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Sample records for evaluate therapeutic properties

  1. Frankincense--therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yasiry, Ali Ridha Mustafa; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2016-01-04

    Recently, increasing interest in natural dietary and therapeutic preparations used as dietary supplements has been observed. One of them is frankincense. This traditional medicine of the East is believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic effects. The present study aims to verify the reported therapeutic properties of Boswellia resin and describe its chemical composition based on available scientific studies. The main component of frankincense is oil (60%). It contains mono- (13%) and diterpenes (40%) as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%) and methylanisole (7.6%). The highest biological activity among terpenes is characteristic of 11-keto-ß-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid and acetyl-α-boswellic acid. Contemporary studies have shown that resin indeed has an analgesic, tranquilising and anti-bacterial effects. From the point of view of therapeutic properties, extracts from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii are reported to be particularly useful. They reduce inflammatory conditions in the course of rheumatism by inhibiting leukocyte elastase and degrading glycosaminoglycans. Boswellia preparations inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and prevent the release of leukotrienes, thus having an anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. Inhalation and consumption of Boswellia olibanum reduces the risk of asthma. In addition, boswellic acids have an antiproliferative effect on tumours. They inhibit proliferation of tumour cells of the leukaemia and glioblastoma subset. They have an anti-tumour effect since they inhibit topoisomerase I and II-alpha and stimulate programmed cell death (apoptosis).

  2. Frankincense – therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ridha Mustafa Al-Yasiry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing interest in natural dietary and therapeutic preparations used as dietary supplements has been observed. One of them is frankincense. This traditional medicine of the East is believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic effects. The present study aims to verify the reported therapeutic properties of Boswellia resin and describe its chemical composition based on available scientific studies. The main component of frankincense is oil (60%. It contains mono- (13% and diterpenes (40% as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%, octyl acetate (13.4% and methylanisole (7.6%. The highest biological activity among terpenes is characteristic of 11-keto-ß-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid and acetyl-α-boswellic acid. Contemporary studies have shown that resin indeed has an analgesic, tranquilising and anti-bacterial effects. From the point of view of therapeutic properties, extracts from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii are reported to be particularly useful. They reduce inflammatory conditions in the course of rheumatism by inhibiting leukocyte elastase and degrading glycosaminoglycans. Boswellia preparations inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and prevent the release of leukotrienes, thus having an anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. Inhalation and consumption of Boswellia olibanum reduces the risk of asthma. In addition, boswellic acids have an antiproliferative effect on tumours. They inhibit proliferation of tumour cells of the leukaemia and glioblastoma subset. They have an anti-tumour effect since they inhibit topoisomerase I and II-alpha and stimulate programmed cell death (apoptosis.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcer properties of Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight: A therapeutic supplement

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    Poornima Nagulsamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In folklore systems of medicine, bilberry fruit and leaf extracts have been used for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, inflammation, and ulcer. The present study was to determine antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcerogenic activities of Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight leaf and fruit. The phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents of V. leschenaultii leaf and fruit were quantified and were subjected to assess their antioxidant potential using various in vitro systems such as 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, and ferric reducing antioxidant power reduction activities. Based on the antioxidant potential, acetone and methanol extracts of leaf and fruit were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in a rat model. The quantification of secondary metabolites shows that the phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents are higher in methanol extracts of fruit and leaf. The results of antioxidant assays exhibited that the methanol extracts of leaf possesses better 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activity. Oral administration of the acetone fruit and leaf extracts of V. leschenaultii were capable of reducing the edema formation in rats against carrageenan and egg albumin induced inflammation. Moreover, leaf and fruit acetone extracts at the dose of 400 mg/kg highly inhibited ulcer formation. The study concluded that the plant substances such as total phenols, flavonoids along with appreciable antioxidant potential could be the supportive evidence to prove both the anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities of V. leschenaultii. The traditional importance of this plant will help to reveal the potential of plant to provide alternative phytotherapeutics for human health.

  4. [Probiotics and their therapeutic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochmański, W; Barabasz, W

    1999-01-01

    Probiotics are specific products of microorganisms, and by being biologically active positively act on stabilizing the bacteriological flora of the gastrointestinal tract. They are live or lyophilized bacterial cultures, especially those derived from lactic fermentation (Lactobacillacea and Streptococcacea). The first to use the term probiotics were Lilly and Stillwell in 1965 when referring to substances produced by protozoa, which in turn stimulated the growth of other organisms. Probiotics are devoid of side affects and do not cause accumulation of toxic substances in the body. They are administered for therapeutic, prophylactic and nutritional purposes both in humans and in animals. Interest into probiotics has been spurred on by the growing abundance of civilization disorders such as neoplasms, atherosclerosis, heart disease, hypertension and HIV infection. Probiotics are potentially capable of annihilating these disorders. Starter cultures are pure mixed bacterial, fungal or mold cultures which by transformation of their metabolism faciliate favourable changes in apperance, aroma, consistency, and durability of foodstuffs. Contemporary knowledge concerning probiotics and their action is derived from many years of tradition in consumption of fermented milk products and the documentation of much research into strains of lactic bacteria, their harmless action on health and overall beneficial effect.

  5. Therapeutic potentials and pharmacological properties of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials and pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera Lam in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and related complications. ... DM is a metabolic disorder resulting from abnormal insulin secretion. This leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. Hyperglycemic-induced ...

  6. Biological Properties and Therapeutic Applications of Propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforcin, José M

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from bud and exudates of the plants, mixed with bee enzymes, pollen and wax. In this review, the biological properties of propolis and some therapeutic applications are discussed. The same biological activities have been investigated until today, using samples from different geographic regions. Thus, the study of the biological properties of a given sample should always be associated with its chemical composition and botanical source, representing a particular sample of a given geographic area, exploring its biological potential and the role of its constituents. Efforts have been carried out to explain propolis' mechanisms of action in vivo and in vitro, but the majority of propolis' targets and actions are still unclear. The number of formulations containing propolis and patents have increased, although propolis extracts have been used deliberately with different recommendations, not always mentioning the chemical composition, vegetal source and the methods of extraction. Clinical studies will help to obtain criterious recommendations in view of the expected outcomes. Further investigation should explore the effects of common compounds found in the samples from all over the world in an attempt to standardize the research on propolis and to obtain new drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of theophylline therapeutic drug monitoring service

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    Neža Rugelj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTherapeutic monitoring of theophylline serum levels is required due to its narrow therapeutic range and marked interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. We evaluated therapeutic drug monitoring service for theophylline in Slovenian clinical setting, which currently includes no pharmacokinetic evaluation of measured theophylline serum concentrations. MethodsWe  retrospectively evaluated 127 randomly selected theophylline serum level determinations performed in 2010 in a tertiary clinical setting in Slovenia. Demographic data, information on theophylline dosing and blood sampling was collected from patients’ data files. Authors evaluated the appropriateness of the following procedures: indications for theophylline serum concentration measurement, timing of blood sampling and dosage adjustments made after theophylline levels had been reported. On the basis of collected data, population pharmacokinetic model for theophylline was built and further used for the evaluation of dosage adjustments. ResultsOut of 127 cases, 107 (84.3% had clinically justified indication for theophylline serum level measurement. Near half of measurements (44.9% were performed before the steady state of theophylline concentrations was established. 65% of measured concentrations were subtherapeutic and the average measured concentration was below therapeutic range (53.1 μmol/L. Despite subtherapeutic concentrations the dose of theophylline was mainly not increased. Pharmacokinetic model enabled the calculation of average optimal daily dose which was significantly higher than the average actual daily dose used (876 mg vs. 572 mg, p < 0.001. ConclusionsTheophylline TDM service should be optimized and pharmacokinetic interpretation of theophylline serum levels should be integrated into clinical practice.

  8. HAMLET: functional properties and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho C S, James; Rydström, Anna; Trulsson, Maria; Bålfors, Johannes; Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina

    2012-10-01

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes that kills tumor cells with high selectivity. The protein component of HAMLET is α-lactalbumin, which in its native state acts as a substrate specifier in the lactose synthase complex, thereby defining a function essential for the survival of lactating mammals. In addition, α-lactalbumin acquires tumoricidal activity after partial unfolding and binding to oleic acid. The lipid cofactor serves the dual role as a stabilizer of the altered fold of the protein and a coactivator of specific steps in tumor cell death. HAMLET is broadly tumoricidal, suggesting that the complex identifies conserved death pathways suitable for targeting by novel therapies. Sensitivity to HAMLET is defined by oncogene expression including Ras and c-Myc and by glycolytic enzymes. Cellular targets are located in the cytoplasmic membrane, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, proteasomes, lysosomes and nuclei, and specific signaling pathways are rapidly activated, first by interactions of HAMLET with the cell membrane and subsequently after HAMLET internalization. Therapeutic effects of HAMLET have been demonstrated in human skin papillomas and bladder cancers, and HAMLET limits the progression of human glioblastomas, with no evidence of toxicity for normal brain or bladder tissue. These findings open up new avenues for cancer therapy and the understanding of conserved death responses in tumor cells.

  9. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

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    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  10. Evaluation of pharmacy and therapeutics committee drug evaluation reports.

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    Majercik, P L; May, J R; Longe, R L; Johnson, M H

    1985-05-01

    Pharmacy and therapeutics (P & T) committee drug evaluation reports prepared by pharmacies and drug information centers (DICs) and product package inserts were compared with standard guidelines to evaluate their quality. Letters were sent to 143 hospital pharmacies asking them to submit a previously prepared drug evaluation report on temazepam, moxalactam disodium, or atenolol. The reports and package inserts for these three drugs were evaluated by the presence of 40 elements derived from the published ASHP guidelines for drug evaluation report preparation. Responses were obtained from 124 (87%) pharmacies; however, only 80 reports (60 DIC-prepared and 20 pharmacy-prepared) were received. The reports contained a mean of 28 of the 40 (70%) possible elements. The most frequently omitted elements were AHFS number, potential unlabeled uses, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease-laboratory test interactions, risk and benefit data, prevention and treatment of side effects, comparisons with established treatment, and disadvantages of the drug under consideration. Although the reports prepared by the DICs and pharmacies contained the same amount of information, the DIC-prepared reports included data more frequently on supply sources, therapeutic indications, approved labeling, comparison with established treatment, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, and recommendations. Most of the reports contained more elements than the corresponding package inserts. The product package inserts did not contain the comparative elements required for P & T committee decisions. Both the pharmacy- and DIC-prepared reports failed to contain all 40 elements recommended in the standard guidelines, suggesting the need for more thorough reports.

  11. Evaluation of stigmatized properties

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    Hajnal István

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatized property is real estate burdened with an external negative effect. Individual cases are spread along a broad spectrum, along many dimensions that include the rational and the irrational, the acute and the chronic. Examples for the stigmatizing effect are a nearby airport, ground water contaminated by chemicals, presence of a high-voltage power line, and so on. Eval­uation of these properties needs special methodology. Stigma can reduce the property’s market value through a particular, multi-layered filter. The author systematically examines the professional literature’s cases of evaluation of stigmatized properties. The research aims to organize and compare the cases in order to calculate the market value of stigmatized properties. Based on the analysis, six significant dimensions are identified. A focus group of 19 experts examined and individually evaluated the stigma­tizing effects along these different dimensions. The author suggests that it is possible to estimate the stigma’s effect and compare different cases to one another effectively. The results allow the international methodology of valu­ation to be processed.

  12. Biological and therapeutic activities, and anticancer properties of curcumin

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    PERRONE, DONATELLA; ARDITO, FATIMA; GIANNATEMPO, GIOVANNI; DIOGUARDI, MARIO; TROIANO, GIUSEPPE; LO RUSSO, LUCIO; DE LILLO, ALFREDO; LAINO, LUIGI; LO MUZIO, LORENZO

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine, as it is nontoxic and exhibits a variety of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activities. Recently, certain studies have indicated that curcumin may exert anticancer effects in a variety of biological pathways involved in mutagenesis, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, cell cycle regulation and metastasis. The present study reviewed previous studies in the literature, which support the therapeutic activity of curcumin in cancer. In addition, the present study elucidated a number of the challenges concerning the use of curcumin as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent. All the studies reviewed herein suggest that curcumin is able to exert anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antioxidative, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities, particularly against cancers of the liver, skin, pancreas, prostate, ovary, lung and head neck, as well as having a positive effect in the treatment of arthritis. PMID:26640527

  13. Therapeutic Efficacy Evaluation of Metronidazole and Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop a highly accurate molecular assay for evaluating the efficacy of metronidazole and some antifungal agents with meglumine antimoniate against L. infantum visceral leishmaniasis in different mouse tissues. Methods: The assay was performed with the Light-Cycler system using SYBR Green I and ...

  14. Comparison of the mechanical properties of therapeutic elastic tapes used in sports and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Joao Paulo Chieregato; Zille, Rafael Ribeiro; Gomide Matheus, Liana Barbaresco; Lemos, Thiago Vilela; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Shimano, Antônio Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Cross-sectional laboratory study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of different therapeutic elastic tapes used in sports and clinical practice. Therapeutic tapes have been used since around the 1800s. They are composed of cotton, elastic filaments and adhesive glue that provides an effect of tactile and mechanical stimulation. However, as taping has evolved, manufacturers have implemented new materials and claim that the tensile properties and adhesion of tapes contribute more significantly in the rehabilitation process. Fifty samples of elastic tapes (5 different manufacturers; 10 samples from each manufacturer) were submitted to longitudinal traction until rupture as well as surface adherence assays. Information was recorded on maximum deformation, maximum load, maximum tension and relative stiffness. In tensile testing the bandages brand Kinesio Tex Gold - FP(®) showed higher rates, 3 in 4 properties. During surface adherence tests on the therapeutic elastic tapes the brand Premium Kinesiology 3 NS Tex(®) showed higher rates, 3 in 4 properties analyzed. Tapes from different manufacturers exhibit different characteristics regarding traction and adherence mechanics. Knowledge of these characteristics is fundamental for the optimized use of each tape based on specific therapeutic needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antidiabetic Effects of Aronia melanocarpa and Its Other Therapeutic Properties

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    Ines Banjari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prevalence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched for antidiabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or black chokeberry has been investigated for its therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including cardiovascular disease. Though A. melanocarpa is native to the eastern areas of North America, it has been planted extensively in Europe and Asia as well. Several in vivo studies have displayed the antioxidant properties of A. melanocarpa berry juice and plant extract in rat models where oxidative stress markers were observed to have significant reductions. Some of the potent bioactive compounds present in the fruits and other parts of the plant were identified as (−-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside. Overall, A. melanocarpa could be considered a good source of antioxidants which is effective in combating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Properties and Therapeutic Application of Bromelain: A Review

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    Rajendra Pavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple. Fruit bromelain and stem bromelainare prepared differently and they contain different enzymatic composition. “Bromelain” refers usually to the “stem bromelain.” Bromelain is a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatase, glucosidase, peroxidase, cellulase, escharase, and several protease inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Bromelain is considerably absorbable in the body without losing its proteolytic activity and without producing any major side effects. Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics. It also relieves osteoarthritis, diarrhea, and various cardiovascular disorders. Bromelain also possesses some anticancerous activities and promotes apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the important properties and therapeutic applications of bromelain, along with the possible mode of action.

  17. Stealth Properties to Improve Therapeutic Efficacy of Drug Nanocarriers

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    Stefano Salmaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, nanocarriers for drug delivery have emerged as powerful tools with unquestionable potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Many colloidal drug delivery systems are underdevelopment to ameliorate the site specificity of drug action and reduce the systemic side effects. By virtue of their small size they can be injected intravenously and disposed into the target tissues where they release the drug. Nanocarriers interact massively with the surrounding environment, namely, endothelium vessels as well as cells and blood proteins. Consequently, they are rapidly removed from the circulation mostly by the mononuclear phagocyte system. In order to endow nanosystems with long circulation properties, new technologies aimed at the surface modification of their physicochemical features have been developed. In particular, stealth nanocarriers can be obtained by polymeric coating. In this paper, the basic concept underlining the “stealth” properties of drug nanocarriers, the parameters influencing the polymer coating performance in terms of opsonins/macrophages interaction with the colloid surface, the most commonly used materials for the coating process and the outcomes of this peculiar procedure are thoroughly discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Therapeutic Effects of Radiotherapy during Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starting pathways of anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidation, but the proliferation of tumor cells was inhibited, so it is difficult for 18F-FDG to reflect the therapeutic effects accurately. Although there are a large number of reports on application of 18F-FDG in evaluation of antitumor efficacy [10], 18F-FDG can mainly reflect ...

  19. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches

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    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs. PMID:27649147

  1. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-09-13

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.

  2. Moclobemide : An Update of its Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Bret; Benfield, Paul

    1996-09-01

    , pethidine (meperidine) or dextro-methorphan (both of which have serotonergic properties) should be avoided in patients receiving moclobemide. Moclobemide has no reported interaction with directly acting sympathomimetic agents. Data indicate that the drug may be used with caution in combination with low dosages of indirectly acting sympathomimetics. The elimination of moclobemide is significantly reduced when it is coadministered with cimetidine. Moclobemide may be initiated at full therapeutic dosages of 300 to 450 mg/day. The maximum recommended dosage is 600 mg/day. Dietary restrictions are not required but consumption of large amounts of tyramine-rich food should be avoided. Washout periods when switching between moclobemide and other antidepressants are not required. Dosage adjustments are not needed in patients with renal dysfunction; however, moclobemide dosages should be reduced by one-third to one-half in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

  3. Therapeutic properties of meswak chewing sticks: A review | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the beneficial effects of meswak in respect of oral hygiene and dental health are partly due to its mechanical action and pharmacological actions. ... The therapeutic aspects of meswak and its important role in plaque control, gingival recession, tooth wear, bleeding gums, and periodontal health as well as its ...

  4. Risk evaluation and monitoring in multiple sclerosis therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Michel C; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Ashton, Raymond J; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Reingold, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    Risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMT) must be assessed on an ongoing basis. Early concerns regarding the first-approved DMTs for MS have been mitigated, but recently licensed therapies have been linked to possibly greater risks. The objective of this review is to discuss risk assessment in MS therapeutics based on an international workshop and comprehensive literature search and recommend strategies for risk assessment/monitoring. Assessment and perception of therapeutic risks vary between patients, doctors and regulators. Acceptability of risk depends on the magnitude of risk and the demonstrated clinical benefits of any agent. Safety signals must be distinguishable from chance occurrences in a clinical trial and in long-term use of medications. Post-marketing research is crucial for assessing longer-term safety in large patient cohorts. Reporting of adverse events is becoming more proactive, allowing more rapid identification of risks. Communication about therapeutic risks and their relationship to clinical benefit must involve patients in shared decision making. It is difficult to produce a general risk-assessment algorithm for all MS therapies. Specific algorithms are required for each DMT in every treated-patient population. New and evolving risks must be evaluated and communicated rapidly to allow patients and physicians to be well informed and able to share treatment decisions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Characterization of the therapeutic properties of Chinese herbal materials by measuring delayed luminescence and dendritic cell-based immunomodulatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Chang, Wen-Te; Van Wijk, Eduard; He, Min; Koval, Slavik; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Van Wijk, Roel; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan; Wang, Mei

    2017-03-01

    Based on the traditional Chinese medicine theory, the Chinese pharmacopeia assigns a therapeutic description of "taste" to all herbs; thus, an herb's "taste" is valued in traditional Chinese medicine as a major ethnopharmacological category and reflects the herb's therapeutic properties. These properties guide the practitioner with respect to preparing a specific herbal formula in order to provide each patient with a personalized intervention. The key challenge in evidence-based medicine is to characterize herbal therapeutic properties from a multi-target, multi-dimensional systems pharmacology perspective. Here, we used delayed luminescence (DL, the slowly decaying emission of photons following excitation with light) as a rapid, direct, highly sensitive indicator to characterize the properties of herbal medicines. The DL parameters were able to reliably identify a specific category of herbal materials with the so-called "sweet" taste. To support the DL results and provide biological relevance to the DL results, we used a murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell-based assay to examine the immunomodulatory effects of herbal extracts from various "taste" categories. Our results indicate that DL may serve as a robust and sensitive tool for evaluating the therapeutic properties of herbs based on the traditional Chinese medicine classification of "taste". Thus, DL provides a promising technological platform for investigating the properties of Chinese herbal medicines both qualitatively and quantitatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence-based evaluation of therapeutic measures for sleep disorders

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    LI Juan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various treatment for sleep disorders in order to provide the best therapeutic regimen for the evidence-based treatment of sleep disorders. Methods Sleep disorder, insomnia, restless legs syndrome or RLS, obstructive sleep apnea or OSA, narcolepsy, REM behaviour disorder or RBD, treatment or therapy were used as retrieval words. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect were used for retrieval, and manual searching was also used. Related clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled clinical trials, retrospective case analysis, case-observation studies and reviews were collected and evaluated by Jadad Scale. Results Forty related articles were selected as following: 6 clinical guidelines, 12 systematic reviews, 5 randomized controlled trials, 2 retrospective case analysis, 1 case-observation study and 14 reviews. Thirty-three were of high quality, while 7 were of low quality with score. According to the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various therapies, it is suggested as following: 1 insomnia is the most common in sleep disorders; the treatment methods of insomnia mainly include drug therapy and cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; the two kinds of therapy have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the combination therapy of drugs and CBT is the best treatment plan. 2 The first-line treatment of primary RLS is dopamine agonists and anti-seizure drugs; however, the treatment of secondary RLS is mainly etiologic treatment. 3 The main treatments of OSAS are nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP, oral orthotics and surgery, and nCPAP is the first-line treatments. 4 The medication of narcolepsy is mainly modafinil, hydroxy butyric acid sodium and antidepressants, and the specific choosingshould accord to clinical classifications. 5 The main treatments of RBD include general treatments such as avoiding triggers, insuring the

  7. Therapeutical evaluation of bevacizumab application in relapsed pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Martins Abrahão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Therapeutic evaluation of Bevacizumab application in relapsed pterygium concerning visual acuity, keratometry, refraction, symptomatology. Methods: Group 1 (4 patients received 0.1 ml of Bevacizumab (avastin, being evaluated posteriorly on the tenth and thirtieth days after the application, seeking to compare with the exam previously made, being it realized with the other two groups, in which Group 2 (4 patients received 0.2 ml of Bevacizumab and the Group 3 (3 patients received 1 ml of the placebo injection. Results: In this study, eleven eyes of eleven patients were evaluated. Among these patients, 7 were women (63.6% and 4 men (36.4%. There was a variation in the cylindrical diopter after the treatment with a dose of 0.1 ml of bevaciumab during the evaluation on the thirtieth day. Whereas the cylindrical shaft had a significantly larger modification after the application of 0.2 ml. Regarding the spherical diopter variation, there were modifications in the 3 groups. The keratometry varied in the 3 groups, mostly after the thirtieth day of evaluation. In relation to symptomatology, it was observed a reduction in the subjective evaluation of the eye burning sensation, the prurience mentioned by the patient and a reduction of the hyperemia biomicroscopy evaluation. Conclusion: In bevacizumab application in the recurrent pterygium treatment, there is modification of the spherical and cylindrical parameters of refraction, besides the changes in keratometry and the reduction of the symptomatology.

  8. Nutritional and therapeutic properties of goat’s milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zrinka Filipović Dermit; Nataša Mikulec; Darija Bendelja Ljoljić; Neven Antunac

    2014-01-01

    Production of goat milk and its consumption in the world is increasing, and so is the population of goats which increases more than the population of other dairy animals. This is particularly true in countries where goat milk is reflection of the traditional production. Goat’s milk, in addition to the high nutritional value (better digestibility, hypoallergenic, higher buffering capacity, higher pH value) is characterized by therapeutic characteristics important for human health. The preferen...

  9. Clinical evaluation of therapeutic measures for intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Juan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side effect of various treatment for intracranial aneurysms in order to formulate the best therapeutic regimen for the evidence-based treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Intracranial aneurysms, treatment, endovascular coiling treatment or neurosurgical clipping treatment were used as retrieval words. MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane library were used for retrieval, and manual searching was also used. Related clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomised controlled clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, retrospective case analysis and case -observation studies were collected and evaluated by Jadad Scale. Results Twenty-six related articles were selected as follow: 4 clinical guidelines, 4 randomised controlled clinical trials, 7 systematic reviews, 9 retrospective case analysis, 1 controlled clinical trials, and 1 case-observation study. Among the above articles 20 were of high quality (2 articles with 7 points, 2 articles 6 points, 4 articles 5 points, 12 articles 4 points, while 6 were of low quality by score. According to therapeutic principle and the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various therapies, it is suggested that: 1 Endovascular coiling treatment and surgical clipping treatment are the two main methods of intracranial aneurysms, but it is still controversial which method is more advantage. 2 For unruptured intracranial aneurysms, there is still having controversy in whether they should be treated or not. Symptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms are suggested to be treated actively, but for asymptomatic small unruptured aneurysms, there is still having controversy, various factors should be comprehensively accounted, such as age, previous history, family history, the size of the aneurysm, location, morphology and life expectancy, etc. 3 For rupture intracranial aneurysms, it should be treated as soon as possible, only when the patients with

  10. How to Implement Therapeutic Evaluative Conditioning in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Fox, Kathryn R; Ribeiro, Jessica D

    2017-05-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs), including both suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury, are major public health problems that have been on the rise in recent decades. There are few effective SIB interventions, and those that are effective cannot reach most people who are in need of help-that is, these interventions are not scalable. To address this need, we recently developed a scalable, app-based treatment called Therapeutic Evaluative Conditioning (TEC) that preliminary studies have shown causes reductions in SIBs (Franklin et al., 2016). Although TEC was developed and evaluated as a standalone, self-administered intervention, it may also be a valuable therapeutic tool within traditional clinical settings. Here we provide a case illustration of a young adult female who presented at an outpatient clinic with a long history of self-injurious behaviors and multiple failed treatment attempts. In discussing this case, we describe how to implement TEC within such a setting and what might be expected as a result. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Caregivers and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Erin C.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Garland, Ann F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Caregivers and Parents (TASCP) in a sample of 209 caregivers whose children (4-13 years of age) presented with disruptive behavior problems to a publicly funded outpatient mental health clinic in San Diego County. Information about therapeutic alliance was…

  12. Nutritional and therapeutic properties of goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Filipović Dermit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of goat milk and its consumption in the world is increasing, and so is the population of goats which increases more than the population of other dairy animals. This is particularly true in countries where goat milk is reflection of the traditional production. Goat’s milk, in addition to the high nutritional value (better digestibility, hypoallergenic, higher buffering capacity, higher pH value is characterized by therapeutic characteristics important for human health. The preference of goat’s milk over cow’s milk is also a higher selenium content, which is essential for the activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, also significant in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Goat’s milk in comparison with cow’s, contains more fatty acids, which have beneficial effects on human health, especially the cardiovascular system. Goat’s milk proteins are more digestible than cow’s milk proteins, also an absorption of amino acids are more efficient. The sensitivity of people to α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk is negligible after replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk. The objective of this paper is to specify benefits of goat’s milk in regard to cow’s and highlight its therapeutic and nutritional values.

  13. Ozonized vegetable oils and therapeutic properties: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália R. Almeida; Adilson Beatriz; Ana Camila Micheletti; Eduardo José de Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Derived from ozonetherapy, the ozonized oils represent an Ozonized oils represent an interesting pharmaceutical approach to the management of a variety of dermatological pathologies. Ozone reacts with carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids according to the mechanism described by Criegee, forming ozonides or 1,2,4 trioxolane rings and peroxides as the most important products, responsible for the antimicrobial activity and stimulating tissue repair and regeneration properties. Th...

  14. [Therapeutic properties of proteins and peptides from colostrum and milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in innate immunity when transferred to the offspring and may accelerate maturation of the immune system in neonates. The immunotropic properties of these proteins prompted investigators research their potential application in prevention and therapy. Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitice, and antitumoral activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth, and accelerates the recovery of immune system function in immunocompromised animals. LF was tried in the treatment of hepatitis C infection and the intestinal form of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) demonstrated a variety of immunotropic functions, including the promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition of autoimmune disorders. PRP, in the form of chewable tablets (Colostrinin) was recently found to improve or stabilize the health status of Alzheimer's disease patients. Casein and casein-derived peptides showed protective activities in enamel demineralization and as caries-preventing agents. The protein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced tumor growth, had antihypertensive activity and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a peptide derived from kappa-casein, exhibited various antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. Alpha-lactalbumin (LA) demonstrated antiviral, antitumoral and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea, and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. HAMLET, a complex of LA and oleic acid, was effective in patients with cutaneous papillomas. Lysozyme found application in infant formulas, the treatment of periodentitis, and the prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. Interesting

  15. The Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use of Apomorphine

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    Samo Ribarič

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Apomorphine (APO is an aporphine derivative used in human and veterinary medicine. APO activates D1, D2S, D2L, D3, D4, and D5 receptors (and is thus classified as a non-selective dopamine agonist, serotonin receptors (5HT1A, 5HT2A, 5HT2B, and 5HT2C, and α-adrenergic receptors (α1B, α1D, α2A, α2B, and α2C. In veterinary medicine, APO is used to induce vomiting in dogs, an important early treatment for some common orally ingested poisons (e.g., anti-freeze or insecticides. In human medicine, it has been used in a variety of treatments ranging from the treatment of addiction (i.e., to heroin, alcohol or cigarettes, for treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in females to the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Currently, APO is used in patients with advanced PD, for the treatment of persistent and disabling motor fluctuations which do not respond to levodopa or other dopamine agonists, either on its own or in combination with deep brain stimulation. Recently, a new and potentially important therapeutic role for APO in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease has been suggested; APO seems to stimulate Ab catabolism in an animal model and cell culture, thus reducing the rate of Ab oligomerisation and consequent neural cell death.

  16. Evaluation of various therapeutic measures in striae rubra

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    Umesh Karsandas Karia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA (30% peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8 of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25% as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6 patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%. While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%. Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen

  17. Evaluation of Various Therapeutic Measures in Striae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, Umesh Karsandas; Padhiar, Bela Bhemabhai; Shah, Bela Jaswantbhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w) gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA) combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (30%) peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow) peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8) of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25%) as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6) patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%). While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%). Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen with

  18. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Films of Amlodipine Besylate for Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Maheswari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of formulating mouth dissolving films (MDFs of Amlodipine Besylate (AMLO to enhance convenience and compliance of the elderly and pediatric patients for better therapeutic efficacy. Film formers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and methyl cellulose (MC along with film modifiers like poly vinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30, and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS as solubilizing agents were evaluated. The prepared MDFs were evaluated for in vitro dissolution characteristics, in vitro disintegration time, and their physicomechanical properties. All the prepared MDFs showed good mechanical properties like tensile strength, folding endurance, and % elongation. MDFs were evaluated by means of FTIR, SEM, and X-RD studies. MDFs with 7.5% (w/w of HPMC E3 gave better dissolution properties when compared to HPMC E5, HPMC E15, and MC. MDFs with PVP K30 and SLS gave superior dissolution properties when compared to MDFs without PVP K30 and SLS. The dissolution properties of MDFs with PVP K30 were superior when compared to MDFs with SLS. In the case of F3 containing 7.5% of HPMC E3 and 0.04% of PVP K30, complete and faster release was observed within 60 sec when compared to other formulations. Release kinetics data reveals diffusion is the release mechanism.

  20. Insights into the Antimicrobial Properties of Hepcidins: Advantages and Drawbacks as Potential Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals, and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application.

  1. Ozonized vegetable oils and therapeutic properties: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Derived from ozonetherapy, the ozonized oils represent an Ozonized oils represent an interesting pharmaceutical approach to the management of a variety of dermatological pathologies. Ozone reacts with carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids according to the mechanism described by Criegee, forming ozonides or 1,2,4 trioxolane rings and peroxides as the most important products, responsible for the antimicrobial activity and stimulating tissue repair and regeneration properties. The ozonized vegetable oils can be liquids or semisolids at room temperature and have stability periods that may be adequate for commercial distribuition. Ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon®, a drug registered nationally and developed in the Ozone Research Center in Cuba has been tested and it was found to have valuable antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and virus. FT-IR and NMR technics are used to confirm the structural changes undergone by oil during the ozonation. For determining the quality of ozonized oils, analytical methods such as peroxide, acidity and iodine values are usually carried out. Products are available for an alternative use of available resources, natural and renewable sources, simple technology, low cost and with extensive biological activity with reduced collateral effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v4i4.467

  2. Outcome Evaluation of Therapeutic Community Model in Iran

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    Nasrindokht Sadir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvaluation of treatment programs in addiction field is a prerequisite to improve the quality of care. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Therapeutic Community (TC program in Iran. MethodsIndividuals who had voluntarily enrolled in the TC center within a period of seven years, from early 2005 to late 2011, entered the study. Those who successfully completed the 14-week residential course were considered as ‘completers’. They were subsequently called in for urine test and interviews using Maudsley Addiction Profile. Urine test was conducted to determine if they were positive for heroin, opium, methadone, methamphetamine, bupronorphine, hashish, and tramadol. ResultsA number of 378 individuals with mean (± SD age of 32.5 ± 7.8 enrolled in the TC program during the study period, 240 individuals of whom completed the 14 weeks course (69.0%. At the end of the sixth year, 22% of the participants were in abstinence. Physical and mental health in abstainers proved to be of better conditions than those of non-abstainers (P<0.05. ConclusionConsidering the TC outcome in other countries, it seems that TC maintains an acceptable effectiveness in Iran. Prospective controlled studies are warranted to investigate the outcomes in more details.

  3. Evaluation of butyrate-induced production of a mannose-6-phosphorylated therapeutic enzyme using parallel bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Wong, Lily; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Braulke, Thomas; Khan, Mansoor; Anderson, Howard; Johnson, Gibbes R

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactor process changes can have a profound effect on the yield and quality of biotechnology products. Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) glycan content and the enzymatic catalytic kinetic parameters are critical quality attributes (CQAs) of many therapeutic enzymes used to treat lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Here, we have evaluated the effect of adding butyrate to bioreactor production cultures of human recombinant β-glucuronidase produced from CHO-K1 cells, with an emphasis on CQAs. The β-glucuronidase produced in parallel bioreactors was quantified by capillary electrophoresis, the catalytic kinetic parameters were measured using steady-state analysis, and mannose-6-phosphorylation status was assessed using an M6P-specific single-chain antibody fragment. Using this approach, we found that butyrate treatment increased β-glucuronidase production up to approximately threefold without significantly affecting the catalytic properties of the enzyme. However, M6P content in β-glucuronidase was inversely correlated with the increased enzyme production induced by butyrate treatment. This assessment demonstrated that although butyrate dramatically increased β-glucuronidase production in bioreactors, it adversely impacted the mannose-6-phosphorylation of this LSD therapeutic enzyme. This strategy may have utility in evaluating manufacturing process changes to improve therapeutic enzyme yields and CQAs. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of a novel therapeutic dairy-based drink for phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M.; Effat, Laila K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: People with phenylketonuria need to eat a special diet which contains a low level of phenylalanine. Most of these special diets have high protein levels which contain phenylalanine. Control of phenylalanine levels in the early years of life is crucial and remains important throughout childhood, especially for cognitive function and behavior. Aims: The current study evaluated the biological and sensory properties of a novel dairy-based drink for patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods and Materials: The novel dairy-based drink was prepared by emulsifying corn germ oil with casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) solution in milk permeates. The chemical composition and sensory properties of the dairy-based drink were determined. In addition, the dairy-based drink was nutritionally evaluated using patient volunteers. These patients followed a strict diet limiting phenylalanine in their food. Phenylalanine levels were measured before and after three days of consuming the dairy-based drink. Results: The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the product was ranked that there were decreases in “good” and was acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Serum phenylalanine levels in all volunteers decreased between 30% - 80%. Conclusions: The data obtained from the sensory evaluation and the decreases in serum phenylalanine levels encourage us to utilize this formulated dairy-based drink for therapeutic feeding of PKU patients. PMID:22624117

  5. Evaluation of Selected Aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Nutrition Therapeutic Programme (NTP) involves the provision of food supplements at primary health clinics (PHCs) to correct nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable groups. Although previous studies have identified problems with implementing the programme at PHCs, assessments of its efficiency have ...

  6. Recombinant proteins of helminths with immunoregulatory properties and their possible therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Santos, Leonardo; Carvalho Pacheco, Luis Gustavo; Silva Pinheiro, Carina; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2017-02-01

    The inverse relationship between helminth infections and the development of immune-mediated diseases is a cornerstone of the hygiene hypothesis and studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms by which helminth-derived molecules can suppress immunological disorders. These studies have fostered the idea that parasitic worms may be used as a promising therapeutic alternative for prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases. We discuss the current approaches for identification of helminth proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, including the strategies based on high-throughput technologies. We also explore the methodological approaches and expression systems used for production of the recombinant forms of more than 20 helminth immunomodulatory proteins, besides their performances when evaluated as immunotherapeutic molecules to treat different immune-mediated conditions, including asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of using these parasite-derived recombinant molecules as tools for future immunotherapy and immunoprophylaxis of human inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Pharmacological Properties and Molecular Mechanisms of Thymol: Prospects for Its Therapeutic Potential and Pharmaceutical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoor Meeran, Mohamed Fizur; Javed, Hayate; Al Taee, Hasan; Azimullah, Sheikh; Ojha, Shreesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Thymol, chemically known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol is a colorless crystalline monoterpene phenol. It is one of the most important dietary constituents in thyme species. For centuries, it has been used in traditional medicine and has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic and antitumor activities. The present article presents a detailed review of the scientific literature which reveals the pharmacological properties of thymol and its multiple therapeutic actions against various cardiovascular, neurological, rheumatological, gastrointestinal, metabolic and malignant diseases at both biochemical and molecular levels. The noteworthy effects of thymol are largely attributed to its anti-inflammatory (via inhibiting recruitment of cytokines and chemokines), antioxidant (via scavenging of free radicals, enhancing the endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and chelation of metal ions), antihyperlipidemic (via increasing the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing the levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the circulation and membrane stabilization) (via maintaining ionic homeostasis) effects. This review presents an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo data supporting thymol’s therapeutic activity and the challenges concerning its use for prevention and its therapeutic value as a dietary supplement or as a pharmacological agent or as an adjuvant along with current therapeutic agents for the treatment of various diseases. It is one of the potential candidates of natural origin that has shown promising therapeutic potential, pharmacological properties and molecular mechanisms as well as pharmacokinetic properties for the pharmaceutical development of thymol. PMID:28694777

  8. Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of rosmarinic acid-Cytoprotective properties and pharmacokinetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sara; Madureira, Ana Raquel; Campos, Débora; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2017-06-13

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenolic antioxidant derived from many common herbal plants. This compound displays several important biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antidepressant, anticarcionogenic, and chemopreventive properties. The importance of its activities and its possible application in processed foods as a natural antioxidant has reached a new interest levels in recent years. The health effects of this polyphenol depend greatly on both its intakes and bioavailability. This review focuses on the importance of RA as a dietary supplement, and summarizes its pharmacokinetics and metabolism, including the factors that limit its oral bioavailability which leads to a lower therapeutic action. Further experimental investigations are needed to optimize and enhance the oral bioavailability of this natural compound which consequently will help increasing therapeutic efficacy of RA in vivo.

  9. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease: characteristics, evaluation and therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faludi, Béla; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-07-05

    Parkinson's disease is a well known representent of the movement disorder group of neurological disorders. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is based on specific symptoms and signs of movement abnormalities. In addition to classic motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease has characteristic non-motor features, and some of these emerges the classic signs. The authors discuss characteristics and therapeutic interventions in Parkinson's disease related sleep disturbances. The authors reviewed and summarised literature data on sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease published in the PubMed database up to January 2015. Sleep problems are important non-motor complains (insomnia, hypersomnia, REM behaviour disorder, sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome). The neurodegenerative process of the brain-stem, the effect of symptoms of Parkinson's disease on sleep and concomitant sleep disorders constitute the background of the patient's complains. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy of the consequential or concomitant sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease will help to improve the patient's quality of life.

  11. Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Terminalia avicennioides crude extract against selected bacteria from diarrhoeic patients. F.M. Musa, J.B. Ameh, S.A. Ado, O.S. Olonitola ...

  12. EVALUATION OF DISINTEGRANT PROPERTIES OF Neorautanenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. Olayemi

    properties such as solubility, acidity, pH, hydration capacity, swelling capacity, content of amylose and amylopectin and flow properties were determined. The starch (NMS) was employed as a disintegrant in the preparation of paracetamol granules at concentrations of 7.5, 10 and 15 % and evaluated. The granules.

  13. Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Calderón-Montaño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies.

  14. Correlation between the different therapeutic properties of Chinese medicinal herbs and delayed luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jingxiang; Fu, Jialei; Yang, Meina; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-03-01

    In the practice and principle of Chinese medicine, herbal materials are classified according to their therapeutic properties. 'Cold' and 'heat' are the most important classes of Chinese medicinal herbs according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this work, delayed luminescence (DL) was measured for different samples of Chinese medicinal herbs using a sensitive photon multiplier detection system. A comparison of DL parameters, including mean intensity and statistic entropy, was undertaken to discriminate between the 'cold' and 'heat' properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. The results suggest that there are significant differences in mean intensity and statistic entropy and using this method combined with statistical analysis may provide novel parameters for the characterization of Chinese medicinal herbs in relation to their energetic properties. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica): health promoting properties and therapeutic applications – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    Chia has been known for over 5,500 years. Chia seeds were one of the most important components of the diet of Mayas and Aztecs. The chemical composition and technological properties of chia give the plant a high nutritional potential. Chia is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6, soluble dietary fiber. It also contains appreciable amount of proteins and phytochemicals. Nutritional value of chia is the reason why it is used in prophylaxis of several non-infectious diseases such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer and diabetes. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of chia are currently being researched by many scientific centres. The aim of this article is to present the nutritional and therapeutic values of chia.

  16. A multicenter evaluation of a new therapeutic plasma exchange procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Jeffrey L; Burgstaler, Edwin A; Gottschall, Jerome L; Balogun, Rasheed A; Houghton, Jaime R; Lee, Wanda J; Snyder, Edward L

    2013-12-01

    The AMICUS (Fenwal, Inc.) was cleared in the United States for platelet (PLT) and plasma collection in 1996 with subsequent clearances for the collection of other blood products. Although not previously used for therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), new disposables, software, and hardware were developed to enable TPE on the AMICUS. A multicenter, randomized, nonblinded, crossover paired treatment protocol was performed. Thirty patients with orders for at least two TPE procedures were randomly assigned to the AMICUS or the COBE Spectra (TerumoBCT) for the first treatment. Each patient was crossed over to the other device using the same procedure settings from the first procedure. The primary objective compared efficiency of plasma removal (EPR) with secondary objectives of comparing PLT and hemoglobin (Hb) waste plasma content, coagulation factor and complement activation, fluid balance tracking accuracy, procedure length, and adverse events. The EPR for the AMICUS (81.9 ± 7.62%) was superior to that of the COBE Spectra (75.2 ± 6.29%; p = 0.00001). The AMICUS also demonstrated statistically higher fluid balance accuracy (99.84%) compared to that of the COBE Spectra (98.83%; p < 0.0001) and a statistically shorter procedure time (103.9 ± 30.8 vs. 110.5 ± 27.1 min, p < 0.001). No significant differences with regard to PLT and Hb content in the waste plasma, change in patient PLT count, or changes in markers of coagulation and complement cascade activation were seen. Frequency and severity of adverse reactions were similar. The AMICUS separator can effectively perform TPE. The AMICUS demonstrated superior plasma removal efficiency compared to the COBE Spectra with no evidence of significant differences in PLT removal, hemolysis, and coagulation or complement activation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the NUBASE2016 evaluation that contains the recommended values for nuclear and decay properties of 3437 nuclides in their ground and excited isomeric (T1/2 >= 100 ns) states. All nuclides for which any experimental information is known were considered. NUBASE2016 covers all data published by October 2016 in primary (journal articles) and secondary (mainly laboratory reports and conference proceedings) references, together with the corresponding bibliographical information. During the development of NUBASE2016, the data available in the 'Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File' (ENSDF) database were consulted and critically assessed for their validity and completeness. Furthermore, a large amount of new data and some older experimental results that were missing from ENSDF were compiled, evaluated and included in NUBASE2016. The atomic mass values were taken from the 'Atomic Mass Evaluation' (AME2016, second and third parts of the present issue). In cases where no experimental data were available for a particular nuclide, trends in the behavior of specific properties in neighboring nuclides (TNN) were examined. This approach allowed to estimate values for a range of properties that are labeled in NUBASE2016 as 'non-experimental' (flagged '#'). Evaluation procedures and policies used during the development of this database are presented, together with a detailed table of recommended values and their uncertainties. AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/ Contents The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear propertiesAcrobat PDF (1.1 MB) Table I. The NUBASE2016 table of nuclear and decay propertiesAcrobat PDF (706 KB)

  18. Characterization of the therapeutic properties of Chinese herbal materials by measuring delayed luminescence and dendritic cell-based immunomodulatory response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, M.; Chang, W.T.; Wijk, E. van; He, M.; Koval, S.; Lin, M.K.; Van Wijk, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the traditional Chinese medicine theory, the Chinese pharmacopeia assigns a therapeutic description of “taste” to all herbs; thus, an herb's “taste” is valued in traditional Chinese medicine as a major ethnopharmacological category and reflects the herb's therapeutic properties. These

  19. Hierarchical Micro/Nano-Porous Acupuncture Needles Offering Enhanced Therapeutic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    in, Su-Ll; Gwak, Young S.; Kim, Hye Rim; Razzaq, Abdul; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Kim, Hee Young; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Bong Hyo; Grimes, Craig A.; Yang, Chae Ha

    2016-10-01

    Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention has been widely used for treatment of many pathophysiological disorders. For achieving improved therapeutic effects, relatively thick acupuncture needles have been frequently used in clinical practice with, in turn, enhanced stimulation intensity. However due to the discomforting nature of the larger-diameter acupuncture needles there is considerable interest in developing advanced acupuncture therapeutical techniques that provide more comfort with improved efficacy. So motivated, we have developed a new class of acupuncture needles, porous acupuncture needles (PANs) with hierarchical micro/nano-scale conical pores upon the surface, fabricated via a simple and well known electrochemical process, with surface area approximately 20 times greater than conventional acupuncture needles. The performance of these high-surface-area PANs is evaluated by monitoring the electrophysiological and behavioral responses from the in vivo stimulation of Shenmen (HT7) points in Wistar rats, showing PANs to be more effective in controlling electrophysiological and behavioral responses than conventional acupuncture needles. Comparative analysis of cocaine induced locomotor activity using PANs and thick acupuncture needles shows enhanced performance of PANs with significantly less pain sensation. Our work offers a unique pathway for achieving a comfortable and improved acupuncture therapeutic effect.

  20. [Programme of criteria for clinical evaluation and assessment of therapeutic effects of peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-qiang; Bai, Ya-Ping; Wang, Zi-chen

    2006-11-01

    To establish perfect criteria for clinical evaluation and assessment of therapeutic effects of peripheral facial paralysis. With reference to relative evaluating criteria, and in combination with self-characteristics of TCM and functional characteristics of facial nerves, and via clinical repeated investigation and control evaluation, put forward a scale for peripheral facial nerve rating, criteria for facial nerve grading, criteria of syndrome types and criteria of assessment of therapeutic effects. Clinical preliminary determination indicated that the assessment contents were characterized by rational reference, convenience and objectiveness. The program can used as criteria for clinical evaluation and assessment of therapeutic effects, but it needs support of clinical effectiveness and determination of confidence, and multi-central studies.

  1. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 3. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India. Tapas Acharya Rajesh Prasad S Chakrabarti. Volume 123 Issue ...

  2. Evaluation of Bisphenol A, Physicochemical Properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bisphenol A (BPA), physicochemical properties and microbial characterization of borehole water stored in plastic containers. Three brands of plastic containers filled with borehole water were collected from homes in Ugbowo, Benin city. Physicochemical parameters ...

  3. Effect of tumor therapeutic irradiation on the mechanical properties of teeth tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenzel, W. [Dept. of Physics, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Gerlach, R. [Univ. Clinic and Policlinic for Radiation Therapy, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Hein, H.J. [Univ. Clinic and Policlinic for Orthopaedics and Physical Medicine, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Schaller, H.G. [Dept. of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Tumor irradiation of the head-neck area is accompanied by the development of a so-called radiation caries in the treated patients. In spite of conservative therapeutic measures, the process results in tooth destruction. The present study investigated the effects of irradiation on the demineralization and remineralization of the dental tissue. For this purpose, retained third molars were prepared and assigned either to a test group, which was exposed to fractional irradiation up to 60 Gy, or to a non-irradiated control group. Irradiated and non-irradiated teeth were then demineralized using acidic hydroxyl-cellulose gel; afterwards the teeth were remineralized using either Bifluorid12 {sup registered} or elmex gelee {sup registered}. The nanoindentation technique was used to measure the mechanical properties, hardness and elasticity, of the teeth in each of the conditions. The values were compared to the non-irradiated control group. Irradiation decreased dramatically the mechanical parameters of enamel and dentine. In non-irradiated teeth, demineralization had nearly the same effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties. In irradiated teeth, the effects of demineralization were negligible in comparison to non-irradiated teeth. Remineralization with Bifluorid12 {sup registered} or elmex gelee {sup registered} led to a partial improvement of the mechanical properties of the teeth. The enamel was more positively affected, by remineralization than the dentine. (orig.)

  4. Engineering of Fc Fragments with Optimized Physicochemical Properties Implying Improvement of Clinical Potentials for Fc-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins are successfully used in treatment of various diseases mainly including cancer, immune disease, and viral infection, which belong to the Fc-based therapeutics. In recent years, engineered Fc-derived antibody domains have also shown potential for Fc-based therapeutics. To increase the druggability of Fc-based therapeutic candidates, many efforts have been made in optimizing physicochemical properties and functions mediated by Fc fragment. The desired result is that we can simultaneously obtain Fc variants with increased physicochemical properties in vitro and capacity of mediating appropriate functions in vivo. However, changes of physicochemical properties of Fc may result in alternation of Fc-mediated functions and vice versa, which leads to undesired outcomes for further development of Fc-based therapeutics. Therefore, whether modified Fc fragments are suitable for achievement of expected clinical results or not needs to be seriously considered. Now, this question comes to be noticed and should be figured out to make better translation from the results of laboratory into clinical applications. In this review, we summarize different strategies on engineering physicochemical properties of Fc, and preliminarily elucidate the relationships between modified Fc in vitro and the subsequent therapeutic influence in vivo.

  5. The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the NUBASE2016 evaluation that contains the recommended values for nuclear and decay properties of 3437 nuclides in their ground and excited isomeric (T1/2≥100 ns) states. All nuclides for which any experimental information is known were considered. NUBASE2016 covers all data published by October 2016 in primary (journal articles) and secondary (mainly laboratory reports and conference proceedings) references, together with the corresponding bibliographical information. During the development of NUBASE2016, the data available in the “Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File” (ENSDF) database were consulted and critically assessed for their validity and completeness. Furthermore, a large amount of new data and some older experimental results that were missing from ENSDF were compiled, evaluated and included in NUBASE2016. The atomic mass values were taken from the “Atomic Mass Evaluation” (AME2016, second and third parts of the present issue). In cases where no experimental data were available for a particular nuclide, trends in the behavior of specific properties in neighboring nuclides (TNN) were examined. This approach allowed to estimate values for a range of properties that are labeled in NUBASE2016 as “non-experimental” (flagged “#”). Evaluation procedures and policies used during the development of this database are presented, together with a detailed table of recommended values and their uncertainties. AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/

  6. EVITA: a tool for the early evaluation of pharmaceutical innovations with regard to therapeutic advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püntmann, Isabel; Schmacke, Norbert; Melander, Arne; Lindberg, Gunnar; Mühlbauer, Bernd

    2010-03-16

    New drugs are generally claimed to represent a therapeutic innovation. However, scientific evidence of a substantial clinical advantage is often lacking. This may be the result of using inadequate control groups or surrogate outcomes only in the clinical trials. In view of this, EVITA was developed as a user-friendly transparent tool for the early evaluation of the additional therapeutic value of a new drug. EVITA does not evaluate a new compound per se but in an approved indication in comparison with existing therapeutic strategies. Placebo as a comparator is accepted only in the absence of an established therapy or if employed in an add-on strategy on top. The evaluation attributes rating points to the drug in question, taking into consideration both therapeutic benefit and risk profile. The compound scores positive points for superiority in efficiency and/or adverse effects as demonstrated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), whilst negative points are awarded for inferiority and/or an unfavorable risk profile. The evaluation follows an algorithm considering the clinical relevance of the outcomes, the strength of the therapeutic effect and the number of RCTs performed. Categories for therapeutic aim and disease severity, although essential parts of the EVITA assessment, are attributed but do not influence the EVITA score which is presented as a color-coded bar graph. In case the available data were unsuitable for an EVITA calculation, a traffic-type yield sign is assigned instead to criticize such practice. The results are presented online http://www.evita-report.de together with all RCTs considered as well as the reasons for excluding a given RCT from the evaluation. This allows for immediate revision in response to justified criticism and simplifies the inclusion of new data. As examples, four compounds which received approval within the last years were evaluated for one of their clinical indications: lenalidomide, pioglitazone, bupropion and zoledronic

  7. Therapeutic Swimming Program, P.L. 94-142, Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Elizabeth J.; Bearman-Bucher, Isabel

    The therapeutic swimming program of the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) for severely handicapped students was evaluated to determine its impact and effectiveness. The program is funded under Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Data were collected by interviews, surveys, review of records, and observation. A…

  8. Evaluation of MiR-181a as a potential therapeutic target in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate microRNA-181 (miR-181) as a potential therapeutic target in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: MiR-181 expression was evaluated in articular cartilage samples obtained from OA patients undergoing knee arthroplasty and non-OA (control) patients undergoing other orthopedic procedures. Following the ...

  9. Evaluation of therapeutic activity of hypogeous Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita Stanikunaite; James M. Trappe; Shabana I. Khan; Samir A. Rossu

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first broad investigation of therapeutic activities of hypogeous truffles and trufflelike fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) from North America. Twenty-two species from 12 families were evaluated in several biological assays for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antituberculosis, and anticancer activities. Biological...

