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Sample records for evaluate smoking cessation

  1. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  2. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 75% at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, respectively. Based on the Fagerstrom test, nicotine dependence decreased from baseline to the end of the study, 4.89 to 0.33 ( P smoking cessation program can assist patients in becoming smoke-free.

  3. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  4. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  5. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  6. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation.

  7. [Evaluation of motivation to quit smoking in outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokłosa, Anna; Skoczylas, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Anna; Bednarek, Michał; Krzyzanowski, Krystian; Górecka, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    The success in smoking cessation depends not only on a method of treatment but also on patient motivation. The aim of this study was to estimate the motivation and the main reason to quit smoking among outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic. One hundred and eleven patients (50 men and 61 women), mean age 58, filled in a motivation test, nicotine dependence test and a questionnaire of the clinic. The main motivation to quit was for the health reasons (83%). Mean motivation test result was 6.93; mean nicotine addiction evaluated in dependence test was 5.49. Eighty seven percent of patients were ready to quit smoking during one month (36% in 24 hours; 23% in one week; 28% in four weeks). There was no significant difference between men and women. The main motivation to quit smoking were the health reasons as well among men as women. There was no correlation between the readiness to quit smoking determined as time to quit attempt and the motivation test.

  8. Evaluation of smoking cessation treatment initiated during hospitalization in patients with heart disease or respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD or heart disease (HD. Methods: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively. All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge. Results: There were significant differences between the HD group and the RD group regarding participation in the cognitive-behavioral program after hospital discharge (13.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.003; smoking cessation at the end of follow-up (29% vs. 31%; p < 0.001; and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (3.4% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001. No differences were found between the HD group and the RD group regarding the use of bupropion (11.0% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.92. Varenicline was used by only 0.7% of the patients in the HD group. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking cessation rates at six months after hospital discharge were higher among the patients with RD than among those with HD, as were treatment adherence rates. The implementation of smoking cessation programs for hospitalized patients with different diseases, delivered by the health care teams that treat these patients, is necessary for greater effectiveness in smoking cessation.

  9. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Armero A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Marín Armero,1 Miguel A Calleja Hernandez,2 Sabina Perez-Vicente,3 Fernando Martinez-Martinez4 1Community Pharmacy, Murcia, Spain; 2Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; 3Result Evaluation Unit, Institute of Biomedicine, Sevilla, Spain; 4Research Unit in Pharmaceutical Care, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract: As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. Keywords: community pharmacy, health campaign, tobacco cessation, nicotine replacement therapy

  10. The Danish Smoking Cessation Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve their qu......‐free. The database is increasingly used in register-based research.......Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve...... their quality. The database was also designed to function as a basis for register-based research projects. Study population The population includes smokers in Denmark who have been receiving a face-to-face SC intervention offered by an SC clinic affiliated with the SCDB. SC clinics can be any organisation...

  11. A 5-year evaluation of a smoking cessation incentive program for chemical employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G W; Lacy, S E; Sprafka, J M; Arceneaux, T G; Potts, T A; Kravat, B A; Gondek, M R; Bond, G G

    1991-11-01

    This 5-year study of the Dow Chemical Texas Operations 1984-1985 Smoking Cessation Incentive Program (SCIP) evaluated the smoking habits of 1,097 participants and 1,174 nonparticipants. We observed, via questionnaire and saliva cotinine data, that participants were 2.3 times more likely to be long-term (greater than or equal to 5 years) nonusers of tobacco than nonparticipants (10.2% vs 4.4%, P less than or equal to 0.01). However, smoking cessation rates for 3-4 years, 1-2 years, and less than 1 year were similar for participants who remained smokers at the conclusion of SCIP and nonparticipants. Age and the interaction between the management job category and having quit smoking for at least 30 days sometime prior to the worksite program were important predictors of smoking cessation among participants. Thirty-six percent of the participants who were considered exsmokers of 6 months duration at the conclusion of the program in 1985 remained long-term quitters 5 years later. Stress and enjoyment of smoking were the two most important reasons provided by participants for recidivism. The results of this 5-year evaluation demonstrate the heterogeneity of employee participation and success with a worksite smoking cessation program.

  12. Physical threat and self-evaluative emotions in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Den Dijker, L

    Negative self-evaluative emotions (e.g., feeling dissatisfied with oneself, feeling stupid) are considered to indicate a threat to the self that can be caused by an external physical threat (e.g., smoking). A sample of 363 smokers was tested twice, with an interval of 8 months. Prospective analyses

  13. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; van Riet, Evelien E S; Rutten, Frans H

    2013-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in COPD patients. MEDLINE was searched from January 2002 to October 2011....... Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of smoking cessation interventions for COPD patients, published in English, were selected. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Delphi list by two reviewers independently. The relative risks of smoking cessation due...... that in COPD patients, pharmacological therapy combined with behavioural counselling is more effective than each strategy separately. Neither the intensity of counselling nor the type of anti-smoking drug made a difference....

  14. Experiences of outreach workers in promoting smoking cessation to Bangladeshi and Pakistani men: longitudinal qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Pelham M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having high smoking rates, there have been few tailored cessation programmes for male Bangladeshi and Pakistani smokers in the UK. We report on a qualitative evaluation of a community-based, outreach worker delivered, intervention that aimed to increase uptake of NHS smoking cessation services and tailor services to meet the needs of Bangladeshi and Pakistani men. Methods This was a longitudinal, qualitative study, nested within a phase II cluster randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention. We explored the perspectives and experiences of five outreach workers, two stop smoking service managers and a specialist stop smoking advisor. Data were collected through focus group discussions, weekly diaries, observations of management meetings, shadowing of outreach workers, and one-to-one interviews with outreach workers and their managers. Analysis was undertaken using a modified Framework approach. Results Outreach workers promoted cessation services by word of mouth on the streets, in health service premises, in local businesses and at a wide range of community events. They emphasised the reasons for cessation, especially health effects, financial implications, and the impact of smoking on the family. Many smokers agreed to be referred to cessation services, but few attended, this in part being explained by concerns about the relative inflexibility of existing service provision. Although outreach workers successfully expanded service reach, they faced the challenges of perceived lack of awareness of the health risks associated with smoking in older smokers and apathy in younger smokers. These were compounded by perceptions of "lip service" being given to their role by community organisations and tensions both amongst the outreach workers and with the wider management team. Conclusions Outreach workers expanded reach of the service through taking it to diverse locations of relevance to Pakistani and Bangladeshi

  15. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking and/or the incidence of postoperative complications. Data collection and analysis The authors independently assessed studies to determine eligibility. Results were discussed between the authors. Main results...... Eight trials enrolling a total of 1156 people met the inclusion criteria. One of these did not report cessation as an outcome. Two trials initiated multisession face to face counselling at least 6 weeks before surgery whilst six used a brief intervention. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was offered......; pooled RR 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55 to 25.46, two trials) and RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.63, five trials) respectively. Four trials evaluating the effect on long-term smoking cessation found a significant effect; pooled RR 1.61 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.33). However, when pooling intensive...

  16. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non

  17. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  18. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD.......Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  19. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  20. Evaluation of a Web-Based Training in Smoking Cessation Counseling Targeting U.S. Eye-Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Taghrid; Lee, David J.; Lam, Byron L.; Murchison, Ann P.; Mayro, Eileen L.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Gower, Emily W.; Friedman, David S.; Saaddine, Jinan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Smoking causes blindness-related diseases. Eye-care providers are uniquely positioned to help their patients quit smoking. Aims: Using a pre-/postevaluation design, this study evaluated a web-based training in smoking cessation counseling targeting eye-care providers. Method: The training was developed based on the 3A1R protocol:…

  1. Evaluating the effect of smoking cessation treatment on a complex dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroglu, Korkut; Russell, Michael A; Lagoa, Constantino M; Lanza, Stephanie T; Piper, Megan E

    2017-11-01

    To understand the dynamic relations among tobacco withdrawal symptoms to inform the development of effective smoking cessation treatments. Dynamical system models from control engineering are introduced and utilized to evaluate complex treatment effects. We demonstrate how dynamical models can be used to examine how distinct withdrawal-related processes are related over time and how treatment influences these relations. Intensive longitudinal data from a randomized placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial (N=1504) are used to estimate a dynamical model of withdrawal-related processes including momentary craving, negative affect, quitting self-efficacy, and cessation fatigue for each of six treatment conditions (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion, patch + lozenge, bupropion + lozenge, and placebo). Estimation and simulation results show that (1) withdrawal measurements are interrelated over time, (2) nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge showed reduced cessation fatigue and enhanced self-efficacy in the long-term while bupropion + nicotine lozenge was more effective at reducing negative affect and craving, and (3) although nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge had a better initial effect on cessation fatigue and self-efficacy, nicotine lozenge had a stronger effect on negative affect and nicotine patch had a stronger impact on craving. This approach can be used to provide new evidence illustrating (a) the total impact of treatment conditions (via steady state values) and (b) the total initial impact (via rate of initial change values) on smoking-related outcomes for separate treatment conditions, noting that the conditions that produce the largest change may be different than the conditions that produce the fastest change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  3. An evaluation of usage patterns, effectiveness and cost of the national smoking cessation quitline in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeyai, Aronrag; Yunibhand, Jintana; Punkrajang, Paweena; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan

    2015-09-01

    Telephone-based smoking cessation services (quitlines) offering counselling for smoking cessation without nicotine replacement therapy may be important components of tobacco control efforts in low and middle income countries, but evaluations in such resource-limited settings are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the usage, effectiveness and cost of the Thailand National Quitline (TNQ). Analysis of retrospective data for callers to the TNQ between 2009 and 2012 and a follow-up survey in 1161 randomly selected callers. Between 2009 and 2012 there were 116 862 callers to the TNQ; 36 927 received counselling and at least one follow-up call. Compared with smokers in the general population, callers were younger, more highly educated, more likely to be students, and more likely to smoke cigarettes rather than roll-your-own tobacco. Continuous abstinence rates at 1, 3 and 6 months after calling were 49.9%, 38.0% and 33.1%. The predicted rate at 12 months was 19.54% (95% CI 14.55 to 26.24). Average cost per completed counselling was $31 and the average cost per quitter was $253. Assuming all (and two-thirds) TNQ callers who succeed in quitting would have failed to quit without the assistance of the TNQ, cumulative life years saved (LYS) for the 4-year period were 57 238 (36 733) giving a cost per LYS of $32 (50) (about 7.93 LYS per quitter) and an estimated return on investment over 4 years of 9.01 (5.78). A low-cost quitline without nicotine replacement therapy is a promising model for smoking cessation services and likely to offer good value for money in Thailand. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Examining mixing methods in an evaluation of a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Lawrenz, Frances P; Thao, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Three different methods were used in an evaluation of a smoking cessation study: surveys, focus groups, and phenomenological interviews. The results of each method were analyzed separately and then combined using both a pragmatic and dialectic stance to examine the effects of different approaches to mixing methods. Results show that the further apart the methods are philosophically, the more diverse the findings. Comparisons of decision maker opinions and costs of the different methods are provided along with recommendations for evaluators' uses of different methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Smoking Cessation in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Jimenez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause of COPD. Smoking cessation is the only therapeutic measure that can cure COPD and prevent this disorder from its chronic progression. Smoking cessation in COPD patients is difficult because most of these patients have specific characteristics that prevent them to quit. Recently, an ERS Task Force has developed a Consensus Document that contains recommendations for helping COPD smokers to quit.

  6. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Sarbit, Gayl; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M; Currie, Leanne M; Schmid, Jonathan; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-04-20

    Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men's use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men's health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend QuitNow Men to others who wanted to quit (46

  7. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  8. Smoking cessation treatment and outcomes patterns simulation: a new framework for evaluating the potential health and economic impact of smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsios, Denis; Marton, Jenő P; Revankar, Nikhil; Ward, Alexandra J; Willke, Richard J; Rublee, Dale; Ishak, K Jack; Xenakis, James G

    2013-09-01

    Most existing models of smoking cessation treatments have considered a single quit attempt when modelling long-term outcomes. To develop a model to simulate smokers over their lifetimes accounting for multiple quit attempts and relapses which will allow for prediction of the long-term health and economic impact of smoking cessation strategies. A discrete event simulation (DES) that models individuals' life course of smoking behaviours, attempts to quit, and the cumulative impact on health and economic outcomes was developed. Each individual is assigned one of the available strategies used to support each quit attempt; the outcome of each attempt, time to relapses if abstinence is achieved, and time between quit attempts is tracked. Based on each individual's smoking or abstinence patterns, the risk of developing diseases associated with smoking (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke) is determined and the corresponding costs, changes to mortality, and quality of life assigned. Direct costs are assessed from the perspective of a comprehensive US healthcare payer ($US, 2012 values). Quit attempt strategies that can be evaluated in the current simulation include unassisted quit attempts, brief counselling, behavioural modification therapy, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline, with the selection of strategies and time between quit attempts based on equations derived from survey data. Equations predicting the success of quit attempts as well as the short-term probability of relapse were derived from five varenicline clinical trials. Concordance between the five trials and predictions from the simulation on abstinence at 12 months was high, indicating that the equations predicting success and relapse in the first year following a quit attempt were reliable. Predictions allowing for only a single quit attempt versus unrestricted attempts demonstrate important differences, with the single quit attempt

  9. Crush the Crave: Development and Formative Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Neill B; Struik, Laura L; Dash, Darly

    2018-03-02

    Emerging evidence supports the use of smartphone apps for smoking cessation, especially in young adults given their high smoking rates and high smartphone ownership rates. Although evaluative evidence is encouraging for supporting smoking cessation, there remains a paucity of research describing the design and development processes of mobile health (mHealth) interventions. The aim of this paper was to describe the process of developing Crush the Crave (CTC), an evidence-informed app to support smoking cessation in young adults, and the results of a formative evaluation of app usage behavior, as part of a broader program of research that seeks to establish the effectiveness of the CTC app. The Spiral Technology Action Research (STAR) 5-cycle model (listen, plan, do, act, and study) was employed to guide the development, implementation, and dissemination of CTC. The approach to development and formative evaluation included focus groups with young adult smokers (n=78) across 2 phases, analysis of the content of existing apps, 2 sessions with content experts, and Google Analytics to assess user behavior during a 12-month pilot. LISTEN-focus groups revealed young adult smoker preferences of (1) positive reinforcement, (2) personalization, (3) social support, (4) quit support, (5) tracking the behavior, and (6) tracking quit benefits. PLAN-informed by evidence for smoking cessation, young adult preferences and an assessment of popular cessation apps, content experts produced a mind map and a storyboard describing app content and structure. DO-focus groups with young adult smokers provided feedback on the first version of the app with opinions on content and suggestions for improvement such as providing alerts and distractions from craving. ACT-refinements were made, and app content was organized using the 4 key design components informed by principles of persuasive technology for behavior change: credibility, task support, dialogue support, and social support. CTC was

  10. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  11. Efficacy of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Katherine Kelly; Asal, Nicole J

    2014-11-01

    To review data demonstrating effective smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946-March 2014) was performed using the search terms e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and smoking cessation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language clinical studies assessing efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with baseline, placebo, or other pharmacological methods to aid in withdrawal symptoms, smoking reduction, or cessation were evaluated. A total of 6 clinical studies were included in the review. In small studies, e-cigarettes significantly decreased desire to smoke, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and adverse effects were variable. The most common adverse effects were nausea, headache, cough, and mouth/throat irritation. Compared with nicotine patches, e-cigarettes were associated with fewer adverse effects and higher adherence. Most studies showed a significant decrease in cigarette use acutely; however, long-term cessation was not sustained at 6 months. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. Studies available provided different administration patterns such as use while smoking, instead of smoking, or as needed. Short-term studies reviewed were small and did not necessarily evaluate cessation with a focus on parameters associated with cessation withdrawal symptoms. Though long-term safety is unknown, concerns regarding increased poisoning exposures among adults in comparison with cigarettes are alarming. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  13. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  14. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  15. Evaluation of knowledge change of internal medicine residents following a training program in smoking cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, N.A.; Radwan, G.N.; Salma, R.A.A.; Horeesh, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major barriers to smoking cessation practice is that many health professionals do not have the knowledge and skills on how to intervene. Objectives: To assess the effect of a training program on physicians' knowledge about tobacco dependence and cessation interventions. Subjects and Methods: A comprehensive training program was given to internal medicine residents in Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt during 2008-2009. An anonymous, 11- item questionnaire was administered before and after the training program. The training process was evaluated by participants' satisfaction using a 13- item checklist. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality. Results: A total of 163 internists entered the training program. Improvement in overall knowledge was evidenced by higher mean score in the post-test than pre-test (6.2 vs. 4.7; p<0.001). Significant improvement were seen in the participants' knowledge related to assessment of tobacco dependence (61% vs. 27%;p<0.001), interventions for smokers willing to quit (51.6 vs. 28.2%; p<0.001), interventions for smokers unwilling to quit (40.8 vs. 19.6%; p<0.001) and coping skills to handle withdrawal symptoms (52.9 vs. 30.7;p<0.001). Almost all participants reported that the training was very useful (96%) and applicable (85.6%) in their medical practices. Conclusions: Targeted training of health professionals has a potential to translate into improved smoking cessation counseling and to increase their inclination to intervene. Policy message: Continued medical education and regular/targeted training of health providers should be done. (author)

  16. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  17. Funding a smoking cessation program for Crohn's disease: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Stephanie; Heitman, Steven J; Clement, Fiona; Negron, Maria; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Barkema, Herman W; Seow, Cynthia; Leung, Yvette P Y; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who smoke are at a higher risk of flaring and requiring surgery. Cost-effectiveness studies of funding smoking cessation programs are lacking. Thus, we performed a cost-utility analysis of funding smoking cessation programs for CD. A cost-utility analysis was performed comparing five smoking cessation strategies: No Program, Counseling, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), NRT+Counseling, and Varenicline. The time horizon for the Markov model was 5 years. The health states included medical remission (azathioprine or antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), dose escalation of an anti-TNF, second anti-TNF, surgery, and death. Probabilities were taken from peer-reviewed literature, and costs (CAN$) for surgery, medications, and smoking cessation programs were estimated locally. The primary outcome was the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained associated with each smoking cessation strategy. Threshold, three-way sensitivity, probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA), and budget impact analysis (BIA) were carried out. All strategies dominated No Program. Strategies from most to least cost effective were as follows: Varenicline (cost: $55,614, QALY: 3.70), NRT+Counseling (cost: $58,878, QALY: 3.69), NRT (cost: $59,540, QALY: 3.69), Counseling (cost: $61,029, QALY: 3.68), and No Program (cost: $63,601, QALY: 3.67). Three-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that No Program was only more cost effective when every strategy's cost exceeded approximately 10 times their estimated costs. The PSA showed that No Program was the most cost-effective system money over No Program. Health-care systems should consider funding smoking cessation programs for CD, as they improve health outcomes and reduce costs.

  18. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  20. Evaluation of a structured smoking cessation program for primary care medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaehne, A.; Ruether, T.; Deest, H.; Gehrig, H.; de Zeeuw, J.; Alberti, A.; Mulzer, K.

    Background: Despite the fact that 9 of 10 general practitioners in Germany believe that smoking cessation is an important topic structured programs are only rarely offered to patients. Beside a lack of time and missing reimbursement, physician's limited treatment skills are frequent reasons for this

  1. Characterizing Internet searchers of smoking cessation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2006-09-19

    were planning to quit in the next 30 days. Smokers were more likely to seek information on how to quit and on medications; former smokers were more interested in how to cope with withdrawal. All participants rated withdrawal information and individually tailored information as being more useful, while displaying little interest in telephone counseling, expert support, or peer support. Publicly available data from large search engines suggest that 4 million Americans search for resources on smoking cessation each year. This study adds to the limited data available on individuals who search for smoking cessation information on the Internet, supports the prior estimates of the size of the population, and indicates that these individuals are in appropriate stages for both active cessation interventions and aggressive relapse prevention efforts. Continued development and evaluation of online interventions is warranted, and organizations seeking to promote cessation should carefully evaluate the Internet as a possible modality for treatment and as a gateway to other traditional programs.

  2. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  3. Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2017-06-01

    To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist-based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model-based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high-income country were excluded. Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state-transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life-time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35-0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Model‐based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L.; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J. A.; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. Methods A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist‐based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model‐based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high‐income country were excluded. Findings Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state‐transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life‐time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35–0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. Conclusion All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. PMID:28060453

  5. Process of smoking cessation. Implications for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, J O; Goldstein, M G

    1991-12-01

    The process of smoking cessation involves progression through five stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Most patients are not prepared to take action on their smoking, yet most smoking cessation programs are designed for smokers who are so prepared. Small percentages of smokers register for action-oriented cessation programs. How much progress patients make after an intervention is directly related to what stage they are in prior to intervention. The stages of change can be quickly assessed with four questions. Physicians can then be more effective with a broader range of patients by matching their interventions to the patients' stage of change. Helping patients progress just one stage can double their chances of not smoking 6 months later. Providing personalized information about the cons of smoking, asking affect-arousing questions, and encouraging patients to re-evaluate themselves as smokers are interventions physicians can use to help patients who are not prepared to quit smoking. Behavioral interventions, such as providing substitutes like nicotine gum and removing or altering cues for smoking, are most helpful for patients who are ready to take action. The use of a stage-matched, patient-centered counseling intervention can help physicians to feel less frustrated and more effective in their efforts to help a broad range of their patients.

  6. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael H; Taylor, Adrian H; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-08-29

    Taking regular exercise may help people give up smoking by moderating nicotine withdrawal and cravings, and by helping to manage weight gain. To determine whether exercise-based interventions alone, or combined with a smoking cessation programme, are more effective than a smoking cessation intervention alone. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in April 2014, and searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL Plus in May 2014. We included randomized trials which compared an exercise programme alone, or an exercise programme as an adjunct to a cessation programme, with a cessation programme (which we considered the control in this review). Studies were required to recruit smokers or recent quitters and have a follow-up of six months or more. Studies that did not meet the full inclusion criteria because they only assessed the acute effects of exercise on smoking behaviour, or because the outcome was smoking reduction, are summarised but not formally included. We extracted data on study characteristics and smoking outcomes. Because of differences between studies in the characteristics of the interventions used we summarized the results narratively, making no attempt at meta-analysis. We assessed risk of selection and attrition bias using standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified 20 trials with a total of 5,870 participants. The largest study was an internet trial with 2,318 participants, and eight trials had fewer than 30 people in each treatment arm. Studies varied in the timing and intensity of the smoking cessation and exercise programmes offered. Only one included study was judged to be at low risk of bias across all domains assessed. Four studies showed significantly higher abstinence rates in a physically active group versus a control group at end of treatment. One of these studies also showed a significant benefit for exercise versus control on abstinence at the three-month follow

  7. Attitudes to smoking and smoking cessation among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakumar, Sreejith; Adams, John

    2015-10-28

    This article presents a literature review on smoking rates among nurses and the nursing role in promoting smoking cessation worldwide. Findings included wide variations between countries in smoking rates among nurses, and the important influence of peers and family members on smoking behaviours. Several studies indicated that nurses would value more education on techniques to promote smoking cessation.

