  5. Sonographic evaluation of supraspinatus cross-sectional area in collegiate baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chu, Samuel K; Ramirez Del Toro, Jose; Karnaugh, Ronald D; Dentico, Richard; Komaroff, Eugene

    2012-07-01

    To establish the normal thickness of the supraspinatus tendon in collegiate baseball players with the use of ultrasound and to determine whether there are any significant differences between the dominant and nondominant supraspinatus thickness. A cross-sectional observational study. An outpatient clinical setting. Twelve healthy, asymptomatic collegiate pitchers between the ages of 19 and 22 years. Sonographic evaluation of 12 asymptomatic pitchers (9 right-hand dominant and 3 left-hand dominant) between the ages of 19 and 22 years was performed in a transverse plane (short axis) and longitudinal view (long axis) of their right and left shoulders. Maximum thickness was measured in both the long- and short-axis views. On the long-axis view, measurement was taken at the point where there was maximal height observed at the footprint insertion. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to test for differences in tendon thickness across factors. Post hoc contrasts were performed with a Tukey adjustment for the P values. The mean ± SD values, side-to-side difference, and difference between dominant and nondominant values were calculated and statistically analyzed for differences. An ultrasound examination showed a significant 3-way interaction (P = .038) for view by side of hand dominance. Post hoc contrasts revealed that supraspinatus tendon thickness for right-handed pitchers in the long-axis view on the right side showed a mean value of 8.0 ± 0.32 mm versus the long-axis view on the left side of 6.5 ± 0.34 mm (P = .006) and the short-axis view on the right of 7.4 ± 0.40 mm versus the short-axis view on the left of 6.1 ± 0.26 mm (P = .036). Supraspinatus tendon thickness for left-handed pitchers in the long-axis view on the left side showed a mean value of 7.5 ± 0.59 mm versus the long-axis view on the right side of 5.9 ± 0.56 mm (P = .137) and the short-axis view on the left of 6.5 ± 0.45 mm versus the short-axis view on the right of 6.5 ± 0.68 mm (P = .999

  6. Evaluation of the Physical Activity Biography: Sport and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogen, Sandra; Hofmann, Peter; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Beside the genetic disposition, physical activity (PA) is one of the major health factors and can play a large role in the prevention and therapy of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity-related diseases etc.). In contrast to the genetic disposition, PA can be deliberately influenced by lifestyle. Therefore, it is of high importance to assess PA patterns. In order to assess PA reliably and validly, a new questionnaire (Physical Activity Biography, PAB) was created. The PAB assesses recreational PA (sport and transport) and enables to distinguish between endurance intensity levels and considers strength and high speed activity patterns throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the PAB by means of item analysis, retest-reliability and validity (criteria were physical fitness assessed by the questionnaire FFB-mot and by exercise tests). 141 participants answered the PAB. For deriving retest-reliability, 81 participants completed the PAB after a retest-interval of one month again. 55 participated in exercise tests and answered the FFB-mot to determine construct validity. Retest-reliability (ICC) above 0.7 was found for most items. For the items assessing recent PA, the criteria of convergent and discriminant validity were given. Despite the complexity of the question under study, the results fulfilled the expectations concerning reliability and validity. The PAB enables to assess the amount of sport and locomotion a person has accomplished during different life time frames and, because of the protective effects of PA on various diseases, may become an important tool for risk assessment. Key points The risk of chronic diseases depends largely on physical activity biography. A new questionnaire (PAB) assessing recent and lifetime physical activity was created. The PAB assesses physical activity during sports and transport. The results of the evaluation of the PAB fulfilled the expectations. The PAB enables to determine a person’s amount of

  7. Donepezil ? biological activity nad evaluation of its efficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Drábková, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    1 Summary Title: Donepezil - biological activity and evaluation of its efficiency Author: Markéta Drábková Supervisor: Doc. MUDr. Josef Herink, DrSc. Department: Department of biological and medicinal sciences Cognitive enhancers are drugs which preferentially affect cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. The cholinergic system in the brain is the most seriously damaged neurotransmitter system in Alzheimer, s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Donepezil is a new cognitive...