  10. Genome-wide DNA polymorphisms in Kavuni, a traditional rice cultivar with nutritional and therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinasabapathi, Pasupathi; Purushothaman, Natarajan; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-05-01

    Although rice genome was sequenced in the year 2002, efforts in resequencing the large number of available accessions, landraces, traditional cultivars, and improved varieties of this important food crop are limited. We have initiated resequencing of the traditional cultivars from India. Kavuni is an important traditional rice cultivar from South India that attracts premium price for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. Whole-genome sequencing of Kavuni using Illumina platform and SNPs analysis using Nipponbare reference genome identified 1 150 711 SNPs of which 377 381 SNPs were located in the genic regions. Non-synonymous SNPs (62 708) were distributed in 19 251 genes, and their number varied between 1 and 115 per gene. Large-effect DNA polymorphisms (7769) were present in 3475 genes. Pathway mapping of these polymorphisms revealed the involvement of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, translation, protein-folding, and cell death. Analysis of the starch biosynthesis related genes revealed that the granule-bound starch synthase I gene had T/G SNPs at the first intron/exon junction and a two-nucleotide combination, which were reported to favour high amylose content and low glycemic index. The present study provided a valuable genomics resource to study the rice varieties with nutritional and medicinal properties.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Courtney, Mary; Edwards, Helen; McDowell, Jan; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Chang, Pei-Jen

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale (PTES) for type 2 diabetes with a Taiwanese sample. The mortality rate and health care cost of diabetes have dramatically increased in Taiwan, with many people with diabetes lacking the ability to control their disease appropriately. Addressing this problem requires enhancing self-efficacy towards self-management. Thus, there is a particular need for research into developing a diabetes-specific self-efficacy measurement instrument in Taiwan. This study was undertaken in two stages. Stage 1 consisted of forward and back translation of the PTES into Chinese and examination of content validity. Stage 2 established the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of PTES (C-PTES). A total of 230 people with type 2 diabetes aged 30 years or more from a diabetes outpatient clinic and taking oral medicine were recruited for psychometric testing. Significant criterion-related validity was demonstrated between the C-PTES and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scores (r=0.32; pPTES converged well with the General Self-Efficacy Scale in measuring self-efficacy (r=0.42; pPTES. The C-PTES requires future studies to confirm the psychometric properties.

  12. Formulation, functional evaluation and ex vivo performance of thermoresponsive soluble gels - A platform for therapeutic delivery to mucosal sinus tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Cabot, Peter J; Wallwork, Benjamin; Panizza, Benedict J; Parekh, Harendra S

    2017-01-01

    Mucoadhesive in situ gelling systems (soluble gels) have received considerable attention recently as effective stimuli-transforming vectors for a range of drug delivery applications. Considering this fact, the present work involves systematic formulation development, optimization, functional evaluation and ex vivo performance of thermosensitive soluble gels containing dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt (DXN) as the model therapeutic. A series of in situ gel-forming systems comprising the thermoreversible polymer poloxamer-407 (P407), along with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and chitosan were first formulated. The optimized soluble gels were evaluated for their potential to promote greater retention at the mucosal surface, for improved therapeutic efficacy, compared to existing solution/suspension-based steroid formulations used clinically. Optimized soluble gels demonstrated a desirable gelation temperature with Newtonian fluid behaviour observed under storage conditions (4-8°C), and pseudoplastic fluid behaviour recorded at nasal cavity/sinus temperature (≈34°C). The in vitro characterization of formulations including rheological evaluation, textural analysis and mucoadhesion studies of the gel form were investigated. Considerable improvement in mechanical properties and mucoadhesion was observed with incorporation of HPMC and chitosan into the gelling systems. The lead poloxamer-based soluble gels, PGHC4 and PGHC7, which were carried through to ex vivo permeation studies displayed extended drug release profiles in conditions mimicking the human nasal cavity, which indicates their suitability for treating a range of conditions affecting the nasal cavity/sinuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale for adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Terhorst, Lauren; Choo, Jina; Burke, Lora E

    2014-01-01

    Outcome expectancy may play an important role in behavior change. Previous studies tested the validity and the reliability of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale (PTES), a scale that measures outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet. Further study was needed to examine its psychometric properties in a larger sample. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the 10-item PTES in a large sample. The PTES and the Connor Diet Habit Survey were administered to adults enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program. The final sample for the analysis (N = 224) was, on average, 69.35 years old and was predominantly men (66.50%) and white (92.40%); nearly all (96.00%) completed high school. The inter-item correlation matrix revealed that correlation coefficients were greater than 0.80 between 4 pairs of items, suggesting that the 4 items were redundant. After consulting with a content expert and an examination of item content, we removed the 4 redundant items (items 2, 3, 4, and 10) and reduced the scale to 6 items. Principal component analysis revealed a 1-factor scale with high loadings for the 6 items, each greater than 0.70. The reliability of the scale, measured by Cronbach's α, was 0.91. The total PTES score had a moderate correlation with self-reported behaviors of adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet, as measured by the Connor Diet Habit Survey subscale for cholesterol and fat intake (r = 0.36, P PTES scale is reliable and valid to measure outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet.

  14. Heuristic Evaluation of Ehealth Interventions: Establishing Standards That Relate to the Therapeutic Process Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fred

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers’ perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products’ suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product’s ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention’s compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs. PMID:26764209

  15. Key factors influencing ADME properties of therapeutic proteins: A need for ADME characterization in drug discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Jay; Canter, David; Graff, Ryan; Smith, Alison; Khawli, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Protein therapeutics represent a diverse array of biologics including antibodies, fusion proteins, and therapeutic replacement enzymes. Since their inception, they have revolutionized the treatment of a wide range of diseases including respiratory, vascular, autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. While in vivo pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and efficacy studies are routinely carried out for protein therapeutics, studies that identify key factors governing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties have not been fully investigated. Thorough characterization and in-depth study of their ADME properties are critical in order to support drug discovery and development processes for the production of safer and more effective biotherapeutics. In this review, we discuss the main factors affecting the ADME characteristics of these large macromolecular therapies. We also give an overview of the current tools, technologies, and approaches available to investigate key factors that influence the ADME of recombinant biotherapeutic drugs, and demonstrate how ADME studies will facilitate their future development. PMID:26636901

  16. Evidence-based evaluation of therapeutic measures for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIA Hua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS in order to formulate the best therapeutic regimen. Methods ALS, Riluzole, Gabapentin, Lamotrigine, neurotrophic factor, antioxidant and free radical scavenger gene therapy, neural stem cell treatment, treatment were appointed as retrieval words. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Database for Scientific Journals in China and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI for Scientific Journals Database were used for retrieval. Related clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and case-observation studies were collected following the corresponding inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria and evaluated by Jadad Scale to judge the authenticity and reliability of the conclusion. Manual searching was also used. Results After screening, 39 related articals were selected as follow: 4 systematic reviews, 18 randomised controlled trials, 11 controlled clinical trials, and 6 case-observation studies. Twenty-seven articals were of high quality (according to Jadad Scale, 11 with score 4, 13 with score 5, and 3 with score 7, while 12 were of low quality with score 3. According to the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various therapies, it is suggested that: 1 The Riluzole is the only drug approved by American FDA, lacking of more effective treatments. 2 When the patients' condition is not relieved, medicine-combined therapies and symptomatic treatments should be used. Conclusion Evidence-based medicine can provide best clinical evidence on ALS treatment.

  17. Evaluation of the healing activity of therapeutic clay in rat skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dário, Giordana Maciel; da Silva, Geovana Gomes; Gonçalves, Davi Ludvig; Silveira, Paulo; Junior, Adilson Teixeira; Angioletto, Elidio; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2014-10-01

    The use of clays for therapeutic practice is widespread in almost all regions of the world. In this study the physicochemical and microbiological healing characteristics of a clay from Ocara, Brazil, popularly used for therapeutic uses, were analyzed. The presence of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Si was observed, which initially indicated that the clay had potential for therapeutic use. The average particle size of the clay (26.3 μm) can induce the microcirculation of the skin and the XRD analysis shows that the clay is formed by kaolinite and illite, a swelling clay. During the microbiological evaluation there was the need to sterilize the clay for later incorporation into the pharmaceutical formula. The accelerated stability test at 50°C for 3 months has showed that the pharmaceutical formula remained stable with a shelf life of two years. After the stability test the wound-healing capacity of the formulation in rats was evaluated. It was observed that the treatment made with the formulation containing the Ocara clay showed the best results since the formula allowed greater formation of collagen fibers and consequent regeneration of the deep dermis after seven days of treatment and reepithelialization and continuous formation of granulation tissue at the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of hydraulic properties in fractured rockmass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. Y.; Jang, G. M. [Korea Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Borehole packer test and fracture survey using borehole acoustic scanning method was performed in order to evaluate hydraulic characteristics of Tuff distributed in northern Yeosu area. Total of 303 fractures were detected and then orientation, aperture size of each fracture are analyzed. Only 12 % of detected fractures were identified as open fractures and others were filled with minerals such as calcite. This indicates that the hydraulic property of rockmass is influenced by fillings as well as aperture size. Mean of hydraulic conductivity of rockmass based on stochastic continuum theory was 5x 10{sup -9}m/s and it was coincident with harmonic mean. Anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity was analyzed by fracture network modeling interpretation. The result showed that horizontal and vertical components conductivity values were nearly same, therefore it might be concluded that the rockmass was hydraulically isotropic.

  19. [Music therapy for chronic headaches. Evaluation of music therapeutic groups for patients suffering from chronic headaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, M; Scherg, H; Verres, R

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach to music therapeutic treatments. We developed a short time treatment ( 8 group sessions) for patients suffering from chronic headaches. The multimodal concept of this headache treatment and particularly the effect of a sound trance on headache patients are explained and evaluated in this paper. An evaluation study was done with 34 patients, who belonged to four therapy groups. In order to evaluate this treatment the patients were interviewed and had to fill out several self-rating scales about pain and some psychological variables (e. g. depression) before, directly after and 6-12 months after the treatment. This treatment group (n=26) was compared to a small waiting group (n=9). A case study elucidated the psycho-social anamnesis, and the process and outcome of the music therapy. The case study shows that the sound trance caused a loss of the affect control or at least reduced it. This experience enabled the patients to develop creative solutions, which resulted in a pain relief 6-12 month later. The comparison of the statistic means directly before and after the treatment did not reveal many therapeutic effects. Yet, 6-12 months later many patients reported less days at which they suffered from headaches; and they also significantly improved their ability of pain control. The results indicate that music therapy groups are more successful than a waiting group. The study's results agree with numerous other psychological evaluation studies and shows once more that music therapists working with patients suffering from chronic headaches are able to achieve successful results particularly long-dated. Thus, creative therapeutic approaches supplement the medical treatment, as they help the patients to develop an adaptive way of coping their pain. Yet, it will need further research to confirm the benefit of music therapy for patients suffering from chronic pain.

  20. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  1. Anti‐inflammatory properties of the vagus nerve: potential therapeutic implications of vagus nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniger, Valérie; Pellissier, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain and viscera interplay within the autonomic nervous system where the vagus nerve (VN), containing approximately 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibres, plays multiple key roles in the homeostatic regulations of visceral functions. Recent data have suggested the anti‐inflammatory role of the VN. This vagal function is mediated through several pathways, some of them still debated. The first one is the anti‐inflammatory hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis which is stimulated by vagal afferent fibres and leads to the release of cortisol by the adrenal glands. The second one, called the cholinergic anti‐inflammatory pathway, is mediated through vagal efferent fibres that synapse onto enteric neurons which release acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junction with macrophages. ACh binds to α‐7‐nicotinic ACh receptors of those macrophages to inhibit the release of tumour necrosis (TNF)α, a pro‐inflammatory cytokine. The last pathway is the splenic sympathetic anti‐inflammatory pathway, where the VN stimulates the splenic sympathetic nerve. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) released at the distal end of the splenic nerve links to the β2 adrenergic receptor of splenic lymphocytes that release ACh. Finally, ACh inhibits the release of TNFα by spleen macrophages through α‐7‐nicotinic ACh receptors. Understanding of these pathways is interesting from a therapeutic point of view, since they could be targeted in various ways to stimulate anti‐inflammatory regulation in TNFα‐related diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Among others, VN stimulation, either as an invasive or non‐invasive procedure, is becoming increasingly frequent and several clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the potential effectiveness of this therapy to alleviate chronic inflammation. PMID:27059884

  2. Anti-inflammatory properties of the vagus nerve: potential therapeutic implications of vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaz, Bruno; Sinniger, Valérie; Pellissier, Sonia

    2016-10-15

    Brain and viscera interplay within the autonomic nervous system where the vagus nerve (VN), containing approximately 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibres, plays multiple key roles in the homeostatic regulations of visceral functions. Recent data have suggested the anti-inflammatory role of the VN. This vagal function is mediated through several pathways, some of them still debated. The first one is the anti-inflammatory hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which is stimulated by vagal afferent fibres and leads to the release of cortisol by the adrenal glands. The second one, called the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, is mediated through vagal efferent fibres that synapse onto enteric neurons which release acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junction with macrophages. ACh binds to α-7-nicotinic ACh receptors of those macrophages to inhibit the release of tumour necrosis (TNF)α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. The last pathway is the splenic sympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway, where the VN stimulates the splenic sympathetic nerve. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) released at the distal end of the splenic nerve links to the β2 adrenergic receptor of splenic lymphocytes that release ACh. Finally, ACh inhibits the release of TNFα by spleen macrophages through α-7-nicotinic ACh receptors. Understanding of these pathways is interesting from a therapeutic point of view, since they could be targeted in various ways to stimulate anti-inflammatory regulation in TNFα-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Among others, VN stimulation, either as an invasive or non-invasive procedure, is becoming increasingly frequent and several clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the potential effectiveness of this therapy to alleviate chronic inflammation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  3. Therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab: performance evaluation of three commercial ELISA kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Ellen M H; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Hamann, Dörte; van Dongen, Joost L J; Kuijper, Philip H M; Brunsveld, Luc; Scharnhorst, Volkher; Broeren, Maarten A C

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of infliximab (IFX, Remicade®) can aid to optimize therapy efficacy. Many assays are available for this purpose. However, a reference standard is lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the analytical performance, agreement and clinically relevant differences of three commercially available IFX ELISA kits on an automated processing system. The kits of Theradiag (Lisa Tracker Infliximab), Progenika (Promonitor IFX) and apDia (Infliximab ELISA) were implemented on an automated processing system. Imprecision was determined by triplicate measurements of patient samples on five days. Agreement was evaluated by analysis of 30 patient samples and four spiked samples by the selected ELISA kits and the in-house IFX ELISA of Sanquin Diagnostics (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Therapeutic consequences were evaluated by dividing patients into four treatment groups using cut-off levels of 1, 3 and 7 μg/mL and determining assay concordance. Within-run and between-run imprecision were acceptable (≤12% and ≤17%, respectively) within the quantification range of the selected ELISA kits. The apDia assay had the best precision and agreement to target values. Statistically significant differences were found between all assays except between Sanquin Diagnostics and the Lisa Tracker assay. The Promonitor assay measured the lowest IFX concentrations, the apDia assay the highest. When patients were classified in four treatment categories, 70% concordance was achieved. Although all assays are suitable for TDM, significant differences were observed in both imprecision and agreement. Therapeutic consequences were acceptable when patients were divided in treatment categories, but this could be improved by assay standardization.

  4. Entire CD3ε, δ, and γ humanized mouse to evaluate human CD3-mediated therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Otoya; Wada, Naoko A; Kinoshita, Yasuko; Hino, Hiroshi; Kakefuda, Mami; Ito, Tsuneo; Fujii, Etsuko; Noguchi, Mizuho; Sato, Kiyoharu; Morita, Masahiro; Tateishi, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Kaoru; Goto, Chisato; Kawase, Yosuke; Kato, Atsuhiko; Hattori, Kunihiro; Nezu, Junichi; Ishiguro, Takahiro; Jishage, Kou-Ichi

    2017-04-03

    T cell-mediated immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for treatment in various disease areas. In this therapeutic approach, the CD3 complex is one of the key molecules to modulate T cell functions; however, in many cases, we cannot evaluate the drug candidates in animal experiments because the therapeutics, usually monoclonal antibodies specific to human CD3, cannot react to mouse endogenous Cd3. Although immunodeficient mice transfused with human hematopoietic stem or precursor cells, known as humanized mice, are available for these studies, mice humanized in this manner are not completely immune competent. In this study we have succeeded in establishing a novel mouse strain in which all the three components of the Cd3 complex - Cd3ε, Cd3δ, and Cd3γ - are replaced by their human counterparts, CD3E, CD3D, and CD3G. Basic immunological assessments have confirmed that this strain of human CD3 EDG-replaced mice are entirely immune competent, and we have also demonstrated that a bispecific antibody that simultaneously binds to human CD3 and a tumor-associated antigen (e.g. ERBB2 or GPC3) can be evaluated in human CD3 EDG-replaced mice engrafted with tumors. Our mouse model provides a novel means to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of human CD3-mediated therapy.

  5. Evaluation of Two Dry Commercial Therapeutic Diets for the Management of Feline Chronic Gastroenteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally C. Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of feline chronic gastroenteropathies has included intervention with both veterinary therapeutic formulas designed to manage non-specific gastrointestinal disorders and those designed with limited novel or hydrolyzed ingredients for management of food-responsive enteropathies and steroid-responsive enteropathies (inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few studies evaluating the use of dietary intervention for the management of feline chronic gastroenteropathy. This prospective, multi-center study evaluated the use of two commercially available feline veterinary therapeutic dry diets designed to manage non-specific gastrointestinal disorders in 28 cats with a history of chronic vomiting and/or diarrhea. The majority of cats enrolled in the study had a history of vomiting (n = 25, with a smaller number having a history of concurrent diarrhea (n = 2 or diarrhea alone (n = 3. Cats were excluded if diagnostic tests identified any systemic or infectious disease that could be associated with the clinical signs of vomiting or diarrhea, and if they were panhypoproteinemic, hypoalbuminemic, hypocobalaminemic, or had a Spec fPL ≥5.4 µg/L. Cats were randomized to one of two veterinary therapeutic diets for 4 weeks. Feeding of both therapeutic diets resulted in a numeric reduction in the number of vomiting episodes over the 4-week period, but no significant differences were seen between dietary interventions. When looking within dietary groups, significant differences were seen in cats fed Diet A with reductions of 69.1, 73.3, and 63.2% (p values of 0.008, 0.003, and 0.029 in weeks 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared to week 0. The probability of vomiting also showed significant reductions in cats fed Diet A between weeks 0 and 2, 3, and 4, with odds ratios of 0.008, 0.005, and 0.005, respectively (p values of 0.038, 0.23, and 0.23. Results of this study demonstrate that a veterinary therapeutic gastrointestinal

  6. Property value estimation for inhaled therapeutic binary gas mixtures: He, Xe, N2O, and N2 with O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Ira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The property values of therapeutic gas mixtures are important in designing devices, defining delivery parameters, and in understanding the therapeutic effects. In the medical related literature the vast majority of articles related to gas mixtures report property values only for the pure substances or estimates based on concentration weighted averages. However, if the molecular size or structures of the component gases are very different a more accurate estimate should be considered. Findings In this paper estimates based on kinetic theory are provided of density, viscosity, mean free path, thermal conductivity, specific heat at constant pressure, and diffusivity over a range of concentrations of He-O2, Xe-O2, N2O-O2 and N2-O2 mixtures at room (or normal and body temperature, 20 and 37°C, respectively and at atmospheric pressure. Conclusions Property value estimations have been provided for therapeutic gas mixtures and compared to experimental values obtained from the literature where possible.

  7. [Evaluation of biocidal properties of silver nanoparticles against cariogenic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrowiecki, Rafal; Zareba, Tomasz; Mielczarek, Agnieszka; Opalińska, Agnieszka; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Majkowski, Marcin; Lojkowski, Witold; Tyski, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (SNP's) have been recentl well evaluated, and now are being considered as excellent candidates for therapeutic purposes. It is confirmed, that various solutions of colloidal SNP's possess significant antibacterial properties against such species as: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa even at low concentrations, although there have been so far only a few researches evaluating antimicrobial activity of SNP's against cariogenic bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mitis responsible for initiation of dental carries. Tooth decay is infectious disease an worldwide, which may occur in patients of every age. Nanotechnology creates a new approach of designing of medical devices preventing or reducing bacterial colonization. Colloidal silver solution (CSS) of concentration 350 ppm was used in this research. Nanoparticles size, shape and solution stability were evaluated. 16 strains of cariogenic bacteria, 4 isolates of each species: S. mutans, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis and S, mitis were obtained from plaque swabs of 7 patients treated for dental carries at Department of Conservative Dentistry, Medical University of Warsaw. MIC and MBC values for CSS's were evaluated. CSS used in this research is of good stability. No agglomeration or coalescence was observed during 24 hours of experiment. Silver nanoparticles were of round shape and had mean size of 67 nm. MIC values were: 12-25 ppm for S. salivarius, 25 ppm for S. sanguinis, 50-100 ppm for S. mitis and 50 ppm for S. mutans, while MBC values after 1 hour of bacterial contact with nanoparticles were 200-350 ppm for all cariogenic bacterial species. After 24 hours of contact MBC values were: 25-50 ppm for S. salivarius and S. sanguinis, 100-200 ppm for S. mitis and 200 ppmfor S. mutans. Antimicrobial properties of CSS depend on nanoparticles concentration and interaction time with

  8. [A specific questionnaire to evaluate therapeutic inertia in hypertensive patients: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorean, T; Claisse, G; Delsart, P; Caudrelier, T; Devos, P; Mounier-Vehier, C

    2014-02-01

    Therapeutic inertia (TI) is a recent concept still unknown by many physicians. In chronic diseases such as hypertension, it is defined as the tendency of physicians not to increase or change antihypertensive medications when the target blood pressure is not reached. Acting on TI could improve blood pressure control in France. This was a single-center prospective pilot study conducted by hypertension specialist physicians at the University Cardio-Vascular Center in Lille (France). It was conducted between March and June 2011. Data was collected from 161 hypertensive patients (mean age: 61.64±11.18 years; 98 (60.9%) male; 75 secondary prevention patients). Each physician completed a questionnaire on therapeutic inertia. TI was defined as a consultation in which treatment change was indicated (systolic blood pressure [BP]≥140 and/or diastolic BP≥90mmHg in all patients), but did not occur, with absence of an adapted justification of this choice. We considered as an adapted justification: a white coat effect demonstrated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) or home blood pressure monitoring; scheduled reassessment of the BP by ABPM; recent change in antihypertensive treatment (less than 4 weeks); hospitalization needed for complete evaluation of secondary causes of hypertension and a more detailed assessment of potential target organ damage in patients with grade 1 or 2 hypertension. Our study aimed to evaluate rates of TI, to identify factors associated with TI, and to test the TI questionnaire. Therapeutic inertia as defined in this study occurred in 11 consultations (8.3%) of the 133 hypertensive patients having uncontrolled BP above or equal to 140 and/or 90mmHg. Significant factors associated with TI were older age (Z=2.35, Psleep apnea syndrome (χ(2)=8.33, PP>0.05) and the number of consultations (Z=1.92, 0.1>P>0.05) exhibited a significant trend to be associated with TI. Although the rate of TI was low in our study conducted in a specialized

  9. Inferences of drug responses in cancer cells from cancer genomic features and compound chemical and therapeutic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Fang, Jianwen; Chen, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    Accurately predicting the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a core goal of precision medicine. Existing approaches were mainly relied primarily on genomic alterations in cancer cells that have been treated with different drugs. Here we focus on predicting drug response based on integration of the heterogeneously pharmacogenomics data from both cell and drug sides. Through a systematical approach, named as PDRCC (Predict Drug Response in Cancer Cells), the cancer genomic alterations and compound chemical and therapeutic properties were incorporated to determine the chemotherapeutic response in cancer patients. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) study as the benchmark dataset, all pharmacogenomics data exhibited their roles in inferring the relationships between cancer cells and drugs. When integrating both genomic resources and compound information, the prediction coverage was significantly increased. The validity of PDRCC was also supported by its effective in uncovering the unknown cell-drug associations with database and literature evidences. It set the stage for clinical testing of novel therapeutic strategies, such as the sensitive association between cancer cell ‘A549_LUNG’ and compound ‘Topotecan’. In conclusion, PDRCC offers the possibility for faster, safer, and cheaper the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics in the early-stage clinical trails.

  10. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non-edible vegetable oils of Jatropha curcas, neem, castor, rubber and edible oils of soyabean and cotton were investigated for their use as biodiesel feedstock. The analysis of different oil properties, fuel properties of non-edible and edible vegetable oils were investigated in detail. A two-step and transesterification ...

  11. Comparison of FEV1reference equations for evaluating a cystic fibrosis therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstan, Michael W; Wagener, Jeffrey S; VanDevanter, Donald R; Pasta, David J; Millar, Stefanie J; Morgan, Wayne J

    2017-08-01

    The Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI, 2012) developed reference equations for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). Previous equations were developed by groups led by Knudson (1983), Wang (1993), Hankinson (1999), and Stanojevic (2008). 1,2,4,6 We assessed how different prediction equations affect the conclusions from a therapeutic intervention study that evaluated the rate of percent predicted FEV 1 (ppFEV 1 ) decline. Using data from the Epidemiologic Study of cystic fibrosis (CF), we re-analyzed our previous study evaluating the relationship of dornase alfa (DA) use with ppFEV 1 using the Knudson, Wang & Hankinson, Stanojevic, and GLI equations. The change in intercept and change in slope of ppFEV 1 from a 2-year pre-index period and 2-year post-index period were compared between the treated (N = 2483) and comparator groups (N = 6992, from 4110 unique patients). Change in intercept for the comparator group was similar across equations except that Wang & Hankinson values were more negative. The difference in change in intercept between the DA and comparator groups ranged from 3.38 to 4.02% predicted. The change in slope for the comparator group ranged from -0.58 to +0.30 ppFEV 1 /year, but the difference in change in slope between the DA and comparator groups was in a narrower range from +0.53 to +0.89 ppFEV 1 /year. Although individual patient results are impacted by the choice of reference equations, the study conclusions from this evaluation of a therapeutic intervention were minimally affected. GLI equations are recommended for future studies, but prior results based on other equations should be accepted as reliable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Evaluation of Therapeutics in Colorectal Tumor Organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2017-12-01

    Patient-derived colorectal tumor organoids (CTOs) closely recapitulate the complex morphological, phenotypic, and genetic features observed in in vivo tumors. Therefore, evaluation of drug distribution and metabolism in this model system can provide valuable information to predict the clinical outcome of a therapeutic response in individual patients. In this report, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to examine the spatial distribution of the drug irinotecan and its metabolites in CTOs from two patients. Irinotecan is a prodrug and is often prescribed as part of therapeutic regimes for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Irinotecan shows a time-dependent and concentration-dependent permeability and metabolism in the CTOs. More interestingly, the active metabolite SN-38 does not co-localize well with the parent drug irinotecan and the inactive metabolite SN-38G. The phenotypic effect of irinotecan metabolism was also confirmed by a viability study showing significantly reduced proliferation in the drug treated CTOs. MALDI-MSI can be used to investigate various pharmaceutical compounds in CTOs derived from different patients. By analyzing multiple CTOs from a patient, this method could be used to predict patient-specific drug responses and help to improve personalized dosing regimens. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. The immunoregulatory properties of oncolytic myxoma virus and their implications in therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; McFadden, Grant

    2010-12-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a poxvirus with a strict rabbit-specific host-tropism for pathogenesis. The immunoregulatory factors encoded by MYXV can suppress some functions of immune effectors from other species. We review their mechanisms of action, implications in therapeutics and the potential to improve MYXV as an oncolytic agent in humans. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolomics and proteomics annotate therapeutic properties of geniposide: targeting and regulating multiple perturbed pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Wang

    Full Text Available Geniposide is an important constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a famous Chinese medicinal plant, and has displayed bright prospects in prevention and therapy of hepatic injury (HI. Unfortunately, the working mechanisms of this compound are difficult to determine and thus remain unknown. To determine the mechanisms that underlie this compound, we conducted a systematic analysis of the therapeutic effects of geniposide using biochemistry, metabolomics and proteomics. Geniposide significantly intensified the therapeutic efficacy as indicated by our modern biochemical analysis. Metabolomics results indicate 9 ions in the positive mode as differentiating metabolites which were associated with perturbations in primary bile acid biosynthesis, butanoate metabolism, citrate cycle (TCA cycle, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism. Of note, geniposide has potential pharmacological effect through regulating multiple perturbed pathways to normal state. In an attempt to address the benefits of geniposide based on the proteomics approaches, the protein-interacting networks were constructed to aid identifying the drug targets of geniposide. Six identified differential proteins appear to be involved in antioxidation and signal transduction, energy production, immunity, metabolism, chaperoning. These proteins were closely related in the protein-protein interaction network and the modulation of multiple vital physiological pathways. These data will help to understand the molecular therapeutic mechanisms of geniposide on hepatic damage rats. We also conclude that metabolomics and proteomics are powerful and versatile tools for both biomarker discovery and exploring the complex relationships between biological pathways and drug response, highlighting insights into drug discovery.

  15. Progress and Innovation through Evaluation Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel I. NĂSTASE

    2011-01-01

    Practical assessment of intellectual property is a complex and difficult issue because there are many factors that influence it, and apply the methodologies differ from one country to another, from one continent to another. Therefore, the responsibility of carrying out transactions these intangible assets is maximum, because they have social implications and / or political. Classical methods of assessment of intellectual property are the same as those used for measuring intangible assets or i...

  16. Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Dynamics in Soil Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamics in properties of soils of three land use types (Fallow, Pineapple and Cassava) in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria were evaluated under field and laboratory incubation conditions. Soil properties varied with time within land use types, with chemical more significantly than physical properties under both conditions.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of a novel therapeutic dairy-based drink for phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M Abdel-Salam; Effat, Laila K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: People with phenylketonuria need to eat a special diet which contains a low level of phenylalanine. Most of these special diets have high protein levels which contain phenylalanine. Control of phenylalanine levels in the early years of life is crucial and remains important throughout childhood, especially for cognitive function and behavior. Aims: The current study evaluated the biological and sensory properties of a novel dairy-based drink for patients with phenylketonuria (PKU)....

  18. Evaluation of a novel therapeutic focused ultrasound transducer based on Fermat’s spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, P.; de Greef, M.; Berriet, R.; Moonen, C. T. W.; Ries, M.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel phased array transducer design rule for therapeutic focused ultrasound applications. This design rule uses the discretized Fermat’s spiral to determine the positioning of the transducer elements for a given number of elements and f-number. Using this principle, three variations of Fermat’s spiral were generated, aimed at (1) grating lobe minimization, (2) side lobe minimization, and (3) an optimized element packing efficiency. For each spiral, sparse layouts using identical circular elements and fully populated layouts based on additional Voronoi tessellation were evaluated numerically. Evaluation criteria included the element size distribution, beam steering capabilities, focal plane pressure distribution, prefocal pressure distribution, and practical considerations. Finally, one Voronoi-tessellated design with a focal length and aperture diameter of 16 cm and a natural frequency of 1.3 MHz was evaluated experimentally through hydrophone measurements. The numerical evaluation showed that while sparse arrays possess superior beam steering capabilities for a given number of elements, the focal point quality and prefocal pressure distribution is substantially more favorable when using the Voronoi-tessellated designs. Beam steering was shown to be feasible with the tessellated designs for lateral deflections up to 10 mm and axial deflections up to 20 mm. The experimental evaluation showed that such a transducer is capable of inducing 40.00 MPa rarefactional and 237.50 MPa compressional peak pressure levels at 800 W instantaneous acoustic output power under free-field conditions, making the system potentially relevant for thermal ablation therapy, histotripsy applications, and shockwave-enhanced heating.

  19. Radiologic evaluation of the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ig Dae; Kim, Il; Jeon, Young Seup; Lee, Jong Yuk; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Seong Suk; Eun, Choong Ki; Kim, Mu Seong; Sim, Jae Hong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation using a radiologic imaging method such as MRI or angiography. We retrospectively reviewed MRIs, CT scans and angiograms of 29 cases of arteriovenous malformation and 15 of cavernous malformation before and after gamma knife radiosurgery. The patients underwent follow-up radiologic studies for between 6 and 35 months after radiosurgery. No patient underwent other surgery or embolization. Radiological imaging analysis focused on changes in the volume of the nidus or central core. Other findings of edema, cystic change, hemorrhage, signal intensity, enhancement and distributional vascular markings were also studied. The volume of the AVM nidus was measured and assigned to one of four groups:<1cc, 1-4cc,>4-10cc and >10cc. In arteriovenous malformation cases, the volume of the nidus decreased by mean 60.2%;reduction was greatest(68.1%) in the 1-4cc group. Three cases showed complete loss of the nidus at 9, 12 and 25 months after radiosurgery, respectively. In nine cases, decreased caliber or loss of draining vein was noted. High signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, suggesting either edema or demyelination, was observed in four cases. In cavernous angioma cases, core volume was reduced by 36.8%. Transient cerebral edema and presumed radiation necrosis were observed in two cases and one, respectively. Gamma knife surgery was effective in nearly all cases of arteriovenous malformation and some cases of cavernous malformation. More than two years follow-up involving radiologic imaging such as MRI is needed for the evaluation of therapeutic effect and diagnosis of complications.=20.

  20. Overcoming the PEG-addiction: well-defined alternatives to PEG, from structure–property relationships to better defined therapeutics

    KAUST Repository

    Barz, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic methods in polymer chemistry have evolved tremendously during the last decade. Nowadays more and more attention is devoted to the application of those tools in the development of the next generation of nanomedicines. Nevertheless, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) remains the most frequently used polymer for biomedical applications. In this review, we try to summarize recent efforts and developments in controlled polymerisation techniques that may allow alternatives to PEG based systems and can be used to improve the properties of future polymer therapeutics. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Evaluation of Halogenated Coumarins for Antimosquito Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopala K. Narayanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the major vectors of parasites and pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. The widespread development of insecticide resistance and negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds support an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. Natural coumarins and synthetic coumarin analogues are known for their several pharmacological properties, including being insecticidal. In the present study halogenated coumarins (3-mono/dibromo acetyl, 6-halogenated coumarin analogues were screened for larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, a zoophilic mosquito that is one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. Five compounds exerted 100% larval mortality within 24 h of exposure. All coumarins and halogenated coumarins reversibly knocked down adult mosquitoes but did not kill them after 24 h of exposure. Repellent properties could not be evidenced. Five compounds were considered potential larvicidal agents for further research and development, while adulticidal activity was considered only mild to moderate.

  2. Therapeutic evaluation of prolonged infusions of β-lactam antibiotics in the treatment and management of critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S. Amador

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Critically ill patients has a large number of pathophysiological changes product of commitment and organ systems. Therefore, knowledge of the pharmacological properties of antimicrobials is essential to choose the best treatment. In order to optimize the response of antibiotic therapy and these drugs, new strategies have been proposed dosage, the most used drug application of the model, called: Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD. In the case of β-lactam antibiotics, the PK/PD model is known as time-dependent on the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (Time > MIC. For optimal concentrations in β-lactam antibiotics, prolonged or continuous infusions, thus exposing the drug on the pathogen is achieved in a longer optimal concentrations through are used. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic response of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with prolonged infusions by applying the model PK/ PD. Methods: Prospective observational study (concurrent cohort, taking as a control non-concurrent historic cohort, conducted for a period of seven months in the intensive care unit of the Hospital Clínico San Borja Arriarán (HCSBA, Santiago, Chile. Results: It was found a significant difference in number of days of hospitalization in ICU for the group bolus versus infusion group (12.5 ± 5.4 vs. 18 ± 9.7 days, IC: 1.5-9.5; p = 0.009. Conclusions: This study suggests that there would be a therapeutic advantage in the use of prolonged infusion in ICU stay duration.

  3. EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF BIT VALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The research investigates the properties of bitu penetration, softening point, viscosity , flash and fi shredded waste tyre which varied from 0%. 1600C using dry mix method. Penetration value de softening point, viscosity, flash and fire point wer. 250.96 sec and 189/280.120C respectively. Howeve specified by American ...

  4. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of municipal dumpsite compost in Kano metropolis and concentration of heavy metals were investigated. Analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry (Buck Scientific VPG 210). The results shows that the compost pH (6.63-8.19), electric conductivity of compost (638-933μs/cm), ...

  5. Therapeutic and toxicological evaluations of cyclosporine a microspheres as a treatment vehicle for uveitis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Ling; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Zhu, Xiu-An; Zhang, Qiang

    2006-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of the intravitreal biodegradable poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)co-polymer microspheres containing cyclosporin A (CsA-PLGA-MS) on experimental uveitis in rabbits. CsA-PLGA-MS that had been prepared by a solvent evaporation approach were characterized for morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release profile of CsA-PLGA-MS. Therapeutic efficacy of the CsA-PLGA-MS was evaluated by scoring of the inflammation, aqueous leukocyte counting, aqueous protein determination, and histological examination in the experimental rabbits with artificial uveitis induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide. The toxicity was investigated by slit-lamp examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and electroretinography (ERG) in the noninflamed rabbit eye. The CsA-PLGA-MS were spherical in shape, with an average particle size of nearly 50 microm and an entrapment efficiency of more than 80%. The compositions of the formulation that was most effective in the in vivo studies included CsA, PLGA, and 3% Pluronic F68. In vitro released cyclosporine A from the optimized microspheres was approximately 25% during the 60-day incubation at 37 degrees C. It was demonstrated that the intravitreal injection of the optimized CsA-PLGA-MS decreased significantly the severity of the inflammatory signs, cellular infiltrate, aqueous leukocyte counts, and protein levels in the eyes of experimental rabbits with uveitis, compared to other formulations. Also, the preparation did not cause obvious toxicity in the noninflamed eyes of rabbits, except that the ERG b-wave amplitude for the test eyes was reversibly depressed, compared to those of the control eyes at 2 weeks, which almost recovered at the end of 6 weeks. The CsA-PLGA-MS preparation might be useful in the treatment of patients with severe chronic posterior uveitis who cannot tolerate systemic or periocular therapy.

  6. The Variability and Evaluation Method of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the same sources and regeneration techniques, given RA’s properties may display large variations. The same single property index of different sets maybe has a large difference of the whole property. How shall we accurately evaluate the whole property of RA? 8 groups of RAs from pavement and building were used to research the method of evaluating the holistic characteristics of RA. After testing and investigating, the parameters of aggregates were analyzed. The data of physical and mechanical properties show a distinct dispersion and instability; thus, it has been difficult to express the whole characteristics in any single property parameter. The Euclidean distance can express the similarity of samples. The closer the distance, the more similar the property. The standard variance of the whole property Euclidean distances for two types of RA is Sk=7.341 and Sk=2.208, respectively, which shows that the property of building RA has great fluctuation, while pavement RA is more stable. There are certain correlations among the apparent density, water absorption, and crushed value of RAs, and the Mahalanobis distance method can directly evaluate the whole property by using its parameters: mean, variance, and covariance, and it can provide a grade evaluation model for RAs.

  7. Evaluation of time in therapeutic range in anticoagulated patients: a single-center, retrospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Daniel; Cruz, Inês; Morgado, Gonçalo; Stuart, Bruno; Gomes, Catarina; Martins, Cristina; João, Isabel; Pereira, Hélder

    2014-12-09

    The percentage of time during which the patients have the INR within the target values (i.e. Time in Therapeutic Range [TTR]) is a measure of anticoagulation quality with Vitamin K Antagonists (VKA). To evaluate the quality of anticoagulation using TTR according to the Rosendaal method, we performed an observational, retrospective study. We included all outpatients who attended the cardiology anticoagulation clinic of a Portuguese hospital (2011-2013), whose target INR was 2.0-3.0. 377 VKA-treated patients were evaluated. Of these, 72.4% had non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Patients were followed for a mean period of 471 days. The mean TTR was 60.3% (SD 19.3%) and 44.3% of the patients had a mean TTR4.5) and at high thrombotic risk (INR<1.5) during, respectively, 1.7% and 4.7% of the time. Anticoagulation control needs to be improved. These results are informative for all stakeholders: patients, health care professionals, and policymakers.

  8. Pharmacological and therapeutic properties of valproate: a summary after 35 years of clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-five years since its introduction into clinical use, valproate (valproic acid) has become the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug (AED) worldwide. Its pharmacological effects involve a variety of mechanisms, including increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission, reduced release and/or effects of excitatory amino acids, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels and modulation of dopaminergic and serotoninergic transmission. Valproate is available in different dosage forms for parenteral and oral use. All available oral formulations are almost completely bioavailable, but they differ in dissolution characteristics and absorption rates. In particular, sustained-release formulations are available that minimise fluctuations in serum drug concentrations during a dosing interval and can therefore be given once or twice daily. Valproic acid is about 90% bound to plasma proteins, and the degree of binding decreases with increasing drug concentration within the clinically occurring range. Valproic acid is extensively metabolised by microsomal glucuronide conjugation, mitochondrial beta-oxidation and cytochrome P450-dependent omega-, (omega-1)- and (omega-2)-oxidation. The elimination half-life is in the order of 9 to 18 hours, but shorter values (5 to 12 hours) are observed in patients comedicated with enzyme-inducing agents such as phenytoin, carbamazepine and barbiturates. Valproate itself is devoid of enzyme-inducing properties, but it has the potential of inhibiting drug metabolism and can increase by this mechanism the plasma concentrations of certain coadministered drugs, including phenobarbital (phenobarbitone), lamotrigine and zidovudine. Valproate is a broad spectrum AED, being effective against all seizure types. In patients with newly diagnosed partial seizures (with or without secondary generalisation) and/or primarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures, the efficacy of valproate is comparable to that of phenytoin, carbamazepine and

  9. Consensus statement: evaluation of new and existing therapeutics for pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, T; Tenembaum, S; Banwell, B; Krupp, L; Pohl, D; Rostasy, K; Yeh, E A; Bykova, O; Wassmer, E; Tardieu, M; Kornberg, A; Ghezzi, A

    2012-01-01

    New therapies are being evaluated by clinical trials and, if efficacious, introduced for the treatment of adult MS. The role of these new and existing agents in the management of pediatric MS has yet to be defined. Pediatric investigation plans are now required by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for approval of new biological agents, providing an important opportunity to gather much-needed data for clinicians caring for children and adolescents with MS. However, challenges include the small number of patients, and the need for efficient yet comprehensive study designs incorporating factors necessary to inform the clinical care of children with MS. The elected Steering committee of the International Pediatric MS Study Group (IPMSSG) conducted a structured review of existing data on the disease-modifying therapies in pediatric MS and developed a consensus statement, which was further modified by the IPMSSG general membership, using an online survey tool. Fifty-one IPMSSG members from 21 countries responded to the survey, and 50 approved the final statement. Consensus recommendations regarding use of existing first- and second-line therapies, as well as a proposed definition for inadequate treatment response, are presented. Recommendations for the use and evaluation of emerging therapies (currently in phase III clinical trials or recently approved for adult MS) are discussed. The IPMSSG endorses the inclusion of pediatric MS patients in trials evaluating appropriate new and emerging therapies. Mechanisms for conducting high-impact, multicenter studies, including long-term follow-up in pediatric MS, are required to ensure that all MS patients, irrespective of age, benefit from advances in MS therapeutics.

  10. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C

    2016-05-17

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences.

  11. Cancer Preventive and Therapeutic Properties of IP6: Efficacy and Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    VUČENIK, IVANA; STAINS, JOSEPH

    2010-01-01

    Recently, IP6 has received much attention for its role in cancer prevention, and control of experimental tumor growth and progression. A striking, consistent and reproducible anticancer action of IP6 has been demonstrated in various experimental models. IP6 reduces cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and differentiation of malignant cells via PI3K, MAPK, PKC, AP-1 and NFkB. Enhanced natural killer (NK) cell activity, suppressed tumor angiogenesis and antioxidant properties also contribute t...

  12. Anticancer property of bromelain with therapeutic potential in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David Lawson

    2013-05-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes that is capable of hydrolyzing glycosidic linkages in glycoprotein. Glycoprotein's are ubiquitously distributed throughout the body and serve a variety of physiologic functions. Faulty glycosylation of proteins may lead to cancer. Antitumor properties of bromelain have been demonstrated in both, in vitro and in vivo studies, along with scanty anecdotal human studies. Various mechanistic pathways have been proposed to explain the anticancer properties of bromelain. However, proteolysis by bromelain has been suggested as a main pathway by some researchers. MUC1 is a glycoprotein that provides tumor cells with invasive, metastatic, and chemo-resistant properties. To date, there is no study that examines the effect of bromelain on MUC1. However, the viability of MUC1 expressing pancreatic and breast cancer cells are adversely affected by bromelain. Further, the efficacy of cisplatin and 5-FU are enhanced by adjuvant treatment with bromelain, indicating that the barrier function of MUC1 may be affected. Other studies have also indicated that there is a greater accumulation of 5-FU in the cell compartment on treatment with 5-FU and bromelain. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) expresses MUC1 and initial studies have shown that the viability of MPM cells is adversely affected by exposure to bromelain. Further, bromelain in combination with either 5-FU or cisplatin, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic drug is enhanced. Hence, current evidence indicates that bromelain may have the potential of being developed into an effective anticancer agent for MPM.

  13. Performance evaluation of enzyme immunoassay for voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring with automated clinical chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yongbum; Han, Minje; Han, Eun Young; Lee, Kyunghoon; Song, Junghan; Song, Sang Hoon

    2017-08-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal developed for the treatment of fungal infectious disease, and the clinical utility of its therapeutic drug monitoring has been evaluated. Recently, a new assay for analyzing the serum voriconazole concentration with an automated clinical chemistry analyzer was developed. We evaluated the performance of the new assay based on standardized protocols. The analytical performance of the assay was evaluated according to its precision, trueness by recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, and correlation with results from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The evaluation was performed with the same protocol on two different routine chemistry analyzers. All evaluations were performed according to CLSI Guidelines EP15, EP17, EP6, and EP9 [1-4]. Coefficients of variation for within-run and between-day imprecision were 3.2-5.1% and 1.5-3.0%, respectively, on the two different analyzers for pooled serum samples. The recovery rates were in the range of 95.4-102.2%. The limit of blank was 0.0049 μg/mL, and the limit of detection of the samples was 0.0266-0.0376 μg/mL. The percent recovery at three LoQ levels were 67.9-74.6% for 0.50 μg/mL, 75.5-80.2% for 0.60 μg/mL, and 89.9-96.6% for 0.70 μg/mL. A linear relationship was demonstrated between 0.5 μg/mL and 16.0 μg/mL (R2 =0.9995-0.9998). The assay correlated well with LC-MS/MS results (R2 =0.9739-0.9828). The assay showed acceptable precision, trueness, linearity, and limit of quantification, and correlated well with LC-MS/MS. Therefore, its analytical performance is satisfactory for monitoring the drug concentration of voriconazole.

  14. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21th century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.

  15. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Leite, Analy Machado; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19(th) century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21(th) century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.

  16. Pharmacological properties of angiotensin II antagonists: Examining all the therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Unger

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II, the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, exerts a variety of actions in physiological blood pressure and body fluid regulation, and is implicated as a major pathogenic factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of the RAS, via treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, or more recently the Ang II AT1-receptor blockers (ARBs, has been used as a therapeutic approach to the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular dysfunction. Evidence from animal and clinical studies shows that the antihypertensive and overall organ-protective actions of the ARBs are similar to those of ACE-I. However, as the ARBs selectively block the AT1-receptor, which is responsible for the known cardiovascular actions of Ang II, leave the AT2-receptor unopposed and do not interfere with the breakdown of bradykinin, there is the potential for beneficial effects in hypertensive patients with cardiovascular diseases such as left ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, there may be additional benefits when the ARBs are combined with ACE-I in such patients. Animal studies contribute to the elucidation and understanding of the role of AT1- and AT2-receptors in the cardiovascular system, and may help in the design of clinical studies aimed at investigating the effects of ACE-I, ARBs, and their combination, on cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients.

  17. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

  18. The Incremental Induction of Neuroprotective Properties by Multiple Therapeutic Strategies for Primary and Secondary Neural Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghoon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural diseases including injury by endogenous factors, traumatic brain injury, and degenerative neural injury are eventually due to reactive oxygen species (ROS. Thus ROS generation in neural tissues is a hallmark feature of numerous forms of neural diseases. Neural degeneration and the neural damage process is complex, involving a vast array of tissue structure, transcriptional/translational, electrochemical, metabolic, and functional events within the intact neighbors surrounding injured neural tissues. During aging, multiple changes involving physical, chemical, and biochemical processes occur from the molecular to the morphological levels in neural tissues. Among many recommended therapeutic candidates, melatonin also plays a role in protecting the nervous system from anti-inflammation and efficiently safeguards neuronal cells via antioxidants and other endogenous/exogenous beneficial factors. Therefore, given the wide range of mechanisms responsible for neuronal damage, multi-action drugs or therapies for the treatment of neural injury that make use of two or more agents and target several pathways may have greater efficacy in promoting functional recovery than a single therapy alone.

  19. Diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of computed tomography in the evaluation of clinically suspected otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudau, Cristina [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Salim, Fakhruddin; Jiang, Dan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Auditory Implantation Centre, London (United Kingdom); Connor, Steve E.J. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of CT in evaluating patients with clinically suspected otosclerosis. CT scans performed over a 5-year period for clinically suspected otosclerosis were retrospectively reviewed. CT diagnoses were correlated with subsequent surgical management. For otosclerosis positive cases, clinically significant extensions of otosclerosis were correlated with audiometry and the diagnosis was correlated with surgical findings. Of 259 CT studies, 46 % of patients were positive, 49 % negative and 5 % equivocal for otosclerosis. A relevant alternative CT diagnosis was evident in 33 % of the negative studies. One targeted surgery was performed for every four CT studies. CT outcome influenced the decision to perform stapedectomy in 41 % CT-positive versus 4 % CT-negative patients. CT-positive ears for otosclerosis could not be predicted from baseline clinical or audiometric criteria. Those with endosteal extension demonstrated lower bone conduction thresholds presurgically. The positive predictive value of CT diagnosis of otosclerosis was 100 %. CT demonstrated a high rate of clinically relevant diagnoses in both CT-positive and -negative for otosclerosis patients, and this frequently influenced surgical management. CT also added value by demonstrating relevant extensions of the otosclerotic foci, some of which were predictive of audiometric parameters. (orig.)

  20. Evaluating resveratrol as a therapeutic bone agent: preclinical evidence from rat models of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring plant polyphenol that has potential to attenuate osteoporosis with distinct pathologies. This review evaluates preclinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of RSV as a therapeutic bone agent using different rat models. Limitations of these animal models are discussed, and suggestions for strengthening the experimental design of future studies are provided. The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis reported that RSV supplementation attenuated estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and trabecular structural deterioration. RSV safety was indicated by the absence of stimulation of estrogen-sensitive tissue. Providing RSV to rats aged >6 months attenuated age-related bone mass loss and structural deterioration but produced inconsistent effects on bones in rats aged osteoporosis reported that RSV attenuated bone loss in old rats, but higher doses and longer duration supplementation before mechanical loading were required for younger rats. Limitations common to studies using rat models of osteoporosis include requirements to include animals that are skeletally mature, longer study durations, and to adjust for potential confounding effects due to altered body weight and endocrine function. Strengthening experimental design can contribute to translation of animal results to clinically relevant recommendations for humans. Published 2015. This article is U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of nanosilver particles synthesised using aloin in experimental murine mastitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, Thota Venkata; Muralidhar, Yegireddy; Prasad, Pagadala Eswara; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Alpha Raj, Mekapogu

    2013-09-01

    Nanobiotechnology is an emerging biological branch of nanotechnology. Application of nanoparticles with specific size and shape in biology has already shown unforeseen and interesting results. A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytogenically derived aloin mediated nanosilver particles (AAgNPs), prepared by reduction of silver nitrate with aloin, in Staphylococcus aureus induced murine mastitis. A total of 40 female mice were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group I served as lactating control, groups II-V were inoculated with 20 μl of 24 h broth culture of S. aureus containing 4.0 × 105 cfu/quarter under ketamine anaesthesia. After 6 h post inoculation, groups III and IV received 20 μl of aloin nanosilver (AAgNPs) through intramammary and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. Group V received antibiotic cefepime at 1 mg/kg body weight through the intra-peritoneal route. After 18 h post-treatment, serum C reactive protein, weights of mammary glands, mammary gland bacterial load, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity and histopathology were determined. The compound showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 21.8 ng/ml against S. aureus. Significant reduction (98%) in poly-morpho nuclear cell infiltration was observed with AAgNPs than antibiotic (50%).

  2. MR imaging biomarkers for evaluating therapeutic effects shortly after near infrared photoimmunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Bernardo, Marcelino; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Harada, Toshiko; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new cancer treatment that combines the specificity of antibodies for targeting tumors with the toxicity induced by photon absorbers after irradiation with NIR light. The purpose of this study was to determine if MR imaging can detect changes in the MR properties of tumor within several hours of NIR-PIT. A431 cells were injected subcutaneously in the right and left dorsi of 12 mice. Six days later, the mice were injected with a photon absorber, IR700, conjugated to panitumumab, an antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor. One day later, only right sided tumor was exposed to NIR light (treated tumor). MRI was performed 1 day before and 1-2 hours after NIR-PIT using gadofosveset for six mice and gadopentetate dimeglumine for another six mice. T2 relaxation times, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for the following combinations of b-values: 0-1000, 200-1000 and 500-1000 s/mm2 and enhancement indices were compared before and after NIR-PIT using a two-sided paired t-test. For treated tumors, T2 relaxation time increased after NIR-PIT (p < 0.01) and all three ADC values decreased after NIR-PIT (p < 0.01). Moreover, the enhancement area under the curve (AUC) using gadofosveset increased after NIR-PIT (p = 0.02). In conclusion, prolongation of T2, reductions in ADC and increased enhancement using gadofosveset are seen within 2 hours of NIR-PIT treatment of tumors. Thus, MRI can be a useful imaging biomarker for detecting early therapeutic changes after NIR-PIT. PMID:26885619

  3. Physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation of jam made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing jam from black-plum and to evaluate the physico-chemical properties, nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of the product. Black-plum jam was produced using traditional openkettle method. The physico-chemical analyses of black-plum fruit ...

  4. Evaluation of disintegrant properties of Neorautanenia mitis starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The granules were compressed into tablets at 0.5, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 MT and tablet properties were evaluated. The physicochemical properties showed NMS has good flow, lower amylose content and higher swelling power than maize starch BP (MS). Tablet formulations containing NMS had similar hardness with those ...