  8. Factors associated with smoking cessation success in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha ZA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to assess factors associated with the success rate of smoking cessation among Lebanese smokers in a smoking cessation center. Methods: A cross-sectional data study, conducted between March 2014 and March 2016 in an outpatient smoking cessation center with 156 enrolled patients. The patient’s nicotine dependence and motivation to quit smoking were evaluated according to the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and Richmond tests respectively. Results: The number of packs smoked per year decreased the odds of smoking cessation success (p=0.004, ORa=0.982, CI 0.97-0.994, while the compliance with the offered treatment increased the odds of success by 7.68 times (p<0.001, ORa=7.68, CI 3.438-17.187. Highly dependent and highly motivated smokers had more success in the quitting process compared to those with a lower dependence and motivation respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that many factors can influence smoking cessation, an experience described as difficult, most significantly the number of packs per year and compliance with the smoking cessation treatment. Moreover, although these outcomes are not representative of the entire Lebanese population, we believe that health authorities could utilize these results when implementing upcoming smoking cessations programs. All attempts at cessation should have a goal of reducing the number of packs smoked per year to improve the chances of ceasing into the future.

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S; Wagner, E H; Grothaus, L C

    1990-06-01

    An intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation was evaluated with 2 samples (ns = 1.217 and 151) of smokers who requested self-help materials for smoking cessation. Exploratory and confirmatory principal components analysis on a 36-item Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale supported the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction. A 4-factor model, with 2 intrinsic dimensions (concerns about health and desire for self-control) and 2 extrinsic dimensions (immediate reinforcement and social influence), was defined by 20 of the 36 RFQ items. The 20-item measure demonstrated moderate to high levels of internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Logistic regression analyses indicated that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative to extrinsic motivation were more likely to achieve abstinence from smoking.

  10. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  11. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  12. Smoking cessation alters subgingival microbial recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S C; Preshaw, P M; Heasman, P A; Kumar, P S

    2009-06-01

    Smoking cessation improves the clinical manifestations of periodontitis; however, its effect on the subgingival biofilm, the primary etiological agent of periodontitis, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate, longitudinally, if smoking cessation altered the composition of the subgingival microbial community, by means of a quantitative, cultivation-independent assay for bacterial profiling. Subgingival plaque was collected at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment from smokers who received root planing and smoking cessation counseling. The plaque was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). Microbial profiles differed significantly between smokers and quitters at 6 and 12 months following smoking cessation. The microbial community in smokers was similar to baseline, while quitters demonstrated significantly divergent profiles. Changes in bacterial levels contributed to this shift. These findings reveal a critical role for smoking cessation in altering the subgingival biofilm and suggest a mechanism for improved periodontal health associated with smoking cessation.

  13. A double-blind study evaluating the long-term safety of varenicline for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Reeves, Karen R; Billing, Clare B; Pennington, Ann M; Gong, Jason

    2007-04-01

    We assessed the safety of long-term varenicline administration for smoking cessation. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, eligible adult smokers (18-75 years) who smoked an average of > or =10 cigarettes/day were randomized to either varenicline 1 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo for 52 weeks. Subjects made weekly clinic visits until week 8, and then every 4 weeks until week 52, with a follow-up visit at week 53. The target quit date was the morning of the week 1 clinic visit. Brief counseling was provided at each visit, and vital signs, adverse events (AEs), and smoking status were documented. Other laboratory measures were collected at specified visits. A total of 251 subjects were randomized to varenicline and 126 to placebo. Approximately half of the subjects in each arm completed the study (53.8% varenicline; 46.8% placebo). Treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 96.4% of varenicline- and 82.5% of placebo-treated subjects during the study. Common varenicline-associated AEs were nausea (40.2%), abnormal dreams (22.7%), and insomnia (19.1%). Most AEs were considered mild or moderate in intensity. AEs leading to discontinuation of varenicline treatment included nausea (7.6%), insomnia (3.2%), and abnormal dreams (2.4%). A single varenicline-related serious AE, bilateral subcapsular cataracts, was observed. At week 52, 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 36.7% (varenicline) and 7.9% (placebo). Varenicline 1 mg BID can be safely administered for up to 1 year. Varenicline was also a more effective smoking cessation aid than placebo throughout the study, supporting both its short- (12-week) and long-term (52-week) efficacy.

  14. Combined Quitline Counseling and Text Messaging for Smoking Cessation: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Ashley L; Abroms, Lorien C; Simmens, Samuel; Graham, Amanda L; Carpenter, Kelly M

    2016-05-01

    This study seeks to determine whether comprehensive quitline services combined with text messaging improve smoking cessation rates beyond those achieved by offering comprehensive quitline services alone. The study sample consisted of callers to the Alere Wellbeing, Inc, commercial quitline in 2012. A quasi-experimental design was implemented using propensity score matching to create the intervention and control groups. The intervention group consisted of those who were offered and accepted a text message intervention in addition to usual quitline services, while the control group consisted of those who were not offered the text message intervention. Analyses utilized baseline data collected at intake, program use data (eg, call history and text message use), and reports of smoking behaviors and program satisfaction collected 6 months after intake. Similar rates of 7-day abstinence were reported regardless of whether participants received combined multi-call quitline services plus text messaging (25.3%) or multi-call quitline services in isolation (25.5%), though those who received combined services reported higher treatment satisfaction (P research should investigate whether text messaging programs improve quit rates when combined with less intensive services such as single-call phone counseling. While the impact of quitline and text messaging services for smoking cessation have been examined in isolation, no study has explored the impact of combined services on smoking outcomes. This study examines the role of text messaging in combination with comprehensive quitline services including multi-call phone counseling, access to an interactive website and nicotine replacement therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Proactive and Brief Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smokers at Outdoor Smoking "Hotspots" in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wan, Zoe; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2018-04-01

    Increased outdoor smoking is a common phenomenon after indoor smoking bans were in place. A series of observational studies were conducted to evaluate a novel, proactive, and brief smoking cessation intervention at outdoor smoking "hotspots," i.e., outdoor public areas where ashtrays were available and smokers clustered to smoke. The number of smokers at 26 selected hotspots were observed and counted for two consecutive days. Further observations of the smokers' characteristics and brief smoking cessation intervention were conducted at ten of the hotspots with the greatest number of smokers. Responses of the smokers to the brief intervention, including a leaflet and brief smoking cessation advice using AWAR protocol delivered by trained smoking cessation ambassadors, were assessed. A total of 24,034 smokers were observed within 464 h, which equals 51.8 smokers per hour. Of the 5070 pedestrians observed at the ten hotspots during the intervention sessions, 1228 (24.2 %) were smokers. In the 1228 smokers who were approached during our intervention sessions, about two thirds were willing to receive the self-help leaflet on smoking cessation whereas about half received the brief smoking cessation advice. Recruiting smokers and delivering brief smoking cessation interventions at smoking hotspots are feasible and likely effective to reach large numbers of smokers. Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of using this approach for smoking cessation are warranted.

  16. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  17. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  18. Effect of cigarette smoke on gustatory sensitivity, evaluation of the deficit and of the recovery time-course after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Chéruel

    2017-02-01

    Smoking cessation does lead to a rapid recovery of taste sensitivity among smokers, with recovery time found to differ based on the sensitivity of loci of the tongue. The use of EGM could potentially be explored as a motivational tool for smoking cessation.

  19. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2012-06-13

    AbstractBackgroundIn addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.MethodsAn evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.ResultsAt week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0

  20. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  1. An evaluation of the range and availability of intensive smoking cessation services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Currie, LM

    2009-06-27

    BACKGROUND: A review of smoking cessation (SC) services in Ireland is a necessary step in improving service planning and provision. AIMS: To assess the range and availability of intensive SC services in Ireland in 2006. METHODS: A survey of SC service providers in Ireland was conducted. Descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.3% (63\\/73). All service providers surveyed are employing evidence-based interventions; the most common form of support is individual counselling with initial sessions averaging 40 min and weekly review sessions 20 min in duration. Reaching the recommended target of treating 5.0% of smokers does not seem feasible given the current distribution of resources and there appears to be regional differences in resource allocation. CONCLUSIONS: While intensive SC services are available in all four Health Service Executive Areas, it would appear that there is little uniformity or consistency countrywide in the scope and structure of these services.

  2. A Scotland-wide pilot programme of smoking cessation services for young people: process and outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnich, Wendy; Sheehy, Christine; Amos, Amanda; Bitel, Mark; Platt, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    To conduct an independent, external evaluation of a Scotland-wide youth cessation pilot programme, focusing upon service uptake and effectiveness. National Health Service (NHS) Health Scotland and Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) Scotland funded a 3-year (2002-2005) national pilot programme comprising eight projects which aimed to engage with and support young smokers (aged 12-25 years) to quit. Process evaluation was undertaken via detailed case studies comprising qualitative interviews, observation and documentary analysis. Outcomes were assessed by following project participants (n=470 at baseline) at 3 and 12 months and measuring changes in smoking behaviour, including carbon monoxide (CO)-validated quit status. Recruitment proved difficult. Considerable time and effort were needed to attract young smokers. Advertising and recruitment had to be tailored to project settings and educational activities proved essential to raise the profile of smoking as an issue. Thirty-nine participants [8.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.0-11.2%] were CO-validated quitters at 3 months and 11 of these (2.4%, 95% CI 1.90-3.8%) were also validated quitters at 12 months. Older participants were more likely to be abstinent at 3 months. The overall quit rate was disappointing. As a result of low participant numbers, it was impossible to draw conclusions about the relative effectiveness of different project approaches. These findings give little support to the case for developing dedicated youth cessation services in Scotland. They also highlight the difficulties of undertaking 'real-world' evaluations of pilot youth cessation projects. More action is needed to develop environments which enhance young smokers' motivation to quit and their ability to sustain quit attempts.

  3. Smoking cessation in primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, J M; Osborne, M L; Bjornson, W; Goldberg, B; Buist, A S

    1999-11-01

    To document smoking cessation rates achieved by applying the 1996 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) smoking cessation guidelines for primary care clinics, compare these quit rates with historical results, and determine if quit rates improve with an additional motivational intervention that includes education as well as spirometry and carbon monoxide measurements. Randomized clinical trial. Two university-affiliated community primary care clinics. Two hundred five smokers with routinely scheduled appointments. All smokers were given advice and support according to AHCPR guidelines. Half of the subjects received additional education with spirometry and carbon monoxide measurements. Quit rate was evaluated at 9-month follow-up. Eleven percent of smokers were sustained quitters at follow-up. Sustained quit rate was no different for intervention and control groups (9% vs 14%; [OR] 0.6; 95% [CI] 0.2, 1.4). Nicotine replacement therapy was strongly associated with sustained cessation (OR 6.7; 95% CI 2.3, 19.6). Subjects without insurance were the least likely to use nicotine replacement therapy ( p =.05). Historical data from previously published studies showed that 2% of smokers quit following physician advice, and additional support similar to AHCPR guidelines increased the quit rate to 5%. The sustained smoking cessation rate achieved by following AHCPR guidelines was 11% at 9 months, which compares favorably with historical results. Additional education with spirometry did not improve the quit rate. Nicotine replacement therapy was the strongest predictor of cessation, yet was used infrequently owing to cost. These findings support the use of AHCPR guidelines in primary care clinics, but do not support routine spirometry for motivating patients similar to those studied here.

  4. Exercise-based smoking cessation interventions among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Ussher, Michael; Marcus, Bess H

    2013-01-01

    Although smoking rates are lower among women than men, women are less likely to quit smoking in cessation trials. This is in part due to their tendency to smoke to help prevent or mitigate negative mood/affect, depression and/or postcessation weight gain. Exercise helps to alleviate women's fear of postcessation weight gain and reduces their cessation-related mood symptoms, making it a theoretically ideal smoking cessation intervention for women. In addition, short bouts of exercise decrease cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms among temporarily abstinent smokers. However, results from exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to date have been mostly nonsignificant. This paper describes the theoretical mechanisms (psychological, behavioral, physiological and neurobiological) and practical reasons underlying our belief that exercise-based smoking cessation interventions should not yet be abandoned despite their current paucity of supporting evidence. It also presents ideas for modifying future exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to increase adherence and, as a result, more accurately evaluate the effect of exercise on smoking cessation.

  5. Service and sales workers, are they vulnerable to smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youn-Mo; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, HyeEun; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2017-10-07

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between failed smoking cessation and occupation by age stratification among Korean males and provide quantitative evidence of factors associated with failed smoking cessation. The study comprised 3,127 male workers who had attempted smoking cessation during their life time. Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. Participants were stratified by age into two subgroups comprising a younger group (19-40 yr) and an older group (41-60 yr). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for failed smoking cessation. In the younger group, failed smoking cessation was related to the occupational fields "service and sales" and "manual work" compared to "office work" (OR: 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-3.29; and OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.02-2.12, respectively). In the older group, the ORs of failed smoking cessation occupational categories "service and sales" and "manual work" [ref: office workers] were 0.58 (0.40-0.85) and 0.90 (0.66-1.24), respectively. Failed smoking cessation is associated with occupational categories and age stratification. Policy makers need to create tailored anti-smoking policy considering the occupation and the age of the subjects.

  6. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...

  7. Hypnosis, behavioral theory, and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, N A; Bottari, M

    2001-04-01

    Although nicotine replacement and other pharmacological treatments head the list of popular interventions for smoking cessation, approaches based on psychology can also assist smokers. Hypnosis, suggestion, and behavior therapies have been offered to patients and studied experimentally for several decades. Although no single psychological approach has been found to be superior to others, psychological interventions contribute significantly to successful treatment outcome in smoking cessation. This article describes common hypnotic and behavioral approaches to smoking cessation and critically reviews some of the findings from clinical and experimental research studies. The authors also offer suggestions regarding treatment and future research.

  8. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  9. Evaluation of a new type of smoking cessation intervention – „SQUIN“, an online- and smartphone-based social-serious-game with mindfulness based relapse prevention module

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidler, Willi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The newly developed online group smoking cessation program SQUIN is examined in the context of a first process- and outcome-evaluation in this work. Specific modules and features such as mindfulness based content and relapse prevention are investigated. Also, certain components that reach beyond the official guidelines for smoking cessation and the „Rauchfrei-Programm“ (the actual German gold standard for offline smoking cessation) such as the reduction of psychological addiction and the...

  10. Perceptions of smoking cessation among Glasgow's Chinese community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Spence

    2017-10-01

    Smoking-cessation services should consider the culture of this ethnic minority population to improve cessation uptake. Further investigation of this community’s needs and expectations is needed to tailor smoking-cessation interventions for Chinese immigrants in Glasgow.

  11. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  12. The public health impact of smoking and smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence that smoking cessation reduces the risk for several chronic diseases, information on the magnitude of these public health benefits is scarce. It has furthermore been suggested that smoking cessation also improves health-related quality of life, but this has not been

  13. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking cessation among pharmacy technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy technicians before and after attending a continuing education program about smoking cessation. A pre/post survey of a single group. Two statewide meetings of the Iowa Pharmacy Association. Pharmacy technicians. One 2-hour continuing education (CE) course about smoking cessation for pharmacy technicians. Changes in scores before and after the CE sessions among three domains (knowledge, efficacy, and outcome) of a validated survey instrument. Fifty-one technicians completed both the presession and postsession questionnaire. For the three survey domains, technicians' knowledge (P = .034), efficacy (P < .001), and outcome (P < .001) showed significant improvement between the presession and postsession surveys (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Pharmacy technicians who attended a CE program on smoking cessation improved their knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence in helping smokers quit. Additional research should be conducted to test the role of pharmacy technicians in smoking cessation promotion.

  14. A rural Appalachian faith-placed smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Bundy, Henry E; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A; Studts, Christina R; Shelton, Brent J; Fields, Nell

    2015-04-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants' positive evaluation of the program; the program's ability to leverage social connections; the program's convenience orientation; and the program's financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation programs offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms.

  15. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum. PMID:27594922

  16. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada; Fernanda Ewerling; Anderson Moreira Aristides dos Santos; Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi; Ana Maria Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: ag...

  17. Relapse prevention and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J R; Glaros, A G

    1986-01-01

    A multicomponent smoking relapse prevention treatment based on Marlatt and Gordon's (1980) model of the relapse process was developed and evaluated. Behavior-analytic methods were used to develop assessment instruments, training situations, and coping responses. The prevention components were presented in the context of a basic broad-spectrum stop-smoking program, and were compared with the basic program plus discussion control, and the basic program alone. Smoking-related dependent variables generally did not differ between groups at any time from pre-treatment to 12 month follow-up. Only the subjects in the relapse prevention condition improved problem-solving and social skills needed to cope with high-risk situations. These subjects also tended to take longer to relapse and smoke fewer cigarettes at the time of relapse. Subjects above the median level of competence on measures of social skill at post-treatment remained abstinent significantly longer. Maintenance of non-smoking was found to be related to the degree of competence with which individuals deal with high-risk situations. Results are discussed in relation to models of compliance with therapeutic regimens.

  18. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  19. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian; Stoel, Berend C; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-02-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD. Thirty-six patients quit smoking out of 254 current smokers with COPD who were followed with annual CT and lung function tests (LFT) for 2?4 years as part of a randomised placebo-controlled trial of the effect of inhaled budesonide on CT-lung density. Lung density was expressed as the 15th percentile density (PD15) and relative area of emphysema below -910 HU (RA-910). From the time-trends in the budesonide and placebo groups the expected CT-lung densities at the first visit after smoking cessation were calculated by linear regression and compared to the observed densities. Following smoking cessation RA-910 increased by 2.6% (p = 0.003) and PD15 decreased by -4.9 HU (p = 0.0002). Furthermore, changes were larger in the budesonide group than the placebo group (PD15: -7.1 vs -2.8 HU. RA-910 3.7% vs 1.7%). These differences were, however, not statistically significant. The LFT parameters (FEV(1) and diffusion capacity) were not significantly influenced by smoking cessation. Inflammation partly masks the presence of emphysema on CT and smoking cessation results in a paradoxical fall in lung density, which resembles rapid progression of emphysema. This fall in density is probably due to an anti-inflammatory effect of smoking cessation.

  20. Feasibility of computerized scheduled gradual reduction for adolescent smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Jerome, Albert; Behar, Albert; Zack, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify a smoking cessation program that uses computerized scheduled gradual reduction for use with adolescent smokers and to test the feasibility of this cessation approach in group support and minimal contact modalities. Utilizing a lesson plan approach with high school marketing students in five high schools and student survey feedback, the LifeSign program was modified to be an acceptable smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. In the first study, 17 adolescent smokers used the modified program with seven associated weekly group support sessions. At the end of treatment, 29% had quit smoking, and over half of those who continued to smoke reduced their smoking rate by 50%. In the second study, the LifeSign for Teens program was evaluated with 18 adolescent smokers in a minimal contact format. At the end of treatment, 17% had quit smoking, and mean smoking rate reductions of 43% were found among those who continued smoking. At 1-year follow-up, all subjects who had quit at posttreatment reported continuous abstinence. The results of these two small trials suggest that a computerized scheduled gradual reduction approach may be an accepted and potentially efficacious approach for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers.

  1. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  2. Adapting, Pilot Testing and Evaluating the Kick.it App to Support Smoking Cessation for Smokers with Severe Mental Illness: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Lawn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: While the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population has declined, it remains exceptionally high for smokers with severe mental illness (SMI, despite significant public health measures. This project aims to adapt, pilot test and evaluate a novel e-health smoking cessation intervention to assist relapse prevention and encourage sustained smoking cessation for young adults (aged 18–29 years with SMI. (2 Methods: Using co-design principles, the researchers will adapt the Kick.it smartphone App in collaboration with a small sample of current and ex-smokers with SMI. In-depth interviews with smokers with SMI who have attempted to quit in the past 12 months and ex-smokers (i.e., those having not smoked in the past seven days will explore their perceptions of smoking cessation support options that have been of value to them. Focus group participants will then give their feedback on the existing Kick.it App and any adaptations needed. The adapted App will then be pilot-tested with a small sample of young adult smokers with SMI interested in attempting to cut down or quit smoking, measuring utility, feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes in supporting their quit efforts. (3 Conclusions: This pilot work will inform a larger definitive trial. Dependent on recruitment success, the project may extend to also include smokers with SMI who are aged 30 years or more.

  3. An Evaluation of a Therapist-Administered Bibliotherapy and Spouse Smoking Habits on Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Barbara L.

    1979-01-01

    Attempted to evaluate a readily available comprehensive bibliothearpy smoking cessation program and the impact of smoking and nonsmoking behavior of a spouse on the individual to stop smoking. Results suggest that motivation is an important variable in smoking cessation. (Author)

  4. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  5. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  6. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  7. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive......, medium intensity and less intensive. Follow-up for postoperative complications was 30 days. For smoking cessation it was from the day of surgery to 12 months thereafter. Overall, the interventions significantly reduced the occurrence of complications (pooled risk ratio 0.56 (95 per cent confidence...