  8. A rapid assay for the biological evaluation of helicase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Dimitrios Vlachakis, Andrea Brancale, Colin Berry & Sophia Kossida ### Abstract A new assay for the measurement of helicase enzyme activity was developed for the evaluation of the potency of potential inhibitors. This assay involves the use of a DNA or RNA duplex substrate and recombinant purified helicase. The DNA duplex consists of a pair of oligonucleotides, one of which is biotinylated and the other is digoxygenin (DIG)-labelled, both at their respective 5’ termini. This ...

  9. Evaluation of the Finnish CERN activities panel report

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Peter; Juuti, Pauli; Kullander, Sven; Ikonen, Eeva; Maalampi, Jukka

    2001-01-01

    The Academy of Finland decided in November 2000 that Finnish CERN-activities should be evaluated. The first ten years of the Finnish membership in CERN have been successful. Also in the future, Finland has great opportunities and benefits of the collaboration with CERN. The Finnish presentations clearly show the rapid development in experimental physics since the joining of CERN. Still, Finland can be considered as a relatively young Member State in CERN, but one of the most dynamic new partners for CERN.

  10. Evaluation of the activity of rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice. Agreement between self-rated clinimetric evaluation and clinical evaluation with activity indexes: DAS28, CDAI and SDAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta-Baas, Gabriel; Pérez Bolde-Hernández, Arturo; Hernández-Cabrera, María Fernanda; Vergara-Sánchez, Imelda; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro

    2017-10-11

    To achieve control of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it is necessary to be able to evaluate its activity. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommends for this purpose indexes of activity that can be performed by the patient (PAS-II and RAPID-3) and IA including medical evaluation with laboratory studies (DAS28 and SDAI) or without them (CDAI). The objective was to analyze the concordance between self-rated clinimetric evaluation and clinimetric evaluation performed by the physician. Analytical cross-sectional study in 126 patients with RA. The agreement was evaluated through the weighted κ coefficient and the Krippendorff's α coefficient. The PAS-II and RAPID-3 significantly correlated with all variables included in the core set of measures recommended by the ACR/EULAR. The agreement between PAS-II and CDAI-SDAI was good (κ: 0.6, α: 0.61-0.62), and moderate with DAS28-ESR (κ: 0.53, α: 0.56). The concordance between RAPID-3 and CDAI-SDAI was moderate (κ: 0.55-0.57, α: 0.50-0.51), and moderate with DAS28-ESR (κ: 0.55, α: 0.53). When categorizing the activity in remission/low activity vs. moderate/severe activity, the agreement was greater with the PAS-II (0.59 vs. 0.34; P=.012). The good concordance between PAS-II and SDAI supports their use in clinical practice, especially if biomarkers of inflammation or the possibility of joint count are not available. However, in order to recommend its routine application in clinical practice, it is necessary to perform longitudinal studies that assess its responsiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of parental perception of school safety and gender on children’s physical activity in Mexico: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hutchens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children’s physical activity (PA levels. Materials and methods. Parents of school aged Mexican children residing in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Puerto Vallarta, completed surveys about their children’s PA measures. The physical activity indicators were evaluated using linear and logistical regression models. Results. Analysis did not indicate that gender moderated the relationship between parental perception of safety and PA measures, but significant gender issues exist with girls participating less than boys in the three measures of PA in this study (p<0.001. Conclusion. Results suggest the need for additional interventions promoting physical activity in girls in Mexico.

  12. Active and latent tuberculosis in Brazilian correctional facilities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Andrea da Silva Santos; Paião, Dayse Sanchez Guimarães; Sgarbi, Renata Viebrantz Enne; Lemos, Everton Ferreira; Cazanti, Renato Fernando; Ota, Marcos Massaki; Junior, Alexandre Laranjeira; Bampi, José Victor Bortolotto; Elias, Vanessa Perreira Fayad; Simionatto, Simone; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Pompílio, Maurício Antonio; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria do Valle; Ko, Albert I; Andrews, Jason R; Croda, Julio