  5. Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of erythrocyte concentrate used in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Barabasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of erythrocyte concentrate used in dogs 1Ildikó BARABÁSI, 1Cristina ȘTEFǍNUȚ, 1Laurenţ OGNEAN 1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400037, Manastur street, no.3-5, Cluj-Napoca, Romania *Corresponding author: lognean@yahoo.com   Keywords: dogs, erythrocyte concentrate, hematocrit, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, transfusion therapy Introduction: The minimum dose of whole blood products as well as erythrocyte concentrate has been under a lot of debate, new equations for calculating the optimal dose being made up from a large variety of hematologists (Kisielewicz et al 2014; Helm and Knottenbelt, 2010; Gibson, 2007. Aim: The therapeutical efficacy of erythrocyte concentrates in dogs with different types of anemia by measuring the hematocrit level 6 hours after the transfusion and a complete blood count 5 days post-transfusion therapy. Materials and methods: Blood tests were performed with ADIVA hematological analyzer; the 6 hour post-transfusion hematocrit was determined by a micro hematocrit. On admission every patient received a routine blood test that included 40 hematological parameters and 21 biochemical parameters. In addition, a detailed examination of the blood smears was also performed by the ADIVA hematological analyzer with 26 parameters that mostly referred to red blood cell and white blood cell morphology. Blood typing was done using the RapidVet quick test kit. Patients received only type specific blood and to limit transfusion reaction occurrences, in addition, a crossmatch test was performed before every transfusion. Statistical analysis was accomplished with GraphPadInStat 3.0 and the graphical depiction of the obtained results was made using the Origin 8.5. graphics program. Results: Statistical analysis reveal that the total red blood cell count underwent very significant changes (p=0.0052 as well as the hemoglobin (p=0.0085. The hematocrit

  6. Evaluating the potential shielding properties of periodic metamaterial slabs

    OpenAIRE

    SEETHARAMDOO, D; BERBINEAU, M; TAROT, A; MAHDJOUBI, K

    2009-01-01

    Metamaterials can prove to be good candidates for shields in EMC applications where weight reduction is a challenge. Indeed metamaterial slabs can provide the same reflective properties as conventional metallic screens but with a lower density and reduced weight. Another advantage is that they can be tailored to exhibit required frequency-selective properties. However, their performance in terms of shielding performance has yet to be evaluated. In this paper, a method to evaluate the shieldin...

  7. Anticancer properties and enhancement of therapeutic potential of cisplatin by leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thangjam Davis; Meitei, Heikrujam Thoihen; Sharma, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar; Robinson, Asem; Singh, Lisam Shanjukumar; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing

    2015-08-20

    Clinical use of chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin is limited by its toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, efforts continue for the discovery of novel combination therapies with cisplatin, to increase efficacy and reduce its toxicity. Here, we screened 16 medicinal plant extracts from Northeast part of India and found that leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (ZALE) induced cytotoxicity as well as an effect on the increasing of the efficiency of chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, mitomycin C and camptothecin). This work shows detail molecular mechanism of anti-cancer activity of ZALE and its potential for combined treatment regimens to enhance the apoptotic response of chemotherapeutic drugs. ZALE induced cytotoxicity, nuclear blebbing and DNA fragmentation in HeLA cells suggesting apoptosis induction in human cervical cell line. However, the apoptosis induced was independent of caspase 3 activation and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Further, ZALE activated Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway as revealed by increased phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of ERK activation but not p38 or JNK completely blocked the ZALE induced apoptosis suggesting an ERK dependent apoptosis. Moreover, ZALE generated DNA double strand breaks as suggested by the induction γH2AX foci formation. Interestingly, pretreatment of certain cancer cell lines with ZALE, sensitized the cancer cells to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs. Enhanced caspase activation was observed in the synergistic interaction among chemotherapeutic drugs and ZALE. Purification and identification of the bio-active molecules from the ZALE or as a complementary treatment for a sequential treatment of ZALE with chemotherapeutic drugs might be a new challenger to open a new therapeutic window for the novel anti-cancer treatment.

  8. Potential role of propolis in wound healing: Biological properties and therapeutic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alemzadeh, Esmat; Moshiri, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from the tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. The chemical composition of propolis varies and depends on the geographical area, time of collection, seasonality, illumination, altitude, and food availability during propolis exploitation. The goal of this review is to discuss important concepts including mechanisms of action and therapeutic activities of propolis. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for the literature published from January the 1st 2000 to October the 1st 2017. Sixteen animals and three clinical studies were included. A quantitative and qualitative review was performed on the clinical trials and the animal studies were comprehensively overviewed. In this study, the clinical trials have been combined and the results were provided as meta-analysis. Propolis is a non-toxic natural product; however some cases of allergy and contact dermatitis to this compound have been described mainly among beekeepers. An important factor in impaired wound healing is biofilm formation; propolis as an anti-microbial agent can reduce biofilm generation and result in accelerated healing processes. Most of the in vivo studies on various wound models suggested the beneficial roles of propolis on experimental wound healing and this has also been approved in the clinical trial studies. However, there is a lack of information concerning, dose, side effects and clinical effectiveness of propolis on wounds. As the effectiveness of propolis between different products is variable, more characterizations should be done and future investigations comparing different propolis based products and characterization of their specific roles on different models of wounds are highly appreciated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a potent invigorator of immune responses endowed with both preventive and therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar GP

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gursaran P Talwar,1 Jagdish C Gupta,1 Abu S Mustafa,2 Hemanta K Kar,3 Kiran Katoch,4 Shreemanta K Parida,5 Prabhakara P Reddi,6 Niyaz Ahmed,7 Vikram Saini,8 Somesh Gupta9 1Talwar Research Foundation, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Microbiology, Kuwait University, Kuwait; 3Department of Dermatology, Paras Hospital, Gurgaon, 4National JALMA Institute of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra, India; 5German Centre of Infection, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany; 6Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, IL, USA; 7Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India; 8Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA; 9Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Abstract: This article reviews briefly the making of an immunoprophylactic-cum-immunotherapeutic vaccine against leprosy. The vaccine is based on cultivable, heat-killed atypical mycobacteria, whose gene sequence is now known. It has been named Mycobacterium indicus pranii. It has received the approval of the Drug Controller General of India and the US Food and Drug Administration. Besides leprosy, M. indicus pranii has found utility in the treatment of category II (“difficult to treat” tuberculosis. It also heals ugly anogenital warts. It has preventive and therapeutic action against SP2/O myelomas. It is proving to be a potent adjuvant for enhancing antibody titers of a recombinant vaccine against human chorionic gonadotropin, with the potential of preventing pregnancy without derangement of ovulation and menstrual regularity in sexually active women. Keywords: leprosy, tuberculosis, anogenital warts, myeloma, adjuvant

  10. Carvedilol's antiarrhythmic properties: therapeutic implications in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarelli, Gerald V; Lukas, Mary Ann

    2005-04-01

    Carvedilol is a beta- and alpha-adrenergic-blocking drug with clinically important antiarrhythmic properties. It possesses anti-ischemic and antioxidant activity and inhibits a number of cationic channels in the cardiomyocyte, including the HERG-associated potassium channel, the L-type calcium channel, and the rapid-depolarizing sodium channel. The electrophysiologic properties of carvedilol include moderate prolongation of action potential duration and effective refractory period; slowing of atrioventricular conduction; and reducing the dispersion of refractoriness. Experimentally, carvedilol reduces complex and repetitive ventricular ectopy induced by ischemia and reperfusion. In patients, carvedilol is effective in controlling the ventricular rate response in atrial fibrillation (AF), with and without digitalis, and is useful in maintaining sinus rhythm after cardioversion, with and without amiodarone. In patients with AF and heart failure (HF), carvedilol reduces mortality risk and improves left ventricular (LV) function. Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated that combined carvedilol and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy significantly reduces sudden cardiac death, mortality, and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with LV dysfunction (LVD) due to chronic HF or following myocardial infarction (MI). Despite intensive neurohormonal blockade, mortality rates remain relatively high in patients with post-MI and nonischemic LVD. Recent trials of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators added to pharmacologic therapy, especially beta blockers, have shown a further reduction in arrhythmic deaths in these patients.

  11. Design, synthesis and evaluation of seleno-dihydropyrimidinones as potential multi-targeted therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Rômulo F S; Barbosa, Flavio A R; Nascimento, Vanessa; de Oliveira, Aldo S; Brighente, Inês M C; Braga, Antonio Luiz

    2014-06-07

    In this paper we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of seleno-dihydropyrimidinones as potential multi-targeted therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. The compounds show excellent results as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, being as active as the standard drug. All these compounds also show very good antioxidant activity through different mechanisms of action.

  12. Aztreonam. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, R N; Heel, R C

    1986-02-01

    Aztreonam (azthreonam; SQ 26,776) is the first member of a new class of beta-lactam antibiotics, the monobactams. Aztreonam is selectively active against Gram-negative aerobic bacteria and inactive against Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, in vitro, aztreonam is inhibitory at low concentrations (MIC90 less than or equal to 1.6 mg/L) against Enterobacteriaceae except Enterobacter species, and is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 90% of pseudomonads being inhibited by 12 to 32 mg/L. Aztreonam is inactive against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria and anaerobes, including Bacteroides fragilis. Therefore, when administered alone, aztreonam has minimal effect on indigenous faecal anaerobes. Aztreonam must be administered intravenously or intramuscularly when used to treat systemic infections, since absolute bioavailability is very low (about 1%) after oral administration. Since elimination half-life is less than 2 hours, 6- or 8-hourly administration is used in the treatment of moderately severe or severe infections, although 12-hourly injection is adequate in less severe systemic and some urinary tract infections. Therapeutic trials have shown aztreonam to be effective in Gram-negative infections including complicated infections of the urinary tract, in lower respiratory tract infections and in gynaecological and obstetric, intra-abdominal, joint and bone, skin and soft tissue infections, uncomplicated gonorrhoea and septicaemia. In comparisons with other antibiotics, aztreonam has been at least as effective or more effective than cefamandole in urinary tract infections and similar in efficacy to tobramycin or gentamicin. Where necessary, aztreonam and the standard drug have both been combined with another antibiotic active against Gram-positive and/or anaerobic bacteria. Aztreonam has been effective in eradicating pseudomonal infections in most patients (except in patients with cystic fibrosis), but the inevitably limited number of pseudomonal infections available for

  13. Evaluation of a diagnostic therapeutic educational pathway for asthma management in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Sebastiano; Quecchia, Cristina; Festa, Andrea; Magoni, Michele; Moneda, Marco; Gretter, Valeria; Scarcella, Carmelo; Pluda, Ada; Gasparotti, Cinzia; Frassine, Malica; Vitale, Luigi; D'Agata, Emanuele; Limina, Rosa Maria; Donato, Francesco

    2017-11-23

    In spite of some evidence for positive effects of patient's education to asthma self-management by randomized clinical trials, there are few studies on the impact of patient' s educational programs in the real world. We aimed to assess the impact of a diagnostic therapeutic educational pathway (DTEP) on asthma control of children and adolescents by comparing frequency of outcomes indicative of asthma control before and after attending the pathway. This is a retrospective cohort study including all patients aged 6-11 and 12-17 years who attended the DTEP in 2007-2014. The DTEP includes 3 specialist's evaluations at 8- to 12-week intervals and two follow-up visits. Patients and their parents receive an educational course concerning prevention measures, early recognition of symptoms, and appropriate use of drugs and devices. The rates of hospitalizations, outpatient services, emergency room visits, and drug prescriptions were considered as outcomes and computed as number of events divided by person-time. A total of 806 patients were enrolled. A statistically significant decrease in rates from before to after DTEP was observed for almost all outcomes, in both age groups, with relative risks ranging from 0.12 to 0.60. The rates of drug prescription showed a statistically significant decrease, from before to after DTEP, for each type of medicine for asthma, in both age groups, from percent difference of -66% to -24.3%. The positive impact of this program on the outcomes indicative of asthma control in both children and adolescents suggests that it may be valuable for asthma management. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of flaxseed formulation as a potential therapeutic agent in mitigation of dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Saxena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are an increasing health problem all over the world. The search for natural hypolipidemic agents that can be used besides the synthetic drugs is still in its experimental stage. Plant seeds, particularly flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum, which is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, lignans and phenolic compounds, have also received increasing attention for their potential role in preventing lipid disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of flaxseeds in dyslipidemia. Methods: The study included 50 dyslipidemic subjects selected by purposive random sampling and were divided into two groups, a control and an experimental group. Both the groups were prescribed similar dietary guidelines. Subjects in the experimental group received 30 g of roasted flaxseed powder for 3 months. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and blood lipid profile were estimated before the study and after completion of the study. Results: Flaxseed supplementation resulted in a remarkable improvement in anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile in the experimental group. Body weight and body mass index (BMI of the experimental group were significantly reduced (p < 0.01. A lowering of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05 was also recorded in the dyslipidemic subjects. Concomitantly, a highly significant reduction (p < 0.01 in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels, with simultaneous elevation (p < 0.01 in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C levels was observed. Improvement in lipid levels resulted in reduction of atherogenic indices. Conclusions: The supplementation of roasted flaxseed powder for 3 months improved the BMI, blood pressure, and lipid profile of dyslipidemic subjects, thus exhibiting cardio protective effect.

  15. Evaluation of the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin A in the periorbital region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tawfik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin blocks acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction causing paralysis that is reversed within 4 months. The toxin was well known for its lethal effect when ingested with food (botulism; however, it was found to be highly effective in various disorders, both cosmetic and noncosmetic. The therapeutic uses in ophthalmology include treatment of strabismus, spastic focal facial dystonias, induction of temporary ptosis in cases of lagophthalmos (chemotarsorrhaphy, temporary correction of dysthyroid upper eyelid retraction, suppression of lacrimal gland secretion to temporarily control gustatory lacrimation, some cases of obstructive epiphora and primary hyperlacrimation, and temporary correction of lower lid entropion. In this prospective study, we evaluate the results of using botulinum toxin A (botox injection in some periorbital pathologies namely, focal facial dystonias, lower lid entropion, lagophthalmos, and epiphora. Fifty patients were treated with botox (20 patients with focal facial dystonias, nine with lagophthalmos, eight with lower lid entropion, and 13 with epiphora, different techniques were used according to the pre-existing pathology, and the following data were recorded: age and sex, total dose for each injection, onset and duration of effect, degree of improvement, and the occurrence of any adverse effects. The study results supported the high efficacy of botulinum toxin for treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, lagophthalmos, lower lid entropion, and epiphora, with marked to moderate improvement in 99, 87.5, 55.5, 75, and 92.3% of patients, respectively. Few side effects occurred but they resolved spontaneously without residues. We concluded that botulinum toxin A is a safe and effective treatment with a temporary outcome that may be desirable in certain situations.

  16. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Properties of Native and Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of native and modified cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) starches. The methods of modification were by pregelatinisation and acetylation. The starch particles were evaluated for characteristics like particle size, swelling ability, viscosity, and ...

  17. Photothermal sensitisation and therapeutic properties of a novel far-red absorbing cyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerin, Monica; Jori, Giulio; Della Ciana, Leopoldo; Fabbroni, Serena; Bonacchi, Sara; Montalti, Marco; Prodi, Luca

    2009-10-01

    A water-soluble disulfonate cyanine was prepared by chemical synthesis and shown to possess photophysical properties which are particularly favourable for the promotion of photothermally sensitised processes, including a very low (<0.1) quantum yield of fluorescence emission and ultra-short (110 to 400 ps) excited state lifetimes, as well as the presence of intense absorption bands at wavelengths longer than 800 nm. This allows the possibility of high-energy irradiation by means of a Ti:sapphire laser operated in a pulse regime. The cyanine was accumulated in comparable amounts by B78H1 amelanotic melanoma cells and HT1080 transformed fibroblasts, however only the B78H1 cells could be extensively damaged by photothermal sensitisation with the cyanine, which was endocellularly distributed as suggested by observations at the optical microscope; the efficiency of the photoprocess could be enhanced by formation of aggregated intracellular cyanine clusters. On the other hand, only a modest photoinactivation of HT1080 cells was induced by photothermal sensitisation, possibly owing to the localization of the cyanine at the periphery of such cells. The cyanine also exhibited a good selectivity of amelanotic melanoma targeting in C57BL/6 mice, bearing the tumour subcutaneously transplanted in the dorsal area: the ratio of cyanine concentration in the melanoma and the surrounding cutaneous districts was as large as 3.8 at 1 h post-injection. The cyanine underwent a fast clearance from the organism, since only traces of the photosensitiser were observed in all the studied tissues at 3 h after i.v. administration. Thus, irradiations were performed at post-injection times shorter than 1 h. Maximum photothermal sensitisation efficiency was obtained at 10 min after injection with a 50% cure rate. Thus, photothermal therapy (PTT) appears to be a very promising and efficient modality of tumour treatment.

  18. In vivo evaluation of limonene-based transdermal therapeutic system of nicorandil in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Y S R; Chandrasekhar, D V; Rama, B; Jayaram, B; Satyanarayana, V; Al-Saidan, S M

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) gel drug reservoir system prepared with 70:30 v/v ethanol-water solvent system containing 6% w/w of limonene was effective in promoting the in vitro transdermal delivery of nicorandil. The objective of the present study was to fabricate and evaluate a limonene-based transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) for its ability to provide the desired steady-state plasma concentration of nicorandil in human volunteers. The in vitro permeation of nicorandil from a limonene-based HPMC gel drug reservoir was studied across excised rat skin (control), EVA2825 membrane, adhesive-coated EVA2825 membrane and adhesive-coated EVA2825 membrane-excised rat skin composite to account for their effect on the desired flux of nicorandil. The flux of nicorandil from the limonene-based HMPC drug reservoir across EVA2825 membrane decreased to 215.8 +/- 9.7 microg/cm(2).h when compared to that obtained from control, indicating that EVA2825 was effective as a rate-controlling membrane. The further decrease in nicorandil flux across adhesive-coated EVA2825 membrane and adhesive-coated EVA2825 membrane-excised rat skin composite showed that the adhesive coat and skin also controlled the in vitro transdermal delivery. The limonene-based drug reservoir was sandwiched between adhesive-coated EVA2825-release liner composite and a backing membrane. The resultant sandwich was heat-sealed as circle-shaped patch (20 cm(2)), trimmed and subjected to in vivo evaluation in human volunteers against immediate-release tablets of nicorandil (reference formulation). The fabricated limonene-based TTS of nicorandil provided a steady-state plasma concentration of 21.3 ng/ml up to 24 h in healthy human volunteers. It was concluded that the limonene-based TTS of nicorandil provided the desired plasma concentration of the drug for the predetermined period of time with minimal fluctuations and improved bioavailability. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Application of FRET Technology to the In Vivo Evaluation of Therapeutic Nucleic Acids (ANTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Hess, María Luisa; Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat

    2007-02-01

    Developing applications for therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) (i.e. ribozymes, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs), siRNA and aptamers) requires a reporter system designed to rapidly evaluate their in vivo effect. To this end we designed a reporter system based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) engineered to release the FRET effect produced by two green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants linked by a TNA target site. Because the FRET effect occurs instantaneously when two fluorophores are very close to each other (>100nm) stimulating emission of the acceptor fluorophore by the excitation of the donor fluorophore it has been widely use to reveal interactions between molecules. The present system (FRET2) correlates the FRET effect with the in vivo activity of distinct types of TNAs based on a model consisting of RNA from human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) previously shown accessible to TNAs. HPV-16 is the most common papillomavirus associated with cervical cancer, the leading cause of death by cancer in México. The FRET2 system was first tested in vitro and then used in bacteria in which transcription is linked to translation allowing controlled expression and rapid evaluation of the FRET2 protein. To assure accessibility of the target mRNA to TNAs, the FRET2 mRNA was probed by RNaseH assays prior FRET testing. The fluorescence features of the FRET2 system was tested with different FRET-producing GFP donor-acceptor pairs leading to selection of green (donor) and yellow (acceptor) variants of GFP as the most efficient. Modifications in aminoacid composition and linker length of the target sequence did not affect FRET efficiency. In vivo AS-ODN-mediated destruction of the chimerical FRET2 reporter mRNA resulted in the recovery of GFP fluorescent spectrum in a concentration and time dependent manner. Reported anti-HPV ribozymes were also tested with similar results. Therefore, we conclude that the FRET effect can be a useful tool in the

  20. A Mini-Review on Thalidomide: Chemistry, Mechanisms of Action, Therapeutic Potential and Anti-Angiogenic Properties in Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Annalisa; Adriani, Giulia; Catalano, Alessia; Carocci, Alessia; Rao, Luigia; Lentini, Giovanni; Cavalluzzi, Maria M; Franchini, Carlo; Vacca, Angelo; Corbo, Filomena

    2017-01-01

    Thalidomide is a drug with interesting therapeutic properties but also with severe side effects which require a careful and monitored use. Potential immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, anti-angiogenic and sedative properties make thalidomide a good candidate for the treatment of several diseases such as multiple myeloma. Through an increase in the degradation of TNFα-mRNA, thalidomide reduces the production of TNFα by monocytes and macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide or by T lymphocytes induced by mitogenic stimuli. The decreased level of TNFα alters the mechanisms of intracellular transduction by preventing the activation of NF-kB and by decreasing the synthesis of proteins, in particular IL-6, involved in cell proliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, thalidomide affects VEGF levels by down-regulating its expression. Nowadays, new safer and less toxic drugs, analogs of thalidomide, are emerging as beneficial for a more targeted treatment of multiple myeloma and several other diseases such as Crohn';s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, erythema nodosum leprosum, graft-versus-host disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Clay minerals: Properties and applications to dermocosmetic products and perspectives of natural raw materials for therapeutic purposes-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Bertolino, Silvana Raquel Alina; Cuffini, Silvia Lucia; Ducart, Diego Fernando; Bretzke, Pedro Eriberto; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci

    2017-12-20

    Clay minerals are layered materials with a number of peculiar properties, which find many relevant applications in various industries. Since they are easily found everywhere, they are particularly attractive due to their economic viability. In the cosmetic industry, clay minerals are often used as excipients to stabilize emulsions or suspensions and to modify the rheological behavior of these systems. They also play an important role as adsorbents or absorbents, not only in cosmetics but also in other industries, such as pharmaceuticals. This reviewer believes that since this manuscript is presented as covering topical applications that include pharmaceuticals, some types of clay minerals should be considered as a potential material to be used as drug delivery systems. We review several applications of clay minerals to dermocosmetic products, relating them to the underlying properties of these materials and exemplifying with a number of clay minerals available in the market. We also discuss the use of clay minerals in topically-applied products for therapeutic purposes, specially for skin treatment and protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enlight: A Comprehensive Quality and Therapeutic Potential Evaluation Tool for Mobile and Web-Based eHealth Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Faber, Keren; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Muench, Fred

    2017-03-21

    Studies of criteria-based assessment tools have demonstrated the feasibility of objectively evaluating eHealth interventions independent of empirical testing. However, current tools have not included some quality constructs associated with intervention outcome, such as persuasive design, behavior change, or therapeutic alliance. In addition, the generalizability of such tools has not been explicitly examined. The aim is to introduce the development and further analysis of the Enlight suite of measures, developed to incorporate the aforementioned concepts and address generalizability aspects. As a first step, a comprehensive systematic review was performed to identify relevant quality rating criteria in line with the PRISMA statement. These criteria were then categorized to create Enlight. The second step involved testing Enlight on 42 mobile apps and 42 Web-based programs (delivery mediums) targeting modifiable behaviors related to medical illness or mental health (clinical aims). A total of 476 criteria from 99 identified sources were used to build Enlight. The rating measures were divided into two sections: quality assessments and checklists. Quality assessments included usability, visual design, user engagement, content, therapeutic persuasiveness, therapeutic alliance, and general subjective evaluation. The checklists included credibility, privacy explanation, basic security, and evidence-based program ranking. The quality constructs exhibited excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlations=.77-.98, median .91) and internal consistency (Cronbach alphas=.83-.90, median .88), with similar results when separated into delivery mediums or clinical aims. Conditional probability analysis revealed that 100% of the programs that received a score of fair or above (≥3.0) in therapeutic persuasiveness or therapeutic alliance received the same range of scores in user engagement and content-a pattern that did not appear in the opposite direction. Preliminary

  3. Evaluation of Analgesic Properties of Piper Nigrum Essential Oil: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Essential oils are complex mixtures of chemical compounds, extracted from a wide range of plants. The volatile fraction of essential oils is responsible for their characteristic aroma and presents diverse biological properties that have been studied over the years. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Piper nigrum is considered to be pungent and hot. Although its chemical constituents and respective pharmacological properties have been described by several authors, the volatile fraction is still underestimated as a therapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic properties of the volatile fraction of Piper nigrum essential oil, in patients presenting different types of pain.

  4. Budesonide : An Updated Review of its Pharmacological Properties, and Therapeutic Efficacy in Asthma and Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Rex N; McTavish, Donna

    1992-09-01

    successfully treated with intranasal budesonide, which was more effective than alternative treatments, as have those with recurrent nasal polyposis. Generally budesonide is well tolerated at usual therapeutic dosages, with local effects such as hoarseness (dysphonia), sore throat and local irritation causing cough being reported most commonly. At dosages of 800μg daily inhaled budesonide does not depress plasma cortisol levels, but individual sensitivity to the adrenocortical suppressive effect of inhaled corticosteroids varies. Initial data indicate no adverse effect on growth and weight gain among children treated for 1 year with inhaled budesonide 200 to 400μg daily, but the effects of higher dosages are not known. Biopsy specimens from lung mucosa and upper respiratory tract tissues of patients treated with inhaled budesonide for up to 10 years showed reduced numbers of inflammatory cells and no evidence of atrophy after 7 to 15 months. Intranasal budesonide 400μg daily is well tolerated with infrequent local adverse effects and rare reports of contact allergy. The inhaled dose of budesonide for the treatment of asthma in adults should be individualised. The recommended initial dose is 400 to 1600 μg/day divided into 2 or 4 administrations. Usually 200 to 800 μg/day is suitable for maintenance but the lowest dose that leaves the patient symptom free should be used. In children with asthma the recommended dose is 200 to 400 μg/day, divided into 2 or 4 administrations. In treatment of rhinitis the dosage is 400 μg/day, which can be instilled into each nostril morning and evening or once daily in the morning. Once a good response has been achieved, this dosage can be halved.

  5. [Evaluation of therapeutic effects of three hypoallergenic formulae in infants with cow's milk protein allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-qi; Hu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    To compare the growth and symptom remission of infants with cow's milk protein allergy, who were fed with an amino acid formula, an extensively hydrolyzed formula or soy formula. Infants who were diagnosed as cow's milk protein allergy and can not be breastfed were enrolled in the intervention group, and were assigned to three special formulae (amino acid formula, extensively hydrolyzed formula or soy formula ) according to the will of parents from March 2009 to March 2010 (n = 74). A non-randomized control group was made up of age-matched healthy children (n = 21). Anthropometric measurements and symptoms were evaluated after 30, 60, 90, and 180 days. The differences of physical growth and the therapeutic effects among each group were calculated by SPSS 13.0 package. After 180 days follow-up, the weight for age Z score and length for weight Z score were -0.43 +/- 0.88 and -0.31 +/- 0.78 in patients fed with soy formula substitute, which were significantly lower than those of patients fed with amino acid formula (0.11 +/- 0.77, 0.20 +/- 0.69) , extensively hydrolyzed formula (0.10 +/- 0.62, 0.18 +/- 0.70) and control group (0.22 +/- 0.54, 0.22 +/- 0.64) (P0.05). Moreover, no significant difference was found in length for age and head circumference for age among four groups (P>0.05). All hypoallergenic formulae were much helpful in remission of the symptoms of eczema (Psoy formula (1 mo vs 2 mo) (P = 0.003). Both amino acid formula and extensively hydrolyzed formula can maintain the normal growth of infants with cow's milk protein allergy. While, the growth of patients fed with soy formula was significantly slower than that of the other three groups. All hypoallergenic formulae can be effective in relieving allergy symptoms, and amino acid formula or extensively hydrolyzed formula seems to be superior to soy formula.

  6. [Modality of combined methods of quantitative and qualitative research in evaluation of therapeutic effects of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-ping

    2011-05-01

    The core of evidence-based medicine lies in implementing the current best available evidence of clinical research to direct the decision making in clinical practice, incorporation of individual experience and value and preference of patients. However, the current evaluation method for clinical therapeutic effect cannot reflect the humanity and wholesomeness as well as individualized tailored treatment of Chinese medicine (CM) by using randomized controlled trials. This assay addressed the complex intervention of highly individualized treatment of CM and its societal characteristics, and the author proposes a model for the evaluation of therapeutic effects of CM in which quantitative and qualitative methods are combined, embodying the characteristics of the social and natural sciences in CM. The model can show the dynamic process of CM diagnosis and treatment from a perspective of the whole system and can be used for the evaluation of complex intervention of CM. We hope to raise a different thinking and method from the new drug development in the therapeutic effect evaluation.

  7. Evaluation of MiR-181a as a potential therapeutic target in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate microRNA-181 (miR-181) as a potential therapeutic target in osteoarthritis. (OA). Methods: MiR-181 ... in the treatment of OA. Keywords: MicroRNA, Osteoarthritis, Apoptosis, B-cell lymphoma 2, Transfection, Chondrocytes .... 500 ng total RNA using a specific stem-loop primer. Following this ...

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of Biofilm Dispersal as a Therapeutic Strategy To Restore Antimicrobial Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roizman, Dan; Vidaillac, Celine; Givskov, Michael

    2017-01-01

    engineered strain PAO1/pBAD-yhjH resulted in increased antimicrobial efficacy and synergy of the imipenem-tobramycin combination. These results support the use of biofilm dispersal to enhance antimicrobial efficacy in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections, representing a promising therapeutic...

  9. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  10. Evaluating biomechanical properties of murine embryos using Brillouin microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Raksha; Zhang, Jitao; Wu, Chen; Rippy, Justin; Singh, Manmohan; Larin, Kirill V.; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2017-08-01

    Embryogenesis is regulated by numerous changes in mechanical properties of the cellular microenvironment. Thus, studying embryonic mechanophysiology can provide a more thorough perspective of embryonic development, potentially improving early detection of congenital abnormalities as well as evaluating and developing therapeutic interventions. A number of methods and techniques have been used to study cellular biomechanical properties during embryogenesis. While some of these techniques are invasive or involve the use of external agents, others are compromised in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. We propose the use of Brillouin microscopy in combination with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure stiffness as well as structural changes in a developing embryo. While Brillouin microscopy assesses the changes in stiffness among different organs of the embryo, OCT provides the necessary structural guidance.

  11. Evaluating the Mechanical Properties of Tomato Based on Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of agricultural products plays an important role in equipment design and optimizing post-harvest operations. Among the crops, tomato and its products are the major processing industries in the world and its economic importance is increasing. Considering the importance of the quality and various post harvesting uses of tomato, the evaluation of mechanical properties including rupture force and deformation and the work done to establish the rupture of two tomato cultivars (Petoearly CH and Newton were studied under penetration test based on the electrical conductivity. These properties were measured at three levels of 1, 3 and 5 days after harvesting. The evaluated mechanical properties of both cultivars were decreased by increasing the storage time. Interaction of cultivar and time were significant at the 1% level, for all mechanical parameters except the deformation failure in both cultivars. The electrical conductivity of both cultivars was decreased by increasing the storage time. Interaction of cultivar and time on the electrical conductivity of both cultivars were significant at the 1% level. Significant relationships were found at the 1% level between electrical conductivity and mechanical properties except for deformation of Petoearly CH cultivar. Among the mechanical parameters, rupture forces and rupture works of both cultivars were highly correlated with the electrical conductivity.

  12. Neonatal respiratory insufficiency caused by an (homozygous) ABCA3-stop mutation: a systematic evaluation of therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J; Essmann, S; Kidszun, A; Aslanidis, C; Griese, M; Poplawska, K; Bartsch, M; Schmitz, G; Mildenberger, E

    2014-04-01

    Autosomal recessive ABCA3 (ATP-binding cassette protein A3) gene mutations have been associated with neonatal respiratory distress and pediatric interstitial lung disease. The clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying mutations. Therefore, knowledge of course, symptoms and treatment of the disease is important. A term newborn suffered from progressive respiratory insufficiency, which led to death at the age of 4.8 months. The girl developed interstitial lung disease. Infections as well as structural and functional disorders of the lung were systematically excluded. A homozygous c.4681C > T (Arg 1561 Stop) mutation of the ABCA3 gene was identified. A literature review of the pathophysiology and treatment options of the disease was done. Therapeutic approaches with corticosteroids, macrolide, and hydroxychloroquine did not improve the clinical course. Therapeutic strategies for chronic interstitial lung disease have been used successfully in cases of a mild clinical course in juvenile patients with ABCA3 gene mutation. In our patient with homozygous ABCA3 gene mutation,they were not effective. Lung transplantation remains as a therapeutic option, but because of donor organ shortage and associated morbidity and mortality it is rarely feasible. More experience in the treatment of newborns with ABCA3 gene mutations is needed. Randomized, prospective evaluation of the different therapeutic approaches in a specific registry may improve prognosis and treatment of affected individuals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Using Multiple Choice Questions Written at Various Bloom's Taxonomy Levels to Evaluate Student Performance across a Therapeutics Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Tiemeier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the results of a prospectively developed plan for using multiple choice questions (MCQs developed at defined Bloom's levels to assess student performance across a Therapeutics sequence. Methods: Faculty were prospectively instructed to prepare a specific number of MCQs for exams in a Therapeutics sequence. Questions were distributed into one of three cognitive levels based on a modified Bloom's taxonomy, including recall, application, and analysis. Student performance on MCQs was compared between and within each Bloom's level throughout the Therapeutics sequence. In addition, correlations between MCQ performance and case performance were assessed. Results:A total of 168 pharmacy students were prospectively followed in a Therapeutics sequence over two years. The overall average MCQ score on 10 exams was 68.8%. A significant difference in student performance was observed between recall, application, and analysis domain averages (73.1%, 70.2% and 60.1%; p Conclusions: As students progress through the curriculum, faculty may need to find ways to promote recall knowledge for more advanced topics while continuing to develop their ability to apply and analyze information. Exams with well-designed MCQs that prospectively target various cognitive levels can facilitate assessment of student performance.   Type: Original Research

  14. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  15. Evaluation of Anti-trypanosomal Properties of Four Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative phytochemical and anti-trypanosomal properties of the petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts, obtained by cold extraction from the leaves, stem bark and roots of. Prosopis africana were evaluated. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and leaves of the plant contained ...

  16. CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIVARIATE EVALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES PRIMARY MARKET OFFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Shybirina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article by indicators of the market potential, namely the construction and investment activity, the methodical and practical aspects of construction multivariate evaluation of residential properties primary market offer was discussed and held typological grouping of the regions.

  17. Evaluation of the Phytochemicals and the Antibacterial Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to evaluate the phyto-chemical and antibacterial properties of Sida acuta leaf extract against wound bacterial isolates. Standard methods were employed in the phytochemistry, the bacterial identification and the antibiotic susceptibility assay. Ethanol and acetone were used as the extraction ...

  18. Evaluation on mechanical properties of woven aloevera and sisal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Evaluation on mechanical properties of woven aloevera and sisal fibre hybrid reinforced epoxy composites. A SHADRACH JEYA SEKARAN1,2, K PALANI KUMAR3,* and K ... products, the complexity of shape of a product also influ- ences the type of manufacturing processes to be used. For example, filament winding is the ...

  19. Tensile and Hardness Property Evaluation of Kaolin- Sisal Fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the tensile and hardness properties of Kaolin- sisal fibre- epoxy composite were evaluated using standard methods. Epoxy type 3354A with its hardener was mixed in the ratio 2:1. Calcined kaolin particle with average size of 35µm and 3-4mm sisal fibre were added to the epoxy matrix during the composite ...

  20. Evaluation of bisphenol A, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bisphenol A (BPA), physicochemical properties and microbial characterization of borehole water stored in plastic containers. Three brands of plastic containers filled with borehole water were collected from homes in Ugbowo, Benin city. Physicochemical parameters were determined ...

  1. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of a posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of a micro-hybrid resin composite used in adult posterior restorations A micro-hybrid, light curing resin composite Unolux BCS Composite Restorative, (UnoDent, England) was used to restore 74 carious classes I and II cavities on posterior teeth of 62 adult patients.

  2. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in sulphadimidine suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for sulphadimidine. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  4. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family Mimosoideae) were evaluated comparatively with those of Compound Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 0.5 – 4.0%w/v in Sulphadimidine suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum. Sedimentation ...

  5. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in metronidazole suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for metronidazole. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  6. Evaluation of the properties of lightweight concrete using periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the properties of lightweight concrete using periwinkle shells as a partial replacement for coarse aggregate. ... brought about by the dumping of periwinkle shell. Keywords: Lightweight Concrete, Periwinkle, Aggregate Impact Value, Aggregate Crushing Value, Compressive Strength, Environmental Pollution ...

  7. Positron emission tomography evaluation of sedative properties of antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Zhang, Dongying; Tashiro, Manabu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Naganuma, Fumito; Harada, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tadaho; Shibuya, Katsuhiko; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2011-07-01

    H(1) antihistamines are often used in the medication for allergic diseases, coughs and colds, and insomnia, with or without prescription, even though their sedative properties are a potentially dangerous unwanted side effect that is not properly recognized. These sedative properties have been evaluated using the incidence of subjective sleepiness, objective cognitive and psychomotor functions, and positron emission tomography (PET) measurement of H(1) receptor occupancy. This article reviews the current updated literature on the sedative properties of antihistamines examined by PET measurement of H(1) receptor occupancy. The use of PET to examine antihistamine penetration in the human brain in relation to psychometric and other functional measures of CNS effects is a major breakthrough and provides a new standard by which the functional CNS effects of antihistamines can be related directly to H(1) receptor occupancy. Therapy with antihistamines can be better guided by considering histamine H(1) receptor occupancy from the view of their sedative properties.

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Graves Property - Yakama Nation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul; Muse, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Graves property (140 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also documented the general ecological condition of the property. The Graves property was significantly damaged from past/present livestock grazing practices. Baseline HEP surveys generated 284.28 habitat units (HUs) or 2.03 HUs per acre. Of these, 275.50 HUs were associated with the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type while 8.78 HUs were tied to the riparian shrub cover type.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Carl Property - Yakama Nation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul; Muse, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    A baseline habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Carl property (160 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also helped assess the general ecological condition of the property. The Carl property appeared damaged from livestock grazing and exhibited a high percentage of invasive forbs. Exotic grasses, while present, did not comprise a large percentage of the available cover in most areas. Cover types were primarily grassland/shrubsteppe with a limited emergent vegetation component. Baseline HEP surveys generated 356.11 HUs or 2.2 HUs per acre. Habitat units were associated with the following HEP models: California quail (47.69 HUs), western meadowlark (114.78 HUs), mallard (131.93 HUs), Canada goose (60.34 HUs), and mink (1.38 HUs).

  10. Biomaterial constructs for delivery of multiple therapeutic genes: a spatiotemporal evaluation of efficacy using molecular beacons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Alexander

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is emerging as a potential therapeutic approach for cardiovascular pathogenesis. An appropriate therapy may require multiple genes to enhance therapeutic outcome by modulating inflammatory response and angiogenesis in a controlled and time-dependent manner. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the spatiotemporal efficacy of a dual-gene therapy model based on 3D collagen scaffolds loaded with the therapeutic genes interleukin 10 (IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, a promoter of angiogenesis. A collagen-based scaffold loaded with plasmid IL-10 polyplexes and plasmid eNOS polyplexes encapsulated into microspheres was used to transfect HUVECs and HMSCs cells.The therapeutic efficacy of the system was monitored at 2, 7 and 14 days for eNOS and IL-10 mRNA expression using RT-PCR and live cell imaging molecular beacon technology. The dual gene releasing collagen-based scaffold provided both sustained and delayed release of functional polyplexes in vitro over a 14 day period which was corroborated with variation in expression levels seen using RT-PCR and MB imaging. Maximum fold increases in IL-10 mRNA and eNOS mRNA expression levels occurred at day 7 in HMSCs and HUVECs. However, IL-10 mRNA expression levels seemed dependent on frequency of media changes and/or ease of transfection of the cell type. It was demonstrated that molecular beacons are able to monitor changes in mRNA levels at various time points, in the presence of a 3D scaffolding gene carrier system and the results complemented those of RT-PCR.

  11. Novel nanosystem to enhance the antitumor activity of lapatinib in breast cancer treatment: Therapeutic efficacy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Shi-Jiang; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Liu, Ping; Pang, Bo; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic performance of polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles towards the delivery of lapatinib (LPT) in breast cancers. We have successfully developed the lapatinib-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanosystem and showed its therapeutic potential in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The nanoformulations consisted of a polymeric core (poly[lactide-co-glycolide]-D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [PLGA-TPGS]), which was then enveloped by a PEGylated lipid layer (DSPE-PEG) (PLPT) to maintain the structural integrity. The PLPT formulation controlled the drug release in pH 7.4 conditions and accelerated the release at pH 5.5 conditions. The PLPT showed a remarkable cellular internalization and efficiently killed the MCF-7 cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPT-loaded nanoparticles effectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells than compared to free LPT. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that nanoparticles could significantly enhance the blood circulation time of LPT by reducing the uptake by a reticuloendothelial system (RES). The prolonged blood circulation of PLPT could allow the preferential accumulation of drug in the tumor tissues. Importantly, PLPT significantly reduced the tumor burden of cancerous mice and effectively controlled the tumor cell proliferation. TUNEL assay further showed a greater apoptosis of tumor tissues in the PLPT treated mice group. Our results suggest that the use of a hybrid system may allow a decrease in the dosage regimen without the loss of therapeutic effect. Overall, lapatinib-loaded hybrid nanoparticles hold great potential for achieving an optimal therapeutic effect in breast cancer treatment. The present anticancer drug delivery system could be potentially applied for the treatment of other cancers. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Evaluation of final-year dental students concerning therapeutic decision making for proximal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bervian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the radiographic criteria used by final-year dental students when defining the need for restorative treatment for proximal caries, as well as investigating potentially associated factors in this therapeutic decision. A questionnaire with two schematic diagrams presenting five levels of proximal lesion penetration was administered to students attending the six private and three public dental schools in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Absolute and relative frequencies were described and inferential statistics involving Chi-square and McNemar tests and simple logistic regression were carried out to assess variations in therapeutic decisions related to patient dentition (deciduous/permanent and gender, age and dental school (public/private. Of the 346 dental students assessed, 28.6% (99/346 indicated restorative treatment for lesions restricted to the enamel in deciduous teeth and 38.2% (132/346 indicated the same for permanent teeth, revealing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001. Student gender and age were not associated with the therapeutic decision; however, a significant difference between dental schools was found when comparing restorative criteria in deciduous (p < 0.001 and permanent molars (p < 0.001. The odds of restorative decision in permanent teeth when the caries lesion was restricted to the enamel was 72% higher for students graduating from private schools compared to public schools (Odds Ratio: 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-2.90. These data demonstrate a large variation between the therapeutic decisions regarding proximal caries reported by final-year dental students and suggest that deep reflection is needed on the part of faculty in order to provide an evidence-based education.

  13. Evaluation of final-year dental students concerning therapeutic decision making for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervian, Juliane; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Brusco, Larissa Corrêa; Rosa, Francinne Miranda da

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the radiographic criteria used by final-year dental students when defining the need for restorative treatment for proximal caries, as well as investigating potentially associated factors in this therapeutic decision. A questionnaire with two schematic diagrams presenting five levels of proximal lesion penetration was administered to students attending the six private and three public dental schools in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Absolute and relative frequencies were described and inferential statistics involving Chi-square and McNemar tests and simple logistic regression were carried out to assess variations in therapeutic decisions related to patient dentition (deciduous/permanent) and gender, age and dental school (public/private). Of the 346 dental students assessed, 28.6% (99/346) indicated restorative treatment for lesions restricted to the enamel in deciduous teeth and 38.2% (132/346) indicated the same for permanent teeth, revealing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001). Student gender and age were not associated with the therapeutic decision; however, a significant difference between dental schools was found when comparing restorative criteria in deciduous (p caries lesion was restricted to the enamel was 72% higher for students graduating from private schools compared to public schools (Odds Ratio: 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-2.90). These data demonstrate a large variation between the therapeutic decisions regarding proximal caries reported by final-year dental students and suggest that deep reflection is needed on the part of faculty in order to provide an evidence-based education.

  14. To evaluate the effectiveness of the therapeutic effect of color and Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    JAN NESARI, Azzam JAN NESARI; DARVISH, Behrouz; SAGHAFI, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Rehabilitation centers for the formation of adequate space to provide rehabilitation services, along with education, leisure, work, recreation, etc. are designed. Factors that major developments in the creation of health centers and the development of new ideas on the effects of the space environment on the human psyche is considered as pick psychology. He study examines the influence color and its therapeutic effects of comprehensive health centers, as well as the environmental fac...

  15. How technology influences the therapeutic process: evaluation of the patient-therapist relationship in augmented reality exposure therapy and in vivo exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Maja; Bretón-López, Juana; Botella, Cristina; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Alcañiz, Mariano; Pérez-Ara, María Ángeles; Del Amo, Antonio Riera

    2013-07-01

    New technologies have slowly become a part of psychologists' therapeutic office. However, many therapists still have doubts about the possibility of creating a good therapeutic relationship with patients in the presence of technology. This study evaluates the development of the therapeutic alliance in individuals with small animal phobia disorder who were treated with Augmented Reality Exposure Therapy or In Vivo Exposure Therapy. Twenty-two participants received an intensive session of cognitive behavioural therapy in either a technology-mediated therapeutic context or in a traditional therapeutic context. The results show no significant difference for the therapeutic alliance between two conditions. The results seem to show that technologies such as Augmented Reality do not represent a danger to negatively influence the therapeutic alliance.

  16. Therapeutic evaluation of arterio-portal fistula-related gastroesophageal variceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Shiyao; Liu, Chengfeng; Sheng, Ruofan; Li, Feng; Wang, Jian; Luo, Jianjun; Xu, Pengju

    2017-09-12

    Intrahepatic arterio-portal fistula is an uncommon etiology of portal hypertension, which presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and outcomes of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding caused by arterio-portal fistula using different therapeutic approaches. Medical records of 451 consecutive patients with arterio-portal fistula were reviewed from January 1, 2009, to July 15, 2016, and patients suffered variceal bleeding were eligible for the study. Among 57 patients with arterio-portal fistula, hepatocellular carcinoma was existed in 61.4% patients. A combination of radiological intervention and endoscopic treatment was performed in 8 (14.0%) patients; the remainder were treated using radiological intervention alone (n = 20, 35.1%), endoscopic treatment alone (n = 18, 31.6%), or without any intervention (n = 11, 19.3%). No patient died in the combination group, while 20 patients in the single-treatment group and 6 in the untreated group died during follow-up. A significant difference in the survival rate was found between the combination group and the other two groups. Treatment selection between combination and untreated groups was the only parameter significantly associated with survival (p = 0.002). For patients diagnosed with arterio-portal fistula, combination treatment is the most optimal strategy in managing variceal bleeding, especially in patient with severe type of fistula.

  17. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Evaluating the effect of therapeutic stem cells on TRAIL resistant and sensitive medulloblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nesterenko

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are emerging as novel cell-based delivery agents; however, a thorough investigation addressing their therapeutic potential in medulloblastomas (MB has not been explored to date. In this study, we engineered human MSC to express a potent and secretable variant of a tumor specific agent, tumor necrosis factor-apoptosis-inducing ligand (S-TRAIL and assessed the ability of MSC-S-TRAIL mediated MB killing alone or in combination with a small molecule inhibitor of histone-deacetylase, MS-275, in TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant MB in vitro and in vivo. We show that TRAIL sensitivity/resistance correlates with the expression of its cognate death receptor (DR5 and MSC-S-TRAIL induces caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in TRAIL-sensitive MB lines. In TRAIL-resistant MB, we show upregulation of DR4/5 levels when pre-treated with MS-275 and a subsequent sensitization to MSC-S-TRAIL mediated apoptosis. Using intracranially implanted MB and MSC lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that MSC-S-TRAIL has significant anti-tumor effects in mice bearing TRAIL-sensitive and MS-275 pre-treated TRAIL-resistant MBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the use of human MSC as MB-targeting therapeutic-vehicles in vivo in TRAIL-sensitive and resistant tumors, and has implications for developing effective therapies for patients with medulloblastomas.

  19. Development and evaluation of an in vitro vaginal model for assessment of drug's biopharmaceutical properties: curcumin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berginc, Katja; Skalko-Basnet, Nataša; Basnet, Purusotam; Kristl, Albin

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal administration is a promising alternative to the per-oral route in achieving systemic or local therapeutic effects, when intestinal drug absorption is hindered by problematic biopharmaceutical drug properties...

  20. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  1. Evaluation of binding properties of Plantago psyllium seed mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ansoroudi, Farshad; Fallah, Saeed; Amin, Gholamreza

    2010-09-01

    Mucilage extracted from Plantago psyllium seeds was evaluated for inertness and safety parameters. The suitability of psyllium mucilage for a pharmaceutical binder was assessed in paracetamol tablets. Properties of the granules prepared using different concentrations of psyllium mucilage was compared with PVP and tragacanth. Psyllium mucilage at 5 % (m/m) was found to be comparable with 3 % (m/m) of PVP. Investigated paracetamol tablets indicated that psyllium mucilage can retard the drug release.

  2. Evaluation of the elastic properties of monovalent oxides using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-017-1409-x. Evaluation of the elastic properties of monovalent oxides using. TeO2-based glasses. A M EMARA1,2, S F MANSOUR1, M Y HASSAAN3 and El SAYED YOUSEF2,4,∗. 1Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Zagazig University, Zagazig, ...

  3. Evaluation of Therapeutic Tissue Crosslinking (TXL) for Myopia Using Second Harmonic Generation Signal Microscopy in Rabbit Sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyablitskaya, Mariya; Takaoka, Anna; Munteanu, Emilia L.; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Second harmonic generation signals (SHG) are emitted preferentially from collagenous tissue structures and have been used to evaluate photochemically-induced (CXL) crosslinking changes in the cornea. Since therapeutic tissue crosslinking (TXL) using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG) of the sclera is a potential treatment for high myopia, we explored the use of SHG microscopy to evaluate the effects. Methods Single sub-Tenon's (sT) injections (400 μL) using SMG (40–400 mM) were made at the equatorial 12 o'clock position of the right eye of cadaveric rabbit heads (n = 16 pairs). After 3.5 hours, confocal microscopy (CM) was performed using 860 nm two-photon excitation and 400 to 450 nm emission. Pixel density and fiber bundle “waviness” analyses were performed on the images. Crosslinking effects were confirmed using thermal denaturation (Tm) temperature. Comparison experiments with riboflavin photochemical crosslinking were done. Results Therapeutic tissue crosslinking localization studies indicated that crosslinking changes occurred at the site of injection and in adjacent sectors. Second harmonic generation signals revealed large fibrous collagenous bundled structures that displayed various degrees of waviness. Histogram analysis showed a nearly 6-fold signal increase in 400 mM SMG over 40 mM. This corresponded to a ΔTm = 13°C for 400 mM versus ΔTm = 4°C for 40 mM. Waviness analysis indicated increased fiber straightening as a result of SMG CXL. Conclusions Second harmonic generation signal intensity and fiber bundle waviness is altered by scleral tissue crosslinking using SMG. These changes provide insights into the macromolecular changes that are induced by therapeutic crosslinking technology and may provide a method to evaluate connective tissue protein changes induced by scleral crosslinking therapies. PMID:28055099

  4. Performance evaluation of an ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeter using therapeutic photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, G.; Jang, K. W.; Shin, S. H.; Jeon, H.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Yoo, W. J.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we fabricated the ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeter (UTFOD) for high energy photon beam therapy dosimetry. The UTFOD has high spatial resolution due to the relatively small volume compared to conventional dosimeters therefore the UTFOD can measure depth doses precisely in build-up regions of therapeutic radiation beams. For 10 MV photon beams, we measured the scintillation signal generated from the UTFOD according to monitor units (MUs) and dose rates of the clinical linear accelerator (CLINAC). Also, we measured percentage depth doses (PDDs) at different depths of solid water phantoms using the UTFOD and the GAFCHROMIC® EBT films, and the results were compared with those using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code.

  5. Entire CD3ε, δ, and γ humanized mouse to evaluate human CD3–mediated therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Otoya; Wada, Naoko A.; Kinoshita, Yasuko; Hino, Hiroshi; Kakefuda, Mami; Ito, Tsuneo; Fujii, Etsuko; Noguchi, Mizuho; Sato, Kiyoharu; Morita, Masahiro; Tateishi, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Kaoru; Goto, Chisato; Kawase, Yosuke; Kato, Atsuhiko; Hattori, Kunihiro; Nezu, Junichi; Ishiguro, Takahiro; Jishage, Kou-ichi

    2017-01-01

    T cell–mediated immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for treatment in various disease areas. In this therapeutic approach, the CD3 complex is one of the key molecules to modulate T cell functions; however, in many cases, we cannot evaluate the drug candidates in animal experiments because the therapeutics, usually monoclonal antibodies specific to human CD3, cannot react to mouse endogenous Cd3. Although immunodeficient mice transfused with human hematopoietic stem or precursor cells, known as humanized mice, are available for these studies, mice humanized in this manner are not completely immune competent. In this study we have succeeded in establishing a novel mouse strain in which all the three components of the Cd3 complex — Cd3ε, Cd3δ, and Cd3γ — are replaced by their human counterparts, CD3E, CD3D, and CD3G. Basic immunological assessments have confirmed that this strain of human CD3 EDG–replaced mice are entirely immune competent, and we have also demonstrated that a bispecific antibody that simultaneously binds to human CD3 and a tumor-associated antigen (e.g. ERBB2 or GPC3) can be evaluated in human CD3 EDG–replaced mice engrafted with tumors. Our mouse model provides a novel means to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of human CD3–mediated therapy. PMID:28368009

  6. Characterization of a Francisella tularensis-Caenorhabditis elegans Pathosystem for the Evaluation of Therapeutic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Elamparithi; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Kim, Wooseong; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Hernandez, Ana M; Lee, Kiho; Nau, Gerard J; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-09-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis, and we developed a robust F. tularensis-mediated C. elegans killing assay with a Z' factor consistently of >0.5, which was then utilized to screen a library of FDA-approved compounds that included 1,760 small molecules. In addition to clinically used antibiotics, five FDA-approved drugs were also identified as potential hits, including the anti-inflammatory drug diflunisal that showed anti-F. tularensis activity in vitro Moreover, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diflunisal, at 4× MIC, blocked the replication of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in primary human macrophages and nonphagocytic cells. Diflunisal was nontoxic to human erythrocytes and HepG2 human liver cells at concentrations of ≥32 μg/ml. Finally, diflunisal exhibited synergetic activity with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in both a checkerboard assay and a macrophage infection assay. In conclusion, the liquid C. elegans-F. tularensis LVS assay described here allows screening for anti-F. tularensis compounds and suggests that diflunisal could potentially be repurposed for the management of tularemia. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Rational evaluation of the therapeutic effect and dosimetry of auger electrons for radionuclide therapy in a cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Ayaka; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-12-13

    Radionuclide therapy with low-energy auger electron emitters may provide high antitumor efficacy while keeping the toxicity to normal organs low. Here we evaluated the usefulness of an auger electron emitter and compared it with that of a beta emitter for tumor treatment in in vitro models and conducted a dosimetry simulation using radioiodine-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) as a model compound. We evaluated the cellular uptake of 125I-MIBG and the therapeutic effects of 125I- and 131I-MIBG in 2D and 3D PC-12 cell culture models. We used a Monte Carlo simulation code (PHITS) to calculate the absorbed radiation dose of 125I or 131I in computer simulation models for 2D and 3D cell cultures. In the dosimetry calculation for the 3D model, several distribution patterns of radionuclide were applied. A higher cumulative dose was observed in the 3D model due to the prolonged retention of MIBG compared to the 2D model. However, 125I-MIBG showed a greater therapeutic effect in the 2D model compared to the 3D model (respective EC50 values in the 2D and 3D models: 86.9 and 303.9 MBq/cell), whereas 131I-MIBG showed the opposite result (respective EC50 values in the 2D and 3D models: 49.4 and 30.2 MBq/cell). The therapeutic effect of 125I-MIBG was lower than that of 131I-MIBG in both models, but the radionuclide-derived difference was smaller in the 2D model. The dosimetry simulation with PHITS revealed the influence of the radiation quality, the crossfire effect, radionuclide distribution, and tumor shape on the absorbed dose. Application of the heterogeneous distribution series dramatically changed the radiation dose distribution of 125I-MIBG, and mitigated the difference between the estimated and measured therapeutic effects of 125I-MIBG. The therapeutic effect of 125I-MIBG was comparable to that of 131I-MIBG in the 2D model, but the efficacy was inferior to that of 131I-MIBG in the 3D model, since the crossfire effect is negligible and the homogeneous distribution

  8. Photophysical Properties of Pheophorbide-a Derivatives and Their Photodynamic Therapeutic Effects on a Tumor Cell Line In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Kyun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheophorbide-a derivatives have been reported to be potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT. In this study, photophysics of pheophorbide-a derivatives (PaDs were investigated along with their photodynamic tumoricidal effect in vitro. PaDs were modified by changing the coil length and/or making the hydroxyl group (–OH substitutions. Their photophysical properties were studied by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The photodynamic tumoricidal effect was evaluated in the mouse breast cancer cell line (EMT6. Lifetime and quantum yield of fluorescence and quantum yields of triplet state and singlet oxygen were studied to determine the dynamic energy flow. The coil length of the substituted alkyl group did not significantly affect the spectroscopic properties. However, the substitution with the hydroxyl group increased the quantum yields of the triplet state and the singlet oxygen due to the enhanced intersystem crossing. In order to check the application possibility as a photodynamic therapy agent, the PaDs with hydroxyl group were studied for the cellular affinity and the photodynamic tumoricidal effect of EMT6. The results showed that the cellular affinity and the photodynamic tumoricidal effect of PaDs with the hydroxyl group depended on the coil-length of the substituted alkyl group.