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a telephone-based smoking cessation intervention in the lung cancer screening setting: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Hagerman, Charlotte J; Luta, George; Bellini, Paula G; Stanton, Cassandra; Abrams, David B; Kramer, Jenna A; Anderson, Eric; Regis, Shawn; McKee, Andrea; McKee, Brady; Niaura, Ray; Harper, Harry; Ramsaier, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Incorporating effective smoking cessation interventions into lung cancer screening (LCS) programs will be essential to realizing the full benefit of screening. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a telephone-counseling (TC) smoking cessation intervention vs. usual care (UC) in the LCS setting. In collaboration with 3 geographically diverse LCS programs, we enrolled current smokers (61.5% participation rate) who were: registered to undergo LCS, 50-77 years old, and had a 20+ pack-year smoking history. Eligibility was not based on readiness to quit. Participants completed pre-LCS (T0) and post-LCS (T1) telephone assessments, were randomized to TC (N=46) vs. UC (N=46), and completed a final 3-month telephone assessment (T2). Both study arms received a list of evidence-based cessation resources. TC participants also received up to 6 brief counseling calls with a trained cessation counselor. Counseling calls incorporated motivational interviewing and utilized the screening result as a motivator for quitting. The outcome was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence cessation at 3-months post-randomization. Participants (56.5% female) were 60.2 (SD=5.4) years old and reported 47.1 (SD=22.2) pack years; 30% were ready to stop smoking in the next 30 days. TC participants completed an average of 4.4 (SD=2.3) sessions. Using intent-to-treat analyses, biochemically verified quit rates were 17.4% (TC) vs. 4.3% (UC), p<.05. This study provides preliminary evidence that telephone-based cessation counseling is feasible and efficacious in the LCS setting. As millions of current smokers are now eligible for lung cancer screening, this setting represents an important opportunity to exert a large public health impact on cessation among smokers who are at very high risk for multiple tobacco-related diseases. If this evidence-based, brief, and scalable intervention is replicated, TC could help to improve the overall cost

  9. Reasons for not using smoking cessation aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völzke Henry

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few smokers use effective smoking cessation aids (SCA when trying to stop smoking. Little is known why available SCA are used insufficiently. We therefore investigated the reasons for not using SCA and examined related demographic, smoking behaviour, and motivational variables. Methods Data were collected in two population-based studies testing smoking cessation interventions in north-eastern Germany. A total of 636 current smokers who had never used SCA and had attempted to quit or reduce smoking within the last 12 months were given a questionnaire to assess reasons for non-use. The questionnaire comprised two subscales: "Social and environmental barriers" and "SCA unnecessary." Results The most endorsed reasons for non-use of SCA were the belief to be able to quit on one's own (55.2%, the belief that help is not necessary (40.1%, and the belief that smoking does not constitute a big problem in one's life (36.5%. One quarter of all smokers reported that smoking cessation aids are not helpful in quitting and that the aids cost too much. Smokers intending to quit agreed stronger to both subscales and smokers with lower education agreed stronger to the subscale "Social and environmental barriers". Conclusion Main reasons for non-use of SCA are being overly self-confident and the perception that SCA are not helpful. Future interventions to increase the use of SCA should address these reasons in all smokers.

  10. [Association between smoking/smoking cessation and glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Qin, Y; Shen, C; Gao, Y; Pan, E C; Pan, X Q; Tao, R; Zhang, Y Q; Wu, M

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 45.5% in male patients with type 2 diabetes. The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day compared with non-smokers ( P smoking duration ≥30 years and smoking index ≥40 pack-years were 0.27% (95 %CI : 0.05%-0.49%) and 0.38% (95 %CI : 0.23%-0.53%), respectively. FPG and HbA1c level decreased obviously with smoking cessation years among former smokers ( P smoking duration, smoking cessation years and levels of FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was negatively related with glycemic control in male type 2 diabetes patients, especially in patients with drug treatment. Smoking cessation may be beneficial for glycemic control. Smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes patients as early as possible.

  11. The Effect of a Multiple Treatment Program and Maintenance Procedures on Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Don R.

    The efficacy of a multiple treatment smoking cessation program and three maintenance strategies was evaluated. Phases I and II of the study involved 51 subjects who participated in a five-day smoking cessation project consisting of lectures, demonstrations, practice exercises, negative smoking, and the teaching of self-control procedures. At the…

  12. Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, T; Dallongeville, J; Evans, A; Ducimetierre, P; Amouyel, P; Yarnell, J; Bingham, A; Kee, F; Dauchet, L

    2012-11-01

    In cohort studies, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is associated with lower cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Former smokers often have a higher F&V intake than current smokers. If a high intake of F&V precedes smoking cessation, the latter may explain the favorable association between F&V intake and CVD among smokers. The objective was to assess whether higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. The study population comprised 1056 male smokers from Lille (France) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) aged 50-59 years on inclusion in 1991. At baseline, participants completed self-administered questionnaires related to smoking habits, demographic, socioeconomic factors and diet. At the 10-year follow-up, smoking habits were assessed by mailed questionnaire. After 10 years, 590 out of 1056 smokers had quit smoking (70.7% of smoker in Lille and 37.8% in Belfast). After adjusting for center, consumption of F&V was associated with quitting (odds ratio (OR) for high versus low F&V intake: 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.22-2.45); P-trend=0.002). After further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and medical diet, the association was still statistically significant (OR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12-2.27); P-trend = 0.01). In a model fully adjusted for age, smoking intensity, alcohol consumption and physical activity, the association was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. Hence, smoking cessation could affect the causal interpretation of the association between F&V and CVD in smokers.

  13. Factors affecting smoking cessation in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kokkotou

    2017-05-01

    Smoking cessation in patients with cancer is accompanied by significant success, although this outcome is poorer compared with non-cancer smokers. Cancer patients must follow well-organized smoking cessation programs as soon as diagnosis is made, in order to have a successful and prolong smoking cessation.

  14. Smoking cessation counseling in Qatar: community pharmacists' attitudes, role perceptions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al Nakeeb, Reem Raad; Al-Qudah, Raja'a Ali

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem in Qatar. The potential for community pharmacists to offer smoking cessation counseling in this country can be high. To determine the current smoking cessation practices of community pharmacists in Qatar, to examine their attitudes about tobacco use and smoking cessation, to evaluate their perceptions about performing professional roles with respect to smoking cessation and to assess their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling in the pharmacy setting in Qatar. Community pharmacies in Qatar. The objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar from June 2010 to October 2010. A phone call was made to all community pharmacists in Qatar (318 pharmacists) inviting them to participate. Consenting pharmacists anonymously completed the survey either online or as paper using fax. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) Version 18. Qatar community pharmacists' smoking cessation practices, their attitudes toward tobacco use, smoking cessation and smoking cessation counseling and their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling. Over 5 months, we collected 127 surveys (40 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents reported that they always or most of the time asked their patients if they smoke. When the patients' smoking status was identified, advising quitting and assessing readiness to quit were always or most of the time performed by 66 and 52 % of respondents respectively. Only 15 % always or most of the time arranged follow-up with smokers and 22 % always or most of the time made smoking cessation referrals. Most respondents (>80 %) agreed that smoking could cause adverse health effects and that smoking cessation could decrease the risk of these effects. In addition, the majority (>80 %) believed that smoking cessation counseling was an important activity and was an efficient use of their time. The top two perceived barriers for smoking

  15. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Cahill

    found that more participants taking cytisine stopped smoking compared with placebo at longest follow-up, with a pooled RR of 3.98 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.01 to 7.87. One trial of dianicline (602 people failed to find evidence that it was effective (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.75. Fifteen trials compared varenicline with placebo for smoking cessation; three of these also included a bupropion treatment arm. We also found one open-label trial comparing varenicline plus counselling with counselling alone. We found one relapse prevention trial, comparing varenicline with placebo, and two open-label trials comparing varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. We also included one trial in which all the participants were given varenicline, but received behavioural support either online or by phone calls, or by both methods. This trial is not included in the analyses, but contributes to the data on safety and tolerability. The included studies covered 12,223 participants, 8100 of whom used varenicline. The pooled RR for continuous or sustained abstinence at six months or longer for varenicline at standard dosage versus placebo was 2.27 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.55; 14 trials, 6166 people, excluding one trial evaluating long term safety. Varenicline at lower or variable doses was also shown to be effective, with an RR of 2.09 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.78; 4 trials, 1272 people. The pooled RR for varenicline versus bupropion at one year was 1.52 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.88; 3 trials, 1622 people. The RR for varenicline versus NRT for point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks was 1.13 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.35; 2 trials, 778 people. The two trials which tested the use of varenicline beyond the 12-week standard regimen found the drug to be well-tolerated during long-term use. The main adverse effect of varenicline was nausea, which was mostly at mild to moderate levels and usually subsided over time. A meta-analysis of reported serious adverse events occurring during or after active treatment and

  16. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2012-04-18

    3.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01 to 7.87). One trial of dianicline (602 people) failed to find evidence that it was effective (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.75). Fifteen trials compared varenicline with placebo for smoking cessation; three of these also included a bupropion treatment arm. We also found one open-label trial comparing varenicline plus counselling with counselling alone. We found one relapse prevention trial, comparing varenicline with placebo, and two open-label trials comparing varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We also include one trial in which all the participants were given varenicline, but received behavioural support either online or by phone calls, or by both methods. This trial is not included in the analyses, but contributes to the data on safety and tolerability. The included studies covered 12,223 participants, 8100 of whom used varenicline.The pooled RR for continuous or sustained abstinence at six months or longer for varenicline at standard dosage versus placebo was 2.27 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.55; 14 trials, 6166 people, excluding one trial evaluating long term safety). Varenicline at lower or variable doses was also shown to be effective, with an RR of 2.09 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.78; 4 trials, 1272 people). The pooled RR for varenicline versus bupropion at one year was 1.52 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.88; 3 trials, 1622 people). The RR for varenicline versus NRT for point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks was 1.13 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.35; 2 trials, 778 people). The two trials which tested the use of varenicline beyond the 12-week standard regimen found the drug to be well-tolerated during long-term use. The main adverse effect of varenicline was nausea, which was mostly at mild to moderate levels and usually subsided over time. A meta-analysis of reported serious adverse events occurring during or after active treatment and not necessarily considered attributable to treatment suggests there may be a one-third increase in the chance of

  17. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Smoking Cessation Following Text Message Intervention in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail; Chamness, Danielle; Koerner, Jamie; Inteso, Christina; Miller, Collin; Gross, Gilad; Mathews, Katherine

    2018-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has detrimental effects on mother and fetus. Text messaging has been utilized to improve patient care. To evaluate the impact of text messaging on smoking cessation rates among pregnant women in addition to standard of care (SOC) smoking cessation services. Our SOC includes pharmacist-driven education with or without nicotine patch or bupropion. This randomized, open-label, prospective trial was conducted at a maternal fetal care center from May 2014 to January 2016. Pregnant patients in the preparation stage of change were randomized to text messaging or SOC. The primary outcome was smoking cessation verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (eCO) 2 weeks from quit date. All received clinical pharmacist weekly calls for 3 weeks and biweekly visits until pharmacotherapy completion. The text messaging group also received predetermined motivational messages. Of 49 randomized patients, 13 withdrew, and 6 were lost to follow-up. The remaining included 14 texting and 16 SOC patients. eCO-verified cessation was achieved by 57.1% in the texting group versus 31.3% in the control ( P = 0.153). Overall, 64.3% of the texting group achieved an eCO below 8 ppm at ≥1 visit versus 37.5% in the control group ( P = 0.143). No difference was found in birth outcomes. The study was underpowered because of slow enrollment and high drop-out rates. Text messaging had minimal impact on improving smoking cessation rates in the obstetric population. However, further research is warranted because of the underpowered nature of this trial. Given the detrimental effects of smoking in pregnancy, more comprehensive cessation strategies are warranted.

  19. Counseling Is Effective for Smoking Cessation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Ingrid; Wangsmo Steffenssen, Mia Charlotte; Bakholdt, Vivi T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the efficacy of smoking cessation counseling and the resulting quit rate in patients with head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Predictor...... variables were smoking cessation counseling and smoking cessation interventions. The outcome was smoking cessation. Data collection and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 of the authors. Selected publications were assessed for potential risk of bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated...... in patients who received smoking cessation counseling compared with those who received usual care. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that counseling supplemented with nicotine replacement therapy increases the possibility for smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer....

  20. Free smoking cessation mobile apps available in Australia: a quality review and content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Birrell, Louise; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Shaw, Brad; Forbes, Erin; Deady, Mark; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-12-01

    This review aimed to identify free, high-quality, smoking cessation mobile applications (apps) that adhere to Australian smoking cessation treatment guidelines. A systematic search of smoking cessation apps was conducted using Google. The technical quality of relevant apps was rated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale. The content of apps identified as high quality was assessed for adherence to smoking cessation treatment guidelines. 112 relevant apps were identified. The majority were of poor technical quality and only six 'high-quality' apps were identified. These apps adhered to Australian treatment guidelines in part. The efficacy of two apps had been previously evaluated. In lieu of more substantial research in this area, it is suggested that the high-quality apps identified in this review may be more likely than other available apps to encourage smoking cessation. Implications for public health: Smoking cessation apps have the potential to address many barriers that prevent smoking cessation support being provided; however few high-quality smoking cessation apps are currently available in Australia, very few have been evaluated and the app market is extremely volatile. More research to evaluate smoking cessation apps, and sustained funding for evidence-based apps, is needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  2. Smoking cessation research via the internet: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jacqueline; Delucchi, Kevin; Muñoz, Ricardo; Collins, Noah; Stable, Eliseo Pérez; Augustson, Erik; Lenert, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    To reverse the present stagnation in progress toward reduced smoking rates, new widely accessible treatment methods for smoking cessation must be developed and evaluated with large groups of smokers. We tested the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study over the Internet using a brief, self-help educational intervention. Through a direct e-mail sent from a large health information web site (WebMD), and with our presence on the Internet, we recruited 538 adult smokers to the study. Most participants (90.5%) completed all baseline questionnaires. Questionnaires showed acceptable to good reliability and were comparable with studies using paper-and-pencil methods. Participants appeared to be highly dependent on nicotine. Forty-two percent indicated being ready to quit smoking at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, 42.8% of baseline participants returned a complete follow-up questionnaire, 40% of whom indicated having made a serious quit attempt, and 8.3% of whom indicated 7-day abstinence. Most follow-up participants rated the site as at least somewhat helpful to quitting (74.9%) and reported at least a slight increased intention to quit smoking over baseline (67.3%). While Internet-enabled self-help interventions for smoking cessation are able to reach large numbers of smokers interested in quitting smoking, additional procedures are needed to retain these users for treatment and follow-up assessments.

  3. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  4. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  5. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    interactive and individually tailored interventions to usual care or written self help detected a statistically significant effect in favour of the intervention (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.78). However all three trials were judged to be at high risk of bias in one domain and high statistical heterogeneity was detected (I² = 53%), with no obvious clinical explanation. Pooled results from two studies of an interactive, tailored intervention involving the Internet and automated phone contacts also detected a significant effect (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.97, I² = 42%). Results from a sixth study comparing an interactive but non-tailored intervention to control did not detect a significant effect, nor did the seventh study, which compared a non-interactive, non-tailored intervention to control. Three trials comparing Internet interventions to face-to-face or phone counselling also did not detect evidence of an effect, nor did two trials evaluating Internet interventions as adjuncts to other behavioural interventions. A trial in college students increased point prevalence abstinence after 30 weeks but had no effect on sustained abstinence. Two small trials in adolescents did not detect an effect on cessation compared to control.Fourteen trials, all in adult populations, compared different Internet sites or programmes. Pooled estimates from three trials that compared tailored and/or interactive Internet programmes with non-tailored, non-interactive Internet programmes did not detect evidence of an effect (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.32, I² = 0%). One trial detected evidence of a benefit from a tailored email compared to a non-tailored one, whereas a second trial comparing tailored messages to a non-tailored message did not detect evidence of an effect. Trials failed to detect a benefit of including a mood management component (three trials), or an asynchronous bulletin board. Results suggest that some Internet-based interventions can assist smoking cessation at six months or longer

  6. Evaluation of smoking cessation behaviors and interventions among Latino smokers at low-income clinics in a US-Mexico border county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Jeri J; Urquidi, Ulysses J; Bristow, Zuzanne M; Rodriguez, José C; Ortiz, Melchor

    2008-02-01

    A descriptive study of 94 Latino smokers receiving nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in US-Mexico border clinics in El Paso County, Texas was conducted. A baseline questionnaire and two follow-up telephone surveys (8-12 weeks and 6 months) were administered to evaluate smoking habits, behaviors, and cessation interventions. Participants reported an average daily cigarette consumption of 15 cigarettes and smoked within 30 min of waking (44%). Primary motivations for quitting were personal health (95%), family's health (74%), and doctor's advice (71%). Female smokers were more likely to smoke due to being anxious (p=0.012), not being able to sleep (p=0.02), or to feel thin (p=0.002). Male smokers were more likely to smoke when drinking alcohol (p=0.005). Nearly 40% of smokers reported they had never tried to quit before. Medication use at baseline was 82% patch, 53% lozenge, 29% gum, and 24% bupropion (combination therapy permitted). At 8-12 weeks, nearly two-thirds of patients were quit and 44% remained quit at six months. Smoking habits, behaviors, and successful cessation interventions among Latinos in a US-Mexico border community were identified.

  7. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  8. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  9. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  11. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP) trial: a randomised controlled trial of physical activity for smoking cessation in pregnancy with an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Lewis, Sarah; Aveyard, Paul; Manyonda, Isaac; West, Robert; Lewis, Beth; Marcus, Bess; Riaz, Muhammad; Taylor, Adrian H; Barton, Pelham; Daley, Amanda; Essex, Holly; Esliger, Dale; Coleman, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the main preventable cause of poor birth outcomes. Improved methods are needed to help women to stop smoking during pregnancy. Pregnancy provides a compelling rationale for physical activity (PA) interventions as cessation medication is contraindicated or ineffective, and an effective PA intervention could be highly cost-effective. To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a PA intervention plus standard behavioural support for smoking cessation relative to behavioural support alone for achieving smoking cessation at the end of pregnancy. Multicentre, two-group, pragmatic randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation with follow-up at the end of pregnancy and 6 months postnatally. Randomisation was stratified by centre and a computer-generated sequence was used to allocate participants using a 1 : 1 ratio. 13 hospitals offering antenatal care in the UK. Women between 10 and 24 weeks' gestation smoking five or more cigarettes a day before pregnancy and one or more during pregnancy. Participants were randomised to behavioural support for smoking cessation (control) or behavioural support plus a PA intervention consisting of supervised treadmill exercise plus PA consultations. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was self-reported, continuous smoking abstinence between a quit date and end of pregnancy, validated by expired carbon monoxide and/or salivary cotinine. Secondary outcomes were maternal weight, depression, birth outcomes, withdrawal symptoms and urges to smoke. The economic evaluation investigated the costs of the PA intervention compared with the control intervention. In total, 789 women were randomised (n = 394 PA, n = 395 control). Four were excluded post randomisation (two had been enrolled twice in sequential pregnancies and two were ineligible and randomised erroneously). The intention-to-treat analysis comprised 785 participants (n

  12. [Interventions for smoking cessation in 2018].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kader, J; Airagnes, G; D'almeida, S; Limosin, F; Le Faou, A-L

    2018-06-01

    Smoking cessation treatments have been proved effective to stop smoking. For pharmacological treatments, nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) as well as bupropion allow to increase 6 month-abstinence rates by more than 80% in comparison with placebo while varenicline prescription doubles success rates in the same conditions. These results mean that for 10 smokers who quit with placebo, 18 are expected to quit with NRT or bupropion and 28 are expected to quit with varenicline. Varenicline is 50% more effective than nicotine patch and 70% more effective than nicotine gum. Nevertheless, a combination including NRT patch and oral nicotine forms is as effective as varenicline, thus leading to encourage the prescription of a combination NRT when NRT are chosen. For these three pharmacological treatments, cardiovascular as well as neuropsychiatric tolerance were not found statistically different from placebo in randomized controlled trials. Yet, bupropion prescription leads to an increasing risk of seizure (1/1000 to 1/1500). For behavioral treatment, motivational interviewing as well as cognitive behavior therapies are been proven to be effective to stop smoking but few smokers have access to this treatment. Smoking cessation mobile application and smartphone application seem to be promising in terms of effectiveness and might be useful to reach more smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapies for Cessation of Tobacco Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coronado, Nieves; Walker, Adam J; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal

    2018-02-01

    Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, it is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent 1 year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, with a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated. A search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the PubMed, Ovid, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases (August 2 to September 1, 2017) was undertaken for articles on smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, applying no language restrictions. More than 40 pharmacotherapies were reviewed including conventional pharmacotherapies-NRT, bupropion, and varenicline (all approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as first-line treatment of smoking cessation)-and novel therapies: cytisine, N-acetylcysteine, cycloserine, memantine, baclofen, topiramate, galantamine, and bromocriptine. Studies of combination NRT and varenicline showed the greatest smoking cessation rates. Clonidine and nortriptyline are second-line treatments used when first-line treatments fail or are contraindicated, or by patient preference. Some novel therapies, especially acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, cytisine, and N-acetylcysteine, display promising results. Because the results of randomized clinical trials were reported using varied end points and outcome measures, direct comparisons between different pharmacotherapies cannot easily be evaluated. Additional high-quality randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials with long-term follow-up, using validated sustained abstinence measures, are needed to find more

  14. Mining twitter to understand the smoking cessation barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-26

    Smoking cessation is challenging and lack of positive support is a known major barrier to quitting cigarettes. Previous studies have suggested that social influences might increase smokers' awareness of social norms for appropriate behavior, which might lead to smoking cessation. Although social media use is increasing among young adults in the United States, research on the relationship between social media use and smoking cessation is lacking. Twitter has provided a rich source of information for researchers, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in smoking cessation research. To the best of our knowledge, this study conducted a data mining analysis of Twitter to assess barriers to smoking cessation. In conclusion, Twitter is a cost-effective tool with the potential to disseminate information on the benefits of smoking cessation and updated research to the Twitter community on a global scale.

  15. Mining twitter to understand the smoking cessation barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Wang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Smoking cessation is challenging and lack of positive support is a known major barrier to quitting cigarettes. Previous studies have suggested that social influences might increase smokers’ awareness of social norms for appropriate behavior, which might lead to smoking cessation. Although social media use is increasing among young adults in the United States, research on the relationship between social media use and smoking cessation is lacking. Twitter has provided a rich source of informati...