    2015-01-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) rates among prisoners are more than 20 times that of the general population in Brazil, yet there are limited data available to facilitate the development of effective interventions in this high-transmission setting. We aimed to assess risk factors for TB infection and evaluate the yield of mass screening for active disease among inmates. We administered a questionnaire and tuberculin skin test (TST) to a population-based sample of inmates from 12 prisons in Central-West Brazil and collected sera for HIV testing and two sputum samples for smear microscopy and culture from participants reporting a cough of any duration. Hierarchical Poisson regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We recruited 3,380 inmates, of which 2,861 (84.6%) were males from 8 prisons, and 519 (15.4%) were females from 4 prisons. Among the 1,020 (30%) subjects who reported a cough, we obtained sputum from 691 (68%) and identified 31 cases of active TB for a point prevalence of 917 (95% CI, 623-1302) per 100,000 prisoners. Evaluation of the two sputum smear samples failed to identify 74% of the TB cases, and 29% of the cases reported less than 2 weeks of symptoms. Obtaining a second culture identified an additional 7 (24%) cases. The prevalences of LTBI were 22.5% and 11.7% for male and female prisoners, respectively and duration of incarceration (in years) was associated with LTBI in male and female in the multivariable model (1.04, 95% CI, 1.01-1.07 and 1.34, 95% CI, 1.06-1.70, respectively). The prevalence of LTBI is 8.6% among newly incarcerated inmates, among whom LTBI prevalence significantly increased by 5% with each year of incarceration. Although the overall LTBI prevalence among inmates in Central-West Brazil is low, tuberculosis incidence is high (>1,800/100,00), likely due to the high force of infection among a largely susceptible inmate population. Efforts to reduce transmission in prisons may require mass

  13. Evaluation for ENDF/B-IV of the neutron cross sections for /sup 235/U from 82 eV to 25 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, R.W.

    1976-05-01

    Capture and fission cross sections for /sup 235/U in the ''unresolved resonance'' energy region were evaluated to permit determination of local-average resonance parameters for the ENDF/B-IV cross section file. Microscopic data were examined for infinitely dilute average fission and capture cross sections and also for intermediate structure unlikely to be reproduced by statistical fluctuations of resonance widths and spacings within known laws. Evaluated cross sections, averaged over lethargy intervals greater than 0.1, were obtained as an average over selected data sets after appropriate renormalization. Estimated uncertainties are given for these evaluated average cross sections. The ''intermediate'' structure fluctuations common to a few independent data sets were approximated by straight lines joining successive cross sections at 120 selected energy points; the cross sections at the vertices were adjusted to reproduce the evaluated average cross sections over the broad energy regions. Data sources and methods are reviewed, output values are tabulated, and some modified procedures are suggested for future evaluations. Evaluated fission and capture integrals for the resolved resonance region are also tabulated. These are not in agreement with integrals based on the resonance parameters of ENDF/B versions III and IV. 8 tables, 5 figures.

  14. Sedative Hypnotic Activity of Manahshila (Realgar) -An Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Doddamani, M. S.; Vishwanath, Y.; Patgiri, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Manahshila (Realgar) is one of the three major Arsenicals used in Ayurvedic therapeutics since ages. It is indicated in skin, respiratory, ophthalmic and psychological disorders. It is mentioned to be the best among Rasayanas and a good aphrodisiac. As Manahshila is indicated in Unmada (Psychological disorder); wide use of Manahshila in the formulations mentioned for psychological disorders; some of those formulations are used in treatment of sleeplessness and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) which is a commonly used Shodhana reagent of Manahshila is reported to be sedative, the potential sedative hypnotic activity is inferred and an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the sedative hypnotic activity of Manahshila. Effect of Ardraka Shodhita Manahshila (ASM) on the spontaneous motor activity of albino rats in actophotometer and on diazepam induced sleeping time was evaluated. There was a statistically significant reduction in the spontaneous motor activity (P<0.001) in the ASM treated Manahshila and there was early onset and hypnotic potentiation in the diazepam induced sleep in rats (P<0.01). PMID:22557432

  15. University Knowledge Management Tool for Academic Research Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela OPREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of an efficient university knowledge management system involves the de-velopment of several software tools that assist the decision making process for the three main activities of a university: teaching, research, and management. Artificial intelligence provides a variety of techniques that can be used by such tools: machine learning, data mining, text mining, knowledge based systems, expert systems, case-based reasoning, decision support systems, intelligent agents etc. In this paper it is proposed a generic structure of a university knowledge management system, and it is presented an expert system, ACDI_UPG, developed for academic research activity evaluation, that can be used as a decision support tool by the university knowledge management system for planning future research activities according to the main objectives of the university and of the national / international academic research funding organizations.