  9. Side chain structure determines unique physiologic and therapeutic properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in Mdr2−/− mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halilbasic, Emina; Fiorotto, Romina; Fickert, Peter; Marschall, Hanns‐Ulrich; Moustafa, Tarek; Spirli, Carlo; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Gumhold, Judith; Silbert, Dagmar; Zatloukal, Kurt; Langner, Cord; Maitra, Uday; Denk, Helmut; Hofmann, Alan F; Strazzabosco, Mario; Trauner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    24‐ nor ursodeoxycholic acid ( nor UDCA), a side chain–modified ursodeoxycholic acid derivative, has dramatic therapeutic effects in experimental cholestasis and may be a promising agent for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases...

  10. Hemostatic properties and protein expression profile of therapeutic apheresis plasma treated with amotosalen and ultraviolet A for pathogen inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Philippe; Hechler, Béatrice; Chafey, Philippe; Ravanat, Catherine; Isola, Hervé; Wiesel, Marie-Louise; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Gachet, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The INTERCEPT Blood System (IBS) using amotosalen-HCl and ultraviolet (UV)A inactivates a large spectrum of microbial pathogens and white blood cells in therapeutic plasma. Our aim was to evaluate to what extent IBS modifies the capacity of plasma to generate thrombin and induces qualitative or quantitative modifications of plasma proteins. Plasma units from four donors were collected by apheresis. Samples were taken before (control [CTRL]) and after IBS treatment and stored at -80°C until use. The activities of plasma coagulation factors and inhibitors and the thrombin generation potential were determined using assays measuring clotting times and the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), respectively. The proteomic profile of plasma proteins was examined using a two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) method. Nearly all of the procoagulant and antithrombotic factors tested retained at least 78% of their initial pre-IBS activity. Only FVII and FVIII displayed a lower level of conservation (67%), which nevertheless remained within the reference range for conventional plasma coagulation factors. The thrombin generation profile of plasma was conserved after IBS treatment. Among the 1331 protein spots revealed by 2D-DIGE analysis, only four were differentially expressed in IBS plasma compared to CTRL plasma and two were identified by mass spectrometric analysis as transthyretin and apolipoprotein A1. The IBS technique for plasma moderately decreases the activities of plasma coagulation factors and antithrombotic proteins, with no impact on the thrombin generation potential of plasma and very limited modifications of the proteomic profile. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Application of Fluorescent Protein Expressing Strains to Evaluation of Anti-Tuberculosis Therapeutic Efficacy In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Kong

    Full Text Available The slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, hinders development of new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. Using non-invasive real-time imaging technologies to monitor the disease process in live animals would facilitate TB research in all areas. We developed fluorescent protein (FP expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains for in vivo imaging, which can be used to track bacterial location, and to quantify bacterial load in live animals. We selected an optimal FP for in vivo imaging, by first cloning six FPs: tdTomato, mCherry, mPlum, mKate, Katushka and mKeima, into mycobacteria under either a mycobacterial Hsp60 or L5 promoter, and compared their fluorescent signals in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence from each FP-expressing strain was measured with a multimode reader using the optimal excitation and emission wavelengths for the FP. After normalizing bacterial numbers with optical density, the strain expressing L5-tdTomato displayed the highest fluorescence. We used the tdTomato-labeled M. bovis BCG to obtain real-time images of pulmonary infections in living mice and rapidly determined the number of bacteria present. Further comparison between L5-tdTomato and Hsp60-tdTomato revealed that L5-tdTomato carried four-fold more tdTomato gene copies than Hsp60-tdTomato, which eventually led to higher protein expression of tdTomato. Evaluating anti-TB efficacy of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy in vitro and in vivo using the L5-tdTomato strain demonstrated that this strain can be used to identify anti-TB therapeutic efficacy as quickly as 24 h post-treatment. These M. bovis BCG reporter strains represent a valuable new tool for evaluation of therapeutics, vaccines and virulence.

  12. Adherence with perindopril therapy: a pilot study using therapeutic drug monitoring of perindoprilat and an evaluation of the clearance estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Martin; Vodička, Martin; Marešová, Věra; Šálek, Tomáš; Čabala, Radomír; Slanař, Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    Background Although measurement of drug serum levels is an objective direct method for testing compliance, it can be distorted by "white-coat compliance" or by variations in drug elimination. Objective The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of noncompliance with perindopril therapy in adult out-patients using pharmacokinetic simulations. The additional aim was to compare the predictive performance of two glomerular filtration rate markers-creatinine and cystatin C. Setting Department of Cardiology, Tomas Bata Regional Hospital in Zlín, Czech Republic. Method Perindoprilat pharmacokinetic models individualized according to patient characteristics were compared with measured perindoprilat serum concentrations to document compliance. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relations between perindoprilat clearance and glomerular filtration rate estimated using creatinine and cystatin C. Main outcome measure Assessment of non-compliance with medication using drug concentration measurements reinforced with therapeutic drug monitoring. Results Non-detectable perindoprilat levels were observed in 26.1% of patients. Another 21.7% were classified as non-compliant based on therapeutic drug monitoring pharmacokinetic simulations. Volume of distribution, clearance and half-life median value (interquarti°range) for perindoprilat were 408.3 (360.4-456.8) L, 10.1 (4.9-17.0) L h-1 and 24.7 (19.4-62.7) h, respectively. Linear regression models showed tight relationship between cystatin C and perindoprilat clearance. Conclusions Assessment of adherence with medication reinforced with therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic simulations is proposed as an optimal method reducing disadvantages of simple drug concentration measurements. Cystatin C proves to be better surrogate marker for perindoprilat elimination than creatinine.

  13. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Ho sub 1 sub 6 sub 6 in rats with acute and chronic arthritis

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza-Lopez, P

    2002-01-01

    with significantly statistical values (p<=0,01). This therapeutic effect was evident too when evaluating the measure of the articular perimeter in acute and chronic arthritis groups through the time with significantly statistical values (p<=0,01). In conclusion the hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 are biologically stable in vivo and have a therapeutic effect in the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis in rats. The therapeutic effect of an intraarticular injection of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 ( Ho sub 1 sub 6 sub 6 HA) was evaluated. For this evaluation 72 antigen-induced arthritis rats; the arthritis was induced by an intraarticular injection of a suspension of ovoalbumin and Freund's adjuvant complete. The 72 rats were divided in three groups: control group, acute arthritis group and chronic arthritis group. The evaluation of the therapeutic effect was achieved by the measuring of the perimeter of the arthritic knee joint in different days after the intraart...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF HIGH-INTENSITY PULSED-PERIODIC LASER RADIATION (CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experience of clinical observations, we have shown a high therapeutic effectiveness of the medical laser KULON-MED in: cosmetics, non-cancer inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cancer (cancer of the stomach and colon as at different wavelengths, and with different types of photosensitizers. In the area of anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT, based on experimental studies, we have showed the high antitumor (sarcoma S‑37 effectiveness of the laser (with the inhibition of tumor growth of up to 100% for repetitively pulsed irradiation mode, and for mode fractionation doses laser radiation. In addition, significant differences are shown in the effectiveness of anticancer PDT methods in the application of high-intensity lasers, continuous and pulsed caused fundamental properties of laser radiation characteristics – time structure of the radiation pulses. Thus, for the first time we have shown that the time of high-intensity laser pulses structure significantly affects therapeutic efficacy laser system, and hence on the mechanisms of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue.

  15. Therapeutic evaluation of lumbar tender point deep massage for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhixin; Wang, Jun; Gao, Qian; Hou, Jingshan; Ma, Ling; Jiang, Congbo; Chen, Guohui

    2012-12-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of lumbar tender point deep tissue massage plus lumbar traction on chronic non-specific low back pain using change in pressure pain threshold, muscle hardness and pain intensity as indices. We randomly divided 64 patients into a treatment group (32 cases) and a control group (32 cases). Two drop-outs occurred in each group. Patients in the treatment group received tender point deep tissue massage plus lumbar traction and patients in the control group received lumbar traction, alone. We used a tissue hardness meter/algometer and visual analog scale (VAS) to assess the pressure pain threshold, muscle hardness and pain intensity. Following treatment, we obtained the following results in the treatment and control groups, respectively: the pressure pain threshold difference was 1.5 +/- 0.8 and 1.1 +/- 0.7; the muscle hardness difference was 4.2 +/- 1.6 and 3.5 +/- 1.3; and the VAS score difference was 1.9 +/- 0.9 and 1.4 +/- 0.8. Compared to the control group, the treatment group had higher pressure pain threshold (t = 2.09, P Lumbar tender point deep tissue massage combined with lumbar traction produced better improvement in pressure pain threshold, muscle hardness and pain intensity in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain than with lumbar traction alone.

  16. Evaluation of impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics to medical undergraduates and interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mira K; Panchal, Jigar R; Shah, Samdih; Iyer, Geetha

    2016-01-01

    To find out the impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics (CPT) to medical undergraduates (UGs) and interns. This cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on three UGs batches and interns using two pretested validated structured questionnaires, modified from the work of Tobaiqy et al. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 379 UGs and 96 interns participated in this study. Mean knowledge score of interns was significantly reduced as compared to UGs (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in confidence for unsupervised prescribing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (99%), oral rehydration salt, iron salts was perceived among interns as compared to UGs (P < 0.05). However, 63.5% confessed problems in selection of drugs, drug-drug interactions, prescribing in special patient population. Although they were confident prescribing fixed dose combination for adult patients (89.5%), majority were hesitant to prescribe opioids (77%), steroids (76%), vaccines (75%), and antihypertensives (62%). The theoretical CPT teaching transfers knowledge to UGs; however, it is not retained in internship and does not adequately prepare interns to prescribe safe and rational drugs.

  17. [Recombinant thrombopoietin antiradiation therapeutic effectiveness evaluation on dogs according to hemopoiesis and survival criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shliakova, T G; Shchegoleva, R A; Lisina, N I; Zorin, V V

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rh TPO) has been investigated as a means of acute radiation disease urgent treatment in the experiments on 24 mongrel dogs. The animals were exposed to total acute gamma-irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy (exceeding LD50/45 under our conditions) and 3 Gy. All the dogs including control ones received antibiotics Ampicillin and Gentamicin twice a day during the acute period from the 7th to the 21st day. TPO was injected one time s/c or i/v at the doses of5 or 10 mkg/kg 1.5-2 h after exposure. TPO at a dose of 5 mkg/kg was ineffective. TPO at a dose of 10 mkg/kg had a positive effect on the kinetics of blood forming units, especially platelets (nadir, restoration rate) in terms of the 45-day survival. As a result, in TPO groups, nadir averaged at both exposure doses on leucocytes (1.3-1.4) x 10(9)/l vs (0.70-0.75) x 10(9)/l in control groups and on thrombocytes (102-112) x 10(9)/l vs (44-33) x 10(9)/l in control ones. Despite the low number of animals in experimental groups, the results permit to regard rhTPO as a worth-while urgent therapeutic means for the acute radiation damage treatment and preventing thrombopenia.

  18. Evaluation and Optimization of Therapeutic Footwear for Neuropathic Diabetic Foot Patients Using In-Shoe Plantar Pressure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A.; Haspels, Rob; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Therapeutic footwear for diabetic foot patients aims to reduce the risk of ulceration by relieving mechanical pressure on the foot. However, footwear efficacy is generally not assessed in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of in-shoe plantar pressure analysis to evaluate and optimize the pressure-reducing effects of diabetic therapeutic footwear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Dynamic in-shoe plantar pressure distribution was measured in 23 neuropathic diabetic foot patients wearing fully customized footwear. Regions of interest (with peak pressure >200 kPa) were selected and targeted for pressure optimization by modifying the shoe or insole. After each of a maximum of three rounds of modifications, the effect on in-shoe plantar pressure was measured. Successful optimization was achieved with a peak pressure reduction of >25% (criterion A) or below an absolute level of 200 kPa (criterion B). RESULTS In 35 defined regions, mean peak pressure was significantly reduced from 303 (SD 77) to 208 (46) kPa after an average 1.6 rounds of footwear modifications (P Footwear optimization lasted on average 53 min. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that in-shoe plantar pressure analysis is an effective and efficient tool to evaluate and guide footwear modifications that significantly reduce pressure in the neuropathic diabetic foot. This result provides an objective approach to instantly improve footwear quality, which should reduce the risk for pressure-related plantar foot ulcers. PMID:21610125

  19. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALS INCORPORATED WOOD FIBRE CEMENT MATRIX PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MST. SADIA MAHZABIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood fibre cement (WFC boards are well established commercially and widely used in many developed countries. The combination of the properties of two important materials, i.e., cement, and previously treated fibrous materials like wood or agricultural residues; which made up the board, contributed in the performance of the board as building material. In this work, the WFC matrix (WFCM samples are produced to determine the physical properties of WFCM such as the density and water absorption. The wood fibres are incorporated/treated with three different chemical additives; calcium formate (Ca(HCOO2, sodium silicate (Na2.SiO3 and magnesium chloride (MgCl2 prior to mixing with cement. The mechanical properties of the WFCM, with or without chemicals treatment of fibres, such as the compressive strength and flexural strength are evaluated. Three wood/cement ratios (50:50, 40:60, 30:70 are used and the percentages of water and accelerator were 80% and 3% based on the cement weight, respectively. Three moisture-conditioned samples; accelerated aging, dry and wet conditions are used for flexural test. The results reveal that the wood/cement ratio, chemical additives and moisture content had a marked influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix. Finally, it has been shown that the 40:60 wood/cement ratio samples with prior chemicals treatment of the fibres that undergo accelerated aging conditioning achieve higher strength then dry and wet-conditioned boards.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of monoaromatic derivatives of pulvinic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habrant, Damien; Poigny, Stéphane; Ségur-Derai, Muriel; Brunel, Yves; Heurtaux, Benoît; Le Gall, Thierry; Strehle, Axelle; Saladin, Régis; Meunier, Stéphane; Mioskowski, Charles; Wagner, Alain

    2009-04-23

    The natural mushroom pigment Norbadione A and three other pulvinic acids were shown by our group to display very efficient antioxidant properties by comparison with a collection of potent molecules including catechols, flavonoids, stilbenes, or coumarins. Despite numerous publications on robust and straightforward synthetic access to pulvinic acids by us and others, no report has been made to unravel the structure-activity relationships that govern the striking antioxidant activity. Herein is presented the synthesis of 18 diverse pulvinic acid derivatives and the study of their radical scavenging capacities by four different assays. The influence of each of the two phenyl rings, of their substituents and of the lateral chain on the antioxidant properties, was explored to reveal a simplified structure of excellent activity. These results, along with the absence of cytotoxicity, make the synthesized compounds interesting to evaluate for several biological activities and especially for anti-inflammatory effects and skin protection against UV induced oxidative stress.

  1. EVALUATION OF THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PICRURHIZA KURROA GLYCOSIDAL EXTRACT AGAINST NIMESULIDE NEPHROTOXICITY: A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Afsheen; Alam, Saadia S; Begum, Sajada; Nazneen, Zainab; Aaqil, Bushra; Alam, Muhammad Adeel

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa (Pk) is a traditional Ayurvedic herb famous as a potent bepatoprotective agent, only few studies are available on the nephroprotective activity of this herb. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of Pk against nimesulide induced toxicity. This laboratory based experimental study was conducted on mice at National Institute of Health, Islamabad from Dec 2012 to Jan 2013. The mice were divided in to 4 groups. One group was given only PK while the other three groups were given nimesulide in a dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight for 3 days to induce nephrotoxicity and protective effect of Pk was noted by giving 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg pk for 14 days to the two of the nimesulide induced nephrotoxicity groups. Biochemical assessment of kidney was done by measuring serum urea & creatinine. Also histology was done to confirm the findings of biochemical assessment. In our pilot study out of 20 mice, 19 mice survived. Only 1 mouse of nimesulide group died. Mean serum urea of nimesulide group was 60 mg/dl and was decreased to 23 mg/dI and 25 mg/dl by two doses of Pk. Mean creatinine in group 2 was 0.55 mg/dl and was decreased to 0.21 and 0.19 mg/dl by two doses of Pk. Our study shows that nimesulide is a potential nephrotoxic drug and its toxic effects on kidney can be minimized by using glycosidal extract of Pk.

  2. Experimental Models of Status Epilepticus and Neuronal Injury for Evaluation of Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Kuruba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes current experimental models of status epilepticus (SE and neuronal injury for use in the screening of new therapeutic agents. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. SE is an emergency condition associated with continuous seizures lasting more than 30 min. It causes significant mortality and morbidity. SE can cause devastating damage to the brain leading to cognitive impairment and increased risk of epilepsy. Benzodiazepines are the first-line drugs for the treatment of SE, however, many people exhibit partial or complete resistance due to a breakdown of GABA inhibition. Therefore, new drugs with neuroprotective effects against the SE-induced neuronal injury and degeneration are desirable. Animal models are used to study the pathophysiology of SE and for the discovery of newer anticonvulsants. In SE paradigms, seizures are induced in rodents by chemical agents or by electrical stimulation of brain structures. Electrical stimulation includes perforant path and self-sustaining stimulation models. Pharmacological models include kainic acid, pilocarpine, flurothyl, organophosphates and other convulsants that induce SE in rodents. Neuronal injury occurs within the initial SE episode, and animals exhibit cognitive dysfunction and spontaneous seizures several weeks after this precipitating event. Current SE models have potential applications but have some limitations. In general, the experimental SE model should be analogous to the human seizure state and it should share very similar neuropathological mechanisms. The pilocarpine and diisopropylfluorophosphate models are associated with prolonged, diazepam-insensitive seizures and neurodegeneration and therefore represent paradigms of refractory SE. Novel mechanism-based or clinically relevant models are essential to identify new therapies for SE and neuroprotective interventions.

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Melanie T M; Jordan, Kevin J

    2009-04-01

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degrees C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  4. Aflibercept in age-related macular degeneration: evaluating its role as a primary therapeutic option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M; Souka, A A R

    2017-11-01

    The recent VIEW studies have demonstrated the non-inferiority of monthly and bi-monthly aflibercept in the management of wet age related macular degeneration (AMD) compared with ranibizumab. However, the current data are limited mainly to fixed dosing regimens with few studies looking at flexible dosing regimens of aflibercept in wet AMD. In addition, recent data from the VIEW 96 week extension has shown that patients being shifted from fixed dosing regimens to PRN have shown a drop in visual acuity and increase in central macular thickness. This is an indication that fixed dosing, a non-sustainable option, is only effective as long as it is continued. Regimens such as treat and extend (TAE) and pro-re nata (PRN) have been studied extensively in ranibizumab and bevacizumab and have shown to be effective options. With the presence of effective, established and less costly drugs such as ranibizumab and bevacizumab, the role of aflibercept as a primary treatment modality has yet to be clearly defined. The current review provides an analysis of the VIEW studies, as well as the extension phases. It also looks at post hoc analysis of predictors of response and outcomes. We have also conducted a search on studies comparing between PRN regimens using aflibercept and other anti-VEGF agents. This review also explores cheaper off label aflibercept; ziv-aflibercept in the treatment of wet AMD. The main purpose of the review is to delineate the role of aflibercept as a primary therapeutic option and if there are any significant advantages that would advocate its use over alternative anti-VEGF drugs. Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm for patients being started on aflibercept during the first year and thereafter.

  5. Therapeutic Evaluation of Cervical Dysfunction in Patients with Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdhari, B Smriti; Mukta, Motwani; Saket, A Golhar; Golhar, Anil V

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the therapeutic correlation between cervical dysfunction and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). The study included 46 patients out of which 23 had MPDS with cervical pain (group I), and 23 patients had only MPDS (group II). Detailed history and examination of the patients were carried out, and the factors taken into consideration were pain and tenderness of muscles of mastication and neck muscles, maximum comfortable mouth opening, and cervical range of motion. All the patients were randomly divided and advised physical exercises, light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (LASER) therapy, and the combination of both exercise and LASER. Patients were assessed for the relief of signs and symptoms of myofascial pain and cervical pain posttreatment, every month for 2 months. Both the groups showed a similar response to all the different treatment modalities. In group I, the patients also had relief in their cervical pain although the treatment was directed for MPDS. Patients from both the groups who were advised LASER and combination of both exercise and LASER showed better response in terms of reduction in visual analog scale, number of tender muscles, and increased maximum comfortable mouth opening posttreatment and during the follow-up, as compared with the patients who were advised only exercise. Patients having cervical pain showed significant improvement comparable with patients having no cervical pain. Hence, the conclusion drawn was that there is a positive interrelationship between MPDS and cervical (neck) pain; MPDS may act as a catalyst for precipitating cervical pain. Cervical pain showed significant improvement to physiotherapy in the form of exercise, LASER, and combination treatment, though the effective modality was LASER and combination of exercise and LASER therapy.

  6. Evaluation of protein kinase CK2 as a therapeutic target for squamous cell carcinoma of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Claire M; Trembley, Janeen H; Kren, Betsy T; Unger, Gretchen M; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Cornax, Ingrid; Modiano, Jaime F; Ahmed, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate protein kinase CK2 (CK2) expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of cats and to examine effects of CK2 downregulation on in vitro apoptosis and viability in SCC. SAMPLE Biopsy specimens of oral mucosa and testis and blood samples from clinically normal cats, biopsy specimens of oral SCC from cats, and feline SCC (SCCF1) and mammary gland carcinoma (K12) cell lines. PROCEDURES Immunohistochemical labeling for CK2α was performed on biopsy specimens. Sequences of the CK2α subunit gene and CK2α' subunit gene in feline blood and feline cancer cell lines were determined by use of PCR and reverse-transcription PCR assays followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were developed for feline CK2α and CK2α'. The SCCF1 cells were treated with siRNA and assessed 72 hours later for CK2α and CK2α' expression and markers of apoptosis (via western blot analysis) and for viability (via 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxymethoxyphenyl]-2-[4-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium assays). RESULTS CK2α was expressed in all feline oral mucosa samples and 7 of 8 oral SCC samples. Expression of CK2α and CK2α' was successfully downregulated in SCCF1 cells by use of siRNAs, which resulted in decreased viability and induction of apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, CK2 appeared to be a promising therapeutic target for SCCs of cats. A possible treatment strategy for SCCs of cats would be RNA interference that targets CK2.

  7. Ultrasound Evaluation of Congenital Cervical Teratoma and Therapeutic Management (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Padilla Iserte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound evaluation of the fetal neck has a high importance as a key point of the airway and digestive tract. We report the case of a fetus diagnosed with a cervical teratoma by ultrasound, which generated a compressive effect on airway, requiring a surgical approach EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment to ensure the extrauterine viability.

  8. Evidence-based evaluation of therapeutic measures for epilepsy in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Wen-wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of different drug treatment options for senile epilepsy, and to develop the best solution of the evidence-based therapy for senile epilepsy. Methods Taking elderly epilepsy, drug therapy, evidence-based medicine as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE, assisted by manual searching, in order to collect relevant literature including clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled clinical trials, clinical controlled trials, retrospective case analysis and case observation and research. Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of literature. Results Almost 20 related articles were selected including 1 clinical guideline, 14 systematic reviews, 1 randomized controlled clinical trial, 2 clinical controlled trials and 2 retrospective case analysis. According to Jadad Scale, 15 articles were evaluated as high-quality literature (Grades ≥ 4, and the other 5 were evaluated as low-quality literature (Grades < 4. Treatment principles of these clinical trials, efficacy of different therapies and drug safety evaluation suggest that: 1 Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs therapy is the main treatment for elderly patients with epilepsy. 2 The second-generation AEDs are not better than the first-generation AEDs in efficacy, but have advantages such as fewer adverse reactions, little drug interactions, and higher safety and tolerability. 3 Lamotrigine, levetiracetam and gabapentin are recommended to be first-line drugs, followed by topiramate and valproate. Influenced by multiple diseases, long-term multi-drug therapies and other factors, personalized treatment planning shall be adopted for elderly patients with epilepsy. 4 For new cases of epilepsy, monotherapy is preferred with lower dose, slow increase, longer interval between dosage and the improvement of compliance. Conclusion Evidence-based medicine can provide the best clinical evidence

  9. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  10. An evaluation of oligonucleotide-based therapeutic strategies for polyQ diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiszer Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi and antisense strategies provide experimental therapeutic agents for numerous diseases, including polyglutamine (polyQ disorders caused by CAG repeat expansion. We compared the potential of different oligonucleotide-based strategies for silencing the genes responsible for several polyQ diseases, including Huntington's disease and two spinocerebellar ataxias, type 1 and type 3. The strategies included nonallele-selective gene silencing, gene replacement, allele-selective SNP targeting and CAG repeat targeting. Results Using the patient-derived cell culture models of polyQ diseases, we tested various siRNAs, and antisense reagents and assessed their silencing efficiency and allele selectivity. We showed considerable allele discrimination by several SNP targeting siRNAs based on a weak G-G or G-U pairing with normal allele and strong G-C pairing with mutant allele at the site of RISC-induced cleavage. Among the CAG repeat targeting reagents the strongest allele discrimination is achieved by miRNA-like functioning reagents that bind to their targets and inhibit their translation without substantial target cleavage. Also, morpholino analog performs well in mutant and normal allele discrimination but its efficient delivery to cells at low effective concentration still remains a challenge. Conclusions Using three cellular models of polyQ diseases and the same experimental setup we directly compared the performance of different oligonucleotide-based treatment strategies that are currently under development. Based on the results obtained by us and others we discussed the advantages and drawbacks of these strategies considering them from several different perspectives. The strategy aimed at nonallele-selective inhibiting of causative gene expression by targeting specific sequence of the implicated gene is the easiest to implement but relevant benefits are still uncertain. The gene replacement strategy that

  11. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  12. A preclinical evaluation of aminopyridines as putative therapeutic agents in the treatment of botulism.

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    4-Aminopyridine and 3,4-diaminopyridine were evaluated for their abilities to delay the onset of paralysis due to botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E. Experiments were done on phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations excised from mice. At a concentration that produced an enhancement in muscle twitch amplitude, 4-aminopyridine and 3,4-diaminopyridine delayed the onset of paralysis due to botulinum toxin type A. Under the same conditions, the drugs did little to protect tissues against botul...

  13. Therapeutic efficacy evaluation of 111in-VNB-liposome on human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29/ luc mouse xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Chi; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Tseng, Yun-Long; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chang, Ya-Fang; Lu, Yi-Ching; Ting, Gann; Whang-Peng, Jaqueline; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the liposome encaged with vinorelbine (VNB) and 111In-oxine on human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) using HT-29/ luc mouse xenografts. HT-29 cells stably transfected with plasmid vectors containing luciferase gene ( luc) were transplanted subcutaneously into the male NOD/SCID mice. Biodistribution of the drug was performed when tumor size reached 500-600 mm 3. The uptakes of 111In-VNB-liposome in tumor and normal tissues/organs at various time points postinjection were assayed. Multimodalities, including gamma scintigraphy, bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and whole-body autoradiography (WBAR), were applied for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy when tumor size was about 100 mm 3. The tumor/blood ratios of 111In-VNB-liposome were 0.044, 0.058, 2.690, 20.628 and 24.327, respectively, at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h postinjection. Gamma scinitigraphy showed that the tumor/muscle ratios were 2.04, 2.25 and 4.39, respectively, at 0, 5 and 10 mg/kg VNB. BLI showed that significant tumor control was achieved in the group of 10 mg/kg VNB ( 111In-VNB-liposome). WBAR also confirmed this result. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive imaging technique with a luciferase reporter gene and BLI for evaluation of tumor treatment efficacy in vivo. The SCID mice bearing HT-29/ luc xenografts treated with 111In-VNB-liposome were shown with tumor reduction by this technique.

  14. A Bioequivalence Approach for Generic Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs: Evaluation of the Reference-Scaled Approach and Variability Comparison Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenlei; Makhlouf, Fairouz; Schuirmann, Donald J; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zheng, Nan; Conner, Dale; Yu, Lawrence X; Lionberger, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Various health communities have expressed concerns regarding whether average bioequivalence (BE) limits (80.00-125.00%) for the 90% confidence interval of the test-to-reference geometric mean ratio are sufficient to ensure therapeutic equivalence between a generic narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drug and its reference listed drug (RLD). Simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of different BE approaches for NTI drugs on study power, including (1) direct tightening of average BE limits and (2) a scaled average BE approach where BE limits are tightened based on the RLD's within-subject variability. Addition of a variability comparison (using a one-tailed F test) increased the difficulty for generic NTIs more variable than their corresponding RLDs to demonstrate bioequivalence. Based on these results, the authors evaluate the fully replicated, 2-sequence, 2-treatment, 4-period crossover study design for NTI drugs where the test product demonstrates BE based on a scaled average bioequivalence criterion and a within-subject variability comparison criterion.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrazolic chalcone derivatives as novel hepatocellular carcinoma therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawash, Mohammed M A; Kahraman, Deniz Cansen; Eren, Fikriye; Cetin Atalay, Rengul; Baytas, Sultan Nacak

    2017-03-31

    Despite having the second highest mortality associated with cancer, currently Sorafenib is the only FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent available for liver cancer patients which can only improve survival for few months. In this study, various pyrazolic chalcone analogous compounds were synthesized and evaluated as potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Modifying the central pyrazole ring at the C(3)-position with different heteroaryl rings and substituting the C(4)-position of pyrazole with differently substituted chalcone moiety produced fouthy two variant compounds. For all these compounds, cytotoxicity was evaluated using sulforhodamine B assay and real time cell growth tracking, respectively. Based on 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values, compounds 39, 42, 49, and 52 were shown to exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against all the cancer cell lines tested, and had better cytotoxic activities than the well-known chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU. Therefore, these compounds were chosen to be further evaluated in a panel of HCC cell lines. Flow cytometric analysis of HCC cells treated with compounds 39, 42, 49, and 52 demonstrated that these compounds caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase followed by the apoptotic cell death and impaired cell growth as shown by real-time cell growth surveillance. Consistent with these results, western blotting of HCC cells treated with the compounds resulted in molecular changes for cell cycle proteins, where p21 levels were increased independent of p53 and the levels of the key initiators of mitosis Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were shown to decrease upon treatment. In conclusion, chalcone derivatives 42 and 52 show potent bioactivities by modulating the expression of cell-cycle related proteins and resulting in cell-cycle arrest in the HCC cell lines tested here, indicating that the compounds can be considered as preclinical candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  16. Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of Aloe vera gel on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Babaee; Ebrahim Zabihi; Saman Mohseni; Ali Akbar Moghadamnia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphthous ulcer is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity with no known effective treatment so far, which could cause severe discomfort in patients. Aloe vera (A.V.) is a tropical plant with anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects, which could be of benefit in a diversity of wound healing conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate topically administered A.V. gel on oral cavity minor aphthous healing. Materials and Methods: As a double-blind (case control...

  17. An evaluation of Minor Groove Binders as anti-lung cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fraser J; Puig-Sellart, Mireia; Khalaf, Abedawn I; Henderson, Catherine J; Westrop, Gareth; Watson, David G; Carter, Katharine; Grant, M Helen; Suckling, Colin J

    2016-08-01

    A series of 47 structurally diverse MGBs, derived from the natural product distamycin, was evaluated for anti-lung cancer activity by screening against the melanoma cancer cell line B16-F10. Five compounds have been found to possess significant activity, more so than a standard therapy, Gemcitabine. Moreover, one compound has been found to have an activity around 70-fold that of Gemcitabine and has a favourable selectivity index of greater than 125. Furthermore, initial studies have revealed this compound to be metabolically stable and thus it represents a lead for further optimisation towards a novel treatment for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Critically evaluated theoretical atomic properties of Y iii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    A systematic study of Y iii atomic properties is carried out using high-precision relativistic all-order method. Recommended values and estimates of their uncertainties are provided for a large number of electric-dipole reduced matrix elements, transition rates, and oscillator strengths for allowed transitions between ns, npj, ndj, nfj, and ngj levels with n≤8. The lifetimes of these levels are also evaluated. Electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole matrix elements are calculated to determine lifetimes of the 4d5/2 and 5s metastable levels. The ground-state E1, E2, and E3 static polarizabilities are calculated. This work provides recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of Y iii atomic properties for use in theoretical modeling as well as planning and analysis of various experiments. We hope that the present study will stimulate further exploration of Y iii for various applications owing to its interesting structure of different low-lying metastable levels.

  19. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of a New Root Canal Sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertuan, Gislene Cristina; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Piazza, Bruno; Vasconcelos, Bruno de Carvalho; Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci

    2017-12-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the physicochemical properties of a new root canal sealer. The sealers tested were Sealer Plus compared with AH Plus. For the radiopacity, flow, solubility, and fabrication of test specimens relative to setting times, the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association No. 57 (2000) and International Organization for Standardization 6876 (2012) specifications were followed. To measure the initial and final setting times, the ASTM C266/2008 standard was used. pH was evaluated in the time intervals of 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. Statistical tests were applied to the results obtained at a level of significance of 5%. The results demonstrated that the Sealer Plus sealer showed a lower radiopacity value than AH Plus sealer (P  .05). Sealer Plus presented initial and final setting times of 138 minutes and 210 minutes, respectively, whereas the values for AH Plus were 437 minutes and 849 minutes, respectively (P  .05). None of the sealers showed a significant increase in pH (P > .05). Sealer Plus sealer presented physicochemical properties in accordance with American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (2000) No. 57 and International Organization for Standardization 6876 (2012) specifications. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of AZD1446 as a Therapeutic in DYT1 Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N. Zimmerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available DYT1 dystonia is an early-onset, hyperkinetic movement disorder caused by a deletion in the gene TOR1A, which encodes the protein torsinA. Several lines of evidence show that in animal models of DTY1 dystonia, there is impaired basal dopamine (DA release and enhanced acetylcholine tone. Clinically, anticholinergic drugs are the most effective pharmacological treatment for DYT1 dystonia, but the currently used agents are non-selective muscarinic antagonists and associated with side effects. We used a DYT1 ∆GAG knock-in mouse model (DYT1 KI to investigate whether nicotine and/or a non-desensitizing nicotinic agonist, AZD1446, would increase DA output in DYT1 dystonia. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that DYT1 KI mice showed significantly increased DA output and greater sensitivity to nicotine compared to wild type (WT littermate controls. In contrast, neither systemic injection (0.25–0.75 mg/kg or intrastriatal infusion (30 μM–1 mM of AZD1446 had a significant effect on DA efflux in WT or DYT1 KI mice. In vitro, we found that AZD1446 had no effect on the membrane properties of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs and did not alter the spontaneous firing of ChI interneurons in either WT or DYT1 KI mice. We did observe that the firing frequency of dopaminergic neurons was significantly increased by AZD1446 (10 μM, an effect blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHβE 3 μM, but the effect was similar in WT and DYT1 KI mice. Our results support the view that DYT1 models are associated with abnormal striatal cholinergic transmission, and that the DYT1 KI animals have enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. We found little effect of AZD1446 in this model, suggesting that other approaches to nicotinic modulation should be explored.

  1. Dermoscopic evaluation of therapeutic response to an intralesional corticosteroid in the treatment of alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Ganjoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intralesional corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for adults with less than 50% of scalp area involvement with alopecia areata. The sensitivity of picking up clinical response to treatment by clinical examination is very variable and has inter individual variation. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of alopecia areata and to use dermoscopy to identify signs of early clinical response and adverse effects. Methods: Seventy patches in 60 patients were injected with steroid at 4 weeks interval and followed up for 24 weeks. Treatment response was evaluated using regrowth scale (RGS. Heine DELTA 20; dermatoscope was used to assess disease activity, response to treatment and side effects. Results: Twenty eight patients responded early and achieved RGS of 4 within 12 weeks and 29 patients responded late and achieved RGS of 4 within 24 weeks of initiating therapy. There were 3 patients who did not achieve RGS of 4 at 24 weeks. Late and incomplete responders showed statistically significant association with family history of alopecia areata (p < 0.0001, presence of recurrent disease (p = 0.0147 and presence of nail changes (p = 0.0007. Dermoscopically, 60 patches demonstrated regrowth of new vellus hair at 4 weeks. Tapering hair disappeared maximally at 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, complete disappearance was seen in tapering hairs, broken hairs and black dots whereas for yellow dots to disappear completely in all patches it took 16 weeks. The adverse effects were observed at an earlier stage using dermoscopy than clinically. Conclusion: Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide is efficacious for treatment of localized patchy alopecia areata. Dermoscopy is very useful to identify signs of early clinical response, adverse effects and markers of disease activity.

  2. A multi-target therapeutic potential of Prunus domestica gum stabilized nanoparticles exhibited prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazar Ul Islam; Raza Amin; Muhammad Shahid; Muhammad Amin; Sumera Zaib; Jamshed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, Prunus domestica gum-loaded, stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles (Au/Ag-NPs) were evaluated for their prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties...

  3. Potential Bedside Utility of the Clock-Drawing Test in Evaluating Rapid Therapeutic Response in the Natural Course of Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Khairkar, Praveen Homdeorao; Mishra, Kshirod; Sakekar, Gajanan

    2017-01-01

    The Clock-Drawing Test (CDT) is a brief, relatively time-efficient, easy to administer at bedside, and well-proven cognitive screening test that assesses a broad range of cognitive abilities in stroke, delirium, and dementia. However, challenges of comprehensive therapeutic outcome evaluations in schizophrenia can also be potentially overcome using CDT. The authors aimed to measure the therapeutic outcome using CDT in 101 schizophrenia patients, irrespective of their diagnostic subtypes. A repeated measures analysis of variance found that improvements on CDT and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were closely correlated, reflecting critical information about therapeutic response measures in schizophrenia.

  4. Evaluation of therapeutic deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Singh Bhinder, H

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the role of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in acute ocular chemical burns. The study was conducted in 50 eyes of 50 patients (24 male, 26 female) with average age of 38.3+/-14.3 years. DALK in 5 eyes (10%), DALK with quadrant conjunctivo-limbal graft in 25 eyes (50%), and DALK with amniotic membrane in 20 eyes (40%) were performed along with conventional medical therapy. Controls who were matched in all respects (50 eyes) were given medical therapy only as they refused surgical intervention. Follow-up of cases ranged from 6 to 48 months (mean 21.5+/-14.18 months). Forty-three eyes (86%) could be restored with clear cornea as compared to 6% in control group. The visual acuity improvement was seen in 100% with good score (0.49+/-1.46) in DALK group as compared to 18% with low score (0.03+/-0.01) in control group (pburns of grade IV (pburns.

  5. A preliminary evaluation of comparative effectiveness of riluzole in therapeutic regimen for irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surya Prakash; Shukla, Sunit Kumar; Pandey, Bajrang Lal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop agents that are specifically effective in controlling the key disturbance of visceral hyperalgesia besides abating of associated multiple symptoms, and evaluate comparative effectiveness for IBS symptom relief for standard regimen (antispasmodic and probiotic) and add-on amitriptyine or riluzole regimens following two weeks administration. Methods 108 patients with visceral hypersensitivity accompanying IBS, divided into three groups were studied. First group received standard treatment (mebeverine 200 mg twice daily and probiotic 200 mg twice daily). Second group received add-on amitriptyline 25 mg before bedtime, while the third group got add-on riluzole 50 mg twice daily. Overall gastrointestinal symptom rating scale improving symptoms and hospital anxiety depression scale improving associated psychological morbidity were employed as measures at induction and at two-week follow-up period. Individual symptom scores were also examined to define the outcome profiles. Results Riluzole regimen resulted in significant reduction of overall gastrointestinal symptom rating scale score, not the other two regimens. Pain relief was seen with both riluzole and amitriptyline regimens significantly superior to standard treatment regimen, but riluzole effect appeared specific and independent anxiolytic effect. Amitriptyline caused relief in diarrhea and did not benefit in constipation point to non-specific remedial role in IBS. Conclusions Riluzole specifically relieves visceral hypersensitivity and is proved to be superior to current treatments in IBS patients. It appears a lead remedy based on glutamate transporter mechanisms in visceral hypersensititvity. PMID:25183107

  6. Therapeutic evaluation of grain based functional food formulation in a geriatric animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Deepa; Joshi, Neena; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of wholesome grain based functional food formulation, on clinical and biochemical parameters in 24-30 months old Wistar albino geriatric rats, corresponding to human age 60-75 years. Animals were randomly divided into five, groups. Experimental diets were compared to the basal rat diet (Group I). Four food, formulation were-wheat based (Group II), finger millet based (Group III), wheat based, diet + fenugreek seed powder (Group IV), finger millet based diet + fenugreek powder, (Group V). These five types of diets were fed to the experimental rats for 6 weeks. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The results showed that, feed intake was influenced by the type of feed. Diets supplemented with, fenugreek (Group IV) caused a significant increase in serum hemoglobin. The total serum protein values were significantly highest in Group III. Total serum albumin was found to be lower in Group I and highest in Group II. The concentration of BUN was highest in Group I and the lowest in control diet. Serum cholesterol and glucose were significantly reduced in Group IV. Several hematological and serum mineral values were influenced by the type of diet. The type of diet did not influence the organs weight. A moderate hypoglycemic and hypercholesterolemic effect was observed in composite mix fed rats. This study clearly justifies the recommendation to use wholesome grain based functional foods for geriatric population.

  7. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Tripathy, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Choudhary, Alka [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Aili, Pavan Kumar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Chatterjee, Anupam [Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793002 Meghalaya (India); Singh, Inder Pal [Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India); Banerjee, Uttam Chand, E-mail: ucbanerjee@niper.ac.in [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, 160062 Punjab (India)

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0} and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC{sub 50} value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Bio-synthesis of AgNPs using a medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. • Optimization of NP synthesis and its characterization using various techniques • Determination of therapeutic potential in terms of anticancer and antimicrobial properties • To know the mechanistic

  8. Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of Aloe vera gel on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Neda; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Mohseni, Saman; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Aphthous ulcer is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity with no known effective treatment so far, which could cause severe discomfort in patients. Aloe vera (A.V.) is a tropical plant with anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects, which could be of benefit in a diversity of wound healing conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate topically administered A.V. gel on oral cavity minor aphthous healing. As a double-blind (case control) clinical trial, 40 patients with oral minor aphthous lesions were randomly allocated in either the case group (A.V. gel) or the control (placebo) group. The healing time (days after gel application), patient's pain score; the lesion and its surrounding inflammation diameters were recorded for 2 weeks. The obtained results were analyzed by either "Fishers exact" or t-student test using SPSS software. The mean (±SD) of patients' age was 29.25 ± 8.48 and 27.95 ± 7.96 years in the control and A.V.-treated groups, respectively, which were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The duration of complete wound healing, pain score, wound size and inflammation zone diameter in the A.V.-treated group were significantly lower than the control group (P ≤ 0.05) on specific time points after treatment. It seems likely that A.V. 2% oral gel is not only effective in decreasing the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients' pain score and wound size but also decreases the aphthous wound healing period.

  9. Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of Aloe vera gel on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Neda; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Mohseni, Saman; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphthous ulcer is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity with no known effective treatment so far, which could cause severe discomfort in patients. Aloe vera (A.V.) is a tropical plant with anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects, which could be of benefit in a diversity of wound healing conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate topically administered A.V. gel on oral cavity minor aphthous healing. Materials and Methods: As a double-blind (case control) clinical trial, 40 patients with oral minor aphthous lesions were randomly allocated in either the case group (A.V. gel) or the control (placebo) group. The healing time (days after gel application), patient's pain score; the lesion and its surrounding inflammation diameters were recorded for 2 weeks. The obtained results were analyzed by either “Fishers exact” or t-student test using SPSS software. Results: The mean (±SD) of patients’ age was 29.25 ± 8.48 and 27.95 ± 7.96 years in the control and A.V.-treated groups, respectively, which were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The duration of complete wound healing, pain score, wound size and inflammation zone diameter in the A.V.-treated group were significantly lower than the control group (P ≤ 0.05) on specific time points after treatment. Conclusion: It seems likely that A.V. 2% oral gel is not only effective in decreasing the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients’ pain score and wound size but also decreases the aphthous wound healing period. PMID:23162576

  10. Re-engineering and evaluation of anti-DNA autoantibody 3E10 for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Zahra; Dubljevic, Valentina; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Greenwood, Deanne L; Johnson, Caroline H; Campbell, James A; Hansen, James E

    2018-01-29

    A key challenge in the development of novel chemotherapeutics is the design of molecules capable of selective toxicity to cancer cells. Antibodies have greater target specificity compared to small molecule drugs, but most are unable to penetrate cells, and predominantly target extracellular antigens. A nuclear-penetrating anti-DNA autoantibody isolated from the MRL/lpr lupus mouse model, 3E10, preferentially localizes to tumors, inhibits DNA repair, and selectively kills cancer cells with defects in DNA repair. A murine divalent single chain variable fragment of 3E10 with mutations for improved DNA binding affinity, 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv, has previously been produced in P. pastoris and yielded promising pre-clinical findings, but is unsuitable for clinical testing. The present study reports the design, expression and testing of a panel of humanized 3E10 (D31N) di-scFvs, some of which contain CDR substitution. These variants were expressed in a modified CHO system and evaluated for their physicochemical attributes and ability to penetrate nuclei to selectively cause DNA damage accumulation in and kill cancer cells with DNA repair defects. Secondary structure was conserved and most variants retained the key characteristics of the murine 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv produced in P. pastoris. Moreover, several variants with CDR substitutions outperformed the murine prototype. In conclusion, we have designed several humanized variants of 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv that have potential for application as monotherapy or conjugates for targeted nuclear drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: An instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, Martine; Visser, Adriaan; Eybrechts, Maggie; van Komen, Rob; Oen, Irma; Olff, Miranda; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of therapeutic touch (TT) in the nursing of burn patients; post hoc evaluation of the research process in a non-academic nursing setting. Methods: 38 burn patients received either TT or nursing presence. On admission, days 2, 5 and 10 of hospitalization, data were collected on

  12. Evaluating the swelling, erosion, and compaction properties of cellulose ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghori, Muhammad U; Grover, Liam M; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Smith, Alan M; Conway, Barbara R

    2018-02-01

    Swelling, erosion, deformation, and consolidation properties can affect the performance of cellulose ethers, the most commonly used matrix former in hydrophilic sustained tablet formulations. The present study was designed to comparatively evaluate the swelling, erosion, compression, compaction, and relaxation properties of the cellulose ethers in a comprehensive study using standardised conditions. The interrelationship between various compressional models and the inherent deformation and consolidation properties of the polymers on the derived swelling and erosion parameters are consolidated. The impact of swelling (K w ) on erosion rates (K E ) and the inter-relationship between Heckel and Kawakita plasticity constants was also investigated. It is evident from the findings that the increases in both substitution and polymer chain length led to higher K w , but a lower K E ; this was also true for all particle size fractions regardless of polymer grade. Smaller particle size and high substitution levels tend to increase the relative density of the matrix but reduce porosity, yield pressure (P y ), Kawakita plasticity parameter (b -1 ) and elastic relaxation. Both K W versus K E (R 2  = 0.949-0.980) and P y versus. b -1 correlations (R 2  = 0.820-0.934) were reasonably linear with regards to increasing hydroxypropyl substitution and molecular size. Hence, it can be concluded that the combined knowledge of swelling and erosion kinetics in tandem with the in- and out-of-die compression findings can be used to select a specific polymer grade and further to develop and optimize formulations for oral controlled drug delivery applications.

  13. Evaluation of nutraceutical properties of selected small millets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raghavendra Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutraceutical properties and nutritional value of grains of four selected small millets viz. finger millet, foxtail millet, prosomillet and khodomillet. Materials and Methods: The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals viz. phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins present in the four small millets was done. The water-soluble proteins, crude fiber content and the reducing power of the grains of these four millets were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: The khodomillet showed maximum phenolic content (10.3% and foxtail millet showed minimum phenolics (2.5%. As far as reducing capacity was concerned, finger millet was highest (5.7%. The prosomillet showed least reducing property (2.6%. The finger millet (391.3 mg/g each showed maximum reducing sugar content. The prosomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (195 mg/g. The foxtail millet showed maximum protein content (305.76 mg/g and prosomillet showed minimum protein content (144.23 mg/g. The khodomillet showed maximum crude fiber content (14.3%.The finger millet showed maximum reducing sugar content (391.3 mg/g whereas, the khodomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (130.43 mg/g.

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of catalase-like activity of different classes of redox-active therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Maia, Clarissa G C; Weitner, Tin; Carballal, Sebastián; Sampaio, Romulo S; Lieb, Dominik; Ghazaryan, Robert; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Radi, Rafael; Reboucas, Julio S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-09-01

    (-1). The analogous Fe(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins showed ~10-fold higher activity than the corresponding MnPs, but the values of kcat(H2O2) are still ~4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the enzyme. While the kcat(H2O2) values for Fe ethyl and n-octyl analogs were 803.5 and 368.4M(-1) s(-1), respectively, the FePs are more prone to H2O2-driven oxidative degradation, therefore allowing for similar yields in H2O2 dismutation as analogous MnPs. The kcat(H2O2) values are dependent on the electron deficiency of the metal site as it controls the peroxide binding in the first step of the dismutation process. SOD-like activities depend on electron deficiency of the metal site also, as it controls the first step of O2(●-) dismutation. In turn, the kcat(O2(●-)) parallels the kcat(H2O2). Therefore, the electron-rich anionic non-SOD mimic MnTBAP(3-) has essentially very low catalase-like activity, kcat(H2O2)=5.8M(-1) s(-1). The catalase-like activities of Mn(III) and Fe(III) porphyrins are at most, 0.0004 and 0.05% of the enzyme activity, respectively. The kcat(H2O2) values of 8.2 and 6.5M(-1) s(-1) were determined for electron-rich Mn(II) cyclic polyamine-based compounds, M40403 and M40404, respectively. The EUK-8, with modest SOD-like activity, has only slightly higher kcat(H2O2)=13.5M(-1) s(-1). The biological relevance of kcat(H2O2) of MnTE-2-PyP(5+), MnTDE-2-ImP(5+), MnTBAP(3-), FeTE-2-PyP(5+), M40403, M40404, and Mn salen was evaluated in wild-type and peroxidase/catalase-deficient E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The anti-inflammatory properties of Salacia leptoclada and Warburgia salutaris : their possible role as therapeutic agents in crystalline silica-induced cellular injury

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. The plants Salacia leptoclada and Warburgia salutaris possess antioxidant properties and are commonly used in Southern Africa for the treatment of inflammatory and other diseases. In order to determine their therapeutic use in crystalline silica-induced injury, the extracts of S. leptoclada and W. salutaris were investigated on silica-induced increased levels of (i) TNF-a, IL-113, INF-y, (ii) the activation of the transcription factor NE-KB, and (iii) the induction of DNA damage an...

  16. Evaluating an undergraduate interprofessional education session for medical and pharmacy undergraduates on therapeutics and prescribing: the medical student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelvey, Bethany M; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N

    2016-01-01

    The current literature on undergraduate interprofessional education (IPE) for pharmacy and medical students highlights a range of positive outcomes, although to date IPE has focused predominantly on student views and experiences of IPE sessions with these opinions being sought at the end of the sessions. This study aimed to evaluate medical students' experiences of therapeutics and prescribing IPE, with pharmacy students, 1 year following the session. Following ethics committee approval, 3rd year medical students at Cardiff University were invited to participate using non-probability sampling. Topic guide development was informed by the literature and research team discussions, including a review of the materials used in the IPE session. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews explored experiences, prior to, during, and after the IPE session. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Eighteen medical students were interviewed; 11 were females. Seven themes were identified, namely 1) refinement of pre-session preparation, 2) session value, 3) learning with a pharmacy student, 4) learning about a pharmacist, 5) learning from a pharmacy student, 6) importance and application of what was learnt into practice, and 7) suggestions for change. This study provides a valuable insight into medical students' experiences of a therapeutics and prescribing IPE session and emphasizes the value they placed on interaction with pharmacy students. Medical students were able to recall clear learning experiences from the IPE session that had taken place 12 months earlier, which itself is an indicator of the impact of the session on the students. Furthermore, they were able to describe how knowledge and skills learnt had been applied to subsequent learning activities. Those developing IPE sessions should consider the following: clarify professional roles in the session content, incorporate IPE as a series of activities, and use small groups of

  17. Calculated disturbances for evaluation of dynamical properties of freight cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Mashchenko

    2013-08-01

    defining the standardized factors of the dynamical properties of empty and loaded open cars. Comparison of the calculated factors and experimental data demonstrated its assurance. Originality. The three models of the calculated disturbances that can be used for calculating estimation of the maximal values of the standardized dynamical factors of freight vehicles are proposed. Practical value. The research results ensure an acceptable predicted evaluation of the dynamical properties factors for the designed or refitted vehicles of railway rolling stock, refinement of the values of the certain system parameters at the stage of prototypes, reduction of the expenses for performance trials, etc.