  16. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one

  17. Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n=14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n=28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment. These findings suggest that reduced smoking during smoking cessation treatment is associated with a "recovery of function" in frontostriatal responses to nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers, although comparison with a developmental control group of adolescent nonsmokers is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient's lung cancer diagnosis as a cue for relatives' smoking cessation: evaluating the constructs of the teachable moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Blocklin, Michelle; Lipkus, Isaac M; Klein, William M P; Brandon, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    To understand whether patient-reported experiences with lung cancer may create teachable moments (TM) for their relatives as evidenced by shifts in their risk perceptions, affective response, and self-image and in turn, motivation to quit smoking. Patients at a comprehensive cancer center (n = 152) completed a survey within 6 months of lung cancer diagnosis to assess their cancer-related symptoms and openness and enumerated relatives who were smokers. Relative smokers (n = 218) then completed a survey assessing their risk perceptions, affective response, and self-image as a smoker related to the patient's diagnosis (TM mechanisms), and their motivation to quit smoking. Cross-sectional mediation and moderation analyses were conducted to explore the links between patient-reported experiences, and relatives' TM mechanisms, and motivation to quit smoking. Relative-reported affect was a significant mediator of the association between patient-reported symptoms and relative smoker's desire to quit. Relatives' self-image was a significant moderator of the association between patient-reported symptoms and relative smoker's desire to quit, such that patients' reported symptoms were associated with relatives' desire to quit only when the relative smoker reported a generally positive self-image as a smoker. No evidence was found for moderated mediation. However, the link between symptoms and negative affect was moderated by perceptions of risk. Whether smokers experience a family member's lung cancer as a TM is influenced by multiple interrelated cognitive and affective factors that warrant further exploration. Clearer understanding of these factors could inform how to re-invigorate and sustain this motivation to promote concrete actions toward smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  20. A survey of UK optometry trainees' smoking cessation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; Harper, Alice M; Francis, Jill J; Lawrenson, John G

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for a number of eye conditions, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts and thyroid eye disease. Smoking cessation interventions have been shown to be highly cost-effective when delivered by a range of healthcare professionals. Optometrists are well placed to deliver smoking cessation advice to a wide population of otherwise healthy smokers. Yet optometrists remain a relatively neglected healthcare professional group in smoking cessation research and policy. Surveys of UK medical/nursing schools and of optometrists' training internationally demonstrate significant deficits in current curricular coverage regarding smoking cessation. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation training in UK optometry trainees' undergraduate and pre-registration training. All undergraduate optometry schools in the UK (n = 9) were invited to participate in a web-based survey of their curricular coverage and assessment related to smoking cessation, and of perceived barriers to delivering smoking cessation training. A content analysis of the College of Optometrists Scheme for Registration Trainee Handbook 2014 was conducted to identify competence indicators related to smoking cessation. Nine undergraduate optometry schools (100%) responded to the survey. The majority reported dedicating limited hours (0-3) to teaching smoking cessation, and predominantly focused on teaching the harmful effects of smoking (89%). Only one school provides practical skills training for delivering evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, including very brief advice. The majority of schools (78%) reported that they did not formally examine students on their knowledge or skills for supporting smoking cessation, and rated confidence in their graduates' abilities to deliver smoking cessation interventions as 'poor' (78%). Lack of knowledge amongst staff was identified as the key barrier to teaching about smoking cessation support. The pre

  1. Nurses' smoking habits and their professional smoking cessation practices. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, Maria J; Bakhshi, Savita; Mujika, Agurtzane; Purssell, Edward; While, Alison E

    2017-02-01

    A better understanding of whether nurses' own smoking behaviours influence their engagement with smoking cessation interventions is needed. To establish whether the smoking status of nurses is associated with their professional smoking cessation practices. Twelve electronic databases covering English and Spanish language publications from 01 Jan, 1996 to 25 Mar, 2015 were systematically searched. Studies were included if they reported nurses' smoking cessation practices in relation to their personal smoking habits. Proportions of nurses' smoking status and smoking cessation practices were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. Levels of reportedsmoking cessation interventions were generally low across the studies. The meta-analyses suggested that nurses' personal smoking status was not associated significantly with nurses always asking patients about their smoking, but nurses who smoked were 13% less likely to advise their patients to quit and 25% less likely to arrange smoking cessation follow-up. More intense interventions (assessing motivation and assisting) were not significantly associated with the smoking status of the nurse. The smoking status of nurses appears to have a negative impact in the delivery of smoking cessation practices. The overall level of nurses' engagement with the delivery of smoking cessation interventions requires attention if nurses are to be effective agents of smoking cessation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. the role of employers in facilitating smoking cessation among staff

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco use including cigarette smoking is an ... Employers thus have an important role to play in instituting workplace ... prohibited use of print and electronic media, including television ..... knowledge about smoking cessation interventions in.

  3. Willingness of pulmonologists to guide COPD patients in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolman, Catherine; Sino, Carolien; Hekking, Paul; van Keimpema, Anton; van Meerbeeck, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Effective smoking cessation interventions include steps often protocolised as the 4A method. This study assessed how pulmonologists address the smoking behaviour of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and analysed psychosocial differences between pulmonologists who intend to use

  4. Willingness of pulmonologists to guide COPD patients in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolman, C; Sino, C; Hekking, P; van Keimpema, A; van Meerbeeck, J

    Effective smoking cessation interventions include steps often protocolised as the 4A method. This Study assessed how pulmonologists address the smoking behaviour of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and analysed psychosocial differences, between pulmonologists who intend to use

  5. Smoking cessation: How compelling is the evidence? A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking ces...... in smoking cessation. On-going research is examining the potential effects of nicotine vaccination as relapse prevention.......OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking...... cessation consists of pharmacotherapy and behavioral support. Counseling increases abstinence rates parallel to the intensity of support. First-line pharmacological drugs for smoking cessation are nicotine replacement products (patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, lozenge/tablets), varenicline and bupropion SR...

  6. Best Practices for Smoking Cessation Interventions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McIvor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than one-half offer adjunct support to patients.

  7. Reversal of Smoking Effects on Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katie M; Hoehle, Lloyd; Bergmark, Regan W; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-10-01

    Objective To understand whether the impact of smoking on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is reversible after smoking cessation. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic tertiary care rhinology clinic. Subjects and Methods A total of 103 former-smoker CRS patients and 103 nonsmoker CRS patients were prospectively recruited. The primary outcome measure was sinonasal symptom severity measured with the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22), and secondary outcome measures were general health-related quality of life (QOL) measured with the 5-dimensional EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS) and patient-reported CRS-related antibiotic and oral corticosteroid usage in the past year. Outcome measures were compared between cohorts and checked for association with time since cessation of smoking for former smokers. Results Compared with nonsmokers, former smokers had worse SNOT-22 score ( P = .019) and EQ-5D VAS score ( P = .001) and reported using more CRS-related antibiotics ( P = .003) and oral corticosteroids in the past year ( P = .013). In former smokers, every year was associated with a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 score (β = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.05; P = .032), EQ-5D VAS score (β = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.02-0.91; P = .046), and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use (relative risk = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .001). Given the differences in our study outcome measures between former smokers and nonsmokers, we estimate that the reversible impacts of smoking on CRS may resolve after 10 to 20 years. Conclusions CRS patients who are former smokers have worse sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related medication usage than nonsmokers. Every year since cessation of smoking is associated improvements in sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use, potentially reaching nonsmoker levels after 10 to 20 years.

  8. WIC providers' perspectives on offering smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mary Lober; Goody, Cynthia M; Lowe, John B

    2003-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of WIC clinic providers on offering smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women. Four focus groups consisting of WIC nurses, dietitians, and social workers (N = 25) were conducted at WIC clinics in eastern Iowa. Researchers developed discussion guidelines to determine how WIC providers currently approached pregnant women who smoke cigarettes and what they considered barriers to providing effective smoking cessation interventions. Code mapping was used to analyze focus group discussions. Factors influencing the ability of WIC staff to provide a smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women included available time, clinic priorities, staff approaches to clients, and staff training. In addition, providers expressed concerns about educational materials for clients as well as additional client issues that prevented smoking cessation. The absence of mechanisms to track clinic outcomes related to smoking cessation was also noted. WIC providers have time limitations that may necessitate minimal or low-intensity interventions for smoking cessation, but did not know that such approaches are actually effective. WIC providers require more education about the entire issue of smoking cessation in order to become more proactive in their attempts to help pregnant women quit. Training that enhances self-efficacy and understanding of the impact of smoking on mothers, infants, and children should be initiated to motivate staff to intervene. Another strategy to motivate WIC staff in this regard could be tracking clinic outcomes in helping women to quit smoking or prevent relapse.

  9. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  10. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers....

  11. Efficacy of Incorporating Experiencing Exercises into a Smoking Cessation Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Celia A.; Manaster, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of experiential exercises, combined with a traditional smoking cessation intervention, on quit rates and social learning theory variables known to impact smoking cessation. Measures of self-efficacy and locus of control did not significantly differ between the experimental and control conditions. Quit rates did not differ…

  12. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  13. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  14. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health professionals Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says Share: November 2017 Mind and Body Practices ... as a smoking cessation treatment, authorizing Achieve Life Science, Inc. to proceed with clinical ... What Does the Research Show? A 2016 Cochrane review ...

  15. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for this ratio may change the predictors of success. From a behavioural science perspective, another recent study found that financial incentives were associated with successful smoking cessation and that harnessing the individual's aversion to loss in a cessation programme may encourage a change in smoking behaviour.

  16. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  17. Smoking cessation in women: findings from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study is to describe the experience of successful smoking cessation in adult women. The convenience sample included 10 women, ages 25 to 42, who had abstained from smoking for at least 6 months but not longer than 3 years. A semistructured interview format was used to elicit descriptions of the experience of successful smoking cessation from these subjects. The interview format explored the experience, including initial contemplation, the process of quitting, and maintenance of smoking abstinence. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using methods outlined by Miles and Huberman [1]. Four themes emerged from the data: evolving commitment to health and personal growth, being stigmatized, changing conceptualization of smoking, and smoking cessation as a relational phenomenon. These findings were consistent with Pender's Health Promotion Model and have implications for nurse practitioners who counsel women on smoking cessation.

  18. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  19. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The

  20. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  1. Payroll contracting for smoking cessation: a worksite pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, R W; Pheley, A M; Forster, J L; Kramer, F M; Snell, M K

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one men and 38 women participated in a worksite smoking cessation/smoking reduction program that combined financial contracts, organized through payroll deduction, and biweekly group treatment sessions. At the end of the program the smoking cessation rate was 51%, validated by expired air carbon monoxide. Six months later the validated cessation rate was 12%. We conclude that payroll incentives may be effective in helping workers quit smoking and offer suggestions for ways to promote better maintenance of this important behavior change.

  2. Varenicline: a novel pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Berlin, Ivan; Hering, Thomas

    2009-07-09

    Varenicline is an orally administered small molecule with partial agonist activity at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Varenicline was approved by both the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency of the EU in 2006 as an aid to smoking cessation. Subsequently, varenicline has been approved in over 80 other countries. Varenicline is almost entirely absorbed following oral administration, and absorption is unaffected by food, smoking or the time of day. Varenicline undergoes only minimal metabolism and approximately 90% of the drug is excreted in the urine unchanged. Varenicline has a mean elimination half-life after repeated administration of approximately 24 hours in smokers. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve is increased in patients with moderate or severe renal failure. No clinically relevant varenicline-drug interactions have been identified. In two identical, randomized, double-blind, phase III clinical trials in healthy, motivated-to-quit, mainly Caucasian smokers aged 18-75 years in the US, 12 weeks of treatment with varenicline 1 mg twice daily was associated with significantly higher abstinence rates over weeks 9-12 than sustained-release bupropion 150 mg twice daily or placebo. In a separate phase III trial, an additional 12 weeks of treatment in smokers achieving abstinence in the first 12 weeks was associated with greater abstinence through to week 52 than placebo treatment. Varenicline treatment was also associated with significantly higher rates of abstinence than placebo treatment in randomized, double-blind, clinical trials in smokers in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. In a randomized, open-label, multi-national, phase III trial, varenicline treatment was associated with a significantly higher rate of abstinence than transdermal nicotine-replacement therapy. In these trials, varenicline treatment was associated with lower urge to smoke and satisfaction from smoking in relapsers than placebo or

  3. Essential Components for Success: A Smoking Cessation Programme in a Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Carol; Sell, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess long-term quit rates of a comprehensive smoking cessation group programme and identify factors that may influence outcomes. Design: Data from 199 patients who participated in the programme from June 2009 through June 2010 were evaluated regarding smoking history, nicotine dependence and attitudes toward smoking and quitting.…

  4. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking...

  5. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial using best-selling smoking-cessation book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, James P; Oh, Anita; Luginbuhl, Adam; Curry, Joseph; Keane, William; Cognetti, David

    2017-07-01

    Our prospective, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the self-help book, The Easy Way to Stop Smoking, by Allen Carr, in promoting smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer. We assessed active smokers for their willingness to read a smoking cessation book. Participants were randomized to either receive the book from our department or recommended to purchase the book. All patients received smoking cessation counseling at recruitment. Phone surveys were conducted at short- and long-term intervals to determine if the patients had purchased and/or read the book and whether they were still smoking. One hundred twelve patients were recruited, 52 of whom completed follow-up surveys. Those who received the book for free were more likely to read the book (p = 0.05). Reading the book did not correlate with successful smoking cessation (p = 0.81). Some 26% of the 27 patients who received the book quit smoking compared with 32% of the 25 patients who were recommended the book (p = 0.76). Patients who indicated motivation to quit smoking were more likely to succeed. In our study, smoking cessation did not appear to be influenced by reading The Easy Way to Stop Smoking. Despite 80.8% of the cohort indicating at least a readiness to quit smoking at recruitment, only 28.8% of patients managed to achieve successful smoking cessation at long-term follow-up. Patient motivation remains an important factor in achieving long-term smoking abstinence. Quitting smoking remains a daunting challenge for patients, with multiple interventions likely needed to achieve cessation.

  6. Smoking cessation following admission to a coronary care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A; Singer, D E; Mulley, A G; Thibault, G E

    1991-01-01

    To determine the impact of an episode of serious cardiovascular disease on smoking behavior and to identify factors associated with smoking cessation in this setting. Prospective observational study in which smokers admitted to a coronary care unit (CCU) were followed for one year after hospital discharge to determine subsequent smoking behavior. Coronary care unit of a teaching hospital. Preadmission smoking status was assessed in all 828 patients admitted to the CCU during one year. The 310 smokers surviving to hospital discharge were followed and their smoking behaviors assessed by self-report at six and 12 months. None. Six months after discharge, 32% of survivors were not smoking; the rate of sustained cessation at one year was 25%. Smokers with a new diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) made during hospitalization had the highest cessation rate (53% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, smoking cessation was more likely if patients were discharged with a diagnosis of CHD, had no prior history of CHD, were lighter smokers (less than 1 pack/day), and had congestive heart failure during hospitalization. Among smokers admitted because of suspected myocardial infarction (MI), cessation was more likely if the diagnosis was CHD than if it was noncoronary (37% vs. 19%, p less than 0.05), but a diagnosis of MI led to no more smoking cessation than did coronary insufficiency. Hospitalization in a CCU is a stimulus to long-term smoking cessation, especially for lighter smokers and those with a new diagnosis of CHD. Admission to a CCU may represent a time when smoking habits are particularly susceptible to intervention. Smoking cessation in this setting should improve patient outcomes because cessation reduces cardiovascular mortality, even when quitting occurs after the onset of CHD.

  7. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John

    2014-01-23

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model. We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I² = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1

  8. [Helping smoking cessation in COPD, asthma, lung cancer, operated smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perriot, J; Underner, M; Peiffer, G; Dautzenberg, B

    2018-06-01

    Smoking is the cause of addictive behavior. Tobacco addiction is a chronic disease that makes difficult to stop smoking and leads to further use. Smoking is a risk factor for COPD, asthma and lung cancer; it may be the cause of severe perioperative complications. This finding justifies that smokers benefit from advice of stopping smoking and smoking cessation assistance. Helping patients to stop smoking increases the chances of quitting, improves the prognosis of tobacco-related diseases, the effectiveness of their treatments and the quality of life of the patients. This article updates the modalities of smoking cessation assistance in smokers with COPD, asthma and lung cancer in operated patients. The goal of the management must be the complete cessation of tobacco smoke intoxication, which alone reduces tobacco mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating efficacy of a smoking cessation e-‘Tabac Info Service’: ee-TIS trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, L; Bergman, P; Le Faou, Al; Vincent, I; Le Maitre, B; Pasquereau, A; Arwidson, P; Thomas, D; Alla, F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A French national smoking cessation service, Tabac Info Service, has been developed to provide an adapted quitline and a web and mobile application involving personalised contacts (eg, questionnaires, advice, activities, messages) to support smoking cessation. This paper presents the study protocol of the evaluation of the application (e-intervention Tabac Info Service (e-TIS)). The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of e-TIS. The secondary objectives are to (1) describe efficacy variations with regard to users' characteristics, (2) analyse mechanisms and contextual conditions of e-TIS efficacy. Methods and analyses The study design is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial including a process evaluation with at least 3000 participants randomised to the intervention or to the control arm (current practices). Inclusion criteria are: aged 18 years or over, current smoker, having completed the online consent forms, possessing a mobile phone with android or apple systems and using mobile applications, wanting to stop smoking sooner or later. The primary outcome is the point prevalence abstinence of 7 days at 6 months later. Data will be analysed in intention to treat (primary) and per protocol analyses. A logistic regression will be carried out to estimate an OR (95% CI) for efficacy. A multivariate multilevel analysis will explore the influence on results of patients' characteristics (sex, age, education and socioprofessional levels, dependency, motivation, quit experiences) and contextual factors, conditions of use, behaviour change techniques. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was reviewed by the ethical and deontological institutional review board of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance on 18 April 2016. The findings of this study will allow us to characterise the efficacy of e-TIS and conditions of its efficacy. These findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed articles. Trial registration

  10. [Effects of a smoking cessation education on smoking cessation, endothelial function, and serum carboxyhemoglobin in male patients with variant angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sook Hee

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a smoking cessation education on endothelial function and carboxyhemoglobin levels in smokers with variant angina. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 60 male smokers with variant angina admitted to one hospital: the control group (30) between September and December, 2009, and the experimental group (30) between February and May, 2010. Endothelial function, as defined by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and serum carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) were determined at baseline and at 3 months after the initiation of education in both groups. Three months after the program, smoking cessation was successful in 22 of the 30 smokers in the experimental group, but only in 4 of 30 smokers in the control group (p<.001). After the education, the experimental group showed a significant increase in FMD, and a significant decreased in serum COHb compared with the control group. The findings indicate that this smoking cessation education program is effective for hospitalized smokers with variant angina.

  11. Postcessation weight gain concern as a barrier to smoking cessation: Assessment considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Levine, Michele D

    2018-01-01

    Concern about postcessation weight gain may be one potential barrier to quitting smoking. In this 'mini-review' of recent literature, we summarize findings on the relationship between postcessation weight gain concern and smoking cessation, and evaluate varied use of postcessation weight gain concern assessments and potential moderators of the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation association. We conducted a search using the terms "smoking" OR "smoking cessation" AND "weight concern" for articles published between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016. We identified 17 studies assessing postcessation weight gain concern, seven of which evaluated the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation association. The relationship between postcessation weight gain concern and smoking cessation was mixed. Recent studies varied in their assessments of postcessation weight gain concern, many of which were not validated and assessed correlates of this construct. Studies varied in their adjustment of demographic (e.g., sex), smoking-specific (e.g., smoking level), and weight-specific (e.g., body mass index) variables. The use of non-validated assessments and variability in testing covariates/moderators may contribute to conflicting results regarding the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation relationship. We recommend validating an assessment of postcessation weight gain concern, maintaining vigilance in testing and reporting covariates/moderators, and investigating trajectories of this construct over time and by smoking status to inform future assessment and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of physical activity promotion by smoking cessation advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sébastien; Bernard, Paquito; Gourlan, Mathieu

    2018-05-17

    To investigate the cross-sectional association between personal physical activity (PA) level, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs toward PA promotion, and PA promotion behavior among smoking cessation advisors. 149 smoking cessation advisors were invited to complete online questionnaires. Hypotheses were tested using Bayesian path analysis. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control (PBC) of smoking cessation advisors were related to PA promotion intentions; intentions were in turn related to PA promotion behaviors. Advisors' personal PA level was indirectly associated with PA promotion behaviors through PBC and PA promotion intentions. The TPB is a relevant theoretical framework with which to explore determinants of PA promotion behavior among smoking cessation advisors. The PA level of health care professionals may be linked to PA promotion behavior through some TPB constructs. Smoking cessation advisor training should include education on attitude development (e.g., PA benefits on smoking cessation), PBC (e.g., modality of PA prescription) and PA promotion intentions (e.g., goal setting). Smoking cessation advisors should also be encouraged to regularly practice PA in order to improve their PA promotion behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the impacts of screening and smoking cessation programmes on lung cancer in a high-burden region of the USA: a simulation modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, Angela C; Sheehan, Deirdre F; McMahon, Pamela M; Dowling, Emily C; Holford, Theodore R; Ryczak, Karen; Lesko, Samuel M; Levy, David T; Kong, Chung Yin

    2016-02-29

    While the US Preventive Services Task Force has issued recommendations for lung cancer screening, its effectiveness at reducing lung cancer burden may vary at local levels due to regional variations in smoking behaviour. Our objective was to use an existing model to determine the impacts of lung cancer screening alone or in addition to increased smoking cessation in a US region with a relatively high smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence. Computer-based simulation model. Simulated population of individuals 55 and older based on smoking prevalence and census data from Northeast Pennsylvania. Hypothetical lung cancer control from 2014 to 2050 through (1) screening with CT, (2) intensified smoking cessation or (3) a combination strategy. Primary outcomes were lung cancer mortality rates. Secondary outcomes included number of people eligible for screening and number of radiation-induced lung cancers. Combining lung cancer screening with increased smoking cessation would yield an estimated 8.1% reduction in cumulative lung cancer mortality by 2050. Our model estimated that the number of screening-eligible individuals would progressively decrease over time, indicating declining benefit of a screening-only programme. Lung cancer screening achieved a greater mortality reduction in earlier years, but was later surpassed by smoking cessation. Combining smoking cessation programmes with lung cancer screening would provide the most benefit to a population, especially considering the growing proportion of patients ineligible for screening based on current recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Sui Chee; Yen, Gan Kim; Malik, Nurdiyana

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation clinics have been established in Malaysia since 2004, but wide variations in success rates have been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the proposed pharmacist-led Integrated Quit Smoking Service (IQSS) in Sabah, Malaysia, and identify factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Data from 176 participants were collected from one of the quit-smoking centres in Sabah, Malaysia. Pharmacists, doctors and nurses were involved throughout the study. Any health care provider can refer patients for smoking cessation, and free pharmacotherapy and counselling was provided during the cessation period for up to 3 months. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, follow-up and pharmacotherapy were collected. The main outcome measure was the abstinence from smoking, which was verified through carbon monoxide in expired air during the 6-month follow-up. A 42.6% success rate was achieved in IQSS. Smoking behaviour such as lower cigarette intake and lower Fagerström score were identified as factors associated with success. On top of that, a longer duration of follow-up and more frequent visits were significantly associated with success in quitting smoking. Collaboration among health care practitioners should be the main focus, and we need a combination of proven effective modalities in order to create an ideal smoking cessation module.

  15. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews...... with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis. RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery...