  16. Effect of modified bridge exercise on trunk muscle activity in healthy adults: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Oh; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-09-09

    This is a cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Fifteen healthy adults (mean age: 27.47 years) volunteered for this study. The individuals performed standard bridge exercise and modified bridge exercises with right leg-lift (single-leg-lift bridge exercise, single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface, and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise). During the bridge exercises, electromyography of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, erector spinae, and multifidus muscles was recorded using a wireless surface electromyography system. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (exercise by side) with post hoc pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni correction was used to compare the electromyography data collected from each muscle. Bilateral internal oblique muscle activities showed significantly greater during single-leg-lift bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-8.99 to -1.08, left internal oblique=-6.84 to -0.10), single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-7.32 to -1.78, left internal oblique=-5.34 to -0.99), and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-17.13 to -0.89, left internal oblique=-8.56 to -0.60) compared with standard bridge exercise. Bilateral rectus abdominis showed greater electromyography activity during single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval: right rectus abdominis=-9.33 to -1.13, left rectus abdominis=-4.80 to -0.64) and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right rectus abdominis=-14.12 to -1.84, left rectus abdominis=-6.68 to -0.16) compared with standard bridge exercise. In addition, the right rectus abdominis muscle activity was greater during single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise compared with single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval=-7.51 to

  17. Evaluation of Waveform Structure Features on Time Domain Target Recognition under Cross Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selver, M. A.; Seçmen, M.; Zoral, E. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Classification of aircraft targets from scattered electromagnetic waves is a challenging application, which suffers from aspect angle dependency. In order to eliminate the adverse effects of aspect angle, various strategies were developed including the techniques that rely on extraction of several features and design of suitable classification systems to process them. Recently, a hierarchical method, which uses features that take advantage of waveform structure of the scattered signals, is introduced and shown to have effective results. However, this approach has been applied to the special cases that consider only a single planar component of electric field that cause no-cross polarization at the observation point. In this study, two small scale aircraft models, Boeing-747 and DC-10, are selected as the targets and various polarizations are used to analyse the cross-polarization effects on system performance of the aforementioned method. The results reveal the advantages and the shortcomings of using waveform structures in time-domain target identification.

  18. Properties of collagen gels cross-linked by N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid deriviate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Wentao; Tian, Zhenhua; Li, Conghu; Li, Guoying

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the properties of collagen gel, N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid derivative (NHS-AA) was introduced into the formation of collagen fibrils. NHS-AA with different [NHS-AA]/[NH2] ratios (0.1-1.5, calculated by [ester group] of NHS-AA and [NH2] of lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagen) was added after, simultaneously with or before the formation of collagen fibrils (abbreviated CAF, CSF and CBF, respectively) to obtain different collagen gels. With the same dose of NHS-AA, the cross-linking degree for CAF was lower than those for CSF and CBF. The formation of collagen fibrils was restrained by NHS-AA for CSF and CBF while that for CAF was unaffected. When the dose of NHS-AA increased from 0.1 to 1.5, the water contents of CSF and CBF increased while that of CAF had no obvious change. With lower dose of NHS-AA (0.1), CAF possessed higher value of G' (87.3Pa) and the best thermal stability (47.6°C). As the ratio of [NHS-AA]/[NH2] increased to 1.5, CSF had the maximum value of G' (288.8Pa) and CAF had the best thermal stability (52.9°C). These results showed collagen gels with different properties could be prepared by adding NHS-AA with different adding sequence and dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  20. Whether Tis Nobler to Normalize : Increasing Inter-evaluator Consistency in the Evaluation of Oral Communication Based Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Inage, Itsuro; Lawn, Etsuko; Lawn, Murray

    2009-01-01

    When totaling evaluation scores in such as oral communication based activities in the case of multiple evaluators who have not been previously trained to given standards, a simple approach to increasing inter-evaluator consistency is the employment of normalization.