  18. First principles evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Leah Isseroff

    thus reduce recombination. Finally, because Cu2O is known to be photocathodically unstable, we consider a suggested method of stabilizing Cu2O via deposition on a ZnO substrate. We evaluate the properties of the Cu2O(111)/ZnO(101¯0) interface, revealing that it is weakly bound. The ZnO substrate reduces the band gap of the Cu2O coating.

  19. Computational evaluation of optoelectronic properties for organic/carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhigang; Wang, Dong; Peng, Qian; Geng, Hua

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic optoelectronic materials are used in a variety of devices, including light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, spintronics, and chemico- and biosensors. The processes that determine the intrinsic optoelectronic properties occur either in the photoexcited states or within the electron-pumped charged species, and computations that predict these optical and electrical properties would help researchers design new materials. In this Account, we describe recent advances in related density functional theory (DFT) methods and present case studies that examine the efficiency of light emission, carrier mobility, and thermoelectric figures of merit by calculation of the electron-vibration couplings. First we present a unified vibrational correlation function formalism to evaluate the excited-state radiative decay rate constant kr, the nonradiative decay rate constant knr, the intersystem crossing rate constant kISC, and the optical spectra. The molecular parameters that appear in the formalism, such as the electronic excited-state energy, vibrational modes, and vibronic couplings, require extensive DFT calculations. We used experiments for anthracene at both low and ambient temperatures to benchmark the calculated photophysical parameters. In the framework of Fermi's golden rule, we incorporated the non-adiabatic coupling and the spin-orbit coupling to evaluate the phosphorescence efficiency and emission spectrum. Both of these are in good agreement with experimental results for anthracene and iridium compounds. Band electron scattering and relaxation processes within Boltzmann theory can describe charge transport in two-dimensional carbon materials and closely packed organic solids. For simplicity, we considered only the acoustic phonon scattering as modeled by the deformation potential approximation coupled with extensive DFT calculations for band structures. We then related the carrier mobility to the band

  20. SPECIES - EVALUATING THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES & EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS OF AN 11-SPECIES AIR MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate numerical prediction of high-temperature, chemically reacting flowfields requires a knowledge of the physical properties and reaction kinetics for the species involved in the reacting gas mixture. Assuming an 11-species air model at temperatures below 30,000 degrees Kelvin, SPECIES (Computer Codes for the Evaluation of Thermodynamic Properties, Transport Properties, and Equilibrium Constants of an 11-Species Air Model) computes values for the species thermodynamic and transport properties, diffusion coefficients and collision cross sections for any combination of the eleven species, and reaction rates for the twenty reactions normally occurring. The species represented in the model are diatomic nitrogen, diatomic oxygen, atomic nitrogen, atomic oxygen, nitric oxide, ionized nitric oxide, the free electron, ionized atomic nitrogen, ionized atomic oxygen, ionized diatomic nitrogen, and ionized diatomic oxygen. Sixteen subroutines compute the following properties for both a single species, interaction pair, or reaction, and an array of all species, pairs, or reactions: species specific heat and static enthalpy, species viscosity, species frozen thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient, collision cross section (OMEGA 1,1), collision cross section (OMEGA 2,2), collision cross section ratio, and equilibrium constant. The program uses least squares polynomial curve-fits of the most accurate data believed available to provide the requested values more quickly than is possible with table look-up methods. The subroutines for computing transport coefficients and collision cross sections use additional code to correct for any electron pressure when working with ionic species. SPECIES was developed on a SUN 3/280 computer running the SunOS 3.5 operating system. It is written in standard FORTRAN 77 for use on any machine, and requires roughly 92K memory. The standard distribution medium for SPECIES is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the

  1. Evaluation of disease and viral biomarkers as triggers for therapeutic intervention in respiratory mousepox - an animal model of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Scott; Chen, Nanhai G; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Hruby, Dennis; Jordan, Robert; Lanier, Randall; Painter, George; Painter, Wesley; Sagartz, John E; Schriewer, Jill; Mark Buller, R

    2012-04-01

    The human population is currently faced with the potential use of natural or recombinant variola and monkeypox viruses as biological weapons. Furthermore, the emergence of human monkeypox in Africa and its expanding environs poses a significant natural threat. Such occurrences would require therapeutic and prophylactic intervention with antivirals to minimize morbidity and mortality of exposed populations. Two orally-bioavailable antivirals are currently in clinical trials; namely CMX001, an ether-lipid analog of cidofovir with activity at the DNA replication stage and ST-246, a novel viral egress inhibitor. Both of these drugs have previously been evaluated in the ectromelia/mousepox system; however, the trigger for intervention was not linked to a disease biomarker or a specific marker of virus replication. In this study we used lethal, intranasal, ectromelia virus infections of C57BL/6 and hairless SKH1 mice to model human disease and evaluate exanthematous rash (rash) as an indicator to initiate antiviral treatment. We show that significant protection can be provided to C57BL/6 mice by CMX001 or ST-246 when therapy is initiated on day 6 post infection or earlier. We also show that significant protection can be provided to SKH1 mice treated with CMX001 at day 3 post infection or earlier, but this is four or more days before detection of rash (ST-246 not tested). Although in this model rash could not be used as a treatment trigger, viral DNA was detected in blood by day 4 post infection and in the oropharyngeal secretions (saliva) by day 2-3 post infection - thus providing robust and specific markers of virus replication for therapy initiation. These findings are discussed in the context of current respiratory challenge animal models in use for the evaluation of poxvirus antivirals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Naproxen Sodium Gel Using Piper cubeba for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery and Therapeutic Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Sunetra; Patil, Manohar; Sockalingam, Anbazhagan

    2017-01-01

    The absorption of drug through skin avoids many side effects of oral route like gastric irritation, nausea, systemic toxicity etc and thus improves patient compliance. Naproxen sodium (NPRS) is one of the potent NSAID agents. The present study was aimed to develop and evaluate the gel formulation containing NPRS for transdermal drug delivery reducing the side effects and improving patient compliance. The patents on topical delivery of NSAIDS (US 9012402 B1, US 9072659 B2, US 20150258196 A1) and patents indicating use of herbal penetration enhancers (US 20100273746A1, WO 2005009510 A2, US 6004969 A) helped in selecting the drug, excipients. Current protocol employs various extracts of Piper cubeba fruit to evaluate its role in absorption of NPRS. Various batches containing 1% NPRS and varying concentrations of synthetic permeation enhancers or the extracts were formulated in carbopol gel. Gel was evaluated for parameters like organoleptic parameters, pH, viscosity and spreadability. An ex-vivo percutaneous absorption of NPRS from gel was investigated and compared with best performing synthetic enhancer, transcutol P (TP). The batch containing 2% n-hexane extract (NHE) of Piper cubeba showed higher permeation than TP and Chloroform (CE), Methanolic (ME) and aqueous (AE) extracts as well. It showed improved % cumulative release (85.09%) and flux (278.61μg/cm2.h), as compared to TP and other extracts. Histopathology indicated the formulation safer as compared to that with synthetic enhancer. It suggests P. cubeba as effective and safer tool for transdermal delivery and acts as therapeutic facilitator for naproxen. GC-MS analysis indicates lignans & terpenes in NHE to which this permeation enhancement activity may be attributed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Kinetics of venom and antivenom serum levels, clinical evaluation and therapeutic effectiveness in dogs inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sangiorgio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the clinical and therapeutic aspects as well as serum levels of venom and antivenom IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in experimental envenomation of dogs with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Twenty-eight mixed breed adult dogs were divided into four groups of seven animals each, Group I: only venom; Group II, venom + 50 ml of anti-bothropic-crotalic serum (50mg + fluid therapy; Group III, venom + 50 ml of anti-bothropic-crotalic serum + fluid therapy + urine alkalination; Group IV, 50 ml of anti-bothropic-crotalic serum. The lyophilized venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was reconstituted in saline solution and subcutaneously inoculated at the dose of 1mg/kg body weight. The dogs presented clinical signs of local pain, weakness, mandibular ptosis, mydriasis, emesis and salivation. The venom levels detected by ELISA ranged from 0 to 90ng/ml, according to the severity of the clinical signs. Serum antivenom ranged from 0 to 3ug/ml and was detected for up to 138h after treatment. ELISA results showed the effectiveness of the serum therapy for the venom neutralization.

  4. EGFR as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian cancer: evaluation of patient cohort and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, Christine; Oberg, Ann L; Goergen, Krista M; Kalli, Kimberly R; Maurer, Matthew J; Nassar, Aziza; Goode, Ellen L; Keeney, Gary L; Jatoi, Aminah; Radisky, Derek C; Radisky, Evette S

    2017-05-01

    Limited effectiveness of therapeutic agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical trials using unselected ovarian cancer patients has prompted efforts to more effectively stratify patients who might best benefit from these therapies. A series of studies that have evaluated immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of EGFR in ovarian cancer biopsies has produced unclear results as to the utility of this measure as a prognostic biomarker. Here, we used one of the largest, single institution cohorts to date to determine possible associations of EGFR expression with patient outcome. We performed IHC staining of EGFR in tissue microarrays including nearly 500 patient tumor samples. Staining was classified by subcellular localization (membranous, cytoplasmic) or by automated image analysis algorithms. We also performed a literature review to place these results in the context of previous studies. No significant associations were found between EGFR subcellular localization or expression and histology, stage, grade, or outcome. These results were broadly consistent with the consensus of the reviewed literature. These results suggest that IHC staining for EGFR may not be a useful prognostic biomarker for ovarian cancer patients. Future studies should pursue other staining methods or analysis in combination with other pathway mediators.

  5. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on pancreatic duck stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis: evaluation of therapeutic results with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Gyu [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Suk [Gunpo Medical Center, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To demonstrate by CT scanning the effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on pancreatic duct stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic duct stones in 11 patients with chronic pancreatitis were subject to ESWL using an electrohydraulic lithotripter. Endoscopic stone removal using a basket had failed in ten patients, and in one, endoscopy was impossible due to a previous Whipple's operation. CT scans obtained before and after ESWL were evaluated by two radiologists: the longest and shortest diameters of the target stone were measured, and according to the degree of fragmentation, determined by comparing the area of the stone before and after ESWL, a grade (1-5) was assigned. In each case, the pre- and post- treatment diameter of the main pancreatic duct, measured at the pancreatic body, was also compared. Disintegration of the target stone was achieved in all patients: grade 1 (over 75% of the area remained, compared with that of the initial stone) was assigned in two patients; grade 2 (51-75% of the original area) in one; grade 3 (26-50%) in four; grade 4 (under 25%) in two; and grade 5 (complete clearance of the target stone) in two. The mean area decreased from 175 mm{sup 2} to 69 mm{sup 2} after ESWL (p<0.05); a decrease of more than 50% was observed in eight patients (73%). The mean diameter of the main pancreatic duct decreased from 7.36 to 4.81 mm (p<0.05). No severe adverse effects or complications were noted, and all patients showed clinical improvement. Follow-up studies indicated that pancreatic duct stones recurred in three patients. ESWL can cause the fragmentation of pancreatic duct stones without significant complications, and should be considered where endoscopic stone removal has failed. CT is a suitable non-invasive and accurate tool for evaluating the therapeutic results of ESWL.

  6. [Evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic services in German university hospitals for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, T M; Sheldrick, A J; Frentzel, T G; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Herpertz, S; Habel, U; Bruegmann, E; Schneider, K; Schneider, F

    2010-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), are pervasive developmental disorders, which are defined by qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction and communication as well as by stereotyped repetitive behaviour. Newer epidemiological studies report a prevalence of 1 %. However, parents and self-help organisations report a considerable lack of diagnostic services, especially in the university hospital setting. In order to receive funding for adequate treatment at an "autism therapy centre", a Consultant psychiatrist has to diagnose ASD. We assessed the diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for adults with ASD by sending out questionnaires to 33 German university hospitals. Furthermore, we evaluated the demographic data of the first 74 patients that presented at the specialist clinic for adults with ASD at the Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University. At the time of the evaluation, only 9 university hospitals in Germany offered a specialist clinic for diagnostics and/or treatment for adults with ASD. A comorbid psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 52.9 % of the patients presenting at the specialist clinic for adult ASD. These were mostly mental retardation and affective disorders. The most common differential diagnosis for the patients presenting at the service were affective and personality disorders. There is still great need of specialist services at university hospitals in Germany for adults with ASD, although more services have been established over the past few years. Over half of the patients with ASD had other psychiatric comorbid disorders, which were mostly mental retardation and affective disorders. The most common differential diagnosis for patients presenting at the clinics were personality disorders and depression. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York

  7. Noninvasive evaluation of the barrier properties of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin as an organ of protection covers the body and accomplishes multiple defensive functions. The intact skin represents a barrier to the uncontrolled loss of water, proteins, and plasma components from the organism. Due to its complex structure, the epidermal barrier with its major component, stratum corneum, is the rate-limiting unit for the penetration of exogenous substances through the skin. The epidermal barrier is not a static structure. The permeability barrier status can be modified by different external and internal factors such as climate, physical stressors, and a number of skin and systemic diseases. Today, different non-invasive approaches are used to monitor the skin barrier physical properties in vivo. The quantification of parameters such as transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface acidity is essential for the integral evaluation of the epidermal barrier status. This paper will allow the readership to get acquainted with the non-invasive, in vivo methods for the investigation of the skin barrier.

  8. Evaluating an undergraduate interprofessional education session for medical and pharmacy undergraduates on therapeutics and prescribing: the medical student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelvey BM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bethany M Shelvey,1 Sion A Coulman,2 Dai N John2 1School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK Background: The current literature on undergraduate interprofessional education (IPE for pharmacy and medical students highlights a range of positive outcomes, although to date IPE has focused predominantly on student views and experiences of IPE sessions with these opinions being sought at the end of the sessions. This study aimed to evaluate medical students’ experiences of therapeutics and prescribing IPE, with pharmacy students, 1 year following the session. Methods: Following ethics committee approval, 3rd year medical students at Cardiff University were invited to participate using non-probability sampling. Topic guide development was informed by the literature and research team discussions, including a review of the materials used in the IPE session. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews explored experiences, prior to, during, and after the IPE session. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Eighteen medical students were interviewed; 11 were females. Seven themes were identified, namely 1 refinement of pre-session preparation, 2 session value, 3 learning with a pharmacy student, 4 learning about a pharmacist, 5 learning from a pharmacy student, 6 importance and application of what was learnt into practice, and 7 suggestions for change. Conclusion: This study provides a valuable insight into medical students’ experiences of a therapeutics and prescribing IPE session and emphasizes the value they placed on interaction with pharmacy students. Medical students were able to recall clear learning experiences from the IPE session that had taken place 12 months earlier, which itself is an indicator of the impact of the session on the students. Furthermore, they were able to describe how knowledge and skills learnt had been applied to

  9. Evaluation of an injectable polymeric delivery system for controlled and localized release of biological factors to promote therapeutic angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, Adam John

    Cardiovascular disease remains as the leading cause of death worldwide and is frequently associated with partial or full occlusion of coronary arteries. Currently, angioplasty and bypass surgery are the standard approaches for treating patients with these ischemic heart conditions. However, a large number of patients cannot undergo these procedures. Therapeutic angiogenesis provides a minimally invasive tool for treating cardiovascular diseases by inducing new blood vessel growth from the existing vasculature. Angiogenic growth factors can be delivered locally through gene, cell, and protein therapy. Natural and synthetic polymer growth factor delivery systems are under extensive investigation due their widespread applications and promising therapeutic potential. Although biocompatible, natural polymers often suffer from batch-to-batch variability which can cause unpredictable growth factor release rates. Synthetic polymers offer advantages for growth factor delivery as they can be easily modified to control release kinetics. During the angiogenesis process, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is necessary to initiate neovessel formation while platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is needed later to help stabilize and mature new vessels. In the setting of myocardial infarction, additional anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10 are needed to help optimize cardiac repair and limit the damaging effects of inflammation following infarction. To meet these angiogenic and anti-inflammatory needs, an injectable polymer delivery system created from a sulfonated reverse thermal gel encapsulating micelle nanoparticles was designed and evaluated. The sulfonate groups on the thermal gel electrostatically bind to VEGF which controls its release rate, while the micelles are loaded with PDGF and are slowly released as the gel degrades. IL-10 was loaded into the system as well and diffused from the gel over time. An in vitro release study was performed which demonstrated the

  10. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of cisplatin-containing EGFR targeting bioconjugates as potential therapeutic agents for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth RF

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolf F Barth,1 Gong Wu,1 W Hans Meisen,2 Robin J Nakkula,1 Weilian Yang,1 Tianyao Huo,1 David A Kellough,1 Pravin Kaumaya,3–5 Claudia Turro,6 Lawrence M Agius,7 Balveen Kaur2 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 5Department of Microbiology, 6Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 7Department of Pathology, Mater Dei Hospital, University of Malta Medical School, Msida, Malta Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate four different platinated bioconjugates containing a cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [cis-DDP] fragment and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeting moieties as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of brain tumors using a human EGFR-expressing transfectant of the F98 rat glioma (F98EGFR to assess their efficacy. The first two bioconjugates employed the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (C225 or Erbitux® as the targeting moiety, and the second two used genetically engineered EGF peptides. C225-G5-Pt was produced by reacting cis-DDP with a fifth-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer (G5 and then linking it to C225 by means of two heterobifunctional reagents. The second bioconjugate (C225-PG-Pt employed the same methodology except that polyglutamic acid was used as the carrier. The third and fourth bioconjugates used two different EGF peptides, PEP382 and PEP455, with direct coordination to the Pt center of the cis-DDP fragment. In vivo studies with C225-G5-Pt failed to demonstrate therapeutic activity following intracerebral (ic convection-enhanced delivery (CED to F98EGFR glioma-bearing rats. The second bioconjugate, C225-PG-Pt, failed to show in vitro cytotoxicity. Furthermore, because of its high molecular weight, we decided that lower molecular weight peptides might provide better targeting and microdistribution within the tumor. Both PEP

  11. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation, microstructure, and mechanical property interrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques for mechanical property characterizations are reviewed and conceptual models are advanced for explaining and interpreting the empirically based results. At present, the technology is generally empirically based and is emerging from the research laboratory. Advancement of the technology will require establishment of theoretical foundations for the experimentally observed interrelations among ultrasonic measurements, mechanical properties, and microstructure. Conceptual models are applied to ultrasonic assessment of fracture toughness to illustrate an approach for predicting correlations found among ultrasonic measurements, microstructure, and mechanical properties.

  12. Synthesis, quality control and biological evaluation of tris[(1,10-phenanthroline)[{sup 153}Sm]samarium(III)]trithiocyanate complex as a therapeutic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, Z.; Kharat, A. Nemati [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Inorganic Chemistry Dept.; Hakimi, A. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch; Jalilian, A.R.; Shirvani-Arani, S.; Bahrami-Samani, A.; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (IR). Radiopharmaceutical Research and Development Lab (RRDL)

    2012-07-01

    Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are designed to deliver high doses of radiation to selected target organs or tissues with an aim of minimizing unwanted radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, [tris(1,10-phenanthroline)[{sup 153}Sm]samarium(III)]trithiocyanate ({sup 153}Sm-TPTTC) was developed for possible therapeutic properties. The cold compound, i.e. {sup nat}Sm-TPTTC was prepared and characterized by IR, UV, mass and {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. {sup 153}Sm-TPTTC was prepared in two steps using [{sup 153}Sm]SmCl{sub 3}, obtained by neutron activation of an enriched {sup 152}Sm sample. Stability tests, partition coefficient determination, toxicity tests and biodistribution studies of the complex in wild-type and fibrosarcoma-bearing mice were determined. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99% precipitation method) and specific activity of 278 GBq/mmol and demonstrated significant stability at 4, 25 and 37 C (in presence of human serum). Initial complex biodistribution data showed significant liver accumulation in wild-type mice and significant tumor accumulation in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice with tumor:blood and tumor:muscle ratios of 3.55 (2 h) and 38.26 (96 h) respectively. {sup 153}Sm-TPTTC properties suggest an efficient tumor targeting agent with high tumor-avidity. Further investigation on the therapeutic properties must be conducted. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of the Properties of Dynamically Vulcanised Thermoplastic Rubbers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Dyke, J. D; Gnatowski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    .... The project objective was to establish a correlation between blend composition and properties such as microstructure swelling index, tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, and resistance...

  14. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant...... major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due...... to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic...

  15. Evaluation of a single preoperative dose of etoricoxib for postoperative pain relief in therapeutic knee arthroscopy: a randomized trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lierz, Peter; Losch, Holger; Felleiter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Analgesics can have undesirable effects. We assessed whether a single preoperative dose of 120 mg etoricoxib reduces the need for additional opioids after therapeutic arthroscopic knee surgery...

  16. Beyond high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels evaluating high-density lipoprotein function as influenced by novel therapeutic approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    deGoma, Emil M; deGoma, Rolando L; Rader, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    A number of therapeutic strategies targeting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reverse cholesterol transport are being developed to halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even induce regression...

  17. Evaluation of the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of Justicia hypocrateriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Longo, Frida; Makong, Estelle A; Tarkang, Protus Arrey

    2014-09-01

    Justicia hypocrateriformis Vahl (Acanthaceae) is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhea in Cameroon folk medicine. This study evaluates the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of J. hypocrateriformis (JH). Preliminary phytochemical screening and an acute toxicity testing of the extract were carried out. The antidiarrheal activity of JH extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was assessed at curative and preventive levels in castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content, and radical scavenging activity. A high lethal dose (LD50) of 14.35 g/kg obtained in acute toxicity implies the extract is not toxic. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, and anthocyanins. JH showed a significant protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea as evidenced by a decrease in the number of defecation and wet stool. JH (100-500 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a non-significant dose-dependent decrease in castor oil-induced intestinal transit in the preventive study. In the curative and in healthy mice study, the decrease was only significant at 500 mg/kg. JH possessed a radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 9.93 mg/ml compared to 4.90 mg/ml for catechin. JH FRAP of 2703.77 ± 0 mg/g (catechin equiv) and phenolic concentration of 14 169.99 ± 612.39 mg/g (catechin equiv) were also obtained. Justicia hypocrateriformis extract possesses antidiarrheal activity supported by its antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents.

  18. The effects of spheroid formation of adipose-derived stem cells in a microgravity bioreactor on stemness properties and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichang; Liu, Ping; Chen, Li; Wang, Yingjie; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent a valuable source of stem cells for regenerative medicine, but the loss of their stemness during in vitro expansion remains a major roadblock. We employed a microgravity bioreactor (MB) to develop a method for biomaterial-free-mediated spheroid formation to maintain the stemness properties of ADSCs. ADSCs spontaneously formed three-dimensional spheroids in the MB. Compared with monolayer culture, the expression levels of E-cadherin and pluripotent markers were significantly upregulated in ADSC spheroids. Spheroid-derived ADSCs exhibited increased proliferative ability and colony-forming efficiency. By culturing the spheroid-derived ADSCs in an appropriate induction medium, we found that the multipotency differentiation capacities of ADSCs were significantly improved by spheroid culture in the MB. Furthermore, when ADSCs were administered to mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver failure, spheroid-derived ADSCs showed more effective potentials to rescue liver failure than ADSCs derived from constant monolayer culture. Our results suggest that spheroid formation of ADSCs in an MB enhances their stemness properties and increases their therapeutic potential. Therefore, spheroid culture in an MB can be an efficient method to maintain stemness properties, without the involvement of any biomaterials for clinical applications of in vitro cultured ADSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Bioequivalence Approach for Generic Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs: Evaluation of the Reference-Scaled Approach and Variability Comparison Criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenlei; Makhlouf, Fairouz; Schuirmann, Donald J.; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zheng, Nan; Conner, Dale; Yu, Lawrence X.; Lionberger, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Various health communities have expressed concerns regarding whether average bioequivalence (BE) limits (80.00–125.00%) for the 90% confidence interval of the test-to-reference geometric mean ratio are sufficient to ensure therapeutic equivalence between a generic narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drug and its reference listed drug (RLD). Simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of different BE approaches for NTI drugs on study power, including (1) direct tightening of average BE lim...

  20. Effects of sun and freeze-drying techniques on molecular, fatty acid and therapeutic properties of fermented goat milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Al-Rabadi, Ghaid J; Althnaibat, Rami M; Ereifej, Khalil; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Brewer, Susan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of sun drying (Sd) and freeze drying (Fd) on the chemical, nutritional and biological properties of either unsalted (Us) or salted (Sa) Jameed produced from goat milk. The products were characterized by measuring the chemical, physical and biological properties. SDS-PAGE was used to characterize the effect of processing conditions on protein subunits. Major new bands were found in SDS-PAGE of Jameed prepared by SdUs and FdUs from goat milk but not from that prepared by SdSa and FdSa. Preparation of Jameed by with or without salt treatments of Jameed by sun drying enhances the contents of short chain fatty acids. Result showed that the preparation of Jameed by SdUs decreased the content of caprylic acid. That prepared by sun drying and with or without salt increased the stability, shelf life and inhibitory activities of ACE and α-amylase. The optimum color values were found in Jameed prepared by FdSa. Different processing treatments influenced content of all fatty acids except for margaric and oleic acid.

  1. Evaluation of nutritional values, phenolic profile, aroma compounds and biological properties of Pittosporum tobira seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjeibi, Ilhem; Ncib, Sana; Ben Saad, Anouar; Souid, Sami

    2017-10-30

    Plant essential oils and phenolic compounds are widely used for their medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional values, the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and anti-hemolytic effects of Pittosporum tobira seeds. The aroma compounds were isolated using two methods (Headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and hydrodistillation (HD)) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bioactive phenolic compounds were identified by mean of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD). Reducing power, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays were used to investigate antioxidant activity. Anti-hemolytic activity was evaluated using H2O2-induced hemolysis of red blood cells (RBC). Oxygenated sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes were the most volatile fractions identified by HD and HS-SPME coupled to GC-MS but their quality and amount were quite different according to the extraction methodology. The main phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were caffeic acid, followed by cinnamic acid and gallic acid. P. tobira seeds essential oils showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH (IC50 value = 1.5 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging assay (IC50 value = 159.43 μg/mL) and reducing power test (IC50 value = 0.982 mg/mL) compared to methanolic extract. Moreover, the results revealed that the essential oil was able to protect RBC from hemolysis induced by H2O2. However, the methanolic extract had no effect on H2O2-induced hemolysis of RBC as compared to the essential oil and the standard vitamin C. P. tobira may be used as a new natural source of antioxidant with therapeutic application in diseases caused by reactive oxygen species. Phytochemical Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Pittosporum tobira seeds.

  2. A Comparative Evaluation of the Physical and Chemical Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and chemical properties of tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica L.) in Nigeria were investigated. Tamarind fruits were randomly collected from 18 towns in the savannah region of Nigeria. The seeds were manually separated from the pulp and membranes, sun-dried and the physical properties determined.

  3. Evaluation of the emulsifying property of solid phase purified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests the suitability of the purified oil as a base in the formulation of lotions and creams. Conclusion: The purified oil of G. kola possesses emulsifying property and could find applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Keywords: Garcinia cola, seed oil, solid phase purification, emulsifying property ...

  4. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic effect of minimally invasive intracranial hematoma evacuation in the treatment of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage and TCD evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Hao Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the therapeutic effect of minimally invasive intracranial hematoma evacuation in the treatment of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage and the value of dynamic TCD monitoring in predicting the neurological function recovery. Methods: A total of 70 patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and divided into the minimally invasive group and conservative group with 35 cases in each group according to different treatment protocols. The patients in the two groups were given drug conservative treatments. On this basis, the patients in the minimally invasive group were given urokinase in combined with minimally invasive hematoma puncture with YL-1 type needle. TCD was performed before treatment, 1 d, 5 d, 10 d, and 21 d after treatment. The hematoma and edema volume was calculated. NIHSS was used to evaluate the neurological function recovery. Results: Vs, Vd, and Vm after treatment in the minimally invasive group were significantly elevated, while PI was significantly reduced. Vs, Vd, and Vm after treatment in the conservative group were reduced first and elevated later, while PI was elevated first and reduced later, and reached the lowest/peak 10d after treatment. Vs, Vd, and Vm 5 d, 10 d, and 21 d after treatment in the minimally invasive group were significantly higher than those in the conservative group, while PI was significantly lower than that in the conservative group. The hematoma and edema volume after treatment in the two groups was significantly reduced. The hematoma and edema volume at each timing point was significantly lower than that in the conservative group. NIHSS score after treatment in the minimally invasive group was significantly reduced. NIHSS score in the conservative group was elevated first and reduced later, reached the peak 10d after treatment, and at each timing point was higher than that in the minimally invasive group. Conclusions: The

  6. The in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic potential of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for acute liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Kurata, Hayato; Tamai, Rie; Banas, Agnieszka; Ishii, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as an attractive candidate for cell therapy applications. In the prior decade, many animal studies have demonstrated that MSCs are therapeutically beneficial for the treatment of liver disease. The carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatitis model has been the most widely used model in these studies. Our group has utilized the CCl4-induced mouse hepatitis model to study the therapeutic potential of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hADSCs). We have demonstrated that systemically administered hADSCs engrafted into the damaged liver and promoted tissue repair. This phenomenon likely reflected the paracrine effects of the administered hADSCs. In this chapter, we describe a method to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the systemic administration of hADSCs in the CCl4-induced mouse model of acute hepatitis.

  7. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf; Schiener, Maximilian; Eberlein, Bernadette; Russkamp, Dennis; Wolf, Sara; Graessel, Anke; Biedermann, Tilo; Ollert, Markus; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B

    2017-10-03

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic grade HBV extracts which are approved for immunotherapy in numerous countries. The extracts were analyzed for their content of the major allergens Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, Api m 5 and Api m 10. Using allergen-specific antibodies we were able to demonstrate the underrepresentation of relevant major allergens such as Api m 3, Api m 5 and Api m 10 in particular therapeutic extracts. Taken together, standardization of therapeutic extracts by determination of the total allergenic potency might imply the intrinsic pitfall of losing information about particular major allergens. Moreover, the variable allergen composition of different therapeutic HBV extracts might have an impact on therapy outcome and the clinical management of HBV-allergic patients with specific IgE to particular allergens.

  8. Evaluation of the behavior of the preschool one just admitted in the unit of pediatrics and the use of the therapeutic toy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Coelho Campos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the behavior of children before and after a therapeutic play session. Methods: A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out in a major hospital of the city of Santos, State of São Paulo, involving 30 preschool children recently admitted to a pediatric ward. A behavior scale was applied before and after a therapeutic play session. This scale comprises six categories: moving, gazing, expressing feelings, talking, playing, and not responding to stimuli or requests. Each category is scored from 1 to 3, the lowest score representing the least interaction. Results: Before therapeutic play sessions, children showed no interest and were scored 1 and 2: moving parts of their bodies and expressing emotions, such as seriousness, and gazing rapidly to a place as if expecting something. After therapeutic play, the children progressed to level 3: changing position, moving with a purpose, observing attentively to what they saw, and expressing emotions such as joy. Conclusion: Children interact well with the toys, representing home and hospital situations, and expressing feelings of anger and love. We also observed that therapeutic play improved the interactions of children with this new situation, making it easier for them to accept treatment and perceiving hospitalization as less aggressive and painful.

  9. Immunological properties of Hypnale hypnale (hump-nosed pit viper) venom: antibody production with diagnostic and therapeutic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Gnanathasan, Christeine Ariaranee

    2012-06-01

    Envenomation by hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale, Hh) in Sri Lanka has caused significant morbidity and mortality, attributed to 35% of total venomous snakebites. In Southwestern India (Kerala), H. hypnale was increasingly identified as a dangerous and common source of envenomation, second to the Russell's viper but ahead of the cobra bites. Unfortunately, there is still no specific antivenom to date. This study aims to investigate the immunological properties of the venom and to assess the feasibility of specific Hh antivenom production as well as the development of a diagnostic assay. Hh venom elicited satisfactory titers of anti-Hh IgG in rabbits after 3rd immunization. The anti-Hh IgG, isolated with caprylic acid precipitation method, was effective in neutralizing the venom lethality (potency=48 LD(50) per ml IgG) as well as its procoagulant, hemorrhagic and necrotic effects, indicating the possibility to produce the specific antivenom using the common immunization regime. Cross-reactivity studies using indirect ELISA showed that anti-Hh IgG cross-reacted extensively with several Asiatic crotalid venoms, particularly that of Calloselasma rhodostoma (73.6%), presumably due to the presence of venom antigens common to both snakes. Levels of immunological cross-reactivity were vastly reduced with double-sandwich ELISA. Further work demonstrated that the assay was able to distinguish and quantify venoms of H. hypnale, Daboia russelii and Echis carinatus sinhaleyus (three common local viperid) used to spike human sera at various concentrations. The assay hence may be a useful investigating tool for diagnosing biting species and studying the time course profile of venom concentrations in blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  11. Preparation and functional evaluation of RGD-modified proteins as alpha(v)beta(3) integrin directed therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, RJ; Leegte - Schraa, Astrid; Bos, EJ; Moorlag, HE; Asgeirsdottir, SA; Everts, Maaike; Meijer, DKF; Molema, G

    2002-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels can be selectively targeted by RGD-peptides that bind to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin on angiogenic endothelial cells. By inhibiting the binding of these integrins to its natural ligands, RGD-peptides can serve as antiangiogenic therapeutics. We have prepared multivalent derivatives

  12. PROSPECT (Profiling of Resistance Patterns & Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    pathological data. 1) The database’s clinical module contains the following Web forms: - Patient Information - Social History (Alcohol and Smoking...Programme, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO), Madrid, Spain; 2Biology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo...Japan; 3Division of Oncology, Centro para la Investigacion Medica Aplicada (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 4Hamon Center for Therapeutic

  13. Evaluation of properties of bitumen modified with waste tyre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigates the properties of bitumen modified with used tyre. Basic tests such as penetration, softening point, viscosity , flash and fire point and ductility test were carried out by using shredded waste tyre which varied from 0% to 20% by weight of 60/70 penetration grade bitumen at 1600C using dry mix ...

  14. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    validated in many languages including Japanese, Portuguese,. Thai, Chinese, Greek and Malay.[1-6]. There is a need to investigate the psychometric properties of the Malay version of PSS-10 among occupational settings in. Malaysia as such a study has yet to be conducted. The current study is the first in Malaysia aimed ...

  15. Evaluation of Antiulcer Properties of Ethanolic and Hot Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synclisia scabrida is a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various forms of stomach disorders and menstrual pains. The medicinal properties of the plants ... Materials and Methods: Crude ethanol and hot water extracts, EE and HWE respectively, of the stem were prepared. These extracts were fractionated and ...

  16. ALLOY DESIGN AND PROPERTY EVALUATION OF TI ALLOY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. Ti-Mo alloy containing Nb and Sn were arc melted and composition analyzed by EDX. The XRD analysis indicates that the crystal structure and mechanical properties are sensitive to Sn concentration. A combination of Sn and Nb elements in synergy hindered formation athermal ω phase and significantly.

  17. Evaluation of the purgative properties of the ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purgative properties of the ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis was investigated on isolated rat jejunum and the whole animal. The dose–response effect of the extract and the reference drugs - acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine - on rat jejunum was investigated in vitro. The in vivo experiment consisted of verifying ...

  18. Evaluation of some engineering properties of lateritic soils around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... -35° with an average of 33°. The geotechnical analyses results show that the soils cart be used as construction materials. Thus, the soil could support shallow foundation, homogeneous embankments, slope· stability and sub-grade materials in road constructions. Key words: Engineering properties, Grain size, Liquid limit, ...

  19. Evaluation of fundamental properties of filter materials at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Y.; Hiramatsu, K.; Kawamoto, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan); Araki, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Hekinan (Japan); Yamada, M.; Iida, J. [Center For Coal Utilization Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In developing a dust collecting technology for high-temperature coal combustion gases for use in a next-generation system of efficient power generation, it is important to raise reliability by ascertaining the relevant physical properties and behaviors of the dust collecting filters. Accordingly, the aim of this research is to clarify the mechanical and thermal properties, and the high-temperature corrosion behaviors (oxidization, reduction), which figure among the fundamental factors restricting reliability in filter materials. In addition, since the ultimate research aim is the selection and development of filters which can be used in the actual dust collecting systems PFBC (950 C in an oxidization atmosphere) and IGCC (700 C in a reduction atmosphere), it is also necessary to conduct tests on the fundamental properties of existing filters, and to classify them for their suitability with given service atmospheres. Finally, for one particular filter selected as suitable for an oxidation atmosphere of 950 C, observations are made of mechanical properties and micro-structural changes before and after an actual dust collecting trial, and cause of damage are investigated. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studied on rat blood cells (RBC) exposed to hypotonic solution. The results of the study revealed that the extract possesses anti-inflammatory property. MC was found to significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the oedema swellings induced by the phlogistic agents in rats in a dose-related manner. However, the extract did not exhibit ...

  1. Chemical composition and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preservatives used in the food industry are undergoing increasing scrutiny and reappraisal. There is therefore a renewed interest in the antimicrobial properties of herbs and spices. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family, is a pleasant-smelling perennial herb. The antimicrobial activities of ...

  2. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of acid thinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of acid hydrolysis on the physico-chemical properties of cassava starch was investigated. The acid hydrolysed (acid thinned) starches were prepared from cassava starch with 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid. The acid hydrolysis of starch samples were carried out at 60°C in a thermostatically controlled water ...

  3. Evaluation of physicochemical, functional and textural properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thus could contribute to the functional and textural properties of commercial meat products, generating a value liked trout producers. After this time of storage, the trout flesh can be consumed in the conventional way. Keywords: Rainbow trout, refrigeration, freezing, texture. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(32), pp.

  4. Multiple property tolerance analysis for the evaluation of missense mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Potts, Steven J; McGinniss, Matthew J; Strom, Charles M

    2007-02-24

    Computational prediction of the impact of a mutation on protein function is still not accurate enough for clinical diagnostics without additional human expert analysis. Sequence alignment-based methods have been extensively used but their results highly depend on the quality of the input alignments and the choice of sequences. Incorporating the structural information with alignments improves prediction accuracy. Here, we present a conservation of amino acid properties method for mutation prediction, Multiple Properties Tolerance Analysis (MuTA), and a new strategy, MuTA/S, to incorporate the solvent accessible surface (SAS) property into MuTA. Instead of combining multiple features by machine learning or mathematical methods, an intuitive strategy is used to divide the residues of a protein into different groups, and in each group the properties used is adjusted.The results for LacI, lysozyme, and HIV protease show that MuTA performs as well as the widely used SIFT algorithm while MuTA/S outperforms SIFT and MuTA by 2%-25% in terms of prediction accuracy. By incorporating the SAS term alone, the alignment dependency of overall prediction accuracy is significantly reduced. MuTA/S also defines a new way to incorporate any structural features and knowledge and may lead to more accurate predictions.

  5. Multiple Property Tolerance Analysis for the Evaluation of Missense Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. McGinniss

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of the impact of a mutation on protein function is still not accurate enough for clinical diagnostics without additional human expert analysis. Sequence alignment-based methods have been extensively used but their results highly depend on the quality of the input alignments and the choice of sequences. Incorporating the structural information with alignments improves prediction accuracy. Here, we present a conservation of amino acid properties method for mutation prediction, Multiple Properties Tolerance Analysis (MuTA, and a new strategy, MuTA/S, to incorporate the solvent accessible surface (SAS property into MuTA. Instead of combining multiple features by machine learning or mathematical methods, an intuitive strategy is used to divide the residues of a protein into different groups, and in each group the properties used is adjusted.The results for LacI, lysozyme, and HIV protease show that MuTA performs as well as the widely used SIFT algorithm while MuTA/S outperforms SIFT and MuTA by 2%–25% in terms of prediction accuracy. By incorporating the SAS term alone, the alignment dependency of overall prediction accuracy is signifi cantly reduced. MuTA/S also defines a new way to incorporate any structural features and knowledge and may lead to more accurate predictions.

  6. Evaluation of the Sedative and Anticonvulsant Properties of Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the three plants showed also sedative properties for they increased significantly and in a dose dependent manner the total sleep time induced by diazepam. The total sleep time of the control groups was multiplied by a factor of 3 at least by each extract. The presence of sedative and anticonvulsant activity in the three ...

  7. Therapeutic drug monitoring, electronic health records, and pharmacokinetic modeling to evaluate sirolimus drug exposure-response relationships in renal transplant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kanecia O.; Wu, Huali; Greenberg, Rachel; Hill, Kevin; Patel, Uptal D.; Ku, Lawrence; Gonzalez, Daniel; Hornik, Christoph; Jiang, Wenlei; Zheng, Nan; Melloni, Chiara; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Sirolimus, an immunosuppressant agent used in renal transplantation, can prevent allograft rejection. Identification of the therapeutic index (ratio of minimum toxic concentration to minimum therapeutic concentration) for immunosuppresants is necessary to optimize the care of patients and set standards for bioequivalence evaluation of sirolimus products. However, the therapeutic index for sirolimus has been inconsistently defined, potentially due to inconsistencies in sirolimus exposure-response relationships. Methods The authors used retrospective therapeutic drug monitoring data from the electronic health records of patients treated in a tertiary healthcare system from 2008 to 2014, to: 1) develop a population pharmacokinetic model, 2) use the model to simulate sirolimus concentrations, and 3) characterize the exposure-response relationship. Using Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher’s exact tests, the authors determined relationships between sirolimus exposure and adverse events (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperlipidemia, decline in renal function) and the composite efficacy endpoint of graft loss or rejection. Results The developed 2-compartment population pharmacokinetic model showed appropriate goodness of fit. In a late-phase (>12 months), post-renal transplant population of 27 inpatients, the authors identified statistically significant relationships between 83 simulated peak and trough sirolimus concentrations and outcomes: graft loss or rejection (p=0.018), and decline in renal function (p=0.006), respectively. Conclusions Use of therapeutic drug monitoring results and pharmacokinetic modeling permitted correlation of sirolimus concentrations with graft loss or rejection, and decline in renal function. However, the method was limited in its assessment of other adverse events. To better evaluate sirolimus exposure-response relationships, the method should be applied to a larger sample of newly-transplanted patients with a higher propensity

  8. Preparation of mayonnaise from extracted plant protein isolates of chickpea, broad bean and lupin flour: chemical, physiochemical, nutritional and therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Kubow, Stan; Tawalbeh, Deia

    2017-05-01

    This investigation was aimed to study the molecular, physico-chemical, and biofunctional health properties of mayonnaise prepared using proteins isolated from broad bean, lupin and chickpea flour. Proteins were isolated from chickpea (CPPI), broad bean (BBPI) and lupin (LPPI) flour and assessed for molecular, physico-chemical, biofunctional, and protein yield. The highest water holding capacity, foaming stability, emulsion stability as well as protein yield and protein content of 44.0, 70.8, 37.5, 81.2, and 36.4, respectively were observed for BBPI. Mayonnaise prepared from the isolated plant proteins was evaluated for chemical composition, molecular properties of the protein subunits, and potential nutraceutical properties. Preparation of mayonnaise using BBPI or a mixture of either BBPI and CPPI or BBPI and LPPI showed superior values for lightness and lowered values for redness. Mayonnaise prepared from either BBPI or the BBPI and CPPI mixture showed the best antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties. The present study results indicated that the use of the BBPI and CPPI mixture can be a novel technological approach for the development of a mayonnaise with improved health promoting properties.

  9. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ângelo; Duarte, Ana Paula; Pereira, Luísa; Domingues, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs), together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities. PMID:28930251

  10. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Luís

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs, together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities.

  11. Evaluation of the organoleptic properties of 'suya' produced from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was undertaken to evaluate the potential of different meat sources in producing acceptable suya when compared with the traditional beef soya in Nigeria. Five meat types viz: pork, beef, chicken, rabbit and chevon were used for this experiment. The sensory evaluation was conducted on the soya samples by a ...

  12. Evaluation of anti-cancer properties of pegylated ethosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare pegylated ethosomal Paclitaxel® by reverse phase evaporation technique, and evaluate its cytotoxic effect on SK-MEL-3 cell line. Methods: Nanodrug was prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique. The characteristics of the nanoparticles were evaluated by a zetasizer and scanning electron ...

  13. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  14. Evaluation of the pasting and some functional properties of starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... 4.25 – 5.96%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the functional properties of the starch samples. The peak viscosity ranged from 74.25 – 178.25 RVU. Starch from the local best CK had the highest peak viscosity (at a temperature of 63.80°C in 3.68 min) and TMS01/0040 had the lowest (at.

  15. Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management properties of soils of three wetland types in Akwa Ibom State were investigated. The wetland types are Inland Valley, Flood plain and Mangrove. The soils had silt/clay ratios above 0.15 and 0.25 indicating that they are of young soils. The pH of the wet soils was very slightly acidic (>6.4) while that of the ...

  16. Scanning Probe Evaluation of Electronic, Mechanical and Structural Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virwani, Kumar

    2011-03-01

    We present atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of a range of properties from three different classes of materials: mixed ionic electronic conductors, low-k dielectrics, and polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. (1) Mixed ionic electronic conductors are being investigated as novel diodes to drive phase-change memory elements. Their current-voltage characteristics are measured with direct-current and pulsed-mode conductive AFM (C-AFM). The challenges to reliability of the C-AFM method include the electrical integrity of the probe, the sample and the contacts, and the minimization of path capacitance. The role of C-AFM in the optimization of these electro-active materials will be presented. (2) Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are used in microprocessors as interlayer insulators, a role directly affected by their mechanical performance. The mechanical properties of nanoporous silicate low-k thin films are investigated in a comparative study of nanomechanics measured by AFM and by traditional nanoindentation. Both methods are still undergoing refinement as reliable analytical tools for determining nanomechanical properties. We will focus on AFM, the faster of the two methods, and its developmental challenges of probe shape, cantilever force constant, machine compliance and calibration standards. (3) Magnetic nanoparticles are being explored for their use in patterned media for magnetic storage. Current methods for visualizing the core-shell structure of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles include dye-staining the polymer shell to provide contrast in transmission electron microscopy. AFM-based fast force-volume measurements provide direct visualization of the hard metal oxide core within the soft polymer shell based on structural property differences. In particular, the monitoring of adhesion and deformation between the AFM tip and the nanoparticle, particle-by-particle, provides a reliable qualitative tool to visualize core-shell contrast without the use

  17. Mechanical properties evaluation of extruded wood polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, A. S. Syah M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Rahman, Norherman Abdul; Jais, Farhana Hazwanee M.; Fauzan, M. Zarif; Sufian, N. Afiqah

    2017-09-01

    The rapidly expanding of interest in the manufacture of composite materials from waste industrial and agricultural materials is due to high demand for environmentally friendly materials. Wood polymer composite (WPC) are being used in many type of applications such as in the automobile, electronic, aerospace industry and construction. Therefore, this research study is to determine the mechanical properties behaviour of WPC after an extended Ultra Violet (UV) irradiation exposure. The fabricated sample has been used and to be compared in this research is consists of rice husk, waste fibre and polypropylene (PP) with 4 different types of WPC which are wood block waste (WBW), wood block virgin (WBV), wood sheet (WS) and wood sheet waste (WSW). The extruded specimens were tested for mechanical properties such as strength under compression, puncture strength and impact resistance, and density. In addition, the specimen has been irradiated with the UV exposure at 5000 hours, 10000 hours and 15000 hours. Generally, the mechanical properties the WPC which made from the recycled material were lower than the WPC from virgin material but the density was comparable between the two products after UV irradiation exposure.

  18. An Experimental Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kumar, A.; Ganesan, G.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanical properties of unidirectional hybrid reinforcements formed from continuous fibres impregnated with a fibre binding material which are used for reinforcing the concrete. Recently FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) manufacturers and suppliers have been increased all over the world because of the superior performance of FRP products in the construction industry. Its non-corrosive nature has turned the attention of many researchers to make several studies on different type of FRP products. Through a vast research, several standards also have been formulated. In this regard a new combination of FRP materials is tried in this paper and its properties have been derived. Carbon fibre and glass fibres fuse in this study to form a new hybrid rebar. The design properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, and compressive strength have been studied as per ASTM standards and it has been identified that the Hybrid rebar show a superior performance in comparison with GFRP (Glass FRP) and Steel rebars. This extraordinary performance of hybrid composite material increases the extensive engineering applications such as transport industry, aeronautics, naval, automotive industries.

  19. [Establishment of animal model with B lineage acute leukemia in nude mice for evaluation of new therapeutic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-xia; Tang, Yong-min; Gu, Wei-zhong; Tang, Hong-feng; Qian, Bai-qin; Shen, Hong-qiang; Luo, Chun-fang

    2008-09-01

    To establish an acute leukemia animal model for testing new therapeutic agents in vivo. Nude mice were intraperitoneally injected with 2 mg cyclophosphamide, 24 h later 5 x 10(6) acute B-cell leukemia Nalm-6 cells was inoculated via the tail vein, then monitored daily. When animals were paralyzed or dying, the organs including the liver, spleen, lung, heart, kidney, brain, bone marrow, pancreas, testes were removed and fixed with formalin, examined by routine histopathology. After Nalm-6 cells were inoculated the mean survival of mice were( 19.4+/-0.55)d (n=6). The paralysis of mice was followed by weight loss, bent spines, hogback, cachexia and death. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor cells infiltrated liver, spleen, kidney, lung, meninges, interior cerebrum, the liver and kidney were the most affected organs. B lineage acute leukemia animal model has been successfully established in the nude mice, which is suitable for testing new therapeutic agents.

  20. Cyber stalking victimisation of women: Evaluating the effectiveness of current laws in India from restorative justice and therapeutic jurisprudential perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimisation of women through cyber stalking is one of the most serious crimes against women. Many countries including India have developed laws regulating cyber stalking. This article argues that since both, restorative justice (RJ and therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ are victim oriented, the issue of cyber stalking of women may be dealt with by RJ process and the laws in this regard must be analysed by the legal actors with a background in RJ and TJ philosophy. India had earlier taken up therapeutic punishment policy to enforce rights of the accused. But the modern principles of TJ have still not been considered in the RJ background in cyber stalking cases. This article therefore examines whether RJ and TJ principles can replace retributive principles for cyber stalking victimisation. It also examines the Indian cyber stalking law from RJ and TJ perspectives to assess its effectiveness for victims.

  1. Theoretical Evaluation and Experimental Validation of Localized Therapeutic Hypothermia Application to Preserve Residual Hearing After Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamames, Ilmar; King, Curtis; Huang, Chin-Yuh; Telischi, Fred F; Hoffer, Michael E; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2017-12-13

    Cochlear implantation surgery has been shown to result in trauma to inner ear sensory structures, resulting in loss of residual hearing. Localized therapeutic hypothermia has been shown in clinical care to be a neuroprotective intervention. Previously, we have shown in an experimental model that localized hypothermia protects cochlear hair cells and residual hearing function against surgical and cochlear implantation trauma. Using experimental temperature measurements carried out in human cadaver temporal bones and a finite element model of the inner ear, the present study examined the temperature distribution of a custom-designed hypothermia delivery system in the human inner ear organs. The efficacy of the hypothermia probe and resulting heat distribution across human cochlea and surrounding tissues were modeled in three-dimensional in COMSOL. The geometry and dimensions of inner ear and temporal bones were derived from computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging images. Model predictions were compared with experimental observations from five human temporal bones. In both the modeling and experimental studies, the cochlear temperature was lowered by 4 to 6 °C on the round window from a baseline of 37 °C within 16 to 18 minutes. The model simulations showed uniformly distributed cooling across the cochlea. This study provides insight for design, operation, and protocols for efficacious delivery of mild therapeutic hypothermia to the human cochlea that may significantly benefit patients undergoing surgical cochlear implantation by preserving residual hearing. There was a close correlation between the results of the numerical simulations and experimental observations in this study. Our custom-designed system is capable of effectively providing mild therapeutic hypothermia locally to the human cochlea. When combined with results from in vivo animal experiments, the present study suggests that the application of localized therapeutic hypothermia may hold

  2. Evaluation of Anti-trypanosomal Properties of Four Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2004-11-16

    Nov 16, 2004 ... Hence, Prosopis africana extracts possess significant anti-trypanosomal activity to warrant bioassay-guided evaluation and identification of the active principle. Keywords: Antitrypanosomal effect, Trypanosomiasis, Prosopis africana, African mesquite. *To whom correspondence should be addressed.

  3. Using network properties to evaluate targeted immunization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Shams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunization of complex network with minimal or limited budget is a challenging issue for research community. In spite of much literature in network immunization, no comprehensive research has been conducted for evaluation and comparison of immunization algorithms. In this paper, we propose an evaluation framework for immunization algorithms regarding available amount of vaccination resources, goal of immunization program, and time complexity. The evaluation framework is designed based on network topological metrics which is extensible to all epidemic spreading model. Exploiting evaluation framework on well-known targeted immunization algorithms shows that in general, immunization based on PageRank centrality outperforms other targeting strategies in various types of networks, whereas, closeness and eigenvector centrality exhibit the worst case performance.

  4. China Topsoil Stripping Suitability Evaluation Based on Soil Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yan; Wang, YuePeng; Liu, Xing; Luo, Dan; Liu, Hongman

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of topsoil stripping reuse is to provide a good cultivation platform for agricultural site conditions, namely increasing soil thickness and improving soil fertility levels. Based on soil type, using the thickness of the soil and organic matter content as criteria, the natural suitability of stripped topsoil from different regions were evaluated. The evaluation results were divided into five levels: Most suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, less suitable...

  5. [Iatrogenic biliary ducts lesions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a medical technical error or a therapeutic failure in a routinely performed procedure. A medico-legal evaluation of selected cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis is associated with a higher risk of intraoperative lesions of biliary duct in comparison to classic surgery. Technical difficulties, a limited access to operating area, the presence of cholecystic adhesions and inflammatory lesions, as well as possible anomalies or anatomical variations of the extrahepatic biliary ducts pose the risk of damaging the biliary tract. At times, laparoscopic procedures are performed by surgeons with insufficient operator skills and qualifications. The medico-legal evaluation of intraoperative damage to the biliary tract with resulting complications--the so-called "biliary damage"--is very difficult. The presented analysis included six cases of intraoperative biliary ducts lesions evaluated by the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University, Katowice. Three instances were associated with investigations carried out by public prosecutors in medical error cases, and in three others, civil cases were brought in the court, with the plaintiffs advancing a claim. While defining the scope of the management--both diagnostic, therapeutic and decision-making--in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period, attention was drawn to the prescriptive character of patient management in such cases, including indications for laparoscopic surgery, an increased potential therapeutic risk that also included a possibility of the patient developing "normal, typical" complications, referring the above factors to the scope and limits of the physician's professional and criminal liability and analyzing them to assess whether a medical error had been committed, or else the events had represented a therapeutic failure within the limits of the accepted therapeutic risk. A separate problem emphasized by the authors focused on difficulties in objective evaluation of health-associated consequences that might be defined in a tabular manner as long-term or permanent detriment to health.