  16. Effects of brief smoking cessation education with expiratory carbon monoxide measurement on level of motivation to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Young; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Lee, Ok-Gyu

    2013-05-01

    Smoking rates among Korean adult males is still high despite multifaceted efforts to reduce it. In Korea, there have been several studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education for inpatients, health check-ups, and smoking cessation clinics. However, there haven't been any studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education conducted outside the hospital. This study investigated effectiveness of brief education on smoking cessation with an expiratory carbon monoxide (CO) measurement outside the hospital among adult male office-workers in Korea. From April 1st to May 10th, 2012, we conducted a controlled trial among 95 adult male office workers over the age of 19 who smoke outside, in a public place in Seoul by cluster sampling. For the education group, we provided smoking cessation education for about 5 to 10 minutes, measured the expiratory CO level, and made the subjects complete questionnaires, while only self-help materials on quitting smoking were given to the control group. After 4 weeks, we evaluated the change in the level of motivation or success to quit smoking in both groups via e-mail or mobile phone. In the education group, the level of motivation to quit smoking was improved significantly. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of improved motivation to quit smoking in the education group was 28.10 times higher than that of the control group. Brief education on smoking cessation with expiratory CO measurement conducted outside the hospital could enhance the level of motivation to quit smoking.

  17. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation: A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...

  18. Supporting smoking cessation in the medical specialist practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Although smoking cessation reduces the cardiovascular risk of smoking, why this is so is still uncertain. Nevertheless, because they are strongly and authoritatively involved in much of the serious health damage caused by smoking, medical specialists should do all they can to support their patients

  19. Evaluation of a federally funded mass media campaign and smoking cessation in pregnant women: a population-based study in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lucinda; Tong, Van T; Rockhill, Karilynn; Hsia, Jason; McAfee, Tim; Patel, Deesha; Rupp, Katelin; Conrey, Elizabeth J; Valdivieso, Claudia; Davis, Kevin C

    2017-12-19

    In 2012, theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention initiated a national anti-smoking campaign, Tips from Former Smokers ( Tips ). As a result of the campaign, quit attempts among smokers increased in the general population by 3.7 percentage points. In the current study, we assessed the effects of Tips on smoking cessation in pregnant women. We used 2009-2013 certificates of live births in three US states: Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio. Smoking cessation by the third trimester of pregnancy was examined among women who smoked in the 3 months prepregnancy. Campaign exposure was defined as overlap between the airing of Tips 2012 (March 19-June 10) and the prepregnancy and pregnancy periods. Women who delivered before Tips 2012 were not exposed. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine whether exposure to Tips was independently associated with smoking cessation. Cessation rates were stable during 2009-2011 but increased at the time Tips 2012 aired and remained elevated. Overall, 32.9% of unexposed and 34.7% of exposed smokers quit by the third trimester (pwomen. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Future orientation and smoking cessation: secondary analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenstock, Jane; Lindson-Hawley, Nicola; Aveyard, Paul; Adams, Jean

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between future orientation (how individuals consider and value outcomes in the future) and smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months post quit-date in individuals enrolled in a smoking cessation study. Cohort analysis of randomized controlled trial data. UK primary care. Adults aged ≥18 years smoking ≥15 cigarettes daily, prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks. Future orientation was measured prior to quitting and at 4 weeks post-quitting using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale. Smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months was confirmed biochemically. Those lost to follow-up were assumed to not be abstinent. Potential confounders adjusted for were: age, gender, educational attainment, nicotine dependence and longest previous period quit. A total of 697 participants provided data at baseline; 422 provided information on future orientation at 4 weeks. There was no evidence of an association between future orientation at baseline and abstinence at 4 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.05, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.80-1.38] or 6 months (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.60-1.20). There was no change in future orientation from baseline to 4 weeks and no evidence that the change differed between those who were and were not quit at 4 weeks (adjusted regression coefficient = -0.04, 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.08). In smokers who are prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks, the extent of future orientation is unlikely to be a strong predictor of quitting over 4 weeks or 6 months and any increase in future orientation following quitting is likely to be small. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation...... rates during pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention group (14%) than in the group receiving usual care (5.0%) (p

  2. If you try to stop smoking, should we pay for it? The cost-utility of reimbursing smoking cessation support in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vemer, Pepijn; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Kaper, Janneke; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; van Schayck, C. P.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    Background Smoking cessation can be encouraged by reimbursing the costs of smoking cessation support (SCS). The short-term efficiency of reimbursement has been evaluated previously. However, a thorough estimate of the long-term cost-utility is lacking. Objectives To evaluate long-term effects of

  3. [Impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Frédéric; Perriot, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Smoking addiction and tobacco dependence are related to social deprivation and time perspective. The objective of this study was to understand how these factors influenced the results of smoking cessation in order to optimize the care of this population. We included 200 patients from our outpatient clinic from March 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. This study focused on the impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation. Time perspective was measured with the short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, social disadvantages with Epices scale. Information on each individual's characteristics, smoking addiction, and smoking cessation was collected. One hundred and ninety-two patients (of whom 45% were socially disadvantaged) participated. Socially disadvantaged people tend to lean towards dimensions "Past Negative" (Pdisadvantages and time perspective in helping these addicted patients to stop smoking. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Smoking Cessation Counseling Beliefs and Behaviors of Outpatient Oncology Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Tooze, Janet A.; Blackstock, A. William; Spangler, John; Thomas, Leslie; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Many cancer patients continue to smoke after diagnosis, increasing their risk for treatment complications, reduced treatment efficacy, secondary cancers, and reduced survival. Outpatient oncology providers may not be using the “teachable moment” of cancer diagnosis to provide smoking cessation assistance. Providers and Methods. Physicians and midlevel providers (n = 74) who provide outpatient oncology services completed an online survey regarding smoking cessation counseling behaviors, beliefs, and perceived barriers. Outpatient medical records for 120 breast, lung, head and neck, colon, prostate, and acute leukemia cancer patients were reviewed to assess current smoking cessation assessment and intervention documentation practices. Results. Providers reported commonly assessing smoking in new patients (82.4% frequently or always), but rates declined at subsequent visits for both current smokers and recent quitters. Rates of advising patients to quit smoking were also high (86.5% frequently or always), but oncology setting. PMID:22334454

  5. Predictors of medication adherence and smoking cessation among smokers under community corrections supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Clark, C Brendan; Stevens, Erin N; Schiavon, Samantha; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S

    2017-02-01

    Individuals in the U.S. criminal justice system now represent over 12% of all current U.S. smokers. With smoking banned in most U.S. jails and prisons, the cessation focus for this population has shifted to individuals who are under community correction supervision (e.g., probation, parole). The aim of this study was to examine predictors of successful smoking cessation among criminal justice individuals supervised in the community. Five hundred participants under community corrections supervision were randomized to receive either four sessions of smoking cessation counseling or no counseling in conjunction with 12weeks of bupropion treatment plus brief physician advice to quit. Logistic regression analyses examined associations of smoking variables with medication adherence and successful abstinence. Mediation analysis evaluated the indirect effects of medication adherence on smoking abstinence. The strongest associate of medication adherence was previous use of bupropion, while the strongest associate of smoking abstinence was medication adherence. Mediation analysis indicated that previous use of bupropion indirectly increased cessation rates through the pathway of increased medication adherence. These results highlight the importance of medication adherence for smoking cessation among community corrections smokers. Providing exposure to medication may be a promising intervention to increase medication adherence and subsequent cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking cessation and the Internet: a qualitative method examining online consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Genevieve; Bessell, Tracey L; Borland, Ron; Anderson, Jeremy N

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and disability around the world. Smoking cessation support-including information, discussion groups, cognitive behavioral treatment, and self-help materials-can be delivered via the Internet. There is limited information about the reasons and methods consumers access smoking cessation information on the Internet. This study aims to determine the feasibility of a method to examine the online behavior of consumers seeking smoking cessation resources. In particular, we sought to identify the reasons and methods consumers use to access and assess the quality of these resources. Thirteen participants were recruited via the state-based Quit smoking cessation campaign, operated by the Victorian Cancer Council, in December 2001. Online behavior was evaluated using semi-structured interviews and Internet simulations where participants sought smoking cessation information and addressed set-case scenarios. Online interaction was tracked through pervasive logging with specialist software. Thirteen semi-structured interviews and 4 Internet simulations were conducted in January 2002. Participants sought online smoking cessation resources for reasons of convenience, timeliness, and anonymity-and because their current information needs were unmet. They employed simple search strategies and could not always find information in an efficient manner. Participants employed several different strategies to assess the quality of online health resources. Consumer online behavior can be studied using a combination of survey, observation, and online surveillance. However, further qualitative and observational research is required to harness the full potential of the Internet to deliver public health resources.

  7. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  8. Design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a culturally tailored versus standard community-based smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Alicia K; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Li, Chien-Ching; Vargas, Maria C; King, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking prevalence rates among the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are significantly higher than the general population. However, there is limited research on smoking cessation treatments in this group, particularly on culturally targeted interventions. Moreover, there are few interventions that address culturally specific psychosocial variables (e.g., minority stress) that may influence outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a comparative effecti...

  9. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  11. Evaluación de un programa de deshabituación tabáquica en el medio laboral Evaluation of a worksite smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sala

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Se evalúa una intervención realizada en el lugar del trabajo para facilitar el abandono del hábito tabáquico y reducir la prevalencia de fumadores entre el personal del Ayuntamiento de Sabadell. Población y métodos: Estudio preintervención y postintervención. Se realizó una encuesta para conocer la prevalencia y las características de los fumadores e invitarles a participar en un programa de deshabituación. El programa constaba de una visita individual con historia clínica, medida de monóxido de carbono en aire espirado y prescripción de terapia con sustitutos de nicotina y 12 sesiones de terapia grupal para reforzar la abstinencia a lo largo de 1 año. A los 6, 12 y 24 meses se realizaron controles para conocer la abstinencia. Con una encuesta postintervención se valoró el impacto del programa. Resultados: Se enviaron 1.203 cuestionarios con una tasa de respuesta del 51%. Un 33% (n = 204 era fumador y 101 personas iniciaron el programa. La abstinencia a los 12 meses fue del 45% y a los 24 meses del 33%, sin que se observaran diferencias según el sexo. La dependencia moderada o baja a la nicotina se asoció con una mayor probabilidad de estar abstinente a los 6 meses (odds ratio [OR] = 6,7; p = 0,01 y a los 12 meses (OR = 5,4; p = 0,05 ajustando por sexo, edad y seguimiento del tratamiento con sustitutos de nicotina. La prevalencia de fumadores en el cuestionario postintervención fue del 19%. Un 26% (n = 10 de los que habían dejado de fumar en el último año sin participar en el programa declaró haberlo dejado gracias a él. Conclusiones: Los resultados indican que este tipo de programa en un entorno laboral puede contribuir de forma notable a reducir el tabaquismo.Aims: To evaluate the effects of a worksite smoking cessation program conducted to reduce the prevalence of smokers among staff of the town council of Sabadell (Spain. Population and methods: A pre-post intervention study was conducted. A survey was

  12. High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E

    2016-05-01

    Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim Penberthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers, 1 4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed.

  14. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  15. EMB2/374: Evidence and not Evidence-based Products Offered for Smoking Cessation on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Eckldorna, J; Groman, E

    1999-01-01

    Introduction If people want to stop smoking, they look for advice how to do so. In recent years the internet has come up as a convenient and comprehensive means of information. However, a number of products to quit smoking is offered. We have examined smoking cessation products distributed via the internet and evaluated them from a scientific point of view. This short abstract can only provide a short insight into smoking cessation products. Methods The study was conducted by using the search...

  16. [Medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfel, József; Oberling, János; Tóth, Ildikó; Prugberger, László; Nagy, Lajos

    2011-03-20

    Medical years are very important in shaping the attitudes of future doctors. It is proven that doctors who smoke do not advise their patient to stop smoking. We have to know the students' smoking habits and attitudes about smoking cessation to make them interested in the fight against tobacco. To investigate medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation. We applied the Hungarian translation of the Global Health Professionals Student Survey. Medical students from the first and fifth year filled in the survey anonymously during the seminars. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In both years 245 students filled in the questionnaire. In the first year 30.8%, in the fifth year 38.9% of the students were defined as smokers. During the academic study the number of daily smokers and the number of smoked cigarettes increases. Students require training about smoking cessation, however they would entrust it to a specialist. Based on our data we need a teaching block in the curricula about smoking and smoking cessation.

  17. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondy Kitts, Andrea K; McKee, Andrea B; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer screening may provide a "teachable moment" for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012(®) high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715-1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143-0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477-0.877). Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates. A positive exam result correlated with reduced

  18. Proactive outreach smoking cessation program for Chinese employees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Suen, Yi Nam; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lau, Oi Sze; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2018-03-04

    We evaluated the first workplace intervention to help smokers quit in Hong Kong. Smoking employees (N = 642) received a 26-page self-help booklet and 15 fix SMS within 3 months and chose to receive cognitive behavioral workshop (N = 76), or face-to-face counseling (N = 11), or group health talk (N = 516), or telephone counseling (N = 39). Twenty participants were interviewed individually for their opinions about the interventions. By intention-to-treat, the overall self-reported past 7-day point prevalence quit rate was 31.0% and 32.9%, and reduction rate was 15.0% and 13.2% at 6 and 12-months, respectively. More than 20% of the unmotivated smokers at baseline (N = 399) quit in this program. Proactive outreach workplace smoking cessation programs with diverse intensity but without medications, chosen by smokers and supported by employers without further incentives, were feasible in busy working environment in Hong Kong.

  19. Study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating efficacy of a smoking cessation e-'Tabac Info Service': ee-TIS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, L; Bergman, P; Le Faou, Al; Vincent, I; Le Maitre, B; Pasquereau, A; Arwidson, P; Thomas, D; Alla, F

    2017-02-24

    A French national smoking cessation service, Tabac Info Service, has been developed to provide an adapted quitline and a web and mobile application involving personalised contacts (eg, questionnaires, advice, activities, messages) to support smoking cessation. This paper presents the study protocol of the evaluation of the application (e-intervention Tabac Info Service (e-TIS)). The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of e-TIS. The secondary objectives are to (1) describe efficacy variations with regard to users' characteristics, (2) analyse mechanisms and contextual conditions of e-TIS efficacy. The study design is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial including a process evaluation with at least 3000 participants randomised to the intervention or to the control arm (current practices). Inclusion criteria are: aged 18 years or over, current smoker, having completed the online consent forms, possessing a mobile phone with android or apple systems and using mobile applications, wanting to stop smoking sooner or later. The primary outcome is the point prevalence abstinence of 7 days at 6 months later. Data will be analysed in intention to treat (primary) and per protocol analyses. A logistic regression will be carried out to estimate an OR (95% CI) for efficacy. A multivariate multilevel analysis will explore the influence on results of patients' characteristics (sex, age, education and socioprofessional levels, dependency, motivation, quit experiences) and contextual factors, conditions of use, behaviour change techniques. The study protocol was reviewed by the ethical and deontological institutional review board of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance on 18 April 2016. The findings of this study will allow us to characterise the efficacy of e-TIS and conditions of its efficacy. These findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed articles. NCT02841683; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  20. The effects of a smoking cessation programme on health-promoting lifestyles and smoking cessation in smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ai Hee; Lee, Suk Jeong; Oh, Seung Jin

    2015-04-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for not only the occurrence of myocardial ischaemia but also recurrences of vascular stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate health-promoting lifestyles and abstinence rate after a smoking cessation programme. Sixty-two smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group (n = 30) received 10 phone counselling sessions and 21 short message service messages for abstinence and coronary disease prevention, whereas the control group (n = 32) received only the standard education. After the intervention, 14 members of the experimental group had switched to a non-smoking status, confirmed biochemically; moreover, their physical activity and stress management scores increased significantly. However, self-efficacy of smoking cessation was not reflected in the cotinine levels. Thus, it is necessary not only to increase self-efficacy but also to determine the factors that affect the success of smoking cessation so that they can be included in the intervention. Our results suggest that phone counselling and short message service messaging might be important tools for the realization of smoking cessation and lifestyle changes among patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    and was primarily discussed if it posed a particular risk to a particular patient. Smoking cessation advice also occurred in conversations addressing the patient ’ s well-being. If occurring without any other readable frame, smoking cessation advice was apt to be perceived by patients as part of a public campaign...

  2. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care, School of Clinical Medicine, Nelson R Mandela College of .... and strength of supporting data are presented and expert opinion was ... of discussions with patients around smoking, counselling and referral .... Varenicline is an effective smoking cessation therapy (Grade A[13]).

  3. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention--an Intervention Mapping approach to planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data.

  4. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  5. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Ghorai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape.

  6. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  7. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aziz Rahman

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation.To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation.A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases.Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated.Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97. Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18% reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28. Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used.Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis.Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More

  8. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More randomised

  9. E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. Objectives To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. Data Sources A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Methods Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. Results Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. Limitations Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. Conclusions Use of e

  10. Financial strain and smoking cessation among racially/ethnically diverse smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Costello, Tracy J; Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Li, Yisheng; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Wetter, David W

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the influence of financial strain on smoking cessation among Latino, African American, and Caucasian smokers of predominantly low socioeconomic status. Smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation study (N = 424) were followed from 1 week prequit through 26 weeks postquit. We conducted a logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between baseline financial strain and smoking abstinence at 26 weeks postquit after control for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational level, annual household income, marital status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and time to first cigarette of the day. Greater financial strain at baseline was significantly associated with reduced odds of abstinence at 26 weeks postquit among those who completed the study (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.94; P = .01). There was a significant association as well in analyses that included those who completed the study in addition to those lost to follow-up who were categorized as smokers (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.96; P = .02). Greater financial strain predicted lower cessation rates among racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Our findings highlight the impact of economic concerns on smoking cessation and the need to address financial strain in smoking cessation interventions.

  11. Spirometry as a motivational tool to improve smoking cessation rates: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Niewoehner, Dennis; Kane, Robert L; MacDonald, Roderick; Joseph, Anne M

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining spirometric testing and providing those results to individuals who smoke has been advocated as a motivational tool to improve smoking cessation. However, its effectiveness is not known. We conducted a systematic review to determine if this approach improves rates of smoking cessation. Data sources included MEDLINE (1966 to October 2005), the Cochrane Library, and experts in the field. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolled at least 25 smokers per arm, evaluated spirometry with associated counseling or in combination with other treatments, followed subjects at least 6 months, and provided smoking abstinence rates. Results from nonrandomized studies also were summarized. The primary outcome was patient-reported long-term (at least 6 months) sustained abstinence with biological validation. Additional outcomes included self-reported abstinence and point-prevalence abstinence. Seven RCTs (N = 6,052 subjects) met eligibility criteria. Follow-up duration ranged from 9 to 36 months. In six trials, the intervention group received concomitant treatments previously demonstrated to increase cessation independently. The range of abstinence was 3%-14% for control subjects and 7%-39% among intervention groups, statistically significantly in favor of intervention in four studies. The only RCT that assessed the independent contribution of spirometry in combination with counseling demonstrated a nonsignificant 1% improvement in patient-reported point-prevalence abstinence at 12 months in the group that received spirometry plus counseling versus counseling alone (6.5% versus 5.5%). Findings from observational studies were mixed, and the lack of controls makes interpretation problematic. Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether obtaining spirometric values and providing that information to patients improves smoking cessation compared with other smoking cessation methods. Spirometric values are of limited benefit as a predictor of smoking

  12. The use of ambulatory assessment in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Haslam, Aaron; Lam, Cho Y; Kumar, Santosh; Wetter, David W

    2018-08-01

    Ambulatory assessment of smoking behavior has greatly advanced our knowledge of the smoking cessation process. The current article first provides a brief overview of ecological momentary assessment for smoking cessation and highlights some of the primary advantages and scientific advancements made from this data collection method. Next, a discussion of how certain data collection tools (i.e., smoking topography and carbon monoxide detection) that have been traditionally used in lab-based settings are now being used to collect data in the real world. The second half of the paper focuses on the use of wearable wireless sensors to collect data during the smoking cessation process. Details regarding how these sensor-based technologies work, their application to newer tobacco products, and their potential to be used as intervention tools are discussed. Specific focus is placed on the opportunity to utilize novel intervention approaches, such as Just-In-Time Adaptive Interventions, to intervene upon smoking behavior. Finally, a discussion of some of the current challenges and limitations related to using sensor-based tools for smoking cessation are presented, along with suggestions for future research in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  14. Physician smoking status, attitudes toward smoking, and cessation advice to patients: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe, Andrew; Sorensen, Michelle; Reid, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The smoking status of physicians can impact interactions with patients about smoking. The 'Smoking: The Opinions of Physicians' (STOP) survey examined whether an association existed between physician smoking status and beliefs about smoking and cessation and a physician's clinical interactions with patients relevant to smoking cessation, and perceptions of barriers to assisting with quitting. General and family practitioners across 16 countries were surveyed via telephone or face-to-face interviews using a convenience-sample methodology. Physician smoking status was self-reported. Of 4473 physicians invited, 2836 (63%) participated in the survey, 1200 (42%) of whom were smokers. Significantly fewer smoking than non-smoking physicians volunteered that smoking was a harmful activity (64% vs 77%; Pnon-smoking physicians identified willpower (37% vs 32%; P<0.001) and lack of interest (28% vs 22%; P<0.001) as barriers to quitting, more smoking physicians saw stress as a barrier (16% vs 10%; P<0.001). Smoking physicians are less likely to initiate cessation interventions. There is a need for specific strategies to encourage smoking physicians to quit, and to motivate all practitioners to adopt systematic approaches to assisting with smoking cessation.

  15. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  16. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-10-01

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  17. Process evaluation of a practice nurse-led smoking cessation trial in Australian general practice: views of general practitioners and practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Furler, John S; Hermiz, Oshana S; Blackberry, Irene D; Smith, Julie P; Richmond, Robyn L; Zwar, Nicholas A

    2015-08-01

    Support in primary care can assist smokers to quit successfully, but there are barriers to general practitioners (GPs) providing this support routinely. Practice nurses (PNs) may be able to effectively take on this role. The aim of this study was to perform a process evaluation of a PN-led smoking cessation intervention being tested in a randomized controlled trial in Australian general practice. Process evaluation was conducted by means of semi-structured telephone interviews with GPs and PNs allocated in the intervention arm (Quit with PN) of the Quit in General Practice trial. Interviews focussed on nurse training, content and implementation of the intervention. Twenty-two PNs and 15 GPs participated in the interviews. The Quit with PN intervention was viewed positively. Most PNs were satisfied with the training and the materials provided. Some challenges in managing patient data and follow-up were identified. The Quit with PN intervention was acceptable to participating PNs and GPs. Issues to be addressed in the planning and wider implementation of future trials of nurse-led intervention in general practice include providing ongoing mentoring support, integration into practice management systems and strategies to promote greater collaboration in GPs and PN teams in general practice. The ongoing feasibility of the intervention was impacted by the funding model supporting PN employment and the competing demands on the PNs time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of smoking cessation on hypoxia and its potential impact on radiation treatment effects in lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Medical Dept., Nordlandssykehuset HF, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Bremnes, R.M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway)

    2008-11-15

    Background and purpose: smoking cessation is often attempted in the context of a lung cancer diagnosis. If cessation causes slowly continuing changes of total lung capacity and vital capacity, this may have consequences for lung volume, results of dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis and targeting precision, in addition to changes in oxygenation, tumor biology (gene expression) and prognosis. Methods: to address the impact of smoking cessation on radiation treatment of lung cancer, a literature review was performed. Results: smoking cessation is associated with important benefits such as improved lung function and a better general health and performance status. In surgically and radiation treated patients, smoking cessation might lead to longer survival and reduced complications. Early data indicate that hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer should be considered a poor prognostic factor. Yet, specific human data on how hypoxia is influenced by smoking status are not available. The influence of smoking history on the pneumonitis risk is not entirely clear. However, it appears that other factors outweigh the influence of smoking. The short-term effects of smoking cessation on lung function do not appear to cause relevant errors in treatment planning or targeting precision. Yet, no prospective study formally addressing this question was identified. Conclusion: smoking cessation appears to be prognostically beneficial. The role of hypoxia in this context requires more detailed evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption......, baseline motivation to stop smoking, and having a non-smoking spouse/cohabitant. The same result was obtained when the analyses were repeated separately for smokers with and without motivation to stop. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers motivated to stop are more likely to quit and remain abstinent than smokers...

  20. Woman focused smoking cessation programming: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Penner, Jessica; Voci, Sabrina; Selby, Peter

    2016-03-12

    Several studies of smoking cessation programs in clinical settings have revealed poorer outcomes for women compared to men, including counselling alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy. The objective of the current study was to explore treatment and program structure needs and preferences among female clients in a specialized smoking cessation clinic in an academic mental health and addiction health science centre in order to inform program design so that it meets the needs of female clients. Four focus groups were conducted with current and former female clients (n = 23, mode age range = 50-59 years old, 56.5% were still smoking and 43.5% had quit) who had registered for outpatient smoking cessation treatment. Questions were designed to examine what aspects of the services were helpful and what changes they would like to see to better assist them and other women with quitting smoking. A thematic analysis of the raw data (audio recordings and notes taken during the focus groups) was conducted using a phenomenological theoretical framework. Themes that emerged indicated that females trying to quit smoking are best supported if they have choice from a variety of services so that treatment can be individualized to meet their specific needs; psychosocial support is provided both one-one-one with health care professionals and by peers in support groups; free pharmacotherapy is available to eliminate financial barriers to use; women-specific educational topics and support groups are offered; the clinic is accessible with evening/weekend hours, options to attend a local clinic, and childcare availability; and communication about clinic services and operation are clear, readily available, and regularly updated. An ideal smoking cessation program for women includes a women's centred approach with sufficient variety and choice, free pharmacotherapy, non-judgmental support, accessible services and clear communication of program options and changes. Findings may suggest

  1. Smoking Cessation Ameliorates Microalbuminuria With Reduction of Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate in Patients With Already Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieshima, Kunio; Suzuki, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Seigo; Kurinami, Noboru; Yoshida, Akira; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    Smoking cessation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients is reported to be associated with amelioration of metabolic parameters and blood pressure (BP), and the reduction of microalbuminuria. The aim of this study is to demonstrate changes in BP, pulse rate (PR), and microalbuminuria in already diagnosed diabetes patients who quit smoking. We retrospectively evaluated diabetes outpatients who were habitual smokers, and who visited to our smoking cessation clinic. Patients were divided into two groups based on their smoking status at the termination of a 3-month smoking cessation program (smoking cessation group and smoking group), and analyzed systolic and diastolic BPs, PR, HbA1c, and body weight at the start date, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter. The urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was also measured at the start date and at 12 months. Thirty-five patients met our criteria. Mean diabetes duration was 12 years. Eighteen patients (52%) quit smoking. Success or failure of smoking cessation depended on nicotine dependence rather than good or bad glycemic control. Both BP and PR decreased significantly after 1 month or later in the smoking cessation group without worsening HbA1c, while both parameters did not show any changes in the smoking group. Microalbuminuria was also ameliorated significantly at 12 months compared with that at the start date in the smoking cessation group (95.8 ± 92.9 mg/gCr vs. 75.5 ± 96.3 mg/gCr, P = 0.0059), while it did not show a significant change in the smoking group. (61.9 ± 43.5 mg/gCr vs. 97.7 ± 90.4 mg/gCr, P = 0.1039). Smoking cessation might cause a reduction in chronic kidney disease progression through ameliorating microalbuminuria without metabolic adverse effects in patients already diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.

  2. Post-quit stress mediates the relation between social support and smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Atem, Folefac; Ma, Ping; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E

    2016-06-01

    Social support interventions have demonstrated limited effectiveness for preventing smoking relapse. The stress-buffering hypothesis may be a useful framework by which to understand social support in smoking cessation interventions. The current study evaluated the interrelations among social support, stress, and smoking cessation in both moderation and mediation models. Participants (N=139) were enrolled in a smoking cessation study at the safety-net hospital in Dallas, Texas. During the week prior to a scheduled quit attempt, general social support was measured using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) questionnaire and smoking-specific social support was measured via repeated smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA). Post-quit stress was repeatedly assessed via smartphone. Logistic regression analyses evaluated potential interaction effects of pre-quit social support and post-quit stress on the likelihood of achieving biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit. Mediation models were evaluated to determine if post-quit stress mediated the association between pre-quit social support and smoking cessation. Participants were predominantly Black (63.3%) and female (57.6%); and 55% reported an annual household income of social support did not significantly interact with post-quit stress to influence smoking cessation. However, post-quit stress did mediate associations between social support variables and smoking cessation. Findings indicated that social support impacts smoking cessation through its influence on post-quit stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults participating in cessation treatment. Increasing social support for the specific purpose of reducing stress during a quit attempt may improve smoking cessation rates in disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  4. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation Among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Williams, Jill M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Participants (N = 116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall, narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI [0.66, 0.85]) and ever making a quit

  5. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Methods Participants (N=116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Results Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and, 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI[0.66, 0

  6. Evaluation of Two Mobile Health Apps in the Context of Smoking Cessation: Qualitative Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Versus Non-CBT-Based Digital Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nima; Chadha, Mehak; Jain, Minal; Karia, Kishan; Kothari, Varun; Patel, Tejus; Suseeharan, Melanie; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Siddiqui, Sarim; Lin, Yuting

    2018-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) apps can offer users numerous benefits, representing a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT is commonly used in the treatment of mental health conditions, where it has a strong evidence base, suggesting that it represents an effective method to elicit health behavior change. More importantly, CBT has proved to be effective in smoking cessation, in the context of smoking-related costs to the National Health Service (NHS) having been estimated to be as high as £2.6bn in 2015. Although the evidence base for computerized CBT in mental health is strong, there is limited literature on its use in smoking cessation. This, combined with the cost-effectiveness of mHealth interventions, advocates a need for research into the effectiveness of CBT-based smoking cessation apps. Objective The objective of this study was, first, to explore participants’ perceptions of 2 mHealth apps, a CBT-based app, Quit Genius, and a non-CBT-based app, NHS Smokefree, over a variety of themes. Second, the study aimed to investigate the perceptions and health behavior of users of each app with respect to smoking cessation. Methods A qualitative short-term longitudinal study was conducted, using a sample of 29 smokers allocated to one of the 2 apps, Quit Genius or Smokefree. Each user underwent 2 one-to-one semistructured interviews, 1 week apart. Thematic analysis was carried out, and important themes were identified. Descriptive statistics regarding participants’ perceptions and health behavior in relation to smoking cessation are also provided. Results The thematic analysis resulted in five higher themes and several subthemes. Participants were generally more positive about Quit Genius’s features, as well as about its design and information engagement and quality. Quit Genius users reported increased motivation to quit smoking, as well as greater willingness to continue using

  7. Evaluation of Two Mobile Health Apps in the Context of Smoking Cessation: Qualitative Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Versus Non-CBT-Based Digital Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Sfetea, Carina; Rabee, Riham; Najim, Muhammad; Amin, Nima; Chadha, Mehak; Jain, Minal; Karia, Kishan; Kothari, Varun; Patel, Tejus; Suseeharan, Melanie; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Siddiqui, Sarim; Lin, Yuting; Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2018-04-18

    Mobile health (mHealth) apps can offer users numerous benefits, representing a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT is commonly used in the treatment of mental health conditions, where it has a strong evidence base, suggesting that it represents an effective method to elicit health behavior change. More importantly, CBT has proved to be effective in smoking cessation, in the context of smoking-related costs to the National Health Service (NHS) having been estimated to be as high as £2.6bn in 2015. Although the evidence base for computerized CBT in mental health is strong, there is limited literature on its use in smoking cessation. This, combined with the cost-effectiveness of mHealth interventions, advocates a need for research into the effectiveness of CBT-based smoking cessation apps. The objective of this study was, first, to explore participants' perceptions of 2 mHealth apps, a CBT-based app, Quit Genius, and a non-CBT-based app, NHS Smokefree, over a variety of themes. Second, the study aimed to investigate the perceptions and health behavior of users of each app with respect to smoking cessation. A qualitative short-term longitudinal study was conducted, using a sample of 29 smokers allocated to one of the 2 apps, Quit Genius or Smokefree. Each user underwent 2 one-to-one semistructured interviews, 1 week apart. Thematic analysis was carried out, and important themes were identified. Descriptive statistics regarding participants' perceptions and health behavior in relation to smoking cessation are also provided. The thematic analysis resulted in five higher themes and several subthemes. Participants were generally more positive about Quit Genius's features, as well as about its design and information engagement and quality. Quit Genius users reported increased motivation to quit smoking, as well as greater willingness to continue using their allocated app after 1 week. Moreover

  8. Systematic review of social media interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Kim, Sunny Jung; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McCulloch, Laura J; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Popular social media could extend the reach of smoking cessation efforts. In this systematic review, our objectives were: 1) to determine whether social media interventions for smoking cessation are feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective; 2) to identify approaches for recruiting subjects; and 3) to examine the specific intervention design components and strategies employed to promote user engagement and retention. We searched Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science through July 2016 and reference lists of relevant articles. Included studies described social media interventions for smoking cessation and must have reported outcomes related to feasibility, acceptability, usability, or smoking-related outcomes. We identified 7 studies (all were published since 2014) that enrolled 9755 participants (median=136 [range 40 to 9042]). Studies mainly used Facebook (n=4) or Twitter (n=2), and emerged as feasible and acceptable. Five studies reported smoking-related outcomes such as greater abstinence, reduction in relapse, and an increase in quit attempts. Most studies (n=6) recruited participants using online or Facebook advertisements. Tailored content, targeted reminders, and moderated discussions were used to promote participant engagement. Three studies found that active participation through posting comments or liking content may be associated with improved outcomes. Retention ranged from 35% to 84% (median=70%) across the included studies. Our review highlights the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of social media interventions for smoking cessation. Future research should continue to explore approaches for promoting user engagement and retention, and whether sustained engagement translates to clinically meaningful smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Awareness on smoking cessation counseling among dentists in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benley George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although dentists are ideally placed to deliver smoking cessation advice and assistance to their patients, smoking cessation interventions are not often incorporated as a routine part of dental care. Aim: To assess the awareness on smoking cessation counseling among dental practitioners in Kerala. Materials and Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used for the study. Four hundred and sixteen registered dentists practicing all over Kerala participated in the survey. Results: Dentists are willing to ask and advise patients about smoking, but are less inclined to assist patients to quit or arrange follow-up. Dentists are more likely to implement one-off, opportunistic interventions rather than take a systematic preventive approach. Dentists are interested in attending further education and say they require training to be relevant to the context of their day-to-day running of the dental practice. Conclusions: Training should aim to legitimize the dentist′s role in smoking cessation and provide strategies and resources so that dentists can practice interventions as part of their day-to-day work.

  10. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  11. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155

  12. Comparative impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; de Vries, H.; Boudreau, C.; Allwright, S.; McNeill, A.; van den Putte, B.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the differential impact of comprehensive and partial smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation. This study aimed to examine the impact of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in Ireland and England, and partial hospitality industry legislation in the

  13. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and

  14. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  15. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children's Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Xia; Liang, Gang; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-11-08

    Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children's SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%), did not smoke at home at all (37%), did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%), or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57%) were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49%) and in the car (22%) were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children's SHS exposure.

  16. Correlates of smoking cessation among Filipino immigrant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel M; Romero, Romina A; Maxwell, Annette E

    2010-04-01

    A survey on tobacco use among 318 Filipino immigrant men aged 40-75 years was conducted in Los Angeles, California. Those who reported more English language use with their family, friends and neighbors (OR = 1.31) and who lived in households with complete smoking prohibition (OR = 3.82) were more likely to be successful in quitting smoking. Those who endorsed more positive beliefs on physical and social consequences of smoking (OR = 0.69) and who had mostly smoking friends (OR = 0.37) were less likely to be successful in quitting smoking. Our findings suggest that prohibiting smoking in households, creating social networks of non-smokers, and education or counseling are important components of a smoking cessation intervention for Filipino immigrant men.

  17. Assessing the impact of a respiratory diagnosis on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of respiratory diagnoses on smoking cessation. A total of 229 current and former smokers, with and without respiratory diagnoses completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing how their smoking habit changed when diagnosed with various respiratory conditions. Among all participants the most common reason for quitting smoking was to reduce the risk of health problems in general. In those with a chronic respiratory diagnosis, this was their most common reason for quitting. Motivation to quit smoking, scored by participants on a scale of 0-10, increased at the time of diagnosis then further increased after diagnosis of a chronic respiratory condition but declined after diagnosis of an acute respiratory condition. The research had a small sample size so further research is required. However, important themes are highlighted with the potential to influence clinical practice. All clinicians should receive training to promote cessation at the time of diagnosing respiratory conditions.

  18. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  19. [Quality and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in workplaces sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Eliza

    2008-01-01

    According to the survey carried out by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, the level and quality of smoking cessation interventions implemented in Polish enterprises are insufficient. Therefore, the dissemination of good practices in this field is needed. The paper presents (on the basis of the literature review) chosen outcomes of the research focused on the effectiveness of workplace smoking cessation interventions. These are mostly methods influencing the turnout in such programs as well as reduction of smoking in the workplace. According to the papers in question, partnership relationships between the organizers of the program and its participants as well as ensuring the employees in the process of quitting various forms of social support are factors, which may contribute to effective reduction of smoking in the workplace. It seems necessary to increase awareness of this issue among Polish managers.

  20. The total lifetime health cost savings of smoking cessation to society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2005-01-01

    Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined.......Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined....

  1. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Muhannad; van der Tempel, Jan; Schwartz, Robert; Minichiello, Alexa; Lightfoot, Clayton; Noormohamed, Aliya; Andrews, Jaklyn; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ferrence, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity among smokers, most of whom report using them to quit smoking. This study systematically reviews the current literature on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ROVER, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU) library catalogue, and various gray literature sources. We included all English-language, empirical quantitative and qualitative papers that investigated primary cessation outcomes (smoking abstinence or reduction) or secondary outcomes (abstinence-related withdrawal symptoms and craving reductions) and were published on or before February 1, 2016. Literature searches identified 2855 references. After removing duplicates and screening for eligibility, 62 relevant references were reviewed and appraised. In accordance with the GRADE system, the quality of the evidence in support of e-cigarettes' effectiveness in helping smokers quit was assessed as very low to low, and the evidence on smoking reduction was assessed as very low to moderate. The majority of included studies found that e-cigarettes, especially second-generation types, could alleviate smoking withdrawal symptoms and cravings in laboratory settings. While the majority of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, the evidence remains inconclusive due to the low quality of the research published to date. Well-designed randomized controlled trials and longitudinal, population studies are needed to further elucidate the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. This is the most comprehensive systematic evidence review to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation among smokers. This review offers balanced and rigorous qualitative and quantitative analyses of published evidence on the effectiveness of e-cigarette use for smoking

  2. Benefits of smoking cessation for coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence increases with age and is frequently higher in the elderly.(1 Therefore prevention of CVD in the elderly through management of risk factors is important in order to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. There are several risk factors of CVD that can be modified, such as smoking, physical activity, and unhealthy diet. Cessation of smoking is the most potent measure to prevent thousands of CVD events and death

  3. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Masefield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on “Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit”. A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%; age 40–55 years (39%; 11–20 cigarettes a day (39%; smokes within 30 min of waking (61%; and has made 1–5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%. 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  4. Text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Ells, Daniel M; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-05-01

    Smoking cessation interventions delivered via text messaging on mobile phones may enhance motivations to quit smoking. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the text messaging interventions' theoretical contents, frequency and duration, treatment outcome, and sample characteristics such as age and motivation to quit, to better inform the future development of this mode of intervention. Studies were included if text messaging was primarily used to deliver smoking cessation intervention and published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. All articles were coded by two independent raters to determine eligibility and to extract data. Twenty-two studies described 15 text messaging interventions. About half of the interventions recruited adults (ages 30-40) and the other half targeted young adults (ages 18-29). Fourteen interventions sent text messages during the quit phase, 10 had a preparation phase and eight had a maintenance phase. The number of text messages and the duration of the intervention varied. All used motivational messages grounded in social cognitive behavioral theories, 11 used behavioral change techniques, and 14 used individually tailored messages. Eleven interventions also offered other smoking cessation tools. Three interventions yielded smoking cessation outcomes greater than the control condition. The proliferation of text messaging in recent years suggests that text messaging interventions may have the potential to improve smoking cessation rates. Detailed summary of the interventions suggests areas for future research and clinical application. More rigorous studies are needed to identify components of the interventions that can enhance their acceptability, feasibility and efficacy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  7. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available With growing recognition of stagnant rates of attempted cigarette smoking cessation, the current study examined demographic and psychometric characteristics associated with successful and attempted smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample. This additional understanding may help target tobacco cessation treatments toward sub-groups of smokers in order to increase attempts to quit smoking.Data were used from the 2011 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 50,000.Current smoking status and demographics, health characteristics, comorbidities, and health behaviors.In 2011, 18%, 29%, and 52% of U.S. adults were current, former, or never smokers, respectively. Over one quarter (27% of current smokers were attempting to quit. Current smokers (vs. others were significantly more likely to be poorer, non-Hispanic White, less educated, ages 45-64, and uninsured, and they had fewer health-conscious behaviors (e.g., influenza vaccination, exercise. Attempting quitters vs. current smokers were significantly less likely to be non-Hispanic White and more likely to be younger, educated, insured, non-obese, with family history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and they had more health-conscious behaviors.Smokers, attempting quitters, and successful quitters differ on characteristics that may be useful for targeting and personalizing interventions aiming to increase cessation attempts, likelihood, and sustainability.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  10. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, Rosan; van der Galiën, Onno P; Smeets, Hugo M; Hollinga, Anne P D; Bosmans, Judith E

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  11. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, R.; van der Galien, O.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Hollinga, A.P.D.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  12. Smoking-cessation services in Iowa community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B; Zillich, Alan J; Lowe, John B

    2003-05-01

    To examine community pharmacy practice with regard to providing smoking-cessation counseling. Mailed survey. Iowa community pharmacies. A stratified random sample of pharmacists statewide. Descriptive statistics were computed for all study variables. Fisher exact test or chi2 analysis was performed on selected variables to determine the relationship of each item with pharmacists routinely offering smokers suggestions for quitting. Responses from 129 (38.2%) of 338 pharmacists indicated that although most felt it is important to offer smoking-cessation counseling, about half actually offer this service. Most pharmacists indicated they are prepared to provide counseling, but fewer than 25% had received formal training or were aware of national clinical practice guidelines. Those who had received specific training (p=0.020) or recently attended an educational program (p=0.014) on smoking cessation were more likely to counsel smokers. Primary barriers to providing counseling were lack of time, inability to identify smokers, low patient demand, and lack of reimbursement. Our findings suggest that opportunities exist for improving pharmacist education and reducing practice barriers in order to bridge the gap between pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes related to smoking-cessation counseling and their provision of patient counseling in community pharmacy practice.

  13. Doctors' attitudes and practices regarding smoking cessation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective. To investigate the current smoking cessation practices and attitudes of doctors working in the public antenatal services, as well as their perceived barriers to addressing the issue in the context of routine care. Study design. The study was qualitative, consisting of 14 semistructured, one-to-one interviews ...

  14. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Identification of the predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation may help healthcare workers to improve the effectiveness of attempts at quitting. Objective. To identify the predictors of success in a randomised controlled trial comparing varenicline alone or in combination with nicotine replacement ...

  15. Smoking Cessation and Improvement in Physical Performance Among Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Program support team at the Naval Health Research Center, especially Dr. Christopher Phillips, Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone, Lauren Kipp, Dennis...4): CD003289. 42. Branstetter SA, Blosnich J, Dino G, Nolan J, Horn K: Gender differ­ ences in cigarette smoking, social correlates and cessation

  16. Beliefs and experiences regarding smoking cessation among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana; Fu, Steven S; Joseph, Anne M; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Solomon, Jody; van Ryn, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    A dearth of information exists about American Indians' views about smoking and cessation. We present results from six focus groups conducted among current and former smokers from American Indian communities in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, as part of a larger qualitative study. Findings indicate that, although smoking is common and acceptable among this population, many would like to quit. The majority of focus group participants attempted cessation without the aid of counseling and pharmacotherapy. Many held negative attitudes toward pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including worries about side effects, skepticism about effectiveness, and dislike of medications in general. Negative attitudes were grounded partly in a lack of trust in conventional medicine and, for some, were related to historic and continuing racism. Participants also reported a lack of information about tobacco dependence treatment from health care providers, including information about the functional benefits of such treatment. Nonetheless, participants thought smokers might try pharmacotherapy if it was made more accessible in their community and if community members could offer word-of-mouth testimonials regarding its effectiveness. Results point to the need for community- and peer-based smoking cessation treatment in the American Indian community, including accurate information from trusted sources.

  17. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masefield, Sarah; Powell, Pippa; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

     months (54%). 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision...