  6. Design and Evaluation of Virtual Reality-Based Therapy Games with Dual Focus on Therapeutic Relevance and User Experience for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lian Ting; Fehlings, Darcy; Biddiss, Elaine

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR)-based therapy for motor rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) is growing in prevalence. Although mainstream active videogames typically offer children an appealing user experience, they are not designed for therapeutic relevance. Conversely, rehabilitation-specific games often struggle to provide an immersive experience that sustains interest. This study aims to design and evaluate two VR-based therapy games for upper and lower limb rehabilitation and to evaluate their efficacy with dual focus on therapeutic relevance and user experience. Three occupational therapists, three physiotherapists, and eight children (8-12 years old), with CP Level I-III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, evaluated two games for the Microsoft(®) (Redmond, WA) Kinect™ for Windows and completed the System Usability Scale (SUS), Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES), and custom feedback questionnaires. Children and therapists unanimously agreed on the enjoyment and therapeutic value of the games. Median scores on the PACES were high (6.24±0.95 on the 7-point scale). Therapists considered the system to be of average usability (50th percentile on the SUS). The most prevalent usability issue was detection errors distinguishing the child's movements from the supporting therapist's. The ability to adjust difficulty settings and to focus on targeted goals (e.g., elbow/shoulder extension, weight shifting) was highly valued by therapists. Engaging both therapists and children in a user-centered design approach enabled the development of two VR-based therapy games for upper and lower limb rehabilitation that are dually (a) engaging to the child and (b) therapeutically relevant.

  7. Evaluating Glucocorticoid Administration on Biomechanical Properties of Rats’ Tibial Diaphysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidouni, Mohammadjavad; Nejati, Hossein; Salimi, Maryam; Bayat, Mohammad; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Asgharie, Mohammad Ali; Rezaian, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a disease, which causes bone loss and fractures. Although glucocorticoids effectively suppress inflammation, their chronic use is accompanied by bone loss with a tendency toward secondary osteoporosis. Objectives: This study took into consideration the importance of cortical bone in the entire bone's mechanical competence. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different protocols of glucocorticoid administration on the biomechanical properties of tibial bone diaphysis in rats compared to control and low-level laser-treated rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used systematic random sampling to divide 40 adult male rats into 8 groups with 5 rats in each group. Groups were as follows: 1) control, 2) dexamethasone (7 mg/week), 3) dexamethasone (0.7 mg/week), 4) methylprednisolone (7 mg/kg/week), 5) methylprednisolone (5 mg/kg twice weekly), 6) dexamethasone (7 mg/kg three times per week), 7) dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg thrice per week), and 8) low-level laser-treated rats. The study periods were 4-7 weeks. At the end of the treatment periods, we examined the mechanical properties of tibial bone diaphysis. Data were analyzed by statistical analyses. Results: Glucocorticoid-treated rats showed weight loss and considerable mortality (21%). The biomechanical properties (maximum force) of glucocorticoid-treated rats in groups 4 (62 ± 2.9), 6 (63 ± 5.1), and 7 (60 ± 5.3) were comparable with the control (46 ± 1.5) and low-level laser-treated (57 ± 3.2) rats. Conclusions: In contrast to the findings in humans and certain other species, glucocorticoid administration caused anabolic effect on the cortical bone of tibia diaphysis bone in rats. PMID:26019900

  8. Evaluation of transport conditions for autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for therapeutic application in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are increasingly used for clinical applications in equine patients. For MSC isolation and expansion, a laboratory step is mandatory, after which the cells are sent back to the attending veterinarian. Preserving the biological properties of MSCs during this transport is paramount. The goal of the study was to compare transport-related parameters (transport container, media, temperature, time, cell concentration that potentially influence characteristics of culture expanded equine MSCs. Methods. The study was arranged in three parts comparing (I five different transport containers (cryotube, two types of plastic syringes, glass syringe, CellSeal, (II seven different transport media, four temperatures (4 °C vs. room temperature; −20 °C vs. −80 °C, four time frames (24 h vs. 48 h; 48 h vs. 72 h, and (III three MSC concentrations (5 × 106, 10 × 106, 20 × 106 MSC/ml. Cell viability (Trypan Blue exclusion; percent and total number viable cell, proliferation and trilineage differentiation capacity were assessed for each test condition. Further, the recovered volume of the suspension was determined in part I. Each condition was evaluated using samples of six horses (n = 6 and differentiation protocols were performed in duplicates. Results. In part I of the study, no significant differences in any of the parameters were found when comparing transport containers at room temperature. The glass syringe was selected for all subsequent evaluations (highest recoverable volume of cell suspension and cell viability. In part II, media, temperatures, or time frames had also no significant influence on cell viability, likely due to the large number of comparisons and small sample size. Highest cell viability was observed using autologous bone marrow supernatant as transport medium, and “transport” at 4 °C for 24 h (70.6% vs. control group 75.3%; this was not significant. Contrary, viability was unacceptably

  9. [The therapeutic properties of aloe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iena, Ia M

    1993-01-01

    Data are reported on the use of aloes in research and folk medicine. Aloes is used in the form of dry juice of aloe leaves, fluid extract, juice, ointments. The author discusses indications and contraindications to the use of aloe. Recipes are given of mixtures with aloe which may be used in domestic conditions for increasing the defensive forces of the body during radiation lesions.

  10. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the surfactant properties of ascorbyl palmitate sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Santiago; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Manzo, Ruben; Allemandi, Daniel

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we report on the physicochemical surface properties of ascorbyl palmitate (Asc16) and of its sodium salt (Asc16Na) with a view to their use as surfactants. Asc16Na was synthesized from ascorbyl palmitate by neutralizing the -OH groups in position 3 of the ascorbyl ring. The acid-base properties, thermal analysis and stability of Asc16Na monomers were determined. Self-assembling parameters of micellar aggregates in aqueous dispersions through critical micellar concentration (CMC) and critical micellar temperature (CMT) were measured. Asc16Na micellar dispersions efficiently solubilize poorly soluble drugs such as phenacetin and griseofulvin, and enhance their apparent solubility in aqueous environments. Stability tests showed that Asc16Na is more unstable than ascorbyl palmitate. Ascorbyl palmitate and its sodium salt are insoluble at room temperature in water, but their solubilities strongly depend on temperature, and largely increase above the CMT. Although Asc16Na is insoluble at room temperature, it is more soluble than Asc16, and its CMT significantly lowers in the undissociated acidic form. The apparent solubilities of phenacetin and griseofulvin are increased in Asc16Na aqueous solutions. The Asc16Na potential use as surfactant is restricted by its low stability in water, therefore the addition of some antioxidant species is necessary.

  12. Evaluation of the disintegrant and dissolution properties Of Powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracted cellulose and powder from cocoa pod husk were characterized physicochemical, their distingrant efficacy determined and compared with standard disintegrants such as maize starch and micro crystalliro cellulose. To evaluate the disintegrant and dissolution efficacy of extracted cellulose and powder from cocoa ...

  13. Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Properties of Pegylated Ethosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toxic than the free drug on SK-MEL-3 cell line, thus making it an potential alternative to the standard therapy. It is, however, necessary to evaluate ... To increase solubility, the drug is mixed with. Cremophor EL and alcohol under the trade ... Enhancement of skin penetration makes ethosomes suitable drug carriers for skin- ...

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Fertility Property of Lawsonia Inermis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional contraceptive practices and use of medicinal plants is a common occurrence in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae) roots which is the most frequently used anti-fertility agent was evaluated in rats. Apparently healthy female and male Wistar rats were used. Pre-implantation and mating ratio, ...

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation .... the animal study; the animals were cared for in accordance with the ... Table 2. Antimicrobial activities of leaves of Emex spinosa and fruits of Citrillus colocynthis. Test *. Concentration. (mg/ml). Mean zone of inhibition (mm) of microorganisms (Mean ± SEM)**. Pr.

  16. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  17. An evaluation of the physical properties and palatability of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the high price and scarcity of wheat flour in Nigeria, soybean and various other products are being evaluated with a view to finding substitute for or at least cut down on the amount of the wheat flour used in the production of confectioneries. This paper reports the result of a trial where two different levels of ...

  18. Evaluation of anticonvulsant properties of ethanol stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study is aimed at evaluating the claim of this medicinal plant part by herbalist for the treatment of epilepsy. A preliminary phytochemical screening was performed on the stem bark extract after which intraperitoneal LD50 was determined in mice. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out using Maximal ...

  19. Evaluating the effect of magnetocaloric properties on magnetic refrigeration performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology that relies on the magnetocaloric effect in a solid refrigerant. Magnetocaloric materials are in development and properties are reported regularly. Recently, there has been an emphasis...... on developing materials with a high entropy change with magnetization while placing lower emphasis on the adiabatic temperature change. This work uses model magnetocaloric materials and a numerical AMR model to predict how the temperature change and entropy change with magnetization interact and how they affect...... the performance of a practical system. The distribution of the magnetocaloric effect as a function of temperature was also studied. It was found that the adiabatic temperature change in a magnetocaloric material can be more important than the isothermal entropy change for certain conditions. A material...

  20. Evaluating mechanical properties and degradation of YTZP dental implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilla, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.sevilla@upc.edu [Biomaterials and Biomechanics Division, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (Spain); Sandino, Clara; Arciniegas, Milena [Biomaterials and Biomechanics Division, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (Spain); Martinez-Gomis, Jordi; Peraire, Maria [Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Barcelona (Spain); Gil, Francisco Javier [Biomaterials and Biomechanics Division, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    Lately new biomedical grade yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) dental implants have appeared in the implantology market. This material has better aesthetical properties than conventional titanium used for implants but long term behaviour of these new implants is not yet well known. The aim of this paper is to quantify the mechanical response of YTZP dental implants previously degraded under different time conditions and compare the toughness and fatigue strength with titanium implants. Mechanical response has been studied by means of mechanical testing following the ISO 14801 for Standards for dental implants and by finite element analysis. Accelerated hydrothermal degradation has been achieved by means of water vapour and studied by X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation tests. The results show that the degradation suffered by YTZP dental implants will not have a significant effect on the mechanical behaviour. Otherwise the fracture toughness of YTZP ceramics is still insufficient in certain implantation conditions.

  1. Rapid evaluation of particle properties using inverse SEM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.

    2017-09-01

    The characteristic X-rays produced by the interactions of the electron beam with the sample in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are usually captured with a variable-energy detector, a process termed energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The purpose of this work is to exploit inverse simulations of SEM-EDS spectra to enable rapid determination of sample properties, particularly elemental composition. This is accomplished using penORNL, a modified version of PENELOPE, and a modified version of the traditional Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear optimization algorithm, which together is referred to as MOZAIK-SEM. The overall conclusion of this work is that MOZAIK-SEM is a promising method for performing inverse analysis of X-ray spectra generated within a SEM. As this methodology exists now, MOZAIK-SEM has been shown to calculate the elemental composition of an unknown sample within a few percent of the actual composition.

  2. Rapid evaluation of particle properties using inverse SEM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Weber, Charles F [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The characteristic X-rays produced by the interactions of the electron beam with the sample in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are usually captured with a variable-energy detector, a process termed energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The purpose of this work is to exploit inverse simulations of SEM-EDS spectra to enable rapid determination of sample properties, particularly elemental composition. This is accomplished using penORNL, a modified version of PENELOPE, and a modified version of the traditional Levenberg Marquardt nonlinear optimization algorithm, which together is referred to as MOZAIK-SEM. The overall conclusion of this work is that MOZAIK-SEM is a promising method for performing inverse analysis of X-ray spectra generated within a SEM. As this methodology exists now, MOZAIK-SEM has been shown to calculate the elemental composition of an unknown sample within a few percent of the actual composition.

  3. Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for fractured rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhiming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    To represent a heterogeneous unsaturated fractured rock by its homogeneous equivalent, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain upscaled (effective) flow properties. In this study, we present a numerical procedure for upscaling the van Genuchten parameters of unsaturated fractured rocks by conducting Monte Carlo simulations of the unsaturated flow in a domain under gravity-dominated regime. The simulation domain can be chosen as the scale of block size in the field-scale modeling. The effective conductivity is computed from the steady-state flux at the lower boundary and plotted as a function of the averaging pressure head or saturation over the domain. The scatter plot is then fitted using van Genuchten model and three parameters, i.e., the saturated conductivity K{sub s}, the air-entry parameter {alpha}, the pore-size distribution parameter n, corresponding to this model are considered as the effective K{sub s}, effective {alpha}, and effective n, respectively.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Brazilian kefir-fermented milk: An in vitro evaluation of probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Meire Dos Santos Falcão de; Souza, Karoline Mirella Soares de; Albuquerque, Wendell Wagner Campos; Teixeira, José António Couto; Cavalcanti, Maria Taciana Holanda; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2017-09-01

    The therapeutic use of probiotics for supporting the antibiotic action against gastrointestinal disorders is a current trend and emerging applications have gained popularity because of their support for various microbiological activities in digestive processes. Microorganisms isolated from kefir with great probiotic properties, in addition to high resistance to harsh environmental conditions, have been widely researched. Administration of probiotic yeasts offers a number of advantages, when compared to bacteria, because of particular characteristics as their larger cell size. In the present study, 28 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, after in vitro digestion of kefir-fermented milk, and identified by molecular based approaches. A screening was performed to determine important quality requirements for probiotics including: antagonistic and antioxidant activities, β-galactosidase synthesis, autoaggregation, surface hydrophobicity and adhesion to epithelial cells. The results showed strains: with antagonistic activity against microbial pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis; able to produce β-galactosidase; with antioxidant activity levels higher than 90%; with hydrophobicity activity and autoaggregation ability (evaluated by adhesion test, where all the strains presented adhesion to mice ileal epithelial cells). These findings are relevant and the strains are recommended for further in vivo studies as well as for potential therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fructiosa extracts in Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Mulder, E.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis (as a reference) extracts were evaluated in Dutch style fermented sausages. Extracts were incorporated into sausages during preparation. The sausages were subsequently fermented, tested and compared to

  6. Evaluation of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Graptopetalum paraguayense, as a Therapeutic Treatment for Liver Damage in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen Su

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cirrhosis is rising due to the widespread occurrence of chronic hepatitis, as well as the evident lack of an established therapy for hepatic fibrosis. In the search for hepatoprotective therapeutic agents, Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP showed greater cytotoxicity toward hepatic stellate cells than other tested herbal medicines. Histopathological and biochemical analyses suggest that GP treatment significantly prevented DMN-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Microarray profiling indicated that expression of most of metabolism- and cell growth and/or maintenance-related genes recovered to near normal levels following GP treatment as classified by gene ontology and LSM analysis, was observed. ANOVA showed that expression of 64% of 256 liver damage-related genes recovered significantly after GP treatment. By examining rat liver samples with Q-RT-PCR, five liver damage-related genes were identified. Among them, Egr1 and Nrg1 may serve as necroinflammatory markers, and Btg2 may serve as a fibrosis marker. Oldr1 and Hmgcs1 were up- and down-regulated markers, respectively. A publicly accessible website has been established to provide access to these data Identification of 44 necroinflammation-related and 62 fibrosis-related genes provides useful insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage and provides potential targets for the rational development of therapeutic drugs such as GP.

  7. Development and biological evaluation of {sup 90}Y-BPAMD as a novel bone seeking therapeutic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Ali; Shamsaei, Mojtaba [Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.; Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enayati, Razieh [Islamic Azad Univ. (IAU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Engineering

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, the bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals play an important role in the treatment of the bone-related pathologies. Whereas various phosphonate ligands have already been identified, a DOTA-based bisphosphonate, 4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) -1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl (BPAMD) with better characteristics has recently been synthesized. In this study, {sup 90}Y-BPAMD was developed with radiochemical purity >98% and the specific activity of 3.52 TBq/mmol in the optimized conditions as a new bone-seeking therapeutic agent. The complex demonstrated significant stability at room temperature and in human serum even after 48 h. At even low amount of hydroxyapatite (5 mg), more than 90% binding to hydroxyapatite was observed. Biodistribution studies after injection of the complex into the Syrian rats showed major accumulation of the labelled compound in the bone tissue and an insignificant uptake in the other organs all the times after injection. Generally, {sup 90}Y-BPAMD demonstrated interesting characteristics compared to the other {sup 90}Y bone-seeking agents and even {sup 166}Ho-BPAMD, and can be considered as a new bone-seeking candidate for therapeutic applications.

  8. Shear properties evaluation of a truss core of sandwich beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, M.; Ludewicz, J.; Domski, J.; Zakrzewski, M.

    2017-10-01

    The open-cell cores of sandwich structures are locally bonded to the face layers by means of adhesive resin. The sandwich structures composed of different parent materials such as carbon fibre composites (laminated face layers) and metallic core (aluminium truss core) brings the need to closely analyse their adhesive connections which strength is dominated by the shear stress. The presented work considers sandwich beams subjected to the static tests in the 3-point bending with the purpose of estimation of shear properties of the truss core. The main concern is dedicated to the out-of plane shear modulus and ultimate shear stress of the aluminium truss core. The loading of the beam is provided by a static machine. For the all beams the force - deflection history is extracted by means of non-contact optical deflection measurement using PONTOS system. The mode of failure is identified for each beam with the corresponding applied force. A flexural rigidity of the sandwich beams is also discussed based on force - displacement plots.

  9. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J MUSA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

  10. Evaluation of the electromechanical properties of the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Cardiovascular electromechanical measurements were collected on returning Skylab crewmembers at rest and during both lower body negative pressure and exercise stress testing. These data were compared with averaged responses from multiple preflight tests. Systolic time intervals and first heart sound amplitude changes were measured. Clinical cardiovascular examinations and clinical phonocardiograms were evaluated. All changes noted returned to normal within 30 days postflight so that the processes appear to be transient and self limited. The cardiovascular system seems to adapt quite readily to zero-g, and more importantly it is capable of readaptation to one-g after long duration space flight. Repeated exposures to zero-g also appear to have no detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system.

  11. Psychometric properties of the scorable self-care evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Melinda H; Henry, Alexis D; Coster, Wendy J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine evidence for the reliability and validity of the Scorable Self-Care Evaluation (SSCE), an 18-item assessment of observed and perceived self-care performance commonly used with persons with psychiatric disabilities. As part of a longitudinal study, 70 adults with psychiatric disabilities were administered two cognitive measures, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Logical Memory subscales of the Weschler Memory Scale, at baseline, and the SSCE at follow-up. After transforming the weighted item scores, intraclass correlation coefficients were used to examine inter-rater reliability and Rasch analysis was used to examine internal consistency of the SSCE. Spearman rank-order correlations were used to examine construct validity. High interrater reliabilities were found for the four subscale scores (ICCs ranging from .96 to 1.00, p test items and scoring system.

  12. A comparative evaluation of the chelators H4octapa and CHX-A″-DTPA with the therapeutic radiometal 90Y☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Eric W.; Edwards, Kimberly J.; Carnazza, Kathryn E.; Carlin, Sean D.; Zeglis, Brian M.; Adam, Michael J.; Orvig, Chris; Lewis, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the radiolabeling performance, stability, and practical efficacy of the chelators CHX-A″-DTPA and H4octapa with the therapeutic radiometal 90Y. Methods The bifunctional chelators p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa and p-SCN-Bn-CHX-A″-DTPA were conjugated to the HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab. The resulting immunoconjugates were radiolabeled with 90Y to compare radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro and in vivo stability, and in vivo performance in a murine model of ovarian cancer. Results High radiochemical yields (>95%) were obtained with 90Y-CHX-A′-DTPA-trastuzumab and 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab after 15 min at room temperature. Both 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab and 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab exhibited excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. Furthermore, the radioimmunoconjugates displayed high tumoral uptake values (42.3 ± 4.0%ID/g for 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab and 30.1 ± 7.4%ID/g for 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab at 72 h post-injection) in mice bearing HER2-expressing SKOV3 ovarian cancer xenografts. Finally, 90Y radioimmunotherapy studies performed in tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab and 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab are equally effective therapeutic agents, as treatment with both radioimmunoconjugates yielded substantially decreased tumor growth compared to controls. Conclusions Ultimately, this work demonstrates that the acyclic chelators CHX-A″-DTPA and H4octapa have comparable radiolabeling, stability, and in vivo performance, making them both suitable choices for applications requiring 90Y. PMID:27419360

  13. Phenotype and functional evaluation of ex vivo generated antigen-specific immune effector cells with potential for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuhong; Huang, Yuju; Liang, Yin; Ho, Yuchin; Wang, Yichen; Chang, Lung-Ji

    2009-01-01

    Ex vivo activation and expansion of lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy has demonstrated great success. To improve safety and therapeutic efficacy, increased antigen specificity and reduced non-specific response of the ex vivo generated immune cells are necessary. Here, using a complete protein-spanning pool of pentadecapeptides of the latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a weak viral antigen which is associated with EBV lymphoproliferative diseases, we investigated the phenotype and function of immune effector cells generated based on IFN-γ or CD137 activation marker selection and dendritic cell (DC) activation. These ex vivo prepared immune cells exhibited a donor- and antigen-dependent T cell response; the IFN-γ-selected immune cells displayed a donor-related CD4- or CD8-dominant T cell phenotype; however, the CD137-enriched cells showed an increased ratio of CD4 T cells. Importantly, the pentadecapeptide antigens accessed both class II and class I MHC antigen processing machineries and effectively activated EBV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Phenotype and kinetic analyses revealed that the IFN-γ and the CD137 selections enriched more central memory T (Tcm) cells than did the DC-activation approach, and after expansion, the IFN-γ-selected effector cells showed the highest level of antigen-specificity and effector activities. While all three approaches generated immune cells with comparable antigen-specific activities, the IFN-γ selection followed by ex vivo expansion produced high quality and quantity of antigen-specific effector cells. Our studies presented the optimal approach for generating therapeutic immune cells with potential for emergency and routine clinical applications. PMID:19660111

  14. Pharmacologically induced mouse model of adult spinal muscular atrophy to evaluate effectiveness of therapeutics after disease onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhihua; Ling, Karen K Y; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Chunyi; Karp, Gary; Welch, Ellen M; Naryshkin, Nikolai; Ratni, Hasane; Chen, Karen S; Metzger, Friedrich; Paushkin, Sergey; Weetall, Marla; Ko, Chien-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease characterized by atrophy of muscle and loss of spinal motor neurons. SMA is caused by deletion or mutation of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and the nearly identical SMN2 gene fails to generate adequate levels of functional SMN protein due to a splicing defect. Currently, several therapeutics targeted to increase SMN protein are in clinical trials. An outstanding issue in the field is whether initiating treatment in symptomatic older patients would confer a therapeutic benefit, an important consideration as the majority of patients with milder forms of SMA are diagnosed at an older age. An SMA mouse model that recapitulates the disease phenotype observed in adolescent and adult SMA patients is needed to address this important question. We demonstrate here that Δ7 mice, a model of severe SMA, treated with a suboptimal dose of an SMN2 splicing modifier show increased SMN protein, survive into adulthood and display SMA disease-relevant pathologies. Increasing the dose of the splicing modifier after the disease symptoms are apparent further mitigates SMA histopathological features in suboptimally dosed adult Δ7 mice. In addition, inhibiting myostatin using intramuscular injection of AAV1-follistatin ameliorates muscle atrophy in suboptimally dosed Δ7 mice. Taken together, we have developed a new murine model of symptomatic SMA in adolescents and adult mice that is induced pharmacologically from a more severe model and demonstrated efficacy of both SMN2 splicing modifiers and a myostatin inhibitor in mice at later disease stages. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Brucea javanica Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwali Ablat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml. Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05 in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05 of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only activity. The GPα inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.

  16. Evaluation of electric properties of cement mortars containing pozzolans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the evolution of the microstructure of Portland cement mortar is analyzed, by using electrical impedance measurements. Cement mortars are compared without and with two pozzolanic substitutions: spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC and metakaolin (MK. The measurement method is described and the model for analyzing the electrical impedance spectra is developed. Three electrical parameters are defined: electrical resistivity, capacitance exponent, and capacitive factor. The results show a significant increase in resistivity of the mortars with pozzolans after 7 days of curing, especially in mortars with MK. This increase is correlated with lime-fixing by the pozzolans. The capacitive properties evolve differently at early age, but reach the same values after 148 days. The electrical and mineralogical data show that the evolution of the microstructure in the mortar with MK starts before it does in the mortars with FCC and that the final microstructure becomes different.

    En este trabajo se analiza la microestructura de morteros de cemento Portland, mediante medidas de impedancia eléctrica. Se comparan morteros de cemento sin y con dos sustituciones puzolánicas: residuo de catalizador de craqueo catalítico (FCC y metacaolín (MK. Se describe el método de medida y se desarrolla el modelo de análisis de los espectros de impedancia eléctrica. Se definen tres parámetros eléctricos: resistividad eléctrica, exponente capacitivo, y factor capacitivo. Se observa un aumento importante de la resistividad de los morteros con puzolana a partir de los 7 días de curado, sobre todo en morteros con MK. Este aumento está correlacionado con la fijación de cal de las puzolanas. Las propiedades capacitivas son diferentes a edad temprana, pero se igualan a los 148 días. Los resultados eléctricos y mineralógicos muestran que la evolución microestructural comienza antes en los morteros con MK que con FCC y que la microestructura

  17. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  18. Focal muscle vibration: evaluation of physical properties and his applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Camerota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibration is the sensation produced by sinusoidal oscillation of objects placed against the skin. The vibratory frequency is signaled bythe frequency of action potentials fired by the sensory nerves and the total number of active sensory nerves is linearly related to theamplitude of vibration. In the last years many works were done evaluating the different clinical applications of the focal musclevibration; the aim of this work is to analyze the interaction between the vibratory application and the skin. For this study theapparatus of focal muscle vibration analyzed was firstly calibrated by measuring the actual peak to peak displacement of the tip as afunction of the power supplied to the shaker; then were measured the Direct Component (DC of the force by which the shaker ispushed against the patient’s skin and the Alternate Component (AC. We observed that from displacements imposed by the tipranging from 0 to about 200 micrometers, the applied load increases monotonically, but non linearly, with the displacement; abovethis value, any further increase of the peak to peak displacements actually does not lead to an effective increase of the amplitude of themechanical stimulation. We can conclude that with this focal muscle vibration applied to the muscle we are able to stimulate thespindles that respond to 200 micrometers amplitude that are probably ones able to generate a proprioceptive signal.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) in a Sample of General Psychiatric Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siess, Julia; Schalast, Norbert

    2017-12-01

    The questionnaire EssenCES (Essen Climate Evaluation Schema) is a widely used instrument to assess social climate in forensic psychiatric and correctional institutions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EssenCES in a general psychiatric setting, where it had not previously been evaluated. 648 staff members and 551 patients from 47 general psychiatric wards across 16 hospitals in Germany completed the EssenCES. Factor-, correlation- and scale-analyses were carried out to inspect the questionnaire's properties. The proposed three-dimensional factor structure of the instrument was confirmed. Results indicated that the EssenCES subscales Patients' Cohesion and Experienced Safety had high internal consistency, whereas elimination of item 16 would improve the internal consistency of Therapeutic Hold. Correlations between the EssenCES subscales and other measures supported the validity of the questionnaire. The results suggest that the EssenCES is suitable for usage in general psychiatric settings. Along with its brevity, it seems useful as an economic and valid screening instrument for a ward's social climate. Reasons are given why item 16 should be retained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maj Obaseki

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the hexane .... washed with tap water to remove all debris, air-dried at room temperature (25°C) for four weeks and ...... Evaluation of in vitro anti- inflammatoryactivity of coffee against the denaturation of protein. Asian Pac. J. Trop.

  1. Physicochemical properties and biological evaluation of Yoyo bitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwuagha, H; Adegbolagun, O M; Emikpe, B O; Odeniyi, O; Ogunremi, Y

    2015-06-01

    The current widespread distribution and use of Yoyo bitters; an herbal bitters made in Nigeria calls for an assessment of its content, efficacy and extent to which this product achieves the labelled claim of being an herbal cleanser. The pH, analysis for trace metal and preliminary phytochemicals screening were assessed. In addition, the total phenolic acid content, antioxidant activity using DPPH inhibition and microbiological assay were evaluated using standard procedures. The biological effect of different doses on weight, blood glucose, haematological parameters, liver function and tissues pathology were investigated in healthy Wistar rats over a 28-day period. Yoyo bitters is a slightly acidic liquid (pH 5.46), containing 0.110 μg/L of zinc, little quantities of saponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones and cardenolides. Low total phenolic acid content (537.7 ± 22.38 mgGAE/mL), poor radical scavenging activity; DPPH IC50 of 855.27 ± 85.8 mg/mL compared with 1.27 ± 0.03 and 1.24 ± 0.02 mg/nL for gallic acid and ascorbic acid respectively. There was lack of antibacterial activity. The weight, blood glucose level and liver function were not affected, while only WBC and platelet levels were increased significantly (p = 0.003). Gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) was observed in the intestine as well as hepatic lesions with some of the treated groups. Yoyo bitters has a weak antioxidant activity, thus may not possess significant effect on the enhancement of general body health. It has immune-potentiating effect with the risk of development of hepatic degeneration.

  2. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at {sup 6}0{sup C}o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  3. Systematic in-vitro evaluation of the NCI/NIH Developmental Therapeutics Program Approved Oncology Drug Set for the identification of a candidate drug repertoire for MLL-rearranged leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeksema KA

    2011-09-01

    measurable cytotoxicity against leukemia cells, and among these, 12 were effective against all five MLL-rearranged cell lines (IC50 [half maximal inhibitory concentration] < 1 µM. These 12 agents include cladribine, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, docetaxel, etoposide, gemcitabine, mitomycin C, mitoxantrone, teniposide, topotecan, triethylenemelamine, and vinblastine. We show that the Approved Oncology Drug Set II contains a number of agents with potent antileukemic activity in the tested cell lines. As approved drugs, these agents have been used in clinical settings for many years for other malignancies, thus their toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics, and other properties are readily available. Further evaluation of their use in future clinical trials for pediatric leukemia with MLL abnormalities should be considered.Keywords: drug screening, therapeutic repertoire

  4. A discussion on the interrelationships between five properties in reservoir evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxiao Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir pore spaces (incl. pores, fractures and vugs are too complex to be predicted by use of the traditional interrelationships between the four properties of reservoirs, thus more and more contradictions occur in reservoir evaluation. A great number of case studies were made to reveal the causes of these contradictions and the corresponding solutions were also proposed. For the reservoirs with complex pore spaces, we found four common types of contradictions between porosity and permeability, porosity and water saturation, absolute permeability and effective permeability, and electrical property and hydrocarbon property. These contradictions are mainly caused by variation of pore types, pore-throat sizes and fracture occurrence. On this basis, the concept of geometrical property was presented and methods were discussed for qualitatively or quantitatively describing the geometrical properties of pores, fractures and vugs. The following findings were achieved. (1 For pores, two relationships were established between pores & throat sizes and rock textures, physical property & fluid property, and between pore types and fluid property & logging responses. (2 For fractures, five relationships were established between occurrence and pore texture index (m, radial extension and deep/shallow borehole resistivity, openness and fracture permeability, occurrence and matrix water saturation, and between development index and lithology. (3 For vugs, two relationships were established between size & connectivity and m value & three porosities derived from logging responses (neutron, density and sonic wave, and filling degree and logging responses. The interrelationships between geometrical property, lithology, physical property, fluid property and electrical property can significantly improve the evaluation of complex reservoirs such as carbonates.

  5. Benefit-Risk Assessment, Communication, and Evaluation (BRACE) throughout the life cycle of therapeutic products: overall perspective and role of the pharmacoepidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radawski, Christine; Morrato, Elaine; Hornbuckle, Kenneth; Bahri, Priya; Smith, Meredith; Juhaeri, Juhaeri; Mol, Peter; Levitan, Bennett; Huang, Han-Yao; Coplan, Paul; Li, Hu

    2015-12-01

    Optimizing a therapeutic product's benefit-risk profile is an on-going process throughout the product's life cycle. Different, yet related, benefit-risk assessment strategies and frameworks are being developed by various regulatory agencies, industry groups, and stakeholders. This paper summarizes current best practices and discusses the role of the pharmacoepidemiologist in these activities, taking a life-cycle approach to integrated Benefit-Risk Assessment, Communication, and Evaluation (BRACE). A review of the medical and regulatory literature was performed for the following steps involved in therapeutic benefit-risk optimization: benefit-risk evidence generation; data integration and analysis; decision making; regulatory and policy decision making; benefit-risk communication and risk minimization; and evaluation. Feedback from International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology members was solicited on the role of the pharmacoepidemiologist. The case example of natalizumab is provided to illustrate the cyclic nature of the benefit-risk optimization process. No single, globally adopted benefit-risk assessment process exists. The BRACE heuristic offers a way to clarify research needs and to promote best practices in a cyclic and integrated manner and highlight the critical importance of cross-disciplinary input. Its approach focuses on the integration of BRACE activities for risk minimization and optimization of the benefit-risk profile. The activities defined in the BRACE heuristic contribute to the optimization of the benefit-risk profile of therapeutic products in the clinical world at both the patient and population health level. With interdisciplinary collaboration, pharmacoepidemiologists are well suited for bringing in methodology expertise, relevant research, and public health perspectives into the BRACE process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Phenolic compounds based conjugates from dextran aldehyde and BSA: Preparation, characterization and evaluation of their anti-cancer efficacy for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sudheer; Kureel, Amit Kumar; Dutta, P K; Mehrotra, G K

    2017-11-10

    Here, we have synthesized phenolic compounds (pc) based on conjugates from dextran aldehyde (dex-ald) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and screening their potential activity as therapeutic agents in cancer disease. The synthesized conjugates were analyzed by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. UV-vis spectra of conjugates showed the shifting of spectral peak at UV to visible region revealed the enhanced conjugation due to formation of linkage. The XRD peaks of conjugates found broader and indicating the amorphous phase of conjugating materials in compared to free components. The SEM images showed that the conjugated materials having numerous pores on its surface, which proved its porous nature. The amount of phenolic compounds conjugated with (dex-ald-pc) and (BSA-pc) were found to be 65.4 and 73.91mg/g of conjugates, respectively. Cells viability was significantly decreased approximately 80-85% at concentration of 100μg conjugates whereas the free polymers or phenolics did not affect the viability of cancer cells. Generation of high quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells treated with conjugate materials, which may caused cell apoptosis in cancer cell line. The results clearly showed that conjugation of phenolic compounds were an effective method to improve the functional properties for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The application of color Doppler flow imaging in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xu-Jun; Bai, Gang; Zhang, Cai-Xia; Xu, Chao; Lu, Fu-Ding; Peng, Yang; Ma, Gang; Han, Cong-Hui; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate the correlations between hemodynamic parameters, penile rigidity grading, and the therapeutic effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors using color Doppler flow imaging after intracavernosal injection in patients with erectile dysfunction. This study involved 164 patients. After intracavernosal injection with a mixture of papaverine (60 mg), prostaglandin E 1 (10 mg), and lidocaine (2%, 0.5-1 ml), the penile vessels were assessed using color Doppler flow imaging. Penile rigidity was classified based on the Erection Hardness Score system as Grades 4, 3, 2 or 1 (corresponding to Schramek Grades V to II). Then, the patients were given oral sildenafil (50-100 mg) and scored according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. The number of patients with penile rigidities of Schramek Grades II to V was 14, 18, 21, and 111, respectively. The IIEF-5 score was positively correlated with the refilling index of the penile cavernosal artery (r = 0.79, PDoppler flow imaging may predict the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatment and could provide a reasonable model for the targeted-treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  8. Evaluation of Apelin and Insulin Resistance in Patients with PCOS and Therapeutic Effect of Drospirenone-Ethinylestradiol Plus Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianchang; Wu, Xingguo; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Xinyan; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2015-08-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of apelin and insulin resistance (IR) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to assess the possible therapeutic effect of the combined therapy of drospirenone-ethinylestradiol (DRSP-EE) combined with metformin. Sixty-three PCOS patients and 40 non-PCOS infertile patients were recruited. The fasting serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), glucose (FBG), insulin (FINS), and apelin at the early follicular phase were measured. To further investigate the relation between apelin and IR, we treated the PCOS patients with DRSP-EE (1 tablet daily, 21 d/month) plus metformin (500 mg tid) for 3 months. All of the above indices were measured again after treatment. 1) Levels of apelin, LH, LH/FSH, T, and FINS, as well as homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) in PCOS patients, were significantly higher than in the control group before treatment. 2) These indices significantly decreased after treatment with DRSP-EE plus metformin. 3) Correlation analysis showed that apelin level was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), FINS level, and HOMA-IR. Apelin level significantly increased in PCOS patients. The combined therapy of DRSP-EE plus metformin not only decreases IR, but also improves apelin level. This combination is a superior approach for PCOS treatment.

  9. Evaluation of follistatin as a therapeutic in models of skeletal muscle atrophy associated with denervation and tenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Patricio V; Lamon, Séverine; Hagg, Adam; Thomson, Rachel E; Winbanks, Catherine E; Qian, Hongwei; Bruce, Clinton R; Russell, Aaron P; Gregorevic, Paul

    2015-12-11

    Follistatin is an inhibitor of TGF-β superfamily ligands that repress skeletal muscle growth and promote muscle wasting. Accordingly, follistatin has emerged as a potential therapeutic to ameliorate the deleterious effects of muscle atrophy. However, it remains unclear whether the anabolic effects of follistatin are conserved across different modes of non-degenerative muscle wasting. In this study, the delivery of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing follistatin (rAAV:Fst) to the hind-limb musculature of mice two weeks prior to denervation or tenotomy promoted muscle hypertrophy that was sufficient to preserve muscle mass comparable to that of untreated sham-operated muscles. However, administration of rAAV:Fst to muscles at the time of denervation or tenotomy did not prevent subsequent muscle wasting. Administration of rAAV:Fst to innervated or denervated muscles increased protein synthesis, but markedly reduced protein degradation only in innervated muscles. Phosphorylation of the signalling proteins mTOR and S6RP, which are associated with protein synthesis, was increased in innervated muscles administered rAAV:Fst, but not in treated denervated muscles. These results demonstrate that the anabolic effects of follistatin are influenced by the interaction between muscle fibres and motor nerves. These findings have important implications for understanding the potential efficacy of follistatin-based therapies for non-degenerative muscle wasting.

  10. Client and therapist therapeutic alliance, session evaluation, and client reliable change: a moderated actor-partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Marmarosh, Cheri L; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) was used to study the early therapeutic alliance in 74 clients being treated by 29 therapists to explore the relationship between the alliance and treatment progress, while prioritizing the dyadic nature of the alliance. The APIM examines collaboration/influence by modeling the impact of one dyad member's alliance ratings on the other member's session impact rating (partner effects). In terms of the alliance, the results revealed significant client-actor effects for client ratings of session depth and positivity as well as significant therapist-actor effects for therapist ratings of session smoothness and positivity. For client-rated alliance, there were also significant client-partner effects for therapist ratings of session depth. For clients who made a reliable change in treatment, an increase in client-reported alliance was related to therapist reporting more arousal in the 3rd session. For clients who did not make a reliable change in treatment, client-reported alliance was not related to therapist arousal. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Evaluation of conventional therapeutic methods versus maggot therapy in the evolution of healing of tegumental injuries in Wistar rats with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Larval therapy consists on the application of sterilized carrion flies larvae, reared in laboratory, on acute, chronic, and/or infected wounds in order to promote healing. Conventional methods for treating injuries include mechanical debridement or silver-based dressings; however, they are not always effective for wound healing. Larval therapy is a feasible and safe treatment for therapeutic application and, in many cases, the only and the most recommended alternative for difficult healing injuries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the competence of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a suitable species for therapeutic application and evaluate time and effectiveness of the types of treatments most commonly used to treat integumental injuries. C. macellaria eggs were obtained from colonies established in laboratory and sterilized prior to application. Twenty-five larvae were applied for each centimeter squared of lesion. Lesions were induced in 24 Wistar rats; type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 12 of them. Animals were divided in four groups with three individuals each, being denominated: larval therapy, larval therapy associated with foam dressing with silver release, mechanical debridement with foam dressing silver and control group, without treatment. All treatments were applied once and held for 24 h. Medical application of larvae was found to be safe, as only dead tissue was removed, and efficient to accelerate healing process when compared to other treatments.

  12. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    2014-01-01

    ; (2) validity; and (3) responsiveness. Observational evaluation systems and assessment of scapular upward rotation seem suitably evidence-based for clinical use. Future studies should test and improve the clinimetric properties, and especially diagnostic accuracy and responsiveness, to increase...... excluded for evaluation due to no/few clinimetric results, leaving 35 studies for evaluation. Graded according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN checklist), the methodological quality in the reliability and validity domains was "fair" (57...

  13. An easy method to evaluate the therapeutic effects of laser therapy on port-wine stains based on DC images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the treatment effects on port-wine stains (PWSs using the red, green, and blue (RGB color measuring and analyzing system in combination with a personal computer. Methods: Twenty patients with PWSs were evaluated both by the RGB color measuring and analyzing system and by the experienced plastic surgeons through a blind test. Then, the two treatment effects were compared. Results: The mean treatment effect was 51.6 ± 24% by RGB method, ranging from 2% to 98%, and that of the clinician evaluation was 47.13 ± 24.6%, ranging from 15% to 90%. There was no significant difference in treatment effects as evaluated by both the clinicians and the RGB measuring and analyzing system method on average (P > 0.05. The subjective clinical grades correlated well with the treatment effects obtained by the proposed computer-assisted RGB measuring and analyzing system (correlation coefficient, 0.87. Conclusions: RGB color measure and analysis system could replace clinician for the evaluation of treatment effects on PWSs and it is an easy, objective, quantitative, and cost-effective method, and can be useful for the evaluation of treatment effects on PWSs.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro Evaluation, and Preclinical Profiling of beta-Cyclodextrin Polyrotaxane Families for Use As Potential Niemann-Pick Type C Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher J.

    Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC) is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorder featuring a loss of proteins responsible for unesterified cholesterol (UC) trafficking through the late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY) of every cell of the body. Disruption of this pathway leads to abnormal accumulation and storage of UC and other lipids. A broad range of visceral and neurological symptoms result from this accumulation exhibiting a variable age of onset and a disease progression that is ultimately fatal. The disease has an incidence of approximately 1 in 120,000 live births and has no known effective treatment. beta-Cyclodextrin (beta-CD) are natural small molecules macrocycles composed of glucose units with a hydrophobic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer rims. beta-CD derivatives have recently been shown to be effective therapeutics for NPC in cellular and animal models. In the mouse model of the disease, beta-CD therapy increases overall lifetime by as much as 50% and slows the progression of neurodegeneration. The progress has led to the initiation of a National Institutes of Health phase I clinical trial. A main drawback of beta-CD administration is the poor pharmacokinetic profile characterized by rapid renal clearance of the drug through the urine. Libraries of beta-CD derivative carrying high molecular weight polyrotaxane (PR) systems have been designed to prevent glomerular filtration of the injected beta-CD dose. An initial family of unmodified beta-CD PRs was synthesized, characterized, and their therapeutic efficacy was tested in NPC fibroblasts. This was followed by screening of PRs consisting of mixed beta-CD derivative threading featuring charged sulfobutylether beta-CD. Finally, we sought to define PR structure-property effects on in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, toxicity, immunogenicity, and protein hard corona composition. This was accomplished using a family of gadolinium carrying PRs composed of triblock Pluronic co-polymers of varying

  15. Evaluation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) sensitivity to heparin using five commercial reagents: implications for therapeutic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzato, F; Mengoni, A; Grilenzoni, A; Lippi, G

    1998-12-01

    Heparin is an effective drug for prevention and treatment of thromboembolic conditions. Although several biological assays have been proposed for monitoring unfractionated heparin therapy, the measurement of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is the most widely employed test, and the overall risk of thromboembolic episodes was markedly reduced by maintaining APTT ratios above 1.5. However, the adjustment of the heparin therapy on the basis of APTT presents several questions which are still unresolved. Major discrepancies were found in APTTs performed using different reagents in both ex vivo and in vitro heparinized samples and occasionally with different lots of the same reagents; poor correlation was observed between APTT values and plasma heparin concentrations. In order to gain further insights into this phenomenon, we analysed the sensitivity to heparin of five commercial reagents for APTT measurement in 19 ex vivo heparinized samples. Differences were observed; correlation coefficients ranged from 0.820 to 0.985 and slopes of linear regressions from 0.26 to 1.14. Moreover, unsatisfactory correlations were obtained when APTT ratios were compared with heparin plasma concentrations in the same patients' samples. In the heparin therapeutic range of 0.35 - 0.70 U/ml, reagent-dependent differences were observed in the corresponding APTT values. These results point out a critical role of the assay methodology in monitoring heparin therapy by APTT. We suggest that reference materials and methods should be urgently identified, a universally agreed scale for reporting results should be established and reference ranges for the unfractionated heparin therapy should be reconsidered taking on account the reagent employed.

  16. The application of color Doppler flow imaging in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Jun Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the correlations between hemodynamic parameters, penile rigidity grading, and the therapeutic effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors using color Doppler flow imaging after intracavernosal injection in patients with erectile dysfunction. This study involved 164 patients. After intracavernosal injection with a mixture of papaverine (60 mg, prostaglandin E 1 (10 mg, and lidocaine (2%, 0.5-1 ml, the penile vessels were assessed using color Doppler flow imaging. Penile rigidity was classified based on the Erection Hardness Score system as Grades 4, 3, 2 or 1 (corresponding to Schramek Grades V to II. Then, the patients were given oral sildenafil (50-100 mg and scored according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire. The number of patients with penile rigidities of Schramek Grades II to V was 14, 18, 21, and 111, respectively. The IIEF-5 score was positively correlated with the refilling index of the penile cavernosal artery (r = 0.79, P< 0.05, the peak systolic velocity (r = 0.45, P< 0.05, and penile rigidity (r = 0.75, P< 0.05, and was negatively correlated with the end diastolic velocity (r = −0.74, P< 0.05. For patients with erectile dysfunction, both the IIEF-5 score after sildenafil administration, which is correlated with penile rigidity, and the hemodynamic parameters detected using color Doppler flow imaging may predict the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatment and could provide a reasonable model for the targeted-treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  17. Comparative evaluation of influence of drugs with antioxidant effect on therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy and oxidative status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyagin V.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the study is to carry out a comparative analysis of the effect of melatonin (melaxen and of 3-hy-droxypyridine (mexidol on antitumor and antimetastatic influence of radiotherapy and oxidative status in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. Material: Experiments have been carried out on 95 mice of the line C57BI/6 and weight of 20-22 grams. Cyclophosphan has been intraabdominally administered two times in a dosage of 60mg/kg within the interval of 120 hours — 20-30 min before radiotherapy. It has been located on the area of initial tumor in a dosage of 2 Gr at the same time as cyclophosphan injection. Melaxen and mexidol have been intramuscularly injected in the dosage of 45 and 50 mg/ kg for 14 days. Antitumor and antimetastatic effect of the applied therapy and changes in the oxidative status of the animals have been estimated. The results: Melaxen and mexidol do not decrease antitumour and antimetastatic effects of radiotherapy and prevent the activation of free radical processes in animals with tumors. Mexidol has been more effective than melaxen in correction of superoxide dismutase activity in liver. The drugss under the study do not decrease radiotherapy-induced lipid peroxidation in the initial tumor. Conclusion: Melaxen and mexidol do not decrease the therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy and correct oxidative status in mice with tumor following antineoplastic treatment.

  18. Establishment of Patient-Derived Tumor Xenograft Models of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer for Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Joyce F; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Zeng, Qing; Zhou, Shan; Ivanova, Elena; Huang, Wei; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Selfors, Laura M; Shen, Yiping; Pritchard, Colin C; Zheng, Mei; Adleff, Vilmos; Papp, Eniko; Piao, Huiying; Novak, Marian; Fotheringham, Susan; Wulf, Gerburg M; English, Jessie; Kirschmeier, Paul T; Velculescu, Victor E; Paweletz, Cloud; Mills, Gordon B; Livingston, David M; Brugge, Joan S; Matulonis, Ursula A; Drapkin, Ronny

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the United States, with high rates of recurrence and eventual resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Model systems that allow for accurate and reproducible target discovery and validation are needed to support further drug development in this disease.Experimental Design: Clinically annotated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were generated from tumor cells isolated from the ascites or pleural fluid of patients undergoing clinical procedures. Models were characterized by IHC and by molecular analyses. Each PDX was luciferized to allow for reproducible in vivo assessment of intraperitoneal tumor burden by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Plasma assays for CA125 and human LINE-1 were developed as secondary tests of in vivo disease burden.Results: Fourteen clinically annotated and molecularly characterized luciferized ovarian PDX models were generated. Luciferized PDX models retain fidelity to both the nonluciferized PDX and the original patient tumor, as demonstrated by IHC, array CGH, and targeted and whole-exome sequencing analyses. Models demonstrated diversity in specific genetic alterations and activation of PI3K signaling pathway members. Response of luciferized PDX models to standard-of-care therapy could be reproducibly monitored by BLI or plasma markers.Conclusions: We describe the establishment of a collection of 14 clinically annotated and molecularly characterized luciferized ovarian PDX models in which orthotopic tumor burden in the intraperitoneal space can be followed by standard and reproducible methods. This collection is well suited as a platform for proof-of-concept efficacy and biomarker studies and for validation of novel therapeutic strategies in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(5); 1263-73. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of hypoglycemic properties of the root extract of Uveria chamae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emordi Jonathan Emeka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties and preliminary phytochemical screening of Uveria chamae. The hypoglycaemic properties of Uveria chamae was assessed on normoglycaemic rat that received single dose of the extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight and blood glucose levels estimated at 2, 4, and 6 hours (single dose study. The hypoglycaemic property of the extract was also evaluated in normoglycemic rats by oral glucose tolerance test. Phytochemical screening of the extract for the presence of secondary metabolites was performed with standard methods. The extract showed a significant (p<0.05 reduction in blood glucose levels at 2h and 6h compared to control. The oral glucose tolerance test result also showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels . The study showed that the extract, Uveria chamae has hypoglycaemic properties which may be accounted for by the presence of the phytochemicals.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Spanish Version of the Therapeutic Alliance with Clinician (TAC) Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Luis E.; Paris, Manuel Jr.; Anez, Luis M.; Shahar, Golan; Davidson, Larry

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader study aimed at evaluating perceived alliance with service providers and level of satisfaction with services received, 103 monolingual Spanish speaking Hispanic women were interviewed. Participants were receiving ongoing behavioral health treatment at three different community service provider sites located in the greater New…

  1. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Ashoke K. Sarkar; Umesh Mishra

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio), Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA) and stone aggregate (SA) have been mixed in different ratios ...

  2. Evaluation of the 2039 keV level property in {sup 124}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakura, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    One of the purposes of the mass chain evaluation is to provide reliable level properties of isobars based on available experimental data. In the work of A=124 mass chain evaluation, we have faced some confusing data relating to confirming the level properties of the 2039 keV level in {sup 124}Te: (1) inconsistent intensity ratios of emitted gamma rays between reaction gamma ray and decay gamma ray data, (2) placement of 2039 keV gamma ray transition and (3) gamma ray angular correlation data relating to the level. In the evaluation work, we have to reconcile the confusing data and to provide the adopted ones derived from the available data. In this report, the problems relating to the level properties are described and the reanalyses of the measured data are presented for providing the adopted data. (author)

  3. An in-vitro evaluation of mechanical and esthetic properties of orthodontic sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaraj, Thyagaseely Sheela; Rohani, Nima; Covey, David; Premaraj, Sundaralingam; Hua, Yi; Watanabe, Hidehiko

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate mechanical and esthetic Properties of two commercially available orthodontic sealants: Opal(®)Seal (OS) and L.E.D. Pro Seal (PS). Discs of each sealant were prepared to test the following properties: Micro hardness, wear resistance and color stability. Samples were randomly selected after the wear test for SEM imaging to analyze surface morphology. OS was significantly harder than PS (P sealants are beneficial for protecting enamel. However with better wear properties PS was superior in resisting mechanical stresses. OS was more color stable.

  4. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants.

  5. Evaluation of statistical and geostatistical models of digital soil properties mapping in tropical mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir de Carvalho Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties have an enormous impact on economic and environmental aspects of agricultural production. Quantitative relationships between soil properties and the factors that influence their variability are the basis of digital soil mapping. The predictive models of soil properties evaluated in this work are statistical (multiple linear regression-MLR and geostatistical (ordinary kriging and co-kriging. The study was conducted in the municipality of Bom Jardim, RJ, using a soil database with 208 sampling points. Predictive models were evaluated for sand, silt and clay fractions, pH in water and organic carbon at six depths according to the specifications of the consortium of digital soil mapping at the global level (GlobalSoilMap. Continuous covariates and categorical predictors were used and their contributions to the model assessed. Only the environmental covariates elevation, aspect, stream power index (SPI, soil wetness index (SWI, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and b3/b2 band ratio were significantly correlated with soil properties. The predictive models had a mean coefficient of determination of 0.21. Best results were obtained with the geostatistical predictive models, where the highest coefficient of determination 0.43 was associated with sand properties between 60 to 100 cm deep. The use of a sparse data set of soil properties for digital mapping can explain only part of the spatial variation of these properties. The results may be related to the sampling density and the quantity and quality of the environmental covariates and predictive models used.

  6. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy in mice using in vivo apoptosis bioimaging with a caspase-3 sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Won; Singh, Thoudam Debraj; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Jeon, Young Hyun; Lee, Jaetae

    2014-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment, and caspase-3 is an important effector molecule in NK cell-mediated apoptosis in cancers. Here, we evaluated the antitumor effects of NK cell-based immunotherapy by serial noninvasive imaging of apoptosis using a caspase-3 sensor in mice with human glioma xenografts. Human glioma cells expressing both a caspase-3 sensor as a surrogate marker for caspase-3 activation and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) as a surrogate marker for cell viability were established and referred to as D54-CR cells. Human NK92 cells were used as effector cells. Treatment with NK92 cells resulted in a time- and effector number-dependent increase in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) activity of the caspase-3 sensor in D54-CR cells in vitro. Caspase-3 activation by NK92 treatment was blocked by Z-VAD treatment in D54-CR cells. Transfusion of NK92 cells induced an increase of the BLI signal by caspase-3 activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in D54-CR tumor-bearing mice but not in PBS-treated mice. Accordingly, sequential BLI with the Rluc reporter gene revealed marked retardation of tumor growth in the NK92-treatment group but not in the PBS-treatment group. These data suggest that noninvasive imaging of apoptosis with a caspase-3 sensor can be used as an effective tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy as well as for optimization of NK cell-based immunotherapy.-Lee, H. W., Singh, T. D., Lee, S.-W., Ha, J.-H., Rehemtulla, A., Ahn, B.-C., Jeon, Y.-H., Lee, J. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy in mice using in vivo apoptosis bioimaging with a caspase-3 sensor. © FASEB.