  18. Fiscal Impact of Smoking Cessation in Thailand: A Government Perspective Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Suthipinijtham, Pichaya; Rungruanghiranya, Suthat

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate the broader public economic consequences of investments in smoking cessation that change lifetime productivity, which can influence future government tax revenue and social transfer costs and health care spending. The analysis applies a government perspective framework for assessing the intergenerational relationships between morbidity and mortality and lifetime tax revenue and social transfers received. Applying smoking prevalence in Thailand, a cohort model was developed for smoker and former smokers to estimate impact on lifetime direct taxes and tobacco taxes paid. Age-specific earnings for males and wage appropriate tax rates were applied to estimate net taxes for smokers and former smokers. Introducing smoking cessation leads to lifetime public economic benefits of THB13 998 to THB43 356 per person depending on the age of introducing smoking cessation. Factoring in the costs of smoking cessation therapy, an average return on investment of 1.35 was obtained indicating fiscal surplus generated for government from the combined effect of increased tax revenues and of averting smoking-attributable health care costs.

  19. Lessons learned from the London Exercise and Pregnant (LEAP) Smokers randomised controlled trial process evaluation: implications for the design of physical activity for smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatras, Nikoletta; Wanninkhof, Elisabeth; Leontowitsch, Miranda; Lewis, Beth; Taylor, Adrian; Cooper, Sue; Ussher, Michael

    2017-01-17

    The challenges of delivering interventions for pregnant smokers have been poorly documented. Also, the process of promoting a physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers has not been previously recorded. This study describes the experiences of researchers conducting a randomised controlled trial of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy and explores how the effectiveness of future interventions could be improved. Two focus groups, with independent facilitators, were conducted with six researchers who had enrolled pregnant smokers in the LEAP trial, provided the interventions, and administered the research measures. Topics included recruitment, retention and how the physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers was delivered and how it was adapted when necessary to suit the women. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes emerged related to barriers or enablers to intervention delivery: (1) nature of the intervention; (2) personal characteristics of trial participants; (3) practical issues; (4) researchers' engagement with participants; (5) training and support needs. Researchers perceived that participants may have been deterred by the intensive and generic nature of the intervention and the need to simultaneously quit smoking and increase physical activity. Women also appeared hampered by pregnancy ailments, social deprivation, and poor mental health. Researchers observed that their status as health professionals was valued by participants but it was challenging to maintain contact with participants. Training and support needs were identified for dealing with pregnant teenagers, participants' friends and family, and post-natal return to smoking. Future exercise interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy may benefit by increased tailoring of the intervention to the characteristics of the women, including their psychological profile, socio

  20. Lessons learned from the London Exercise and Pregnant (LEAP Smokers randomised controlled trial process evaluation: implications for the design of physical activity for smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoletta Giatras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges of delivering interventions for pregnant smokers have been poorly documented. Also, the process of promoting a physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers has not been previously recorded. This study describes the experiences of researchers conducting a randomised controlled trial of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy and explores how the effectiveness of future interventions could be improved. Methods Two focus groups, with independent facilitators, were conducted with six researchers who had enrolled pregnant smokers in the LEAP trial, provided the interventions, and administered the research measures. Topics included recruitment, retention and how the physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers was delivered and how it was adapted when necessary to suit the women. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. Results Five themes emerged related to barriers or enablers to intervention delivery: (1 nature of the intervention; (2 personal characteristics of trial participants; (3 practical issues; (4 researchers’ engagement with participants; (5 training and support needs. Researchers perceived that participants may have been deterred by the intensive and generic nature of the intervention and the need to simultaneously quit smoking and increase physical activity. Women also appeared hampered by pregnancy ailments, social deprivation, and poor mental health. Researchers observed that their status as health professionals was valued by participants but it was challenging to maintain contact with participants. Training and support needs were identified for dealing with pregnant teenagers, participants’ friends and family, and post-natal return to smoking. Conclusions Future exercise interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy may benefit by increased tailoring of the intervention to the characteristics of the

  1. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina Rosa Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$ for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources.

  2. Left-digit price effects on smoking cessation motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Blackburn, Ashley; Murphy, James G; Carrigan, Maureen; Carpenter, Matthew J; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Cigarette price increases have been associated with increases in smoking cessation, but relatively little is known about this relationship at the level of individual smokers. To address this and to inform tax policy, the goal of this study was to apply a behavioural economic approach to the relationship between the price of cigarettes and the probability of attempting smoking cessation. Adult daily smokers (n=1074; ie, 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education) completed in-person descriptive survey assessments. Assessments included estimated probability of making a smoking cessation attempt across a range of cigarette prices, demographics and nicotine dependence. As price increases, probability of making a smoking cessation attempt exhibited an orderly increase, with the form of the relationship being similar to an inverted demand curve. The largest effect size increases in motivation to make a quit attempt were in the form of 'left-digit effects,' (ie, maximal sensitivity across pack price whole-number changes; eg, US$5.80-6/pack). Significant differences were also observed among the left-digit effects, suggesting the most substantial effects were for price changes that were most market relevant. Severity of nicotine dependence was significantly associated with price sensitivity, but not for all indices. These data reveal the clear and robust relationship between the price of cigarettes and an individual's motivation to attempt smoking cessation. Furthermore, the current study indicates the importance of left-digit price transitions in this relationship, suggesting policymakers should consider relative price positions in the context of tax changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  4. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, D.J.; Vlas, S.J. de; Empelen, P. van; Lenthe, F.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study,

  5. Final data of an Italian multicentric survey about counseling for smoking cessation in patients with diagnosis of a respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelletto, Enrica; Rapetti, Simonetta Grazia; Demichelis, Sara; Galetta, Domenico; Catino, Annamaria; Ricci, Donata; Moretti, Anna Maria; Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Bruno, Arianna; Valmadre, Giuseppe; Bandelli, Gian Piero; Trisolini, Rocco; Gianetta, Martina; Pacchiana, Maria Vittoria; Vallone, Stefania; Novello, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    Smoking is the major risk factor for cancer and several respiratory diseases. Quitting smoking at any point of life may increase the effectiveness of treatments and improve prognosis of patients with any pulmonary disease, including lung cancer. However, few institutions in Europe offer to patients adequate counseling for smoking cessation. Aim of this study was to investigate the level of counseling for smoking cessation offered by healthcare professionals to patients and their appreciation towards the intervention itself. Between January 2013 and February 2016, 490 patients, diagnosed with a respiratory diseases, were prospectively evaluated with an anonymous survey developed by WALCE (Women Against Lung Cancer in Europe). The majority of patients enrolled (76%) declared to have stopped smoking after the diagnosis of a respiratory disease, 17% to smoke less, 7% to continue smoking. Patients who reported to have never received any counseling for smoking cessation were 38%. Almost 73% of the other patients reported a positive judgment about the quality of healthcare's intervention. Despite these favorable considerations, 83% of patients have disclosed they simply quit smoking overnight without help, 5% have used electronic cigarettes, 5% nicotine replacement treatments, 4% dedicated books, 3% have attended a referral clinic. Considering all the smoking-related side effects, greater efforts should be made in order to better support patients in smoking cessation. Smoking should be considered as a real physical disorder and similar surveys should be encouraged with the aim to fight the 'stigma' of smoking that still exists among patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... estimates that 90 percent of lung cancer deaths in men and 80 percent in women are caused by smoking... language further stated that refunds of copayments paid by Medicare-eligible beneficiaries are available...

  7. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.

  8. Economic evaluation of an exercise-counselling intervention to enhance smoking cessation outcomes: The Fit2Quit trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, William; Roberts, Vaughan; Gordon, Louisa G; Bullen, Christopher; McRobbie, Hayden; Prapavessis, Harry; Jiang, Yannan; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In the Fit2Quit randomised controlled trial, insufficiently-active adult cigarette smokers who contacted Quitline for support to quit smoking were randomised to usual Quitline support or to also receive ≤10 face-to-face and telephone exercise-support sessions delivered by trained exercise facilitators over the 24-week trial. This paper aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of an exercise-counselling intervention added to Quitline compared to Quitline alone in the Fit2Quit trial. Within-trial and lifetime cost-effectiveness were assessed. A published Markov model was adapted, with smokers facing increased risks of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over 24 weeks, the incremental programme cost per participant in the intervention was NZ$428 (US$289 or €226; purchasing power parity-adjusted [PPP]). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for seven-day point prevalence measured at 24-week follow-up was NZ$31,733 (US$21,432 or €16,737 PPP-adjusted) per smoker abstaining. However, for the 52% who adhered to the intervention (≥7 contacts), the ICER for point prevalence was NZ$3,991 (US$2,695 or €2,105 PPP-adjusted). In this adherent subgroup, the Markov model estimated 0.057 and 0.068 discounted quality-adjusted life-year gains over the lifetime of 40-year-old males (ICER: NZ$4,431; US$2,993 or €2,337 PPP-adjusted) and females (ICER: NZ$2,909; US$1,965 or €1,534 PPP-adjusted). The exercise-counselling intervention will only be cost-effective if adherence is a minimum of ≥7 intervention calls, which in turn leads to a sufficient number of quitters for health gains. Australasian Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRN12609000637246.

  9. Cognitive–Behavioral Treatment for Depression in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Niaura, Raymond; Abrams, David B.; Sales, Suzanne D.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Goldstein, Michael G.; Burgess, Ellen S.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smokers with past major depressive disorder (MDD) received 8 group sessions of standard, cognitive–behavioral smoking cessation treatment (ST; n = 93) or standard, cognitive–behavioral smoking cessation treatment plus cognitive–behavioral treatment for depression (CBT-D; n = 86). Although abstinence rates were high in both conditions (ST, 24.7%; CBT-D, 32.5%, at 1 year) for these nonpharmacological treatments, no main effect of treatment was found. However, secondary analyses revealed significant interactions between treatment condition and both recurrent depression history and heavy smoking (≥25 cigarettes a day) at baseline. Smokers with recurrent MDD and heavy smokers who received CBT-D were significantly more likely to be abstinent than those receiving ST (odds ratios = 2.3 and 2.6, respectively). Results suggest that CBT-D provides specific benefits for some, but not all, smokers with a history of MDD. PMID:11495176

  10. Smoking cessation: barriers to success and readiness to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Alexander B; Ray, Shaunta M; Zingone, Michelle M; Airee, Anita; Franks, Andrea S; Keenum, Amy J

    2010-10-01

    Smoking cessation interventions should be individualized based on patient history and readiness for change. The objective of this study was to assess stages of change and key components of smoking and cessation history among a sample of primary care patients. A telephone survey of current or recent smokers identified smoking status, stage of change, motivation, concerns, relapse history, pharmacotherapy, and social support. Of 150 participants, most were within precontemplation (22.7 percent) or contemplation (44.0 percent) stages of change; 14.0 percent were in preparation, 4.7 percent in action, and 14.7 percent in maintenance. The primary motivation for quitting was to improve general health (42.3 percent). The most common cessation-related concerns were: breaking the habit, stress, and weight gain. Pharmacotherapy was discontinued due to adverse events in 31.5 percent of users. Intratreatment social support was reported by 17.5 percent. The most common reasons for relapse were falling back into the habit (36 percent), stressful situations (27 percent), and being around other smokers (25 percent). Targeted interventions are needed for patients in either precontemplation or contemplation stages. Counseling should focus on helping patients resolve barriers to cessation and reasons for relapse, particularly stress and weight management. Pharmacotherapy should be utilized when patients are ready to quit. Increased intratreatment social support and counseling appear warranted to support behavior change and appropriate medication use.

  11. Internet and cell phone based smoking cessation programs among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi Mehta,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can preventthe adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy,household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessationdeterminants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among adolescents,smoking cessation programs are beginning to adopt these new delivery methods. The purpose ofthe study is to review interventions between 2005 and 2009 that used the Internet or cell phonesfor smoking cessation among 11 to 19 year olds. A systematic search of the CINAHL, ERIC,Google Scholar, and Medline databases was done. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria.Interventions mainly used the Internet as a form of assistance to enhance the effectiveness of theprogram. One intervention used text messaging through cell phones. Self-efficacy, household andsocial support systems and perceived benefits were found to be significant predictors. Programswith multiple approaches, using the Internet as an adjunct were more effective than programs thatsolely relied on the Internet. Future research is needed to verify its success in cessation practices.Recommendations for future research are provided.

  12. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  13. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  14. Cessation of smoking after first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Alslev, Torben

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cessation of smoking is widely recommended in patients with stroke to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and recurrent stroke, but little is known regarding how patients modify their smoking habits after a stroke. We used data from a prospective follow-up study...... to assess modification of smoking habits and to identify predictors of persistent smoking after first-ever stroke. METHODS: All patients admitted to the only neurology department of Funen County (465 000 inhabitants) with first-ever stroke from August 1, 1999, to January 31, 2001, were prospectively...... identified. A comprehensive structured interview was completed both during hospitalization and at 6-month follow-up. The interview comprised questions on education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, concomitant diseases, and functional disability. We estimated the relative risk of persistent smoking...

  15. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Strzeszynski, Lukasz; Topor-Madry, Roman

    2017-11-21

    Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group search strategy was combined with additional searches for any studies that referred to tobacco/smoking cessation, mass media and adults. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a number of electronic databases. The last search was carried out in November 2016. Controlled trials allocating communities, regions or states to intervention or control conditions; interrupted time series.Adults, 25 years or older, who regularly smoke cigarettes. Studies which cover all adults as defined in studies were included.Mass media are defined here as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people, and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact. The purpose of the mass media campaign must be primarily to encourage smokers to quit. They could be carried out alone or in conjunction with tobacco control programmes.The primary outcome was change in smoking behaviour. This could be reported as changes in prevalence, changes in cigarette consumption, quit rates, or odds of being a smoker. Two authors independently assessed all studies for inclusion criteria and for study quality (MB, LS, RTM). One author (MB) extracted data, and a second author (LS) checked them.Results were not pooled due to heterogeneity of the included studies and are presented narratively and in table form. Eleven campaigns met the inclusion

  16. Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Alayna P; Lechner, William V; Meier, Ellen; Grant, DeMond M; Driskill, Leslie M; Tahirkheli, Noor N; Wagener, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate biochemically verified smoking status and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use behaviors and beliefs among a sample of customers from vapor stores (stores specializing in ENDS). A cross-sectional survey of 215 adult vapor store customers at four retail locations in the Midwestern United States; a subset of participants (n = 181) also completed exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) testing to verify smoking status. Outcomes evaluated included ENDS preferences, harm beliefs, use behaviors, smoking history and current biochemically verified smoking status. Most customers reported starting ENDS as a means of smoking cessation (86%), using newer-generation devices (89%), vaping non-tobacco/non-menthol flavors (72%) and using e-liquid with nicotine strengths of ≤20 mg/ml (72%). There was a high rate of switching (91.4%) to newer-generation ENDS among those who started with a first-generation product. Exhaled CO readings confirmed that 66% of the tested sample had quit smoking. Among those who continued to smoke, mean cigarettes per day decreased from 22.1 to 7.5 (P customers in the United States who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer-generation devices and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavored e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Discrete choice experiment of smoking cessation behaviour in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Rei; Nishimura, Shuzo; Ida, Takanori

    2007-10-01

    In spite of gradual increases in tobacco price and the introduction of laws supporting various anti-tobacco measures, the proportion of smokers in Japan's population is still higher than in other developed nations. To understand what information and individual characteristics drive smokers to attempt to quit smoking. These determinants will help to realise effective tobacco control policy as a base for understanding of cessation behaviour. Discrete choice experiments on a total of 616 respondents registered at a consumer monitoring investigative company. The effect of price is greater on smokers with lower nicotine dependence. For smokers of moderate and low dependency, short term health risks and health risks caused by passive smoking have a strong impact, though the existence of penalties and long term health risks have little influence on smokers' decisions to quit. For highly dependent smokers, non-price attributes have little impact. Furthermore, the effects of age, sex and knowledge are also not uniform in accounting for smoking cessation. Determinants of smoking cessation vary among levels of nicotine dependency. Therefore, how and what information is provided needs to be carefully considered when counselling smokers to help them to quit.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of smartphone-based mindfulness training for smoking cessation: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Pal, Prasanta; Rojiani, Rahil; Dallery, Jesse; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-04-14

    Tobacco use is responsible for the death of about 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. Mindfulness training has shown preliminary efficacy as a behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Recent advances in mobile health suggest advantages to smartphone-based smoking cessation treatment including smartphone-based mindfulness training. This study evaluates the efficacy of a smartphone app-based mindfulness training program for improving smoking cessation rates at 6-months follow-up. A two-group parallel-randomized clinical trial with allocation concealment will be conducted. Group assignment will be concealed from study researchers through to follow-up. The study will be conducted by smartphone and online. Daily smokers who are interested in quitting smoking and own a smartphone (n = 140) will be recruited through study advertisements posted online. After completion of a baseline survey, participants will be allocated randomly to the control or intervention group. Participants in both groups will receive a 22-day smartphone-based treatment program for smoking. Participants in the intervention group will receive mobile mindfulness training plus experience sampling. Participants in the control group will receive experience sampling-only. The primary outcome measure will be one-week point prevalence abstinence from smoking (at 6-months follow-up) assessed using carbon monoxide breath monitoring, which will be validated through smartphone-based video chat. This is the first intervention study to evaluate smartphone-based delivery of mindfulness training for smoking cessation. Such an intervention may provide treatment in-hand, in real-world contexts, to help individuals quit smoking. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02134509 . Registered 7 May 2014.

  19. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions. To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics. This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of smoking-cessation counseling training for physicians and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Scott B; Deshmukh, Ashish A; Luca, Nancy Stancic; Nogueras-González, Graciela M; Rajan, Tanya; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2015-06-01

    Although smoking-cessation interventions typically focus directly on patients, this paper conducts an economic evaluation of a novel smoking-cessation intervention focused on training physicians and/or pharmacists to use counseling techniques that would decrease smoking rates at a reasonable cost. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions that train physicians and/or pharmacists to counsel their patients on smoking-cessation techniques. Using decision-analytic modeling, we compared four strategies for smoking-cessation counseling education: training only physicians, training only pharmacists, training both physicians and pharmacists (synergy strategy), and training neither physicians nor pharmacists (i.e., no specialized training, which is the usual practice). Short-term outcomes were based on results from a clinical trial conducted in 16 communities across the Houston area; long-term outcomes were calculated from epidemiological data. Short-term outcomes were measured using the cost per quit, and long-term outcomes were measured using the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Cost data were taken from institutional sources; both costs and QALYs were discounted at 3%. Training both physicians and pharmacists added 0.09 QALY for 45-year-old men. However, for 45-year-old women, the discounted quality-adjusted life expectancy only increased by 0.01 QALY when comparing the synergy strategy to no intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the synergy strategy with respect to the non-intervention strategy was US$868/QALY for 45-year-old men and US$8953/QALY for 45-year-old women. The results were highly sensitive to the quit rates and community size. Synergistic educational training for physicians and pharmacists could be a cost-effective method for smoking cessation in the community. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Electrocardiographic changes associated with smoking and smoking cessation: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD can be detected and quantified by analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG; however the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the ECG have not been characterized.Standard 12-lead ECGs were performed at baseline and 3 years after subjects enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. ECGs were interpreted using the Minnesota Code ECG Classification. The effects of (i smoking burden on the prevalence of ECG findings at baseline, and (ii smoking and smoking cessation on ECG changes after 3 years were investigated by multivariable and multinomial regression analyses.At baseline, 532 smokers were (mean [SD] 43.3 (11.5 years old, smoked 20.6 (7.9 cigarettes/day, with a smoking burden of 26.7 (18.6 pack-years. Major and minor ECG criteria were identified in 87 (16.4% and 131 (24.6% of subjects, respectively. After adjusting for demographic data and known CVD risk factors, higher pack-years was associated with major ECG abnormalities (p = 0.02, but current cigarettes/day (p = 0.23 was not. After 3 years, 42.9% of subjects were abstinent from smoking. New major and minor ECG criteria were observed in 7.2% and 15.6% of subjects respectively, but in similar numbers of abstinent subjects and continuing smokers (p>0.2 for both. Continuing smokers showed significant reduction in current smoking (-8.4 [8.8] cigarettes/day, p<0.001 compared to baseline.In conclusion, major ECG abnormalities are independently associated with lifetime smoking burden. After 3 years, smoking cessation was not associated with a decrease in ECG abnormalities, although cigarettes smoked/day decreased among continuing smokers.

  2. Smoking prevalence among qualified nurses in the Republic of Ireland and their role in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Geraldine

    2009-06-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature mortality, killing approximately 6000 people in Ireland each year. On 29 March 2004, the Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to ban smoking in all workplaces, including bars and restaurants. This study took place after the introduction of this smoking ban. An admission to hospital provides an opportunity to help people stop smoking. Nurses' role and wide availability puts them in a prime position to encourage people to quit smoking. To examine the smoking prevalence among qualified nurses at a large university teaching hospital in Cork Southern Ireland and their role in smoking cessation. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a calculated sample of 430 qualified nurses (with a 70% response rate). A structured questionnaire was used. It was found that 21% (n = 63) of nurses were smokers, 23% (n = 70) were ex-smokers and 56% (n = 167) were non-smokers. The highest prevalence of smokers was found in the age groups 20-25 years (28%, n = 17) and 26-30 years (34%, n = 21). Nurses working within psychiatric care (47.4%) and coronary care (33.3%) had the highest smoking prevalence among the nurses who smoked. The study found that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of smokers and non-smokers, 89% (n = 211) of non-smokers strongly agreed that cigarette smoke represents a major risk to health in comparison with only 65% (n = 41) of smokers. Only 14% (n = 43) of the nurses surveyed had received training in smoking cessation. Lack of time (74%) and lack of training (65%) were the two main reasons given by nurses for not giving smoking cessation advice to patients. Nurses' potential in preventive health care has been largely under-utilized. Lack of time and training are major factors inhibiting nurses' role in smoking cessation with their patients.