  7. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of a VEGFR2-blocking antibody using sodium-iodide symporter molecular imaging in a tumor xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Su-Jin; Lee, Chang-Moon; Kim, Eun-Mi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Tai-Boong [Faculty of Biological Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju-si, jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan-Jeong, E-mail: jayjeong@chonbuk.ac.k [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-blocking antibody (DC101) has inhibitory effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene has been shown to be a useful molecular imaging reporter gene. Here, we investigated the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy by molecular imaging in reporter gene transfected tumor xenografts using a gamma imaging system. Methods: The hNIS gene was transfected into MDA-MB-231 cells using Lipofectamine. The correlation between the number of MDA-MB-231-hNIS cells and the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate or {sup 125}I was investigated in vitro by gamma imaging and counting. MDA-MB-231-hNIS cells were injected subcutaneously into mice. When the tumor volume reached 180-200 mm{sup 3}, we randomly assigned five animals to each of three groups representing different tumor therapies; no DC101 (control), 100 {mu}g, or 150 {mu}g DC101/mouse. One week and 2 weeks after the first injection of DC101, gamma imaging was performed. Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after the first injection of DC101. The tumor tissues were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and CD31 staining. Results: Uptake of {sup 125}I and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate into MDA-MB-231-hNIS cells in vitro showed correlation with the number of cells. In DC101 treatment groups, the mean tumor volume was smaller than that of the control mice. Furthermore, tumor uptake of {sup 125}I was lower than in the controls. The CD31 staining and RT-PCR assay results showed that vessel formation and expression of the hNIS gene were significantly reduced in the tumor tissues of treatment groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the power of molecular imaging using a gamma imaging system for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of an antitumor treatment. Molecular imaging systems may be useful in evaluation and development of effective diagnostic and/or therapeutic antibodies for specific target molecules.

  8. Evaluation of carbonic anhydrase IX as a therapeutic target for inhibition of breast cancer invasion and metastasis using a series of in vitro breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol; Meehan, James; Mullen, Peter; Supuran, Claudiu; Dixon, J Michael; Thomas, Jeremy S; Winum, Jean-Yves; Lambin, Philippe; Dubois, Ludwig; Pavathaneni, Nanda-Kumar; Jarman, Edward J; Renshaw, Lorna; Um, In Hwa; Kay, Charlene; Harrison, David J; Kunkler, Ian H; Langdon, Simon P

    2015-09-22

    Triple negative, resistant or metastatic disease are major factors in breast cancer mortality, warranting novel approaches. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is implicated in survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and inhibition provides an innovative therapeutic strategy. The efficacy of 5 novel ureido-substituted sulfamate CAIX inhibitors were assessed in increasingly complex breast cancer models, including cell lines in normoxia and hypoxia, 3D spheroids and an ex-vivo explant model utilizing fresh biopsy tissue from different breast cancer subtypes. CAIX expression was evaluated in a tissue microarray (TMA) of 92 paired lymph node and primary breast cancers and 2 inhibitors were appraised in vivo using MDA-MB-231 xenografts. FC11409B, FC9398A, FC9403, FC9396A and S4 decreased cell proliferation and migration and inhibited 3D spheroid invasion. S4, FC9398A and FC9403A inhibited or prevented invasion into collagen. FC9403A significantly reversed established invasion whilst FC9398A and DTP348 reduced xenograft growth. TMA analysis showed increased CAIX expression in triple negative cancers. These data establish CAIX inhibition as a relevant therapeutic goal in breast cancer, targeting the migratory, invasive, and metastatic potential of this disease. The use of biopsy tissue suggests efficacy against breast cancer subtypes, and should provide a useful tool in drug testing against invasive cancers.

  9. The evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of a macromolecular dexamethasone prodrug in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lingdong; Zhang, Yijia; Dusad, Anand; Ren, Ke; Purdue, P. Edward; Goldring, Steven R.; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the efficacy and safety of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-dexamethasone conjugate (P-Dex) in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. METHODS HPMA copolymer labeled with a near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye was administered to mice with CIA to validate its passive targeting to inflamed joints and utility as a drug carrier system. The CIA mice were treated with P-Dex, dexamethasone (Dex) or saline and the therapeutic efficacy and skeletal toxicity evaluated using clinical scoring and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT). RESULTS The NIRF signal of the HPMA copolymer localized to arthritic joints consistent with its passive targeting to sites of inflammation. While the CIA mice responded more rapidly to P-Dex compared to Dex, the final clinical score and endpoint µ-CT analyses of localized bone erosions indicated that both single dose P-Dex and dose equivalent daily Dex led to comparable clinical efficacy after 30 days. µ-CT analysis of the proximal tibial metaphyses showed that P-Dex treatment was associated with significantly higher BMD and BV/TV compared to Dex and the saline control, consistent with reduced glucocorticoid (GC) skeletal toxicity. CONCLUSION These results validate the therapeutic efficacy of P-Dex in the CIA mouse model. P-Dex treatment averted the adverse effects of GC’s on systemic bone loss, supporting its utility in clinical development for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26286188

  10. Identification of enhanced cytokine generation following sepsis. Dream of magic bullet for mortality prediction and therapeutic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hamishehkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: sepsis is one of the most widespread and lethal disease in Intensive Care Units (ICU. Based on pathophisyology of sepsis, it seems that routine laboratory tests combined with analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels, help clinicians to have more information about disease progress and its correct management. "nMethods:This was a prospective observational study to determine the predictive role of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 as three main pro-inflammatory cytokines and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA as two scoring systems in mortality of critically ill patients with severe sepsis. Fifty and five patients with criteria of severe sepsis were included in this study. An exclusion criterion was post Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR status. Cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were assayed in the first, third and seventh days in blood of patients. Results and major conclusion:Among three measured cytokines, sequential levels of TNF-α and IL-6 showed significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors. IL-6 had a good correlation with outcome and scoring systems during the period of this study. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve indicated that APACHE II (0.858, 0.848, 0.861 and IL-6 (0.797, 0.799, 0.899 had discriminative power in prediction of mortality during sequental measured days. Multiple logestic regression analysis identified that evaluation of APACHE II and TNF-α in the first day and APACHE II and IL-6 in the third and seventh days of severe septic patients are independent outcome predictors. Results of this study suggest that IL-6 and APACHE II are useful cytokine and scoring systems respectively in prediction of mortality and clinical evaluation of severe septic patients.

  11. Treatment of vitiligo using targeted UVB-Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)- phototherapy: evaluation of variables affecting therapeutic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anke; Schmidt-Habel, Anne; Löhberg, Lisa; Zajitschek, Jörg; Englbrecht, Matthias; Eichner, Saskia; Schuler, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Targeted UVB intense pulsed light (IPL)-phototherapy has gained interest for repigmentation of vitiligo as it allows selective treatment, sparing the surrounding skin. However, optimal treatment frequency and duration are not known. We compared the efficacy and safety of two treatment protocols, weekly and every two weeks, for a maximum of 12 months. Variables affecting treatment response were evaluated. 22 patients (16 female, 6 male; aged 15 - 67 years) with generalised vitiligo were evaluated retrospectively. UVB-IPL had been administered weekly (13 patients, group A), or every second week (9 patients, group B). In cases of no response, treatment stopped after 6 months. Regimentation was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. After 6 months, 12/13 patients (A), 3/9 patients (B) showed repigmentation. Due to lack of success, treatment was stopped after 6 months in 1 group A patient and 6/9 group B patients. After 12 months, lesions on the face and trunk in group A showed a mean of 70 ± 27% and 60 ± 29% repigmentation, respectively. Moderate to good repigmentation was seen in 78% of group A patients on the ulnar region on the forearms and the shins. Side effects were minimal. Treatment success depended on treatment frequency, number of treatments and the anatomical site of lesions. UVB-IPL phototherapy seems to be effective and well-tolerated in non-segmental vitiligo. A treatment frequency of weekly intervals rather than every two weeks appears preferable. Our observations will help in designing a sufficiently powered prospective clinical trial to test this hypothesis.

  12. Deep tissue single cell MSC ablation using a fiber laser source to evaluate therapeutic potential in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Pendleton, Emily G.; Lin, Charles P.; Mortensen, Luke J.

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a currently uncurable disease where a mutation in collagen type I yields brittle bones. One potential therapy is transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but controlling and enhancing transplanted cell survival has proven challenging. Therefore, we use a 2- photon imaging system to study individual transplanted cells in the living bone marrow. We ablated cells deep in the bone marrow and observed minimal collateral damage to surrounding tissue. Future work will evaluate the local impact of transplanted MSCs on bone deposition in vivo.

  13. Hospital drug and therapeutics committees in Australia: is there a role for economic evaluation at the institutional level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Gisselle

    2011-12-01

    Decisions about spending on medicines occur at different levels in the Australian health care system. This commentary describes the role of economic evaluation at the institutional (public hospital) level. In contrast to the decisions taken at the level of Federal subsidy (listing on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme) formal pharmacoeonomic data analyses are usually not available, and arguably often not relevant to decision making within the public hospital setting. Future research is needed to develop and explore models of best practice and how to incorporate pharmacoeconomic evidence into local decisions.

  14. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  15. Quantitative evaluation of leg lymphedema by MR imaging. Estimation of therapeutic effect by intra-arterial injection of lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makimoto, Yumi; Harada, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Nishitani, Hiromu; Yoshizumi, Masanori; Yoshida, Osamu; Katoh, Itsuo [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain characteristic findings of lymphedema and reactions after intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy by MRI and to evaluate quantitatively effect of intra-arterial lymphocytes injection. Five patients were treated by several intra-arterial lymphocytes injections. We measured T{sub 2} value on edematous tissue using triple echo sequence and shot TI IR (STIR) images to assess the extent of lymphedema. MRI was measured before and after each intra-arterial lymphocytes injection. Mean T{sub 2} and standard deviation (SD) of T{sub 2} distribution were obtained from T{sub 2}-calculated images. Characteristic findings of lymphedema were the thickening of subcutaneous, meshed pattern of fluid, thickening of skin, and fluid on the fascia. After therapy, thickness of subcutaneous tissue and meshed pattern were greatly decreased, but thickening of skin and fluid on the fascia still remained. Mean T{sub 2} and SD of T{sub 2} in edematous tissue were much higher than those of normal tissue. Both of them decreased extremely after therapy on improved cases but did not change on less effective cases. STIR could differentiate water from adipose tissue and clearly indicated the distribution of water. Mean T{sub 2} and SD of T{sub 2} distribution were useful to indicate evaluation of lymphedema and assessment of therapy. (author).

  16. Optimization and characterization of a murine lung infection model for the evaluation of novel therapeutics against Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Bieke; Cappoen, Davie; Maira, Bidart de Macedo; Cools, Freya; Torfs, Eveline; Coenye, Tom; Martinet, Wim; Caljon, Guy; Maes, Louis; Delputte, Peter; Cos, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Several B. cenocepacia mouse models are available to study the pulmonary infection by this Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) species. However, a characterized B. cenocepacia mouse model to evaluate the efficacy of potential new antibacterial therapies is not yet described. Therefore, we optimized and validated the course of infection (i.e. bacterial proliferation in lung, liver and spleen) and the efficacy of a reference antibiotic, tobramycin (TOB), in a mouse lung infection model. Furthermore, the local immune response and histological changes in lung tissue were studied during infection and treatment. A reproducible lung infection was observed when immunosuppressed BALB/c mice were infected with B. cenocepacia LMG 16656. Approximately 50 to 60% of mice infected with this BCC species demonstrated a dissemination to liver and spleen. TOB treatment resulted in a two log reduction in lung burden, prevented dissemination of B. cenocepacia to liver and spleen and significantly reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines. As this mouse model is characterized by a reproducible course of infection and efficacy of TOB, it can be used as a tool for the in vivo evaluation of new antibacterial therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. N-O-isopropyl sulfonamido-based hydroxamates: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of selective matrix metalloproteinase-13 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Elisa; Casalini, Francesca; Avramova, Stanislava I; Santamaria, Salvatore; Cercignani, Giovanni; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Nencetti, Susanna; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Martinelli, Adriano; Lim, Ngee-Han; Visse, Robert; Nagase, Hideaki; Rossello, Armando

    2009-08-13

    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) is a key enzyme implicated in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in osteoarthritis (OA). For this reason, MMP-13 synthetic inhibitors are being sought as potential therapeutic agents to prevent cartilage degradation and to halt the progression of OA. Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a new series of selective MMP-13 inhibitors possessing an arylsulfonamidic scaffold. Among these potential inhibitors, a very promising compound was discovered exhibiting nanomolar activity for MMP-13 and was highly selective for this enzyme compared to MMP-1, -14, and TACE. This compound acted as a slow-binding inhibitor of MMP-13 and was demonstrated to be effective in an in vitro collagen assay and in a model of cartilage degradation. Furthermore, a docking study was conducted for this compound in order to investigate its binding interactions with MMP-13 and the reasons for its selectivity toward MMP-13 versus other MMPs.

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroška Ján

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes using statistical methods from the viewpoint of the quality of single wires as well as the internal construction of the wire ropes. The evaluation is based on the loading capacity calculated from the strength, number of folds and torsions. For the better ilustration, a box plot has been constructed.

  19. Evaluation of Wedged Arterial Injection as a New Technique for Delivery of Experimental Therapeutic Sustances into the Porcine Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Latorre

    2011-01-01

    Materials and Methods. Selective angiographies were completed in ten pigs under general anaesthesia. By superselective angiography, the catheter was inserted and wedged into the major pancreatic artery, blocking the blood flow. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the WAI method, a DNA-specific fluorescent dye (Hoechst 33258 was used. Results. Histological study revealed a uniform distribution of the fluorescent dye within the nuclei of the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic cells. Pancreatic and liver enzymes as well as histopathology of the pancreas were normal. Conclusion. WAI is a highly effective minimally invasive methodology to target the porcine pancreas. The findings suggest that WAI may contribute to developing preclinical assays of pancreas gene or cell-transfer therapies in swine model.

  20. Evaluation of physio-chemical properties of saliva and comparison of its relation with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Subha; Bhayya, Deepak; Arora, Ruchi; Singh, Deepesh; Thakur, Dashmesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the relationship between physio-chemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, buffering capacity, pH, Streptococcus mutans in saliva and its relationship with dental caries. Eighty children were evaluated for physio-chemical properties of saliva, out which 40 were caries-active (group 1) and 40 caries-free (control group). Caries status of each child was scored by using DMFS and dfs indices to get a combined DMFS and dfs score. The physio-chemical properties were evaluated using Saliva Check (GC Asia Dental Pte Ltd- India) and streptococcus mutans using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity of saliva in caries-active children were decreased but not statistically significant. The Streptococcus mutant count of saliva was increased significantly in caries-active children. The physio-chemical properties of saliva like pH, buffering capacity, salivary flow rate, concentration of various components like proteins, calcium and antioxidant defense system play a major role in the development of caries. Hence, more clinical and laboratory studies are needed to determine the exact relationship between these physio-chemical properties of saliva and dental caries.

  1. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedre Kasparaviciene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically. Physical properties of lipsticks melting point were determined in a glass tube; the hardness was investigated with texture analyzer. Sensory analysis was performed with untrained volunteers. The optimized mixture of sea buckthorn oil and grapeseed oil mixture ratio 13.96 : 6.18 showed the highest antioxidative activity (70±0.84% and was chosen for lipstick formulation. According to the sensory and instrumental analysis results, optimal ingredients amounts for the lipstick were calculated: 57.67% mixture of oils, 19.58% beeswax, and 22.75% cocoa butter. Experimentally designed and optimized lipstick formulation had good physical properties and high scored sensory evaluation. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between sensory and instrumental evaluations.

  2. Optical/Dielectric Properties of Inhomogeneous Optical Material: A New Method of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Lamb, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    A new method, based on Effective mean Field Theory, is proposed for the evaluation of the optical/dielectric properties of inhomogeneous materials, in which the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function are determined by solving a simultaneous non-linear equation.

  3. Evaluation of the suspening property of Grewia gum in zinc oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in zinc oxide suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for zinc oxide. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  4. Evaluation of the role of rock properties in the development of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 1. Evaluation of the role of rock properties in the development of potholes: A case study of the Indrayani knickpoint, Maharashtra. Somasis Sengupta Vishwas S Kale. Volume 120 Issue 1 February 2011 pp 157-165 ...

  5. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  6. A decision framework to evaluate intellectual property strategies in the medical nutrition market.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, T.C.; Jentink, A.W.; Pronker, E.S.; Commandeur, H.R.; Claassen, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the medical nutrition (MN) market, insights into the motives driving intellectual property (IP) protection strategies remain unclear. This emerging market has expressed the pressing need for clarity on the subject of applicable IP methods. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the role

  7. A decision framework to evaluate intellectual property strategies in the medical nutrition market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, T.C.; Jentink, A.; Commandeur, H.R.; Pronker, E.S.; Claassen, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the medical nutrition (MN) market, insights into the motives driving intellectual property (IP) protection strategies remain unclear. This emerging market has expressed the pressing need for clarity on the subject of applicable IP methods. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the role

  8. Time-Varying Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbines Evaluated by Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Andersen, J. K. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    resonance of the wind turbine structure. In this paper, free vibration tests and a numerical Winkler type approach are used to evaluate the dynamic properties of a total of 30 offshore wind turbines located in the North Sea. Analyses indicate time-varying eigenfrequencies and damping ratios of the lowest...

  9. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Savickas, Arunas; Kalveniene, Zenona; Velziene, Saule; Kubiliene, Loreta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically. Physical properties of lipsticks melting point were determined in a glass tube; the hardness was investigated with texture analyzer. Sensory analysis was performed with untrained volunteers. The optimized mixture of sea buckthorn oil and grapeseed oil mixture ratio 13.96 : 6.18 showed the highest antioxidative activity (70 ± 0.84%) and was chosen for lipstick formulation. According to the sensory and instrumental analysis results, optimal ingredients amounts for the lipstick were calculated: 57.67% mixture of oils, 19.58% beeswax, and 22.75% cocoa butter. Experimentally designed and optimized lipstick formulation had good physical properties and high scored sensory evaluation. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between sensory and instrumental evaluations.

  10. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İlker; Yayla, Zeliha

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose. The physical properties of clay samples were assessed after firing pressed clay samples separately at temperatures of 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C. A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument (Proceq Pundit Lab) was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples. The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples, the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Martine; Visser, Adriaan; Eybrechts, Maggie; van Komen, Rob; Oen, Irma; Olff, Miranda; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han

    2012-12-01

    Evaluation of therapeutic touch (TT) in the nursing of burn patients; post hoc evaluation of the research process in a non-academic nursing setting. 38 burn patients received either TT or nursing presence. On admission, days 2, 5 and 10 of hospitalization, data were collected on anxiety for pain, salivary cortisol, and pain medication. Interviews with nurses were held concerning research in a non-academic setting. Anxiety for pain was more reduced on day 10 in the TT-group. The TT-group was prescribed less morphine on day 1 and 2. On day 2 cortisol level before dressing changes was higher in the TT-group. The situational challenges of this study led to inconsistencies in data collection and a high patient attrition rate, weakening its statistical power. Conducting an effect study within daily nursing practice should not be done with a nursing staff inexperienced in research. Analysis of the remaining data justifies further research on TT for burn patients with pain, anxiety for pain, and cortisol levels as outcomes. Administering and evaluating TT during daily care requires nurses experienced both in TT and research, thus leading to less attrition and missing data, increasing the power of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching

  13. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working

  14. Evaluation of Debaryomyces hansenii for Potential Probiotic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochangco, Honeylet Sabas

    Probiotics are defined as living organisms that benefit the host when administered, and the use of probiotics to prevent or treat intestinal disorders is supported by a large body of literature. Probiotics enhance host health via multiple mechanisms, including stimulating immunity, inhibiting...... studied as a probiotic. The clinical activity of S. boulardii is especially relevant to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and recurrent Clostridium difficile intestinal infections (Czerucka, Piche, and Rampal 2007), and this yeast is used in many countries as both a preventive and therapeutic agent...... for diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders because it is not affected by the administration of antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, S. boulardii possesses many properties of a probiotic organism. For example, it survives transit through the GI tract, it can grow at a temperature of 37 °C...

  15. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiki, Josna Vinutha; Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103.

  16. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (α-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination

  17. Evaluation of MYBPC3 trans-Splicing and Gene Replacement as Therapeutic Options in Human iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Prondzynski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a promising option for severe forms of genetic diseases. We previously provided evidence for the feasibility of trans-splicing, exon skipping, and gene replacement in a mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM carrying a mutation in MYBPC3, encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C. Here we used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs from an HCM patient carrying a heterozygous c.1358-1359insC MYBPC3 mutation and from a healthy donor. HCM hiPSC-CMs exhibited ∼50% lower MYBPC3 mRNA and cMyBP-C protein levels than control, no truncated cMyBP-C, larger cell size, and altered gene expression, thus reproducing human HCM features. We evaluated RNA trans-splicing and gene replacement after transducing hiPSC-CMs with adeno-associated virus. trans-splicing with 5′ or 3′ pre-trans-splicing molecules represented ∼1% of total MYBPC3 transcripts in healthy hiPSC-CMs. In contrast, gene replacement with the full-length MYBPC3 cDNA resulted in ∼2.5-fold higher MYBPC3 mRNA levels in HCM and control hiPSC-CMs. This restored the cMyBP-C level to 81% of the control level, suppressed hypertrophy, and partially restored gene expression to control level in HCM cells. This study provides evidence for (1 the feasibility of trans-splicing, although with low efficiency, and (2 efficient gene replacement in hiPSC-CMs with a MYBPC3 mutation.

  18. Potential therapeutic benefit of C1-esterase inhibitor in neuromyelitis optica evaluated in vitro and in an experimental rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukmanee Tradtrantip

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies (NMO-IgG to astrocytes causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and inflammation resulting in oligodendrocyte and neuronal injury. There is compelling evidence for a central role of complement in NMO pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the potential of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh for complement-targeted therapy of NMO. C1-inh is an anti-inflammatory plasma protein with serine protease inhibition activity that has a broad range of biological activities on the contact (kallikrein, coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement systems. C1-inh is approved for therapy of hereditary angioedema (HAE and has been studied in a small safety trial in acute NMO relapses (NCT 01759602. In vitro assays of NMO-IgG-dependent CDC showed C1-inh inhibition of human and rat complement, but with predicted minimal complement inhibition activity at a dose of 2000 units in humans. Inhibition of complement by C1-inh was potentiated by ∼10-fold by polysulfated macromolecules including heparin and dextran sulfate. In rats, intravenous C1-inh at a dose 30-fold greater than that approved to treat HAE inhibited serum complement activity by <5%, even when supplemented with heparin. Also, high-dose C1-inh did not reduce pathology in a rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of NMO-IgG. Therefore, although C1r and C1s are targets of C1-inh, our in vitro data with human serum and in vivo data in rats suggest that the complement inhibition activity of C1-inh in serum is too low to confer clinical benefit in NMO.

  19. Evaluation of larval density Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for therapeutic use in the recovery of tegumentar injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassu, Mariana Prado; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-09-01

    Larval therapy (LT) is the application of carrion flies (Diptera) sterile larvae on chronic or infected wounds to promote or accelerate the healing process. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. This study evaluated the behavior and larval density of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Calliphoridae), one of the most appropriate species for debridement of injuries with necrotic tissue. Tegumentar lesions were induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneously application of 0.2 ml of a 1:4 hydrochloric acid and sterile distilled water in the dorsal region. Five experimental groups were set up: (LT 5) treatment with 5 larvae/cm(2); (LT 15) 15 larvae/cm(2); (LT 25) 25 larvae/cm(2); (DEB) mechanical debridement, and (NUL) animals that did not receive any treatment. In the LT groups, larvae used were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and maintained for 12 h in the lesions. The healing process was assessed qualitatively (macroscopically and microscopically) and quantitatively (time interval to complete healing). It was observed that the immature fed only on necrotic tissue, thus C. macellaria is an excellent candidate for use in LT. There was no significant difference in healing time between experimental groups. However, it was observed that in LT 25, there was greater vascularization in tissues when compared to the other treatments. The mechanisms involved in this process are unknown, but it is evident that the larvae have an important role in modulating the host immune response. It is essential that future applications of larval therapy consider using a higher density of larvae (minimum of 25 larvae/cm(2)) than is currently recommended.

  20. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Associated with Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl.: New Therapeutic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga Filho, Amaro L N; Carneiro, Vanda S M; Souza, Emmanuel A; Santos, Ravely L; Catão, Maria Helena C V; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia D

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the photodynamic potential of extracts of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. on bacteria involved in several human infections. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the interaction of light with an appropriate and photosensitizer wavelength, and the prospect of existing photosensitive compounds in herbal extracts enhanced by the application of laser diode has been promising. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis was obtained by the disk diffusion method on agar. The laser diode InGaAIP was used with 660 nm wavelength, 100 mW, and 4 J/cm(2), and the application was performed in a timely manner for 34 sec on each disk tested. The groups tested were: Laser and bark extract (B+L+); bark extract only (B+L-); Laser and leaf extract (F+L+); leaf extract only (F+L-); Laser and malachite green (M+L+); malachite green only (M+L-); and laser only (L+). There were significant differences between the B+L- and B+L+ groups (p=0.029) and between the L+F- and L+F+ groups (p=0.029) at various concentrations of the nebulized extracts of bark and leaf. Among the tested pathogens, S. aureus showed the highest zone of inhibition, 24.55±0.36 mm in group B+L+, 500 mg.mL(-1). PDT with malachite green was effective, and groups B+L+ and F+L+ showed excellent activity on the bacteria tested, suggesting the presence of photosensitizers in extracts of S. brasiliensis Engl.

  1. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by three-dimensional sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Masao; Itou, Ryu; Nozaki, Akito; Kondou, Masaaki; Morimoto, Manabu; Karasawa, Eii; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2010-08-01

    We performed contrast-enhanced three-dimensional sonography (CE 3D US) with a perflubutane-based contrast agent to immediately evaluate the completeness of ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions by extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Twenty-one HCC lesions were treated by a single ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation session, and CE 3D US was performed before, immediately after, and 1 week, and 1 month after HIFU, and contrast-enhanced CT (CE CT) or contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) was performed before HIFU, 1 week and 1 month after HIFU, and during the follow-up period. Immediately and 1 month after HIFU, 17 lesions were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE 3D US, and the other 4 lesions as residual tumors. One month after HIFU, 18 were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE CT or CE MRI, and the other 3 as residual tumors. The evaluation by CE 3D US immediately after HIFU and by CE CT or CE MRI 1 month after HIFU was concordant with 20 lesions. The kappa value for agreement between the findings of CE 3D US and other modalities by two blinded observers was 0.83. When the 1-month CE CT or CE MRI findings were used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CE 3D US immediately after HIFU for the diagnosis of the adequate ablation were 100%, 75%, and 95%, respectively. CE 3D US appears to be a useful method for immediate evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of HIFU ablation of HCC lesions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by three-dimensional sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Kazushi, E-mail: kz-numa@urahp.yokohama-cu.ac.j [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Masao; Itou, Ryu [Department of Internal Medicine, Naruto General Hospital, 167 Naruto, Sanbu, Chiba 289-1326 (Japan); Nozaki, Akito; Kondou, Masaaki; Morimoto, Manabu [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Karasawa, Eii [Department of Gastroenterology, International University of Health and Welfare Atami Hospital, 13-1 Higashi Kaigan-cho, Atami, Shizuoka 413-0012 (Japan); Tanaka, Katsuaki [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Objective: We performed contrast-enhanced three-dimensional sonography (CE 3D US) with a perflubutane-based contrast agent to immediately evaluate the completeness of ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions by extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Subjects and methods: Twenty-one HCC lesions were treated by a single ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation session, and CE 3D US was performed before, immediately after, and 1 week, and 1 month after HIFU, and contrast-enhanced CT (CE CT) or contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) was performed before HIFU, 1 week and 1 month after HIFU, and during the follow-up period. Results: Immediately and 1 month after HIFU, 17 lesions were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE 3D US, and the other 4 lesions as residual tumors. One month after HIFU, 18 were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE CT or CE MRI, and the other 3 as residual tumors. The evaluation by CE 3D US immediately after HIFU and by CE CT or CE MRI 1 month after HIFU was concordant with 20 lesions. The kappa value for agreement between the findings of CE 3D US and other modalities by two blinded observers was 0.83. When the 1-month CE CT or CE MRI findings were used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CE 3D US immediately after HIFU for the diagnosis of the adequate ablation were 100%, 75%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: CE 3D US appears to be a useful method for immediate evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of HIFU ablation of HCC lesions.

  3. Evaluation of psoriasis patients’ attitudes toward benefit–risk and therapeutic trade-offs in their choice of treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson L

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lina Eliasson,1 Anthony P Bewley,2 Farhan Mughal,3 Karissa M Johnston,4 Andreas Kuznik,5 Chloe Patel,1 Andrew J Lloyd1 1Clinical Outcomes Assessment, ICON Clinical Research UK Ltd, 2Department of Dermatology, Whipps Cross University Hospital, Barts Health National Health Service Trust, London, 3Health Economics Outcomes Research, Celgene Ltd, Uxbridge, UK; 4Epidemiology, ICON Commercialisation and Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA Objective: Treatment options for psoriasis offer trade-offs in terms of efficacy, convenience, and risk of adverse events. We evaluated patients’ preferences with respect to benefit–risk in the treatment of psoriasis. Methods: A discrete choice experiment was conducted in adults from the UK with moderate-to-severe psoriasis using an orthogonal design with 32 hypothetical choice sets. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two surveys with 16 choice sets. Patients’ preferences were investigated with respect to the following attributes: reduction in body surface area affected by psoriasis, treatment administration (frequency and mode of delivery, short-term diarrhea or nausea risk, and 10-year risk of developing melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer, tuberculosis, or serious infections. A mixed effects logistic regression model generated relative preferences between treatment profiles. Results: Participants (N=292 had a strong preference to avoid increased risk of melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.44 per 5% increased 10-year risk and increased risks of tuberculosis and serious infections (both ORs: 0.73 per 5% increased 10-year risk and preferred once-weekly to twice-daily tablets (OR: 0.76 and weekly (OR: 0.56 or fortnightly (OR: 0.65 injections. Participants preferred avoiding treatments that may cause diarrhea or nausea in the first 2 weeks (OR: 0.87 per 5% increase and preferred treatments that

  4. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Disease Modeling and Evaluation of Therapeutics for Niemann-Pick Disease Type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Xu, Miao; Li, Rong; Dai, Sheng; Beers, Jeanette; Chen, Guokai; Soheilian, Ferri; Baxa, Ulrich; Wang, Mengqiao; Marugan, Juan J; Muro, Silvia; Li, Zhiyuan; Brady, Roscoe; Zheng, Wei

    2016-12-01

    : Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPA) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the SMPD1 gene that encodes acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Deficiency in ASM function results in lysosomal accumulation of sphingomyelin and neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no effective treatment for NPA. To accelerate drug discovery for treatment of NPA, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells from two patient dermal fibroblast lines and differentiated them into neural stem cells. The NPA neural stem cells exhibit a disease phenotype of lysosomal sphingomyelin accumulation and enlarged lysosomes. By using this disease model, we also evaluated three compounds that reportedly reduced lysosomal lipid accumulation in Niemann-Pick disease type C as well as enzyme replacement therapy with ASM. We found that α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and ASM reduced sphingomyelin accumulation and enlarged lysosomes in NPA neural stem cells. Therefore, the NPA neural stem cells possess the characteristic NPA disease phenotype that can be ameliorated by tocopherols, cyclodextrin, and ASM. Our results demonstrate the efficacies of cyclodextrin and tocopherols in the NPA cell-based model. Our data also indicate that the NPA neural stem cells can be used as a new cell-based disease model for further study of disease pathophysiology and for high-throughput screening to identify new lead compounds for drug development. Currently, there is no effective treatment for Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPA). To accelerate drug discovery for treatment of NPA, NPA-induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from patient dermal fibroblasts and differentiated into neural stem cells. By using the differentiated NPA neuronal cells as a cell-based disease model system, α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin significantly reduced sphingomyelin accumulation in these NPA neuronal cells. Therefore, this cell-based NPA model can be used for further study of

  5. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    Oral administration of therapeutic peptides could benefit millions of chronically ill people worldwide, through easier and less stigmatized therapy, and likely improve the long-term effects of currently widespread disease mismanagement. However, oral peptide delivery is a formidable task due......, but it is not widely studied in an oral context. As acylation furthermore increases interactions with the lipid membranes of mammalian cells, it offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation...... to the harsh and selective gastrointestinal system, and development has lacked far behind injection therapy. Peptide acylation is a powerful tool to alter the pharmacokinetics, biophysical properties and chemical stability of injectable peptide drugs, primarily used to prolong blood circulation...

  6. [Anticancer drugs: Which prices for therapeutic innovations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Anthony; Maraninchi, Dominique; Marino, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    The expanding knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying tumor development made it possible the recent emergence of new therapeutic approaches that are considered as undoubtedly innovative. Yet, to define and to evaluate the magnitude of a drug innovation require an examination of its intrinsic drug properties, medical utility as well as its mode of emergence. Recently, international academic societies, such as ESMO and ASCO, have proposed practical tools that may help quantifying the medical value of a given innovation. Currently, the sustained flux of therapeutic innovations in oncology is associated with an unprecedented growth of costs, the actual determinants of which remain under debate, but raising the critical issue of drugs pricing, and their potential individual or societal "financial toxicity". Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  8. Development of sodium acetate trihydrate-ethylene glycol composite phase change materials with enhanced thermophysical properties for thermal comfort and therapeutic applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohitash Kumar; Sumita Vyas; Ravindra Kumar; Ambesh Dixit

    2017-01-01

    .... The development and performance of such heat packs rely on thermophysical properties of PCMs such as latent heat, suitable heat releasing temperature, degree of supercooling, effective heat releasing...

  9. Evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness of prescribed medications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Findings from a tertiary care hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bareera Rana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to highlight the current prescribing pattern of oral hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of these therapeutic categories in achieving target glycemic control. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 6 months' duration conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. Results: The current research recruited 145 patients presented in diabetes management center of a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Mean age of the participants was 50.2 (± 8.5 years. Out of the 145 patients, 63% were females and 37% were males. Most patients were diagnosed to have diabetes within the past 5 years. Diabetes-induced neuropathy was the most common complication (71.7% among the patients. A large proportion of these patients (70.3% were also suffering from other comorbidities among which the most common one is hypertension. The average number of prescribed medications was 1.31. Metformin was prescribed to a majority of patients (64% as monotherapy while 28.96% received combination therapy. Mean glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c before and after 3 months of treatment was 8.5 (± 2.3 and 8.04 (± 2.1, respectively. Inferential statistics show a strong association between HBA1c and life style modifications and adherence to medication therapy (P = 0.05. However, the correlation between HBA1c and Morisky score and duration of disease was inverse and weak (P = 0.6, 0.4. The t-test values show a small difference between HBA1c values before and after 3 months (t = 0.440 and 0.466, respectively. Conclusion: Optimization of medication regimen and continuous patient education regarding life style modification and adherence to medication therapy are necessitated to bring HBA1c values near to target.

  10. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived myeloid suppressor cell (MDSC adoptive transfer in mouse models of autoimmunity and allograft rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Drujont

    Full Text Available Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer.

  11. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING FATIGUE PROPERTIES APPLIED TO STAINLESS STEELS AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Mac Intyer Fonseca Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate seven estimation methods of fatigue properties applied to stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Experimental strain-life curves are compared to the estimations obtained by each method. After applying seven different estimation methods at 14 material conditions, it was found that fatigue life can be estimated with good accuracy only by the Bäumel-Seeger method for the martensitic stainless steel tempered between 300°C and 500°C. The differences between mechanical behavior during monotonic and cyclic loading are probably the reason for the absence of a reliable method for estimation of fatigue behavior from monotonic properties for a group of materials.

  12. At wavelength focusing properties evaluation of the Wolter type grazing incidence mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, A; Uesugi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-01-01

    Focusing properties of a Wolter mirror were evaluated in a hard X-ray region (approx 10 keV). Although the sagittal focal spot size was found to be 0.7 mu m, some spots are spread in meridional direction within a range of over 100 mu m. A Foucault-test method has been employed for closer investigation of the focusing properties. Wave-front of the sagittal focusing rays was almost ideal. On the contrary, it was found that slope error of about 100-300 mu rad existed for the meridional focusing.

  13. Radiation-Grafted Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Water Electrolysis Cells: Evaluation of Key Membrane Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Albert; Barnett, Alejandro O; Thomassen, Magnus S; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, Lorenz

    2015-10-14

    Radiation-grafted membranes can be considered an alternative to perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes, such as Nafion, in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer. Styrene, acrylonitrile, and 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene monomers are cografted into preirradiated 50 μm ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) base film, followed by sulfonation to introduce proton exchange sites to the obtained grafted films. The incorporation of grafts throughout the thickness is demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analysis of the membrane cross-sections. The membranes are analyzed in terms of grafting kinetics, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), and water uptake. The key properties of radiation-grafted membranes and Nafion, such as gas crossover, area resistance, and mechanical properties, are evaluated and compared. The plot of hydrogen crossover versus area resistance of the membranes results in a property map that indicates the target areas for membrane development for electrolyzer applications. Tensile tests are performed to assess the mechanical properties of the membranes. Finally, these three properties are combined to establish a figure of merit, which indicates that radiation-grafted membranes obtained in the present study are promising candidates with properties superior to those of Nafion membranes. A water electrolysis cell test is performed as proof of principle, including a comparison to a commercial membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  14. A rational quantitative approach to determine the best dosing regimen for a target therapeutic effect: a unified formalism for antibiotic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

    2013-02-21

    The determination of an optimal dosing regimen is a critical step to enhance the drug efficacy and avoid toxicity. Rational dosing recommendations based on mathematical considerations are increasingly being adopted in the process of drug development and use. In this paper, we propose a quantitative approach to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic agents. By integrating both pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) information, this approach gives rise to a unified formalism able to measure the cause-effect of dosing regimens. This new pharmaco-metric allows to cover a whole range of antibiotics, including the two well known concentration and time dependent classes, through the introduction of the Hill-dependency concept. As a direct fallout, our formalism opens a new path toward the bioequivalence evaluation in terms of PK and PD, which associates the in vivo drug concentration and the in vitro drug effect. Using this new approach, we succeeded to reveal unexpected, but relevant behaviors of drug performance when different drug regimens and drug classes are considered. Of particular notice, we found that the doses required to reach the same therapeutic effect, when scheduled differently, exhibit completely different tendencies for concentration and time dependent drugs. Moreover, we theoretically confirmed the previous experimental results of the superiority of the once daily regimen of aminoglycosides. The proposed methodology is appealing for its computational features and can easily be applicable to design fair clinical protocols or rationalize prescription decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the In Vivo Therapeutic Effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra Ethanol Extract with the Hypoglycemic Activities Measured from Multiple Cell-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w. gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities.

  16. Therapeutic misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, N J

    2010-10-01

    Therapeutic misadventure can be defined as an injury or an adverse event caused by medical management rather than by an underlying disease. Within the National Health Service there were over 86,000 reported adverse incidents in 2007. In the USA medication errors have been rated as the fourth highest cause of death. Unfortunately one of the greatest contributors to iatrogenic injury is human error. The potential types of misadventure are infinite. Medication errors are a major part of this, being responsible for over 70% of cases that cause serious harm. However, many medication errors caused by slips, lapses, technical errors and mistakes are preventable; intentional violations of safe operating procedures are not. While medication errors were tolerated by society in the past, the readiness to institute criminal proceedings against health-care professionals has increased greatly in the UK over the last decade. The medication process consists of writing prescriptions, dispensing the product, administering it and monitoring its effects. Prescription errors arise owing to incomplete information, lack of appropriate labelling, environmental factors and human blunders. Even with a perfect prescription the right medication must be dispensed and appropriately labelled. Dispensing errors are not uncommon and may be compounded by non-clinical considerations. Administration of a drug by injection is one of the most dangerous aspects of the medication process, especially in inexperienced hands. The final component of medication supply is monitoring the effect of the medication. With short courses of medication such monitoring is easy, but with long-term medication, particularly with potent drugs where the margin between efficacy and toxicity is small, active procedures may be required to ensure toxicity does not ensue. Despite the endeavour of health-care professions to stick to the rule of 'first, do no harm', in reality this is difficult to achieve all of the time. When

  17. Fabrication and property evaluation of WO3 particles dispersed Al-based composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantage of composite material is to take the outstanding mechanical and functional properties of fibers and powders. However, it is not easy to disperse fine particles homogeneously in metallic matrix. 3-dimentional penetration casting (3DPC method enables to disperse particles in the matrix homogeneously without segregation. The present study puts its focus on WO3 particle. Several reports are available about photocatalytic property of WO3 in the visible ray region. Photocatalytic is one of the most promising matter that can be used for resolving environment pollution because photocatalytic cause the oxidation reaction that change carbon contained in organic compound (for example acetaldehyde, toluene into CO2 by light. The aim of this work is to establish the fabrication method using 3DPC, to evaluate the mechanical, photocatalytic properties, and to observe the microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties of natural hybrid fibers, reinforced polyester composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasiviswanathan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The composite materials are replacing the traditional materials, because of its superior properties such as high tensile strength, low thermal expansion, high strength to weight ratio. The developments of new materials are on the anvil and are growing day by day. In this work the effect of glass fibre hybridization with the randomly oriented natural fibers has been evaluated. The sisal (S, banana (B, E-glass synthetic fibers were chopped and reinforced with polyester matrix. Six layers were prepared in the following stacking sequence of S/B/G, S/G/B, G/S/B, G/S/B/G/S/B/G, S/G/B//S/G/B, B/G/S/B/G/S. The mechanical properties like impact strength, flexural strength and tensile strength were investigated and compared. It was observed that the addition of two and three layer of glass fiber can improve the mechanical properties like tensile, Flexural and impact strength.

  19. Evaluating a model of global psychophysical judgments for brightness: II. Behavioral properties linking summations and productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrimsson, Ragnar

    2011-04-01

    Steingrimsson (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 1916-1930, 2009) outlined Luce's (Psychological Review, 109, 520-532 2002, 111, 446-454 2004) proposed psychophysical theory and tested, for brightness, behavioral properties that, separately, gave rise to two psychophysical functions, Ψ (⊕) and [Formula: see text]. The function Ψ (⊕) maps pairs of physical intensities onto positive real numbers and represents subjective summation, and the function [Formula: see text] represents a form of ratio production. This article, the second in a series expected to consist of three articles, tests the properties linking summation and production such that it forces [Formula: see text]. The properties tested are a form of distributivity and, in three experiments, were subjected to an empirical evaluation. Considerable support is provided for the existence of a single function Ψ for both summation and ratio production. The scope of this series of articles is to establish the theory as a descriptive model of binocular brightness perception.

  20. Development of small punch testing technique and its application to evaluation of mechanical properties degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, J.

    1993-10-01

    The present paper summarizes a small punch (SP) testing technique developed and its application to mechanical properties characterization. It has been clearly shown on ferritic alloys that the SP test was evaluate the intergranular embrittling potency of segregated solute, such as P, Sn and Sb causing temper embrittlement, and the effects of neutron irradiation and post-irradiation annealing, giving rise to changes in the hardness and intergranular solute segregation, on the fracture properties in terms of the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). A linear relation of the DBTT determined by the SP test to that by Charpy V-notched tests has been theoretically and experimentally established. In Al alloy substrates coated with amorphous and overlaying ceramics, moreover, the global and local fracture properties were well characterized by the SP test together with acoustic emission techniques.

  1. Study and evaluation of radiometry in photo therapeutic treatment of the neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia; Estudo e avaliacao da radiometria no tratamento fototerapico da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caly, Jose Pucci

    2009-07-01

    Phototherapy is a procedure established more than 50 years ago in the treatment of the newborn jaundice. However there is no a standard method to quantify the photo therapeutic dose in published clinical studies, hindering the comparison of previous studies on photo therapeutic effectiveness, as well as the establishment of safe and predictable doses. The photo therapeutic dose depends, among other factors, on the effective mean irradiance produced by the photo therapeutic unit. There are no standard procedures, however, neither to quantify the effective irradiance, nor to estimate the mean effective irradiance. As a consequence, large measurement variations in a same photo therapeutic unit are observed using different commercially available radiometers, as a consequence of the vast diversity of spectral responsivities of the instruments. An objective of this work was to adapt and to apply the bases of the wideband ultraviolet radiometry to quantify the available irradiance from photo therapeutic units, establishing procedures that allow us to compare measured irradiances from different sources, using radiometers presenting different spectral responsivities. Another objective was to characterize samples of photo therapeutic units commonly used, focusing the problem of the estimation of the effective mean irradiance from photo therapeutic units, proposing a method to estimate of the effective irradiance from focused sources. The experimental results allow us to conclude that it is not only necessary to standardize the photo therapeutic radiometry, but also the method of estimation of the effective mean irradiance. (author)

  2. Evaluating a model of global psychophysical judgments for brightness: I. Behavioral properties of summations and productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrimsson, Ragnar

    2009-11-01

    Steingrimsson and Luce (2005a, 2005b, 2006, 2007) evaluated Luce's (2002, 2004) proposed psychophysical theory of loudness and found it substantially supported. The aim of the present research is to begin an extension of this research to brightness. Luce's (2002, 2004) theory deals with the global percept of subjective intensity, in which there is a psychophysical function Psi that maps pairs of physical intensities onto positive real numbers and represents, in an explicit mathematical way, subjective summation and a form of ratio production. These representations derive from a number of behavioral properties, including certain plausible background assumptions. In three experiments involving the subjective perception of luminance, brightness, the key behavioral properties of summation over the two eyes, and a form of generalized ratio production are empirically evaluated. Considerable support is reported for particular forms of Psi separately for summations and ratio productions.

  3. Evaluation of the sensory properties of a cosmetic formulation containing green coffee oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais A. L. Wagemaker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Green coffee oil (GCO is a well-known ingredient with cosmetic properties such as: maintaining skin hydration, improving the sun protection factor and maintaining the skin barrier function. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the addition of a considerable amount of GCO (15% on the sensory properties of a cosmetic formulation. The sensory panel consisted of nineteen volunteers aged between 19 and 43 years old. Sensory attributes were assessed on a 25 cm2 defined region on the internal side of the forearm. The volunteers were instructed to evaluate the sensory properties that they felt each formulation demonstrated, immediately after application and then after a further 5 minutes. The formulations had almost the same perceived effect among the volunteers. The majority of volunteers noted their skin as soft and moisturized after application of the formulations. However, the perception of an oily residue on the skin was the main effect of the formulation containing GCO. Thus, we can conclude that the total amount of GCO used, revealed interesting properties for use in dry skin or night creams, since it was able to leave an oily film on skin.

  4. Comparative evaluation of physical properties of four tissue conditioners relined to modeling plastic material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monzavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the interaction of tissue conditioners and modeling plastics. This study evaluates the influence of a variety of commercial tissue conditioners on alteration of viscoelastic properties of modeling plastics.In this in vitro study, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of four commercially available tissue conditioners (TC, Visco-gel (VG, GC Soft-Liner (SL, FITT (FT, and Coe Comfort (CC, relined to modeling plastics with a thickness of 2mm were evaluated after 1 and 7 days of water immersion with the use of storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan delta parameters. Values for these three parameters for each tissue conditioner were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests with P value sets at<0.05.Complex modulus and loss tangent values of TC were not significantly different among specimens containing 0, 2, 5 and 10 wt.%-SZ, respectively. In FT and TC containing 2 wt.%-SZ, these values were not significantly different between 1 and 28 days in both water- and saliva immersions.The results suggest that relining with modeling plastics does affect TC's inherent dynamic viscoelastic properties, while the other tissue conditioners investigated may be found to have changed viscoelastic properties as a consequence of vicinity to the modeling plastics.

  5. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of deuterated nintedanib for improving pharmacokinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruixue; Zhan, Miao; Peng, Lingling; Pang, Xuehai; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Hongxia; Zhao, Lifeng; Chen, Yuanwei

    2015-06-15

    Nintedanib is a novel triple angiokinase inhibitor that inhibits three growth factors simultaneously. Deuterated derivatives of nintedanib at certain metabolically active sites were prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In particular, deuterated compound SKLB-C2202 had significantly improved pharmacokinetic properties compared with nintedanib. These efforts lay the foundation for further investigating the druggability of SKLB-C2202. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties following penetrating keratoplasty using ocular response analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Vanathi Murugesan; Ravi Bypareddy; Mahesh Kumar; Dada Tanuj; Panda Anita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in eyes that has undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary care centre. Data recorded included ocular response analyzer (ORA) values of normal and post-keratoplasty eyes [corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc)], corneal topography, and central corneal t...

  7. Evaluation of mechanical properties of natural hybrid fibers, reinforced polyester composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kasiviswanathan; K. Santhanam; Kumaravel, A.

    2015-01-01

    The composite materials are replacing the traditional materials, because of its superior properties such as high tensile strength, low thermal expansion, high strength to weight ratio. The developments of new materials are on the anvil and are growing day by day. In this work the effect of glass fibre hybridization with the randomly oriented natural fibers has been evaluated. The sisal (S), banana (B), E-glass synthetic fibers were chopped and reinforced with polyester matrix. Six layers were...

  8. Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Thermal Properties of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Gopal; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Trivedi, Dahryn

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a polar organic solvent, and frequently used as a fuel in automobile industries, principally as an additive with gasoline due to its higher octane rating. It is generally produced from biomass such as corn, sugar and some other agriculture products. In the present study, impact of biofield treatment on ethanol was evaluated with respect to its atomic and thermal properties. The ethanol sample was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained untreate...

  9. Therapeutic properties in Tunisian hot springs: first evidence of phenolic compounds in the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. biomass, capsular polysaccharides and releasing polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Lamia; Mnari, Amira; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abid-Essafi, Salwa; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-12-13

    In Tunisia, the use of hot spring waters for both health and recreation is a tradition dating back to Roman times. In fact, thermal baths, usually called "Hammam" are recommended as a therapeutic and prophylactic measure against many types of illness and toxicity. While the chemical concentration of thermal water is admittedly associated with its therapeutic effects, the inclusion in spa waters of efficient bioproduct additives produced by photosynthetic microorganisms and that act against oxidative stress may comprise a significant supplementary value for thermal centers. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potential of the Tunisian thermophilic cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. and to determine its phytochemical constituents and phenolic profile. BME (Biomass Methanolic Extract), CME (Capsular polysaccharides Methanolic Extract) and RME (Releasing polysaccharides Methanolic Extract) of Leptolyngbya sp. were examined for their antioxidant activities by means of DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating assays. Their total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and vitamin C contents, as well as their phenolic profiles were also determined. BME has the highest content of phenols (139 ± 1.2 mg/g), flavonoids (34.9 ± 0.32 mg CEQ/g), carotenoids (2.03 ± 0.56 mg/g) and vitamin C (15.7 ± 1.55 mg/g), while the highest MAAs content (0.42 ± 0.03 mg/g) was observed in CME. BME presented both the highest DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 0.07 and 0.38 mg/ml, respectively. The highest ferrous chelating capacity was detected in CME with an IC50 = 0.59 mg/ml. Phenolic profiles revealed the presence of 25 phenolic compounds with the existence of hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, resveratrol and pinoresinol. The study demonstrated that the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. possesses abundant natural antioxidant products which may have prophylactic and

  10. Using a partially randomized patient preference study design to evaluate the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and cupping therapy for fibromyalgia: study protocol for a partially randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Conducting randomized controlled trials on traditional Chinese non-drug therapies has been limited by factors such as patient preference to specific treatment modality. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying a partially randomized patient preference (PRPP) trial model in evaluating the efficacy of two types of traditional Chinese medicine therapies, acupuncture and cupping, for fibromyalgia while accounting for patients’ preference of either therapeutic modality. Methods This protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of affiliated Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (approval number: 2013052104-2). One hundred participants with fibromyalgia will be included in this study. Diagnosis of fibromyalgia will be based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Before treatment, participants will be interviewed for their preference toward acupuncture or cupping therapy. Fifty participants with no preference will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups and another 50 participants with strong preference to either acupuncture or cupping will receive what they choose. For acupuncture and cupping therapy, the main acupoints used will be tender points (Ashi). Treatment will be three times a week for 5 consecutive weeks with a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Outcome measures will be qualitative (patient expectation and satisfaction) and quantitative (pain intensity, quality of life, depression assessment). Trial registration number NCT01869712 (in clinicaltrials.gov, on 22nd May 2013). PMID:25012121

  11. Using a partially randomized patient preference study design to evaluate the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and cupping therapy for fibromyalgia: study protocol for a partially randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-Juan; Liu, Jian-Ping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Nissi S

    2014-07-10

    Conducting randomized controlled trials on traditional Chinese non-drug therapies has been limited by factors such as patient preference to specific treatment modality. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying a partially randomized patient preference (PRPP) trial model in evaluating the efficacy of two types of traditional Chinese medicine therapies, acupuncture and cupping, for fibromyalgia while accounting for patients' preference of either therapeutic modality. This protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of affiliated Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (approval number: 2013052104-2). One hundred participants with fibromyalgia will be included in this study. Diagnosis of fibromyalgia will be based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Before treatment, participants will be interviewed for their preference toward acupuncture or cupping therapy. Fifty participants with no preference will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups and another 50 participants with strong preference to either acupuncture or cupping will receive what they choose. For acupuncture and cupping therapy, the main acupoints used will be tender points (Ashi). Treatment will be three times a week for 5 consecutive weeks with a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Outcome measures will be qualitative (patient expectation and satisfaction) and quantitative (pain intensity, quality of life, depression assessment). NCT01869712 (in clinicaltrials.gov, on 22nd May 2013).

  12. Rethinking Therapeutic Misconception in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Some authors have noted that in biobank research participants may be guided by what is called therapeutic misconception, whereby participants attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures.This article argues that the notion of therapeutic misconception is increasingly less justified when...... evaluating biobanks. We present four examples taken from recent developments in biobanking to argue why the notion of therapeutic misconception is problematic in that biobanking practices are increasingly seeking to bridge research and treatment in diff erent ways. In this article we explore examples where...... underpinnings for the need to separate research and treatment, and thus the notion of therapeutic misconception in the fi rst place. We call this tension between research and treatment ambivalent research advancement to highlight the difficulties that various actors have in managing such shifts within...

  13. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nutrition Therapeutic Programme (NTP involves the provision of food supplements at primary health clinics (PHCs to correct nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable groups. Although previous studies have identified problems with implementing the programme at PHCs, assessments of its efficiency have been scarce.Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data.Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme.Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  14. Evaluation of the short-term efficacy and safety of biological agents in different rheumatic diseases: a multidisciplinary therapeutic hospital"s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Mukhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a substantial expansion in the possibilities of current therapy for rheumatic diseases (RD primarily due to the use of genetically engineered biological agents (GEBA. Objective: to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of GEBA in patients with different RD. Subjects and methods. The trial included all RD patients receiving GEBA: rituximab (RTM, infliximab (INF, adalimumab, etanercept, tocilizumab, abatacept in 2009-2012. Therapeutic efficiency and safety were evaluated 6 months later. The effect of GEBA was determined as “remission”, “improvement”, and “no response”, by using the parameters peculiar to specific diseases (such as BVAS, DAS28, BASDAI. Results. The trial enrolled 107 patients (49 men and 58 women; mean age 41.5 years with rheumatoid arthritis (n=34, ANCA-associated vasculitis (n = 34, systemic lupus erythematosus (n=16, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (n=11, ankylosing spondyloarthritis (n = 8, systemic vasculitis with large artery involvement (n=6, and other RD. All the cases showed severe systemic autoimmune disease refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy. RTM (n=66 and INF (n = 31 were most frequently used. The high rate of RTM prescription was due to the fact that this drug was given to all patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis who totaled more than half of the patients included into the trial. The vast majority of them received GEBA for the first time. After the treatment, there was remission in 62 (57.9% and improvement in 42 (39.3% cases. Mild or moderate adverse reactions were observed in 22 (20.6% patients and severe ones were seen in 6 (5.6%. Conclusion. GEBA therapy ensures a significant improvement in a substantial proportion of patients with different RD refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy.

  15. Stochastic Numerical Simulation for the Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Filled Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya SUBRAMANIAM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced polymeric composites are profoundly used in variety of applications due to its high strength to weight ratio and ease of fabrication. The wide spread application of reinforced polymeric materials in the electronic industries have created a great demand in fabricating a kind of reinforced polymeric system, which is light but has better mechanical strength and good thermal properties. Especially glass microsphere filled epoxy resin composites is used as a potting compound in electronic and aviation industries. Therefore knowledge of the fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of these systems is highly essential in the formulation of advanced electronic potting compounds. In this work, the effective mechancial properties of glass microsphere filled epoxy system is investigated numerically by stochastic simulation. Numerical simulation software ANSYS is used to characterise the microstructure of the filled epoxy system. MATLAB code has been developed to model the randomness of the particle. The geometric model generated from the MATLAb code is given as an input to ANSYS. Random particle Representative Volume Element (RVE model is used to evaluate the mechanical properties at various loading fractions. The effect of particle size on mechanical  properties of glass microsphere filled epoxy composite is studied. Further the random RVE modeling scheme is compared with single RVE modeling scheme and its significance is reported. The numerically predicted values of effective modulus is then compared with the analytical models and with the literature experimental data. Also the significance of the analytical  model on the determination of properties is reported. Then, the effect of interface on the mechanical characterisation by stochastic model is analysed and the debonding of the particle is also simulated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14217

  16. Early evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness in children with epilepsy by quantitative EEG: a model of Mozart K.448 listening--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    There are many treatments being developed for patients with epilepsy, including anti-epileptic drugs, ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation. To date, there is a lack of valid methods to predict at an early stage the therapeutic effects on patients with epilepsy who receive one of these treatments. Our previous studies revealed that epileptiform discharges which were observed in patients with epilepsy were significantly decreased while listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we attempted to develop a useful marker by utilizing a quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) method in analyzing the features of EEG to early evaluate the effect of the music on children with epilepsy, even without epileptiform discharges. EEG segments from 19 Taiwanese children who were selected from a large screen study of music effect (eight boys and 11 girls) diagnosed with epilepsy were analyzed. EEG examinations were performed in two parallel periods in each patient; before, and while listening to Mozart K.448's first movement (8 min 22s) and EEG data were compared by qEEG. EEG segments were classified into music effective/ineffective group. The term "effective" was defined as patient exposure to music resulting in over a 25% reduction in epileptiform discharges. On the contrary, the term "ineffective" was defined as patient exposure to music resulting in less than a 5% reduction in epileptiform discharges. There were four global feature descriptors selected for the music effective/ineffective classification. Two descriptors, DecorrTime_avg_AVG and DecorrTime_std_AVG, were related to the EEG feature "decorrelation" whereas the other two descriptors, RelPowGamma_avg_SNR and RelPowGamma_std_SNR, were related to "relative power of gamma." There were significantly higher RelPowGamma_std_SNR (0.190±0.133 vs. -0.026±0.119, p=0.0029), DecorrTime_std_AVG (0.005±0.004 vs. 0.0003±0.0016, p=0.0055), DecorrTime_avg_AVG (0.005±0.005 vs. -0.002±0.008, p=0.0179), and Rel

  17. Oligonucleotide conjugates for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Insufficient pharmacokinetic properties and poor cellular uptake are the main hurdles for successful therapeutic development of oligonucleotide agents. The covalent attachment of various ligands designed to influence the biodistribution and cellular uptake or for targeting specific tissues is an attractive possibility to advance therapeutic applications and to expand development options. In contrast to advanced formulations, which often consist of multiple reagents and are sensitive to a variety of preparation conditions, oligonucleotide conjugates are defined molecules, enabling structure-based analytics and quality control techniques. This review gives an overview of current developments of oligonucleotide conjugates for therapeutic applications. Attached ligands comprise peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, aptamers and small molecules, including cholesterol, tocopherol and folic acid. Important linkage types and conjugation methods are summarized. The distinct ligands directly influence biochemical parameters, uptake mechanisms and pharmacokinetic properties.

  18. Evaluation of nutritional value, characteristics, functional properties of Cymodocea nodosa and its benefits on health diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolsi, Rihab Ben Abdallah; Salah, Hichem Ben; Saidi, Saber Abdelkader; Allouche, Noureddine; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima

    2017-12-08

    Nutritional fact study has prime importance to make the species edible and commercially viable to the food consumers. This is the first report that indicates the chemical characterization, functional, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Cymodocea nodosa to evaluate its nutritional status. Physico-chemical determination was determined by colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis. The functional and texture properties were evaluated since a desirable texture should be retained. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 analysis. Health benefit of this plant was highlighting by the antioxidant and antihypertensive potentials. Results showed that the seagrass powder was characterized by a high content of fibers (56.4%), the fatty acids profile was dominated by the oleic acid, which represents about 62.0% of the total fatty acids and the functional properties proved important values of swelling capacity (6.71 ± 0.2) and water holding capacity (12.26 ± 0.25), that were comparable to those of some foodstuffs. Finally, the physico-chemical analysis shows the wealth in phenolic compounds, that could be explained by the high antioxidant and antihypertensive ability which was concentration dependent. The results from this study suggested that this marine plant could be utilized as a healthy food item for human consumption.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yijun; Xie, Qixue; Lao, Jihong; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times) were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration. PMID:28773428

  20. Evaluation on antioxidant properties of sixteen plant species from Jeju Island in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koa, Eun-Yi; Kim, Daekyung; Roh, Seong Woon; Yoonc, Weon-Jong; Jeon, You-Jin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Kil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of 80 % ethanol extracts of 16 species of plants from Jeju Island in Korea were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including the DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, superoxide scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Among the 16 plant extracts tested, CN-13 showed strong antioxidant properties in the DPPH radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging tests. The CN-13 ethanol extract was thus selected to be used for further experiments, and was separated into various fractions using four different organic solvents (n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and butanol). The ethyl acetate fraction of CN-13 extract evidenced strong DPPH radical scavenging properties as compared to the other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction also strongly inhibited DNA-damage induced by hydrogen peroxide-oxidative damage in a mouse lymphoma (L5178Y-R) cell line. Moreover, a correlation between the total phenolic content of the extract, and its antioxidant property was reported. PMID:26417356

  1. Evaluation of mechanical properties of weldments for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineeering, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Komazaki, S.; Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are the first candidate material for fusion reactor, and will be used as the structural materials of ITER test blanket modules (TBM). TBM will be assembled by welding various parts, it is important to be clearly mechanical properties of weldments to qualify TBM structure. In this paper, unirradiated mechanical properties of weldments, which is consisted of weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal region, obtained from TIG and EB welded F82H IEA-heat were evaluated by tensile, Charpy impact and creep test. Charpy impact test revealed that impact properties of weld metal does not deteriorate compared with that of base metal. The creep tests were carried out at temperatures of 773-873 K and at stress levels of 130-280 MPa, with the specimens which include weld metal and HAZ region in the gage section. In these conditions, rupture time of weldments yield to about 100-1000 hours. In the high-stress range, creep lives of welded joint decreased about 40% of base metal. However, in the low-stress range, creep lives of welded joint decrease about 60 to 70% of base metal. The failure at fine grain HAZ region (Type IV failure) does not occur in these conditions. The mechanism of these properties deterioration will be discussed based on the detailed analyses on microstructure changes. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Poplar Plantations in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical and chemical properties and some quantitative characteristics of Populus deltoides Marsh (clone 79.51 plantations and relationships between them were evaluated in Guilan plain of north of Iran. Two same aged poplar plantations with low and high qualities were selected. In each poplar plantation, fifteen sample plots with systematic sampling method were selected. In each sample plot diameter at breast height (DBH as well as height of all trees within them was determined. Soil samples were taken from 0-20cm in each plot and soil texture, water holding capacity (WHC, bulk density (B.D and particle density (P.D as well as soil porosity, O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were determined for each soil sample in laboratory. Tree data and soil properties between two plantations were analysed using independent samples t-test (Student’s t test at p < 0.05. The results showed that among soil physical properties, percentage of clay, sand, B.D and WHC and amongst soil chemical properties O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were significantly different between two plantations. Heavy textured soils with high B.D are undesirable for growing of populus deltoides in study area. The results also indicated that poor quality plantations has negative effect on soil nutrient and reduces its fertility. Reduction of nutrient availability had negative effects on quantity and quality of poplar trees.

  3. Labneh with probiotic properties produced from kefir: development and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The labneh or labaneh is a popular fermented milk in the Middle East. Another fermented product that deserves special mention is kefir since it has probiotic activity and unique sensory, nutritional, and therapeutic properties. The aim of the present study was to develop a functional probiotic labneh using kefir as a fermenting agent and to perform a sensory analysis of the obtained product. Kefir was obtained by growing grains in pasteurized milk. Samples of skimmed and whole labneh were prepared from the inoculation of 5% kefir milk (skimmed/whole at 28 ºC for 24h, followed by cooling (12-18h and whey drainage (12-24h, both at 4 ºC. Sensory analysis was performed with 70 untrained panelists using a 9-point scale hedonic in the acceptance tests. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences between the means of the scores obtained, with the significance level of 5%. The labneh prepared showed good acceptance by the judges, and the whole labneh samples had the highest scores in the acceptance test. Further studies on the analysis of microbiological viability, nutritional composition, and determination of shelf life, also to improve acceptability of the low-fat version of the product, are needed.

  4. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  5. Evaluation of Pharmacy and Therapeutic (P&T) Committee member knowledge, attitudes and ability regarding the use of comparative effectiveness research (CER) in health care decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D H; Warholak, T L; Hines, L E; Hurwitz, J; Brown, M; Taylor, A M; Brixner, D; Malone, D C

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a constellation of research methods designed to improve health care decision making. Educational programs that improve health care decision makers' CER knowledge and awareness may ultimately lead to more cost-effective use of health care resources. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in CER knowledge, attitudes, and ability among Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) Committee members and support staff after attending a tailored educational program. Physicians and pharmacists from two professional societies and the Indian Health Service who participated in the P&T process were invited via email to participate in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, prior to and following the 4-hour live, educational program on CER to determine the impact on their related knowledge, attitudes, and ability to use CER in decision-making. Rasch analysis was used to assess validity and reliability of subsections of the questionnaire and regression analysis was used to assess programmatic impact on CER knowledge, attitude, and ability. One hundred and forty of the 199 participants completed both the pre- and post-CER session questionnaires (response rate = 70.4%). Most participants (>75%) correctly answered eight of the ten knowledge items after attending the educational session. More than 60% of the respondents had a positive attitude toward CER both before and after the program. Compared to baseline (pretest), participants reported significant improvements in their perceived ability to use CER after attending the session in these areas: using CER reviews, knowledge of CER methods, identifying problems with randomized controlled trials, identifying threats to validity, understanding of evidence synthesis approaches, and evaluating the quality of CER (all P values < 0.001). The questionnaire demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity evidence (limited evidence of construct under

  6. NIFS workshop on application of micro-indentation technique to evaluation of mechanical properties of fusion materials. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Katoh, Yutai [eds.] [Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Branch, Inst. for Materials Research

    1996-11-01

    NIFS workshop on `Application of Micro-Indentation Technique to Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Fusion Materials` were help in Toki on October 9, 1996, as a part of the activity of NIFS collaborative research on `Advanced Technologies for Small-Volume Mechanical Property Testing of Fusion Reactor Materials`. The major topics at the workshop included the application of micro- (and nano-) indentation technique to evaluation of tensile stress-strain property, interfacial mechanical property of composite and joining materials and hardening of this layers in ion-irradiated materials. This report compiles the abstract and viewgraphs for each presentation. (author)

  7. [Evaluation of protective properties of sunglasses commonly available in the marketplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, A; Jankowski, J

    1996-01-01

    The optical properties of sunglasses common on the market were tested for UV radiation and visible light. Out of a large variety of sunglasses offered to customers, four types of sunglasses visually diversified, so they could suit mostly different tastes and requirements of customers, had been selected randomly. It was found that even not branded sunglasses satisfy the requirements of protective glasses. None of the sunglasses tested transmitted UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) and considerably limited UV-A radiation (315-400 nm). Moreover, radiation permeability in the visible range was good. UV-A transmission occurred mostly in the wavelength range above 380 nm. In order to evaluate the properties of protective sunglasses the ocular sun protective factor (OSPF) was defined and proposed.

  8. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials.

  9. PRIVATIZATION OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICE ENTERPRISES: PRIVATIZATION MECHANISM AND PROPERTY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kuznetsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing and communal services in Russia are provided by state or municipality owned so-called unitary enterprises. At present, most of these enterprises are at the brink of bankruptcy. Privatization in the field of housing and communal economy (HCE sector is one of most efficient instruments of improvement thereof. Particular feature of the author’s approach to evaluation of the total or partial cost of such enterprises is summing up the values of the element-to-element property assessment on the basis of the enterprise’s net assets. Described in the article is a system and succession of steps to be followed by private entities formed on the basis of HCE enterprises’ whole or partial property or acquiring rights thereupon.

  10. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and their in vitro effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P

    2015-07-01

    Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments.

  11. EVALUATION OF ELASTICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DOUGH MADE WITH REPLACED FLOUR POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.

  12. Evaluation of the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hardening High-Calcium Fly Ash Blended Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Park, Ki-Bong

    2015-09-07

    High-calcium fly ash (FH) is the combustion residue from electric power plants burning lignite or sub-bituminous coal. As a mineral admixture, FH can be used to produce high-strength concrete and high-performance concrete. The development of chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial factor for appropriately using FH in the concrete industry. To achieve sustainable development in the concrete industry, this paper presents a theoretical model to systematically evaluate the property developments of FH blended concrete. The proposed model analyzes the cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of phases in FH other than free CaO. The mutual interactions among cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of other phases in FH are also considered through the calcium hydroxide contents and the capillary water contents. Using the hydration degree of cement, the reaction degree of free CaO in FH, and the reaction degree of other phases in FH, the proposed model evaluates the calcium hydroxide contents, the reaction degree of FH, chemically bound water, porosity, and the compressive strength of hardening concrete with different water to binder ratios and FH replacement ratios. The evaluated results are compared to experimental results, and good consistencies are found.

  13. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Uneojo Omoja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  14. Pharmacokinetic variability, efficacy and tolerability of eslicarbazepine acetate-A national approach to the evaluation of therapeutic drug monitoring data and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Torleiv; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Reimers, Arne; Molden, Espen; Sætre, Erik; Johannessen, Svein I; Johannessen Landmark, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED), still insufficiently studied regarding pharmacokinetic variability, efficacy and tolerability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data in Norway and relate pharmacokinetic variability to clinical efficacy and tolerability in a long-term clinical setting in patients with refractory epilepsy. This retrospective observational study included TDM-data from the main laboratories and population data from the Norwegian Prescription Database in Norway, in addition to clinical data from medical records of adult patients using ESL for up to three years, whenever possible. TDM-data from 168 patients were utilized for assessment of pharmacokinetic variability, consisting of 71% of the total number of patients in Norway using ESL, 2011-14. Median daily dose of ESL was 800mg (range 400-1600mg), and median serum concentration of ESL was 53μmol/L (range 13-132μmol/L). Inter-patient variability of ESL was extensive, with 25-fold variability in concentration/dose ratios. Additional clinical data were available from 104 adult patients out of the 168, all with drug resistant focal epilepsy. After 1, 2 and 3 years follow-up, the retention rate of ESL was 83%, 72% and 64%, respectively. ESL was generally well tolerated as add-on treatment, but sedation, cognitive impairment and hyponatremia were reported. Hyponatremia (sodium <137mmol/L) was present in 36% of the patients, and lead to discontinuation in three. Pharmacokinetic variability of ESL was extensive and the demonstration of usefulness of TDM requires further studies. In patients with drug resistant focal Epilepsy, the high retention rate indicated good efficacy and tolerability. Hyponatremia was observed in one third of the patients. The present results point to a need for individualization of treatment and TDM may be useful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A preliminary study to evaluate postural improvement in subjects with scoliosis: active therapeutic movement version 2 device and home exercises using the Mulligan's mobilization-with-movement concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clare; Diaz, Rafael; Lopez, Geoff; Marki, Nicholas; Olivio, Ben

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if the use of Active Therapeutic Movement Version 2 (ATM2) device and home exercises using the Mulligan's mobilization-with-movement concept by subjects with scoliosis would result in postural improvement and to document any changes in trunk range of motion and quality of life. Forty-three subjects between the ages of 12 to 75 years were recruited for the study. Each subject underwent a low back evaluation along with specific measurements for their scoliosis. Subjects participated in a 4-week intervention, 2 times a week consisting of treatment utilizing the ATM2 and were also given a home exercise program to mimic the specific movement(s) they performed on the ATM2. Photographic assessment of posture was taken before and after the intervention. Subjects were surveyed during the initial assessment and again at the final intervention using the following outcome measures: Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire, Short-Form Health Survey-36, Oswestry Disability Index, and a Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Results were significant for most of the variables measured. Subjects gained improvement in spinal ranges of motion for all directions except for flexion and extension (most subjects had reference range of flexion and extension at the beginning of the study). Most subjects had improved pelvic alignment after the intervention. Before and after photographs demonstrated improved posture. Subjective measurements of pain, disability, and quality of life improved. Results of this preliminary study showed improvement for selected variables. The use of ATM2 and home exercises using the Mulligan's mobilization-with-movement concept by subjects with scoliosis appears to be a potentially viable conservative treatment alternative to address various findings associated with scoliosis, including posture improvement. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of encephalotropic and psychotropic properties of gabapentin in man by pharmaco-EEG and psychometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, B; Grünberger, J; Linzmayer, L

    1986-07-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the encephalotropic and psychotropic properties of gabapentin - a new gaba-analogue with anticonvulsant and antispastic properties penetrating the blood brain barrier easily - were studied in 10 normal subjects by means of quantitative pharmaco-EEG and psychometric analyses. They received randomized and in weekly intervals single oral doses of 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg gabapentin as well as placebo. EEG recordings and evaluation of pulse, blood pressure and side effects were carried out after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours; psychometric tests were done at the same times except for the first hour. Computer-assisted spectral analysis of the EEG showed moderate though significant central effects of gabapentine in doses of 200-400 mg as compared with placebo, which were maximally pronounced in the 2nd hour post drug. These alterations were generally characterized by an attenuation of total power, augmentation of delta and theta activity and a decrease of alpha activity indicating CNS-inhibitory properties. Only at the late hours did the type of changes shift towards a vigilance-promoting one. Beta activity showed alternating changes. Psychometric and psychophysiological evaluations demonstrated subtle psychotropic effects as compared with placebo characterized mostly by an improvement in concentration, numerical memory, complex reaction and performance in the alphabetical reaction test while performance variability increased as well. Subjectively experienced well-being changed dose-dependently. CFF decreased after 100 mg as did pupil size after 50-200 mg. Evaluation of pulse, blood pressure and side effects demonstrated good tolerability of the drug.

  17. [Therapeutic indications of low molecular weight heparins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samama, M M; Michaut-Paterno, F

    1991-11-01

    The depolymerisation of the various chains of unfractionated heparin (UFH) by chemical or enzymatic reactions provides so-called low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), with an average molecular weight of approximately 5000 daltons. The specific biological and pharmacokinetic properties of LMWH with greater inhibition of factor Xa than of thrombin activity, less interaction with platelets, better bioavailability and a longer half life of anti-Xa activity, suggest possible new therapeutic applications. The hypothesis of reducing the risk of haemorrhage related to the antithrombin activity and the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia whilst preserving effective antithrombotic action has stimulated clinical and biological research. Clinical trials of prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism have been undertaken mainly in surgical patients. The results have shown identical if not better efficacy of LMWH compared to UFH in general surgical and above all orthopedic patients in whom subcutaneous heparin is only effective with a strict protocol which is difficult to adhere to in routine practice (adaptation of dosage to activated partial thromboplastin time). The risk of bleeding was not significantly lower using LMWH at the specified dosage, which in the latter indication, is twice that used in general surgery. There are many indications of prophylaxis of thromboembolism in the medical specialties but, paradoxically, LMWH has not been widely studied because of the difficulties in performing the therapeutic trials. Except in rare cases (extreme body weights, renal failure, haemorrhagic disease, thrombotic or haemorrhagic complications) the evaluation of amidolytic anti-Xa activity does not seem to be necessary. More recently, LMWH has been studied in a small number of trials for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The therapeutic efficacy is identical if not better than that of UFH without increasing the risk of bleeding. Biological monitoring seems to be

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Alloys Fabricated by Three New Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong-Ho; Lee, Dae-Ho; Ha, Jung-Yun; Hanawa, Takao; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary tensile test was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys fabricated by three new manufacturing processes: metal milling, milling for soft metal, and rapid prototyping (n=6). For comparison, the three alloy materials were also used to fabricate specimens by a casting procedure. In all groups tested, the proof strength and elongation were over 500 MPa and 2%, respectively. The milled soft alloy in particular showed a substantially greater elongation, whereas the alloy fabricated by rapid prototyping exhibited a higher proof strength.

  19. DRFM: A new package for the evaluation of gas-phase transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.H.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes a complete and modernized procedure to evaluate pure species, binary and mixture transport properties of gases in the low density limit. This includes a description of the relationships used to calculate these quantities and the means used to obtain the necessary input data. The purpose of this work is to rectify certain limitations of previous transport packages, specifically: to employ collision integrals suitable for high temperatures, to modernize the mixture formula, and to modernize the input data base. This report includes a set of input parameters for: the species involved in H{sub 2}-, CO - air combustion, the noble gases, methane and the oxides of nitrogen.

  20. Mechanical property evaluation of an Al-2024 alloy subjected to HPT processing

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Deepak C.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Kori, S.A.; Das, Goutam; Das, Mousumi; Alhajeri, Saleh N.; Langdon, Terence G.

    2014-01-01

    An aluminum-copper alloy (Al-2024) was successfully subjected to high-pressure torsion (HPT) up to five turns at room temperature under an applied pressure of 6.0 GPa. The Al-2024 alloy is used as a fuselage structural material in the aerospace sector. Mechanical properties of the HPT-processed Al-2024 alloy were evaluated using the automated ball indentation technique. This test is based on multiple cycles of loading and unloading where a spherical indenter is used. After two and five turns ...

  1. Evaluation of transport properties of warm dense matter using isochoric pulsed-power discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Yasutoshi, E-mail: miki@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Saito, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Takuya; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nob.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate transport properties of warm dense matter (WDM), we have demonstrated an isochoric foam ablation using pulsed-power discharge. In order to confirm the uniform heating of metal foam, the AC skin effect penetration of a magnetic field is observed. The skin effect is observed to be suppressed in foam samples as compared to rod samples. We also determined the density dependence of the electrical conductivity for copper and gold at WDM conditions. The measured electrical conductivity of copper agreed with previous experimental results. However the electrical conductivity for gold at the temperature of 3000 K was 10 times larger than the present measurements at 5000 K.

  2. Cannabidiol and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Antonio; Russo, Emilio; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the quality of life and therapeutic response for patients with epilepsy remains still poor. Unfortunately, besides several advantages, these new AEDs have not satisfactorily reduced the number of refractory patients. Therefore, the need for different other therapeutic options to manage epilepsy is still a current issue. To this purpose, emphasis has been given to phytocannabinoids, which have been medicinally used since ancient time in the treatment of neurological disorders including epilepsy. In particular, the nonpsychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anticonvulsant properties, both in preclinical and clinical studies, with a yet not completely clarified mechanism of action. However, it should be made clear that most phytocannabinoids do not act on the endocannabinoid system as in the case of CBD. In in vivo preclinical studies, CBD has shown significant anticonvulsant effects mainly in acute animal models of seizures, whereas restricted data exist in chronic models of epilepsy as well as in animal models of epileptogenesis. Likewise, clinical evidence seems to indicate that CBD is able to manage epilepsy both in adults and children affected by refractory seizures, with a favourable side effect profile. However, to date, clinical trials are both qualitatively and numerically limited, thus yet inconsistent. Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies are undoubtedly needed to better evaluate the potential therapeutic profile of CBD in epilepsy, although the actually available data is promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymer therapeutics in surgery: the next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Ernest A; Conlan, R Steven; Whitaker, Iain S

    2016-04-01

    Polymer therapeutics is a successful branch of nanomedicine, which is now established in several facets of everyday practice. However, to our knowledge, no literature regarding the application of the underpinning principles, general safety, and potential of this versatile class to the perioperative patient has been published. This study provides an overview of polymer therapeutics applied to clinical surgery, including the evolution of this demand-oriented scientific field, cutting-edge concepts, its implications, and limitations, illustrated by products already in clinical use and promising ones in development. In particular, the effect of design of polymer therapeutics on biophysical and biochemical properties, the potential for targeted delivery, smart release, and safety are addressed. Emphasis is made on principles, giving examples in salient areas of demand in current surgical practice. Exposure of the practising surgeon to this versatile class is crucial to evaluate and maximise the benefits that this established field presents and to attract a new generation of clinician-scientists with the necessary knowledge mix to drive highly successful innovation.

  4. Non-parametric probabilistic forecasts of wind power: required properties and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of wind power production for horizons up to 48-72 hour ahead comprise a highly valuable input to the methods for the daily management or trading of wind generation. Today, users of wind power predictions are not only provided with point predictions, which are estimates of the conditio......Predictions of wind power production for horizons up to 48-72 hour ahead comprise a highly valuable input to the methods for the daily management or trading of wind generation. Today, users of wind power predictions are not only provided with point predictions, which are estimates...... of a single or a set of quantile forecasts. The required and desirable properties of such probabilistic forecasts are defined and a framework for their evaluation is proposed. This framework is applied for evaluating the quality of two statistical methods producing full predictive distributions from point...

  5. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.

  6. Preparation of microcapsules with the evaluation of physicochemical properties and molecular interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Su-Ah; Lim, Jun Yeul; Lim, Dae Gon; Moon, Cheol; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize dutasteride (a hydrophobic model drug) microcapsules using ethyl cellulose as a capsule shell polymer with different drug/polymer ratios of 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5. The microcapsules were prepared by a solvent evaporation method and the prepared microcapsules were evaluated for percent yield, percent drug content, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and in vitro drug release studies. SEM revealed the spherical shape of all prepared microcapsules. The particle size of the microcapsules was about 95-119 μm with good yield and encapsulation efficiency. PXRD showed different X-ray patterns compared to the drug itself suggesting possibility of crystalline form change during the process. Moreover, it confirmed that ethyl cellulose was changed to amorphous state. The physical property changes may affect the overall quality and drug release behavior. In the FT-IR studies, hydrogen bonding was observed between the drug and polymer at the molecular level. DSC data provided consistent results with the FT-IR and PXRD analyses. Drug release profiles showed the overall sustained release of drug and anomalous diffusion mechanism based on the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. Understanding the physicochemical properties of a drug and polymer including molecular interactions may facilitate formulation of microcapsules with acceptable properties and drug release behaviors.

  7. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of Custom 455 stainless steel alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical and stress corrosion properties are presented of vacuum melted Custom 455 stainless steel alloy bar (1.0-inch diameter) and sheet (0.083-inch thick) material aged at 950 F, 1000 F, and 1050 F. Low temperature mechanical properties were determined at temperatures of 80 F, 0 F, -100 F, and -200 F. For all three aging treatments, the ultimate tensile and 0.2 percent offset yield strengths increased with decreasing test temperatures while the elongation held fairly constant down to -100 F and decreased at -200 F. Reduction in Area decreased moderately with decreasing temperature for the longitudinal round (0.250-inch diameter) specimens. Notched tensile strength and charpy V-notched impact strength decreased with decreasing test temperature. For all three aging treatments, no failures were observed in the unstressed specimens or the specimens stressed to 50, 75, and 100 percent of their yield strengths for 180 days of alternate immersion testing in a 3.5 percent NaCl solution. As indicated by the results of tensile tests performed after alternate immersion testing, the mechanical properties of Custom 455 alloy were not affected by stress or exposure under the conditions of the evaluation.

  8. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M.; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties. PMID:23341748

  9. Evaluation of disintegration properties of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets using a novel disintegration tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new disintegration tester that can determine not only the disintegration time of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets (ODT), but also the disintegration behavior and mechanism. Using the tester, the disintegration properties of the tablets prepared in a previous study were examined. The purpose of this study is to confirm the utility of the tester as an instrument for evaluating the disintegration properties of ODT and determine relations among time, behavior and mechanism of the disintegration. Results demonstrated that in vitro disintegration time in the tester is similar to that in the commercial disintegration tester for ODT and is highly correlated with oral disintegration time. Observations of disintegration process revealed that a difference in disintegration behavior between tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa; the disintegration behavior of the tablets were designated immediate disintegrating type and gradual disintegrating type, respectively. The dynamic swelling profile and water absorption profile indicated that the disintegration mechanism of the tablets involved wicking action induced by swelling of the disintegrant; the disintegration time was closely related to the initial rates of swelling and water absorption. Furthermore, the mechanism of water absorption of tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa shows anomalous diffusion and case-II transport, respectively. The shift in this mechanism is consistent with differences in disintegration time and behavior between the tablets. These findings suggest that information on disintegration properties obtained by our tester is useful for understanding of disintegration phenomena of ODT.

  10. Evaluation of elevated temperature properties of asphalt cement modified with aluminum oxide and calcium carbonate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrka Ali, Shaban Ismael; Ismail, Amiruddin; AlMansob, Ramez A.; Alhmali, Dhawo Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Higher temperature properties of the asphalt cement have been characterized before and after modification using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and viscosity testing. In this study, calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CaCO3) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3) have been added to the base asphalt cement with concentrations of 3, 5 and 7%.wt by the weight of the asphalt cement. The increase of CaCO3 and Al2O3 content has significant effect on the properties of asphalt cement. The viscosity of the modified asphalt cement increased up to 90 and 108% respectively compared to the base asphalt cement. In addition, the results showed that both modifiers have great storage stability and compatibility at elevated temperature. The evaluation of the rheological properties of asphalt cements revealed that the stiffness of the modified samples improved with additional increase of the modifier concentration of up to 5%, which indicates better resistance to rutting parameter. The enhancement was up to 388.89% for Al2O3 and 74.07% for CaCO3. As a result, the usage of CaCO3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles can be considered as appropriate alternative materials to modify asphalt cement.

  11. Fabrication and Evaluation of Multilayer Nanofiber-Hydrogel Meshes with a Controlled Release Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigumula Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release drug delivery systems enable the sustained release of bioactive molecules, and increase bioavailability over an extended length of time. Biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polycaprolactone (PCL nanofibers and alginate hydrogel play a significant role in designing controlled release systems. Prolonged release of bioactive molecules is observed when these polymer materials are used as matrices independently. However, there has not been a report in the literature that shows how different molecules are released at various rates over time. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a novel drug delivery system that has a property of releasing designated drugs at various rates over a defined length of time. We fabricated multilayer nanofiber-hydrogel meshes using electrospun PCL nanofiber and alginate hydrogel, and evaluated their controlled release properties. The multilayer meshes are composed of sandwiched layers of alternating PCL nanofibers and alginate hydrogel. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP, encapsulated in the designated hydrogel layers, is used as a mock drug for the release study. The exposed top layer of the meshes demonstrates a dramatically higher burst release and shorter release time compared to the deeper layers. Such properties of the different layers within the meshes can be employed to achieve the release of multiple drugs at different rates over a specified length of time.

  12. Introduction of Hypermatrix and Operator Notation into a Discrete Mathematics Simulation Model of Malignant Tumour Response to Therapeutic Schemes In Vivo. Some Operator Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S. Stamatakos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous rate of accumulation of experimental and clinical knowledge pertaining to cancer dictates the development of a theoretical framework for the meaningful integration of such knowledge at all levels of biocomplexity. In this context our research group has developed and partly validated a number of spatiotemporal simulation models of in vivo tumour growth and in particular tumour response to several therapeutic schemes. Most of the modeling modules have been based on discrete mathematics and therefore have been formulated in terms of rather complex algorithms (e.g. in pseudocode and actual computer code. However, such lengthy algorithmic descriptions, although sufficient from the mathematical point of view, may render it difficult for an interested reader to readily identify the sequence of the very basic simulation operations that lie at the heart of the entire model. In order to both alleviate this problem and at the same time provide a bridge to symbolic mathematics, we propose the introduction of the notion of hypermatrix in conjunction with that of a discrete operator into the already developed models. Using a radiotherapy response simulation example we demonstrate how the entire model can be considered as the sequential application of a number of discrete operators to a hypermatrix corresponding to the dynamics of the anatomic area of interest. Subsequently, we investigate the operators’ commutativity and outline the “summarize and jump” strategy aiming at efficiently and realistically address multilevel biological problems such as cancer. In order to clarify the actual effect of the composite discrete operator we present further simulation results which are in agreement with the outcome of the clinical study RTOG 83–02, thus strengthening the reliability of the model developed.

  13. Introduction of hypermatrix and operator notation into a discrete mathematics simulation model of malignant tumour response to therapeutic schemes in vivo. Some operator properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, Georgios S; Dionysiou, Dimitra D

    2009-10-21

    The tremendous rate of accumulation of experimental and clinical knowledge pertaining to cancer dictates the development of a theoretical framework for the meaningful integration of such knowledge at all levels of biocomplexity. In this context our research group has developed and partly validated a number of spatiotemporal simulation models of in vivo tumour growth and in particular tumour response to several therapeutic schemes. Most of the modeling modules have been based on discrete mathematics and therefore have been formulated in terms of rather complex algorithms (e.g. in pseudocode and actual computer code). However, such lengthy algorithmic descriptions, although sufficient from the mathematical point of view, may render it difficult for an interested reader to readily identify the sequence of the very basic simulation operations that lie at the heart of the entire model. In order to both alleviate this problem and at the same time provide a bridge to symbolic mathematics, we propose the introduction of the notion of hypermatrix in conjunction with that of a discrete operator into the already developed models. Using a radiotherapy response simulation example we demonstrate how the entire model can be considered as the sequential application of a number of discrete operators to a hypermatrix corresponding to the dynamics of the anatomic area of interest. Subsequently, we investigate the operators' commutativity and outline the "summarize and jump" strategy aiming at efficiently and realistically address multilevel biological problems such as cancer. In order to clarify the actual effect of the composite discrete operator we present further simulation results which are in agreement with the outcome of the clinical study RTOG 83-02, thus strengthening the reliability of the model developed.

  14. Hexavalent bispecific antibodies represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics: 1. Properties of anti-CD20/CD22 antibodies in lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Thomas M.; Stein, Rhona; Chang, Chien-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The dock and lock (DNL) method is a new technology for generating multivalent antibodies. Here, we report in vitro and in vivo characterizations of 20-22 and 22-20, a pair of humanized hexavalent anti-CD20/22 bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) derived from veltuzumab (v-mab) and epratuzumab (e-mab). The 22-20 was made by site-specific conjugation of e-mab to 4 Fabs of v-mab; 20-22 is of the opposite configuration, composing v-mab and 4 Fabs of e-mab. Each bsAb translocates both CD22 and CD20 into lipid rafts, induces apoptosis and growth inhibition without second-antibody crosslinking, and is significantly more potent in killing lymphoma cells in vitro than their parental antibodies. Although both bsAbs triggered antibody-dependent cellular toxicity, neither displayed complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Intriguingly, 22-20 and 20-22 killed human lymphoma cells in preference to normal B cells ex vivo, whereas the parental v-mab depleted malignant and normal B cells equally. In vivo studies in Daudi tumors revealed 20-22, despite having a shorter serum half-life, had antitumor efficacy comparable with equimolar v-mab; 22-20 was less potent than 20-22 but more effective than e-mab and control bsAbs. These results indicate multiple advantages of hexavalent anti-CD20/22 bsAbs over the individual parental antibodies and suggest that these may represent a new class of cancer therapeutics. PMID:19372261

  15. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 1 - mechanical properties of FRP piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 1, Mechanical Properties of FRP Piles. : Mechanical and geotechnic...

  16. Evaluation of Obturator and Sealing Cuff Properties for the M865 Training Projectile with Comparison to Ballistic Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoppel, C

    1999-01-01

    The nylon obturation and RTV sealing cuff for the M865 training round were evaluated to identity potential sources of ballistic variability associated with the material properties and material processing...

  17. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire in Argentinian young people and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Tuzinkievich, Francisco Benjamín

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, in a sample of young people and adults from the general community, the psychometric properties of two models developed for assessing gambling motives (Gambling Motives Questionnaire and Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial; GMQ and GMQ-F). Specifically, a confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to assess the fit of the two models to the data. Internal consistency of the scales was then analyzed. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to analyze the utility of gambling motives for predicting levels of gambling problem severity. The final sample was made up of 341 young people and adults, aged 18 to 60, who reported any gambling activity during the last six months. The maximum likelihood (ML) method with robust Satorra-Bentler correction was used to evaluate the fit of the models to the data. The results indicated that both the GMQ and the GMQ-F models show a reasonable fit to the data. All scales have adequate internal consistency values. Enhancement, coping and financial gambling motives were associated with greater severity of gambling problems. Overall, the results indicate that both models have adequate psychometric properties, though the GMQ-F appears to provide a more comprehensive alternative for assessing gambling motives in the general community.

  18. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Second Version of the Taqwa (Piety) Questionnaire in Bahasa Melayu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain; Hatim, Ahmad; Ardakani, Abolfazl; Ishak, Khafidz; Rashid, Rusdi

    2017-02-10

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire, used for the measurement of behaviour of Drug Dependency Syndrome (DDS), in Malay patients. A sample of 98 males with a psychiatric diagnosis (DSM-IV-R) as the DDS was randomly selected from Kajang Khafidz Polyclinic Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. After receiving their agreement to attend the study, they completed the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire. The reliability was assessed by determining the Cronbach's [Formula: see text] to measure the consistency of related questions for all four dimensions (subscales), including individual, social, cognitional, and emotional Taqwa behaviour. In the next step to evaluate the composite reliability, convergent, and discrimination validity, a measurement model was determined via Conformity Factor Analysis (CFA) based on Partial List Square method (Smart- PLS Ver: 2M3). The reliability of four dimensions of the questionnaire was acceptable ([Formula: see text] correlated to each other. However, according to the CFA method, the items with low loading factor (discrimination validity were satisfied in all conformity factor loading that exceeded 0/05. The psychometric properties of the Taqwa questionnaire are acceptable, and the scale is a good instrument for assessing the Islamic attitude, beliefs, and behaviour of the Bahasa Melayu DDS patients.

  19. A comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics: I. Measurement and characterization of mass and bending properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaoqun; Yu, Weidong

    2007-11-01

    The main content dealt with in this paper is to present a new apparatus and a new method that can measure multiple mechanical properties through a single test in principle, which can be used for handle evaluation for textile materials. The comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics and yarns (CHES-FY) is a kind of apparatus that is capable of measuring mass, bending, friction and tensile behavior just through one pulling-out test, and is able to characterize the handle of fabrics, whose measurement principle and structure of the CHES-FY system in mass and bending steps are analyzed in the present paper. The shape of a hung fabric was captured by a digital camera, and its weight was calculated. Then, a three-point bending in principle was utilized to model and analyze the bending properties of the fabric, and the corresponding formula was obtained for calculating the bending rigidity of the fabric. The comparisons of mass and bending rigidity based on 17 fabrics have been conducted by using CHES-FY, electronic balance and KES-FB2, respectively. The measured results show that there are high correlations between the three measuring systems for fabrics. It indicates that the approach using CHES-FY is feasible and accurate in measuring and characterizing mass and bending rigidity.

  20. Viscoelastic properties of tablets from Osborne fractions, pentosans, flour and bread evaluated by creep tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Aburto, Anayansi; de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, Juan; Véles-Medina, José Juan; Ponce-García, Néstor; Hernández-Estrada, Zorba Josué; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Simsek, Senay

    2017-07-01

    Little attention has been given to the influence of non-gluten components on the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour dough, bread making process and their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate by creep tests the viscoelastic properties of tablets manufactured from Osborne solubility fractions (globulins, gliadins, glutenins, albumins and residue), pentosans, flour and bread. Hard and soft wheat cultivars were used to prepare the reconstituted tablets. Sintered tablets (except flour and bread) showed similar values to those obtained from the sum of the regression coefficients of the fractions. Gliadins and albumins accounted for about 54% of the total elasticity. Gliadins contributed with almost half of the total viscosity (45.7%), and showed the highest value for the viscosity coefficient of the viscous element. When the effect of dilution was evaluated, the residue showed the highest instantaneous elastic modulus (788.2 MPa). Retardation times of the first element (λ1 3.5 s) were about 10 times lower than the second element (λ2 39.3 s). The analysis of compliance of data corrected by protein content in flour showed that the residue fraction presented the highest values. An important contribution of non-gluten components (starch, albumins and globulins) on the viscoelastic performance of sintered tablets from Osborne fractions, flour and bread was found.

  1. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  2. Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Gel Abrasive in Magnetic Abrasive Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Cheng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was aimed at the evaluation of the mechanism of magnetic finishing with gel abrasive (MFGA, during which the performance of MFGA was compared to that of magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF. Of importance is that MFGA performs better than MAF based on the polishing-efficiency criterion. Silicone gels, however, are semisolid polymer gels with deforming properties that are temperature dependent, ultimately influencing significantly the polishing efficiency in MFGA. Therefore, taking as examples cylindrical rods which were polished using silicone gels with different plasticities to determine the corresponding temperatures of abrasive media in the working area, this study evaluated the MFGA mechanism to elucidate the properties of silicone gels and attain both the finished effect and effective gel abrasives in MFGA to produce a highly efficient polished surface. Next, circulating effects of abrasive media were identified to ensure the efficiency in MFGA and establish the relation between the concentrations of abrasive media and circulating effects in the working area. Experimental results show that silicone gels with low plasticity produce high temperature of abrasive media in MFGA; high temperature of abrasive medium makes excellent circulating effects in the working area, inducing high material removal and fine surface roughness.

  3. The Measurement of Intellectual Property: Evaluation of Technological Patents Based on the Integral Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grytsulenko Svitlana I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The acknowledged tools for solution of practical tasks of management of innovative processes is the measurement and analysis of results of the intellectual (scientific and technical activities. To this end, the article defines an integral index of comparative evaluation of technological patents as one of analytical indicators of the innovation development of economy. The importance of system of information management for the efficiency of evaluation of technological patents, formed on the basis of the databases, accounted and not accounted in the balance of the intellectual property rights, has been substantiated. The characteristics of formation together with the specificity of economic use of the portfolio of technological patents have been explored, proceeding from which its particular estimates have been identified. Considering the accumulated positive experience in measuring the intellectual property, quantitative and qualitative indicators have been identified, which are the most significant for characteristics of portfolio of technological patents from the position of the contents and functioning of high technology in both the national and the global markets. The approach to calculating the integral index of technological patents has been outlined, directions for its practical application have been specified.

  4. Evaluation of the geotechnical properties of MSW in two Brazilian landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sandro Lemos; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Nader; Carvalho, Miriam Fatima; do Nascimento, Julio C F

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a key role in many aspects of waste disposal facilities and landfills. Because most of a landfill is made up of MSW, the overall stability of the landfill slopes are governed by the strength parameters and physical properties of the MSW. These parameters are also important in interactions involving the waste body and the landfill structures: cover liner, leachate and gas collection systems. On the other hand, the composition of the waste, which affects the geotechnical behavior of the MSW, is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, disposal technology, the culture and habits of the local community. It is therefore essential that the design and stability evaluations of landfills in each region be performed based on the local conditions and the geotechnical characteristic of the MSW. The Bandeirantes Landfill, BL, in São Paulo and the Metropolitan Center Landfill, MCL, in Salvador, are among the biggest landfills in Brazil. These two disposal facilities have been used for the development of research involving waste mechanics in recent years. Considerable work has been made in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate parameters such as water and organic contents, composition, permeability, and shear strength. This paper shows and analyzes the results of tests performed on these two landfills. The authors believe that these results could be a good reference for certain aspects and geotechnical properties of MSW materials in countries with similar conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluations of therapeutic efficacy of intravitreal injected polylactic-glycolic acid microspheres loaded with triamcinolone acetonide on a rabbit model of uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenchang; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yuling

    2014-06-01

    Conventional treatments of uveitis are not ideal because of the short period of therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, biodegradable polylactic-glycolic acid microspheres loaded with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) were prepared to achieve sustained drug release and their therapeutic efficacy was investigated on a rabbit model of uveitis. TA-loaded microspheres (TA-MS) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method and characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, morphology and in vitro release. The therapeutic efficacy was studied on the rabbit experimental uveitis model based on scoring of the inflammation, aqueous leukocyte counting, aqueous protein determination and histological examination. The TA-MS exhibited smooth and intact surfaces with an average diameter of 50.87 μm. The drug-loading coefficient and encapsulation efficiency were 15.2 ± 0.6 % and 91.24 ± 3.77 %, respectively. The drug release from TA-MS lasted up to 87 days, but only 46 days for TA suspension. The change in surface morphology also showed sustained drug release from TA-MS. TA-MS exhibited improved therapeutic efficacy in lipopolysaccharide -induced uveitis compared to TA suspension, especially in regard to the inhibition of inflammation. The TA-MS had a longer-term therapeutic effect on intraocular inflammation in LPS-induced uveitis in rabbits compared to TA suspension. The results suggested that TA-MS can be developed as a potential sustained-release system for the treatment of uveitis.

  6. Evaluation of Methods for Estimation of Cyclic Stress-Strain Parameters from Monotonic Properties of Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Marohnić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing methods for estimation of cyclic yield stress and cyclic Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain parameters of steels from their monotonic properties were developed on relatively modest number of material datasets and without considerations of the particularities of different steel subgroups formed according to their chemical composition (unalloyed, low-alloy, and high-alloy steels or delivery, i.e., testing condition. Furthermore, some methods were evaluated using the same datasets that were used for their development. In this paper, a comprehensive statistical analysis and evaluation of existing estimation methods were performed using an independent set of experimental material data compriseding 116 steels. Results of performed statistical analyses reveal that statistically significant differences exist among unalloyed, low-alloy, and high-alloy steels regarding their cyclic yield stress and cyclic Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain parameters. Therefore, estimation methods were evaluated separately for mentioned steel subgroups in order to more precisely determine their applicability for the estimation of cyclic behavior of steels belonging to individual subgroups. Evaluations revealed that considering all steels as a single group results in averaging and that subgroups should be treated independently. Based on results of performed statistical analysis, guidelines are provided for identification and selection of suitable methods to be applied for the estimation of cyclic stress-strain parameters of steels.

  7. Evaluation of Changes in Index Properties of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

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    Agapitus AMADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For soils to be suitable in civil engineering projects, they must meet existing local requirements for index properties in addition to certain strength criteria. Typically, specifications limit these properties to some threshold values which in most cases are project specific. Some lateritic soils in their natural state need some treatment/modification to meet these specification requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the index properties (i.e., particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of a residually derived lateritic soil following fly ash application. Lateritic soil – fly ash mixtures with up to 20% fly ash by dry weight of soil were tested and specimens for compaction characteristics were prepared at different compaction states (optimum, dry and wet of optimum moisture content and compacted using British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort. While soil – fly ash mixtures containing up to 15% fly ash classify as CL according to USCS classification system and plotted above A-line in the plasticity chart, it was observed that changes in the gradation characteristics of soil sample treated with 20% fly ash resulted in the alteration of its classification to ML as well as the crossing of the A- line to the silty region. The liquid limit (LL varied from 42.2 to 29.53% representing 70% reduction while the plasticity index (PI of specimen treated with 20% fly ash was 16% lower than that of natural soil. The optimum moisture content (OMC ranged from 17.36% for the natural soil to 18.34% for soil mixtures containing 20% fly ash which yielded dry unit weight of 17.2kN/m3 for the natural soil and 16.1kN/m3 for samples treated with 20% fly ash. From the study, useful data were obtained showing substantial and desirable changes in the properties of lateritic soil as a civil engineering material on application of fly ash.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

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    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS.

  9. Curcumin (Extracted from Tumeric and its Therapeutic Effects

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    Arezou khosrojerdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:  The application of herbal medicine has been rising in recent years. Therefore, it is logical to revise and revive these traditional drugs while identifying their mechanisms of action can result in developing new treatments for many diseases. Curcumin is the most important component of Turmeric with numerous therapeutic properties. We aimed to review the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties of Curcumin and introduce it as a therapeutic molecule in the present article. Methods: In this review, 121 articles were selected from authenticated electronic resources and scientific library databases such as Pubmed, Medline, Sciencedirect, WOS, DOAJ, SID, Iranmedex, Magiran and Google Scholar search engine in which Curcumin (Turmeric had been evaluated as a therapeutic molecule from differeny aspects. Results: Our findings from the literature revealed that immune responses against infectious and inflammatory factors could be fascilitated by Curcumin. However, the low solubility in water and minimal bioavailability which may lead to poor absorbance from gastrointestinal tract, quick metabolization and elimination from blood circulation are the most important problems during oral consumption. Conclusion: According to the results of the present review article, Curcumin possesses efficient anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-parasitic properties. However, the low bioavailability of this substance has limited its treatment properties. Nowadays, several mechanisms have been proposed to increase the bioavailability which can improve its absorption.

  10. Therapeutic utility of Phosphodiesterase type I inhibitors in neurological conditions.

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    Alexandre Esteves Medina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal plasticity is an essential property of the brain that is impaired in different neurological conditions. Phosphodiesterase type 1 (PDE1 inhibitors can enhance levels of the second messengers cAMP/cGMP leading to the expression of neuronal plasticity-related genes, neurotrophic factors and neuroprotective molecules. These neuronal plasticity enhancement properties make PDE1 inhibitors good candidates as therapeutic agents in many neurological conditions. However, the lack of specificity of the drugs currently available poses a challenge to the systematic evaluation of the beneficial effect of these agents. The development of more specific drugs may pave the way for the use of PDE1 inhibitors as therapeutic agents in cases of neurodevelopmental conditions such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and in degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

  11. A stable explant culture of HER2/neu invasive carcinoma supported by alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin expressing stromal cells to evaluate therapeutic agents

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    Piechocki Marie P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain a better understanding of the effects of therapeutic agents on the tumor microenvironment in invasive cancers, we developed a co-culture model from an invasive lobular carcinoma. Tumor cells expressing HER2/neu organize in nests surrounded by alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA expressing tumor stroma to resemble the morphology of an invading tumor. This co-culture, Mammary Adenocarcinoma Model (MAM-1 maintains a 1:1 ratio of HER2/neu positive tumor cells to α-SMA-reactive stromal cells and renews this configuration for over 20 passages in vitro. Methods We characterized the cellular elements of the MAM-1 model by microarray analysis, and immunocytochemistry. We developed flow cytometric assays to evaluate the relative responses of the tumor and stroma to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Iressa. Results The MAM-1 gene expression profile contains clusters that represent the ErbB-2 breast cancer signature and stroma-specific clusters associated with invasive breast cancers. The stability of this model and the ability to antigenically label the tumor and stromal fractions allowed us to determine the specificity of Iressa, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for targeting the tumor cell population. Treatment resulted in a selective dose-dependent reduction in phospho-pMEK1/2 and pp44/42MAPK in tumor cells. Within 24 h the tumor cell fraction was reduced 1.9-fold while the stromal cell fraction increased >3-fold, consistent with specific reductions in phospho-pp44/42 MAPK, MEK1/2 and PCNA in tumor cells and reciprocal increases in the stromal cells. Erosion of the tumor cell nests and augmented growth of the stromal cells resembled a fibrotic response. Conclusion This model demonstrates the specificity of Iressa for HER2/neu expressing tumor cells versus the tumor associated myofibroblasts and is appropriate for delineating effects of therapy on signal transduction in the breast tumor microenvironment and improving

  12. Psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for clinical evaluation scale in Turkish nursing students.

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    Zengin, Neriman; Pınar, Rukiye; Akinci, Ayse Cil; Yildiz, Hicran

    2014-04-01

    To examine psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Clinical Evaluation Scale (SECS) in a nursing student sample. Self-efficacy is a good choice to be used in order to make a prediction of nursing students' performance in clinical practice. The SECS, consisting of perceived self-efficacy and importance subscales, seems to be suitable to evaluate self-efficacy regarding care skills for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is not a valid tool to evaluate the perception of self-efficacy for Turkish nursing students. Cross-sectional methodological design. The sample included 400 Turkish nursing students who attended practicum at a hospital. Content of the SECS was evaluated by content validity index (CVI). Reliability was evaluated with internal consistency, item-total correlation and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent and divergent validity were used to test the validity. The CVI results were satisfactory. We found satisfactory evidence for internal consistency and item-total correlations. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed stability of subscales. The CFA replicated two-factor structure for the SECS. This was reflected in all fit indices. All factor loadings were positive and were above the perfect level. The convergent validity was supported by the correlation between SECS and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The divergent validity findings demonstrated that SECS differentiated between students with various levels of general point average, which is an indicator of academic success. In conclusion, SECS is a reliable and val