  3. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  4. The awareness of patients with non - muscle invasive bladder cancer regarding the importance of smoking cessation and their access to smoking cessation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Yuruk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer and smoking cessation is associated with reduced risk of tumor recurrence and progression. The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC patients regarding the importance of smoking cessation, determine their access to smoking cessation programs and the effects of smoking cessation on recurrence rates of NMIBC. Materials and Methods NMIBC patients who were followed with cystoscopy were included in the study. Their demographic properties were recorded, along with their smoking habits, awareness regarding the effects of smoking on bladder cancer and previous attempts for smoking cessation. Moreover, the patients were asked whether they applied for a smoking cessation program. Recurrence of bladder cancer during the follow-up period was also noted. Results A total of 187 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 64.68±12.05 (range: 15-90 and the male to female ratio was 167/20. At the time of diagnosis, 114 patients (61.0% were active smokers, 35 patients (18.7% were ex-smokers and 38 patients (20.3% had never smoked before. After the diagnosis, 83.3% of the actively smoking patients were advised to quit smoking and 57.9% of them quit smoking. At the time of the study, 46.52% of the NMIBC patients were aware of the link between smoking and bladder cancer, whereas only 4.1% of the smoking patients were referred to smoking cessation programs. After a mean follow-up of 32.28±11.42 months, 84 patients (44.91% had recurrence; however, current smoking status or awareness of the causative role of smoking on NMIBC did not affect the recurrence. Conclusion In our study group, the majority of the NMIBC patients were not aware of the association between smoking and bladder cancer. Although most of the physicians advised patients to quit smoking, a significant amount of the patients were still active smokers during

  5. Exercise Facilitates Smoking Cessation Indirectly via Intention to Quit Smoking: Prospective Cohort Study Among a National Sample of Young Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the specific association between exercise and smoking cessation via smoking-mediated intentions to quit smoking among a national sample of young daily smokers in the United States. Prospective cohort study over a 2-year period, with daily smokers assessed across all 50 states in the United States. Data from the 2003 to 2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used. A total of 1175 young adult smokers aged between 18 and 24 years. Baseline exercise and intent to quit smoking were assessed via validated survey measures. Smoking status at the 2-year follow-up period was assessed via survey assessment. After adjustments, meeting exercise guidelines at baseline was associated with an increased baseline intent to quit smoking among this national sample of daily smokers (OR = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.07; P = .01). After adjustments, those with a baseline intent to quit smoking had a 71% increased odds ratio (OR) of being a nonsmoker at the 2-year follow-up (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.20-2.44; P = .003). Baseline exercise was not associated with 2-year follow-up smoking status (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60-1.28; P = .50). In this nationally representative sample of young daily smokers, there was a positive association between exercise participation and intention to quit smoking. Baseline intent to quit smoking was independently associated with nonsmoking status at a 2-year follow-up. Thus, this indirect link between exercise and smoking status may be partially explained by the influence of exercise engagement on smoking-specific intentions.

  6. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A translational investigation targeting stress-reactivity and prefrontal cognitive control with guanfacine for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Potenza, Marc N; Kober, Hedy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Arnsten, Amy F T; Picciotto, Marina R; Weinberger, Andrea H; Ashare, Rebecca; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-03-01

    Stress and prefrontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking; however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation that attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors. We used a novel translational approach employing a validated laboratory analogue of stress-precipitated smoking, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and a proof-of-concept treatment period to evaluate whether the noradrenergic α2a agonist guanfacine (3 mg/day) versus placebo (0 mg/day) reduced stress-precipitated smoking in the laboratory, altered cortico-striatal activation during the Stroop cognitive-control task, and reduced smoking following a quit attempt. In nicotine-deprived smokers (n=33), stress versus a neutral condition significantly decreased the latency to smoke, and increased tobacco craving, ad-libitum smoking, and systolic blood pressure in placebo-treated subjects, and these effects were absent or reduced in guanfacine-treated subjects. Following stress, placebo-treated subjects demonstrated decreased cortisol levels whereas guanfacine-treated subjects demonstrated increased levels. Guanfacine, compared with placebo, altered prefrontal activity during a cognitive-control task, and reduced cigarette use but did not increase complete abstinence during treatment. These preliminary laboratory, neuroimaging, and clinical outcome data were consistent and complementary and support further development of guanfacine for smoking cessation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. A comparison of time-varying covariates in two smoking cessation interventions for cardiac patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Bolman, Catherine; Ruitenbeek-Wiggers, L.; de Vries, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the time-varying contribution of social cognitive determinants of smoking cessation following an intervention on cessation. Secondary analyses were performed on data from two comparable randomized controlled trials on brief smoking cessation interventions for

  9. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Measures of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Multiple Vascular Beds in Japanese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Suzuki, Sentaro; Miyagawa, Naoko; Sato, Atsushi; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Abbott, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is an overwhelming, but preventable, risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), although smoking prevalence remains high in developed and developing countries in East Asia. Methods and Results In a population?based sample of 1019 Japanese men aged 40 to 79?years, without CVD, we examined cross?sectional associations of smoking status, cumulative pack?years, daily consumption, and time since cessation, with subclinical atherosclerosis at 4 anatomically distinct vascular ...

  10. [Nurses' support in smoking cessation therapy in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Chie

    2013-03-01

    Smoking cessation therapy (SCT) was introduced in 2006 in Japan. The patients who wish to stop smoking and receive SCT routinely undergo counseling and advice provided by trained nurse. This paper introduces rationale, methods and contents of the nurses counseling and advice by differentiating physicians' roles in the SCT. We show these supports performed at Nagoya Medical Center, which is one of the famous hospital for the SCT in Japan. Three key issues for the nurses' approach: encouragement of self-decision, promoting self-efficacy and yielding positive thinking are discussed in this paper.

  11. Why are financial incentives not effective at influencing some smokers to quit? Results of a process evaluation of a worksite trial assessing the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Kamyab, Kian; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Process evaluation of a worksite intervention in which employees were offered $750 to complete a cessation program and to quit smoking. Awareness and attitudes about financial incentives were assessed following a randomized controlled trial of 878 smokers at a US-based company. Cessation program attendance was higher in incentive group versus control (20.2% vs 7.1%, P motivated to quit and reported that they would have quit for less money, said incentives were "not at all" or only "somewhat" important. Most nonquitters in the incentive group reported that even $1500 would not have motivated them to quit. Financial incentives are ineffective at motivating some smokers to quit. Internal motivation and readiness to quit need to be sufficiently high for relatively modest incentives to be effective.

  12. Development of targeted messages to promote smoking cessation among construction trade workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, J. R.; Smock, N.; Casey, C.; Poor, T.; Kreuter, M. W.; Evanoff, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Blue-collar workers, particularly those in the construction trades, are more likely to smoke and have less success in quitting when compared with white-collar workers. Little is known about health communication strategies that might influence this priority population. This article describes our formative work to develop targeted messages to increase participation in an existing smoking cessation program among construction workers. Using an iterative and sequential mixed-methods approach, we explored the culture, health attitudes and smoking behaviors of unionized construction workers. We used focus group and survey data to inform message development, and applied audience segmentation methods to identify potential subgroups. Among 144 current smokers, 65% reported wanting to quit smoking in the next 6 months and only 15% had heard of a union-sponsored smoking cessation program, despite widespread advertising. We tested 12 message concepts and 26 images with the target audience to evaluate perceived relevance and effectiveness. Participants responded most favorably to messages and images that emphasized family and work, although responses varied by audience segments based on age and parental status. This study is an important step towards integrating the culture of a high-risk group into targeted messages to increase participation in smoking cessation activities. PMID:25231165

  13. Employee and employer support for workplace-based smoking cessation: results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Michael T; Taylor, Humphrey

    2010-01-01

    Workplace smoking cessation programs can increase smoking cessation rates, improve employee health, reduce exposure to second-hand smoke, and decrease costs. To assist with the development of such programs, we conducted a Global Workplace Smoking Survey to collect information on workplace attitudes towards smoking cessation programs. Data were collected from 1,403 employers (smoking and non-smoking) and 3,525 smoking employees participating in surveys in 14 countries in Asia, Europe, and South America in 2007. Results were weighted to ensure that they were representative of smokers and employers at companies with the specified number of employees. More than two-thirds of employers (69%) but less than half of employees (48%) indicated that their company should help employees with smoking cessation. Approximately two-thirds of employees and 81% of employers overall felt that smoke-free policies encourage cessation, but fewer individuals from Europe (vs. from Asia or South America) agreed with this. In companies with a smoke-free policy, 76% of employees and 80% of employers felt that their policy had been somewhat, very, or extremely effective in motivating employees to quit or reduce smoking. Employers and employees differed substantially regarding appropriate methods for encouraging cessation, with more employees favouring financial incentives and more employers favouring education. Both employees and employers value smoke-free workplace programs and workplace cessation support activities, although many would like their companies to offer more support. These results will be useful for organizations exploring means of facilitating smoking cessation amongst employees.

  14. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O

    2014-01-01

    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling).......To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....

  15. Encouraging smoking cessation among disadvantaged groups: a qualitative study of the financial aspects of cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, Billie; Bryant, Jamie; Paul, Christine

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to explore perceptions about financial aspects of smoking cessation among a group of disadvantaged welfare agency clients and their carers. Qualitative focus groups and in-depth interviews were supplemented with participant exit surveys about preferred smoking cessation strategies. Each discussion was audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using a thematic analysis. The setting was six non-government community welfare service organisations operating in New South Wales, Australia. Eleven social services offered by these organisations participated. Thirty two clients participated in six client focus groups, 35 staff participated in six staff focus groups and eight manager telephone interviews were conducted. Clients indicated that the cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use and that financial incentives were acceptable. Of the 16 possible strategies listed in the exit survey, the three selected as the most preferred by clients incorporated financial or non-financial assistance. By contrast, staff and managers selected financial and non-financial incentives as the least preferred and least feasible strategies. The study found high acceptance of incentives as a smoking cessation strategy among a disadvantaged group of non-government welfare service clients. The comparatively low level of desirability and feasibility from the perspective of service staff and managers suggests implementation of such an approach within the community service setting requires careful further testing. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Smoking cessation and outcome after ischemic stroke or TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Katherine A; Viscoli, Catherine M; Spence, J David; Young, Lawrence H; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Gorman, Mark; Gerstenhaber, Brett; Guarino, Peter D; Dixit, Anand; Furie, Karen L; Kernan, Walter N

    2017-10-17

    To assess whether smoking cessation after an ischemic stroke or TIA improves outcomes compared to continued smoking. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 3,876 nondiabetic men and women enrolled in the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial who were randomized to pioglitazone or placebo within 180 days of a qualifying stroke or TIA and followed up for a median of 4.8 years. A tobacco use history was obtained at baseline and updated during annual interviews. The primary outcome, which was not prespecified in the IRIS protocol, was recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. Cox regression models were used to assess the differences in stroke, MI, and death after 4.8 years, with correction for adjustment variables prespecified in the IRIS trial: age, sex, stroke (vs TIA) as index event, history of stroke, history of hypertension, history of coronary artery disease, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. At the time of their index event, 1,072 (28%) patients were current smokers. By the time of randomization, 450 (42%) patients had quit smoking. Among quitters, the 5-year risk of stroke, MI, or death was 15.7% compared to 22.6% for patients who continued to smoke (adjusted hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.90). Cessation of cigarette smoking after an ischemic stroke or TIA was associated with significant health benefits over 4.8 years in the IRIS trial cohort. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  18. Posttraumatic stress and emotion dysregulation: Relationships with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results demonstrated that elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Brianna L; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relation between published scientific literature and available commercial smartphone health apps for smoking cessation to identify the percentage of scientifically supported apps that were commercially available to consumers and to determine how many of the top commercially available apps for smoking cessation were supported by the published scientific literature. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, apps were reviewed in four phases: (1) identified apps from the scientific literature, (2) searched app stores for apps identified in the literature, (3) identified top apps available in leading app stores, and (4) determined which top apps available in stores had scientific support. Seven articles identified six apps with some level of scientific support, three (50%) were available in at least one app store. Conversely, among the top 50 apps suggested by each of the leading app stores, only two (4%) had any scientific support. While half of the scientifically vetted apps remain available to consumers, they are difficult to find among the many apps that are identified through app store searches.

  20. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  1. Changes in smoking cessation assistance in the European Union between 2012 and 2017: pharmacotherapy versus counselling versus e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Mons, Ute; Jimenez-Ruiz, Carlos; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2018-03-21

    The landscape of smoking cessation may have changed in Europe recently. To identify changes in use of smoking cessation assistance in the European Union (EU) and factors associated with use of cessation assistance. Data from the 2012 (n=9921) and 2017 (n=9489) waves of the Eurobarometer survey were used. Self-reported use of smoking cessation assistance was assessed among smokers who had ever tried to quit and former smokers. Changes in use of each type of assistance were assessed using logistic regression. Among current and former smokers, those who had ever attempted to quit without assistance increased from 70.3% (2012) to 74.8% (2017). Current smokers were more likely to have used any assistance compared with former smokers (P<0.001). Use of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation assistance increased (3.7% to 9.7%)%), while use of pharmacotherapy (14.6% to 11.1%)%) and smoking cessation services (7.5% to 5.0%)%) declined. Younger people were more likely to have reported e-cigarette use for smoking cessation but less likely to have used a cessation service. Individuals living in countries with comprehensive smoking cessation policies were more likely to have used any cessation assistance (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.78; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.76), pharmacotherapy (aOR=3.44; 95% CI 1.78 to 6.66) and smoking cessation services (aOR=2.27; 95% CI 1.27 to 4.06) compared with those living in countries with weak smoking cessation policies. These findings highlight the need for approaches that ensure that smokers get support to quit smoking across the EU. The question of whether the availability of e-cigarettes will displace other methods, and the impact of such a displacement, should be closely evaluated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Smoking behavior, attitudes, and cessation counseling among healthcare professionals in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation counseling by health professionals has been effective in increasing cessation rates. However, little is known about smoking cessation training and practices in transition countries with high smoking prevalence such as Armenia. This study identified smoking-related attitudes and behavior of physicians and nurses in a 500-bed hospital in Yerevan, Armenia, the largest cancer hospital in the country, and explored barriers to their effective participation in smoking cessation interventions. Methods This study used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Trained interviewers conducted a survey with physicians and nurses using a 42-item self-administered questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related attitudes and behavior and smoking cessation counseling training. Four focus group discussions with hospital physicians and nurses explored barriers to effective smoking cessation interventions. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. Results The survey response rate was 58.5% (93/159) for physicians and 72.2% (122/169) for nurses. Smoking prevalence was almost five times higher in physicians compared to nurses (31.2% vs. 6.6%, p Armenia. The study found substantial behavioral and attitudinal differences in these two groups. The study revealed a critical need for integrating cessation counseling training into Armenia’s medical education. As nurses had more positive attitudes toward cessation counseling compared to physicians, and more often reported having cessation training, they are an untapped resource that could be more actively engaged in smoking cessation interventions in healthcare settings. PMID:23176746

  3. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López-Torrecillas

    Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  5. Weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors during smoking cessation with bupropion or nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, J I; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Martín, I; Valero, A M; Alvarez, F; García, G; Varela, C; Cantarero, M

    2004-03-01

    Weight gain is frequent after smoking cessation, and may limit patient's will to quit and long-term success. Nicotine and bupropion are effective drugs for smoking withdrawal. However, their influence on weight gain, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, as well as possible differences in obese and lean subjects, have not been fully evaluated. We randomised 25 lean and 25 obese smokers to receive either bupropion or nicotine patches. Clinical evaluation and lipid profile were performed at baseline and after treatment. Insulin resistance was also assessed at the end. Weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure increased (p < 0.005), whereas lipid profile improved (p < 0.001) after smoking cessation independently of obesity at baseline or drug used. Obese patients had higher insulin resistance at the end (p < 0.05) regardless of drug used. Weight gain was inversely related to age (beta= - 0.125, R = 0.38, p = 0.046), and insulin resistance was related to obesity at baseline (beta = 0.85, R = 0.46, p = 0.02). In conclusion, weight gain after smoking cessation is not dependent on obesity or drug taken. A beneficial lipid profile is achieved after quitting smoking with either bupropion or nicotine patch in both obese and lean subjects.

  6. A Qualitative Study on Unassisted Smoking Cessation Among Chinese Canadian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aimei; Bottorff, Joan L

    2017-11-01

    It is well-known that majority of smokers worldwide quit smoking without any assistance. This is even more evident among Chinese smokers. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how Chinese Canadian immigrant men who smoked cigarettes perceived smoking cessation aids and services and how they used any form of the smoking cessation assistance to help them quit smoking. The study was conducted in British Columbia, Canada. Twenty-two Chinese immigrants were recruited by internet advertisement and through connections with local Chinese communities. Ten of the 22 participants were current smokers and the other 12 had quit smoking in the past 5 years. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Although all participants, including both the ex-smokers and current smokers, had made more than one quit attempt, they rarely used cessation aids or services even after they had immigrated to Canada. The barriers to seeking the cessation assistance were grouped into two categories: practical barriers and cultural barriers. The practical barriers included "Lack of available information on smoking cessation assistance" and "Difficulty in accessing smoking cessation assistance," while cultural barriers included "Denial of physiological addiction to nicotine," "Mistrust in the effectiveness of smoking cessation assistance," "Tendency of self-reliance in solving problems," and "Concern of privacy revelation related to utilization of smoking cessation assistance." The findings revealed Chinese immigrants' unwillingness to use smoking cessation assistance as the result of vulnerability as immigrants and culturally cultivated masculinities of self-control and self-reliance.

  7. Model for implementing cognitive behavioural therapy for smartphone app based smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alsharif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation programs are widely implemented to assist smokers in the process of quitting smoking. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT is a psychological approach that is increasingly used in smoking cessation programs. CBT has also been implemented for smoking cessation programs and has been successful in helping smokers to quit. Another advantage of CBT is that it can be combined with different tools and technologies and hence made to deliver effective health intervention programs. The recent advancements in smartphone technologies have been widely explored to develop smoking cessation apps as tools to assist with quitting smoking. However, most existing smartphone apps lack follow-up and adherence to clinical guidelines for treatment. To date, there are no studies which have explored implementing CBT modules into smoking cessation apps. Therefore, there is a need for implementing behavioural change mechanisms in smoking cessation apps to help smokers quit effectively. In this study, we propose a new approach that combines mobile health technology and CBT methods to provide an effective smoking cessation program. The ubiquitous presence of smartphones and the various communication benefits they provide are utilized by our proposed system to provide a CBT paradigm into smoking cessation app systems and hence enhance their success potential. Currently, the proposed system is at the implementation stage, which is soon to be followed by a clinical trial to study the impact of this system on smoking cessation.

  8. Primary Care Provider-Delivered Smoking Cessation Interventions and Smoking Cessation Among Participants in the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Gareen, Ilana F; Japuntich, Sandra; Lennes, Inga; Hyland, Kelly; DeMello, Sarah; Sicks, JoRean D; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2015-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown. To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes. A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors. Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening. Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.19-1.79). Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange

  9. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...... in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk....

  10. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece Robin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during

  11. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: case of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon; Pieters, Karen; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Reece, Robin; Reid, Robert D

    2011-09-14

    The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight into issues affecting program

  12. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Koilpillai, Priya; Fanshawe, Thomas R; Lancaster, Tim

    2016-03-24

    Both behavioural support (including brief advice and counselling) and pharmacotherapies (including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion) are effective in helping people to stop smoking. Combining both treatment approaches is recommended where possible, but the size of the treatment effect with different combinations and in different settings and populations is unclear. To assess the effect of combining behavioural support and medication to aid smoking cessation, compared to a minimal intervention or usual care, and to identify whether there are different effects depending on characteristics of the treatment setting, intervention, population treated, or take-up of treatment. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in July 2015 for records with any mention of pharmacotherapy, including any type of NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials evaluating combinations of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support for smoking cessation, compared to a control receiving usual care or brief advice or less intensive behavioural support. We excluded trials recruiting only pregnant women, trials recruiting only adolescents, and trials with less than six months follow-up. Search results were prescreened by one author and inclusion or exclusion of potentially relevant trials was agreed by two authors. Data was extracted by one author and checked by another.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months of follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. Fifty-three studies with a total of more than 25,000 participants met the inclusion criteria. A large proportion of studies recruited people in

  13. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  14. Is there a role for e-cigarettes in smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Charlotte; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The use of e-cigarettes has dramatically increased over the past few years and their role in smoking cessation remains controversial. Several clinical studies have evaluated their efficacy in smoking cessation but most of them are prospective cohort studies. Only two randomized, controlled trials have compared e-cigarettes versus placebo or patches. A meta-analysis of these two randomized, controlled trials has been performed. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes appear to help smokers unable to stop smoking altogether to reduce their cigarette consumption when compared with placebo. However, these results are rated 'low' by GRADE standards. Many cohort studies have been conducted, with contradictory results. For some, e-cigarettes could increase the risk of nonsmokers developing nicotine dependence and of current smokers maintaining their dependence. The debate remains open and more randomized trials are needed with long-term data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes. © The Author(s), 2015.

  15. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  16. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-01-01

    Background Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. Methods We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Conclusions Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly

  17. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hilly, Abdulrahman Abdulla; Iqbal, Sheeraz Syed; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Muntasir, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Sarim; Al-Fagih, Zaid; Usmani, Omar; Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-10-24

    Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly against current behavioral support therapy

  18. Mobile Phone Apps for Smoking Cessation: Quality and Usability Among Smokers With Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Joelle C; Brunette, Mary F; Geiger, Pamela; Marsch, Lisa A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-03-03

    Smoking is one of the top preventable causes of mortality in people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Cessation treatment improves abstinence outcomes, but access is a barrier. Mobile phone apps are one way to increase access to cessation treatment; however, whether they are usable by people with psychotic disorders, who often have special learning needs, is not known. Researchers reviewed 100 randomly selected apps for smoking cessation to rate them based on US guidelines for nicotine addiction treatment and to categorize them based on app functions. We aimed to test the usability and usefulness of the top-rated apps in 21 smokers with psychotic disorders. We identified 766 smoking cessation apps and randomly selected 100 for review. Two independent reviewers rated each app with the Adherence Index to US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Then, smokers with psychotic disorders evaluated the top 9 apps within a usability testing protocol. We analyzed quantitative results using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative data were open-coded and analyzed for themes. Regarding adherence to practice guidelines, most of the randomly sampled smoking cessation apps scored poorly-66% rated lower than 10 out of 100 on the Adherence Index (Mean 11.47, SD 11.8). Regarding usability, three common usability problems emerged: text-dense content, abstract symbols on the homepage, and subtle directions to edit features. In order for apps to be effective and usable for this population, developers should utilize a balance of text and simple design that facilitate ease of navigation and content comprehension that will help people learn quit smoking skills. ©Joelle C Ferron, Mary F Brunette, Pamela Geiger, Lisa A Marsch, Anna M Adachi-Mejia, Stephen J Bartels. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 03.03.2017.

  19. Social Network Behavior and Engagement Within a Smoking Cessation Facebook Page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Perotte, Adler; Galica, Kasia; Dreyer, Lindy; Griffith, Christopher; Schwarz, Mary; Yun, Christopher; Patrick, Heather; Coa, Kisha; Augustson, Erik

    2016-08-02

    Social media platforms are increasingly being used to support individuals in behavior change attempts, including smoking cessation. Examining the interactions of participants in health-related social media groups can help inform our understanding of how these groups can best be leveraged to facilitate behavior change. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of participation, self-reported smoking cessation length, and interactions within the National Cancer Institutes' Facebook community for smoking cessation support. Our sample consisted of approximately 4243 individuals who interacted (eg, posted, commented) on the public Smokefree Women Facebook page during the time of data collection. In Phase 1, social network visualizations and centrality measures were used to evaluate network structure and engagement. In Phase 2, an inductive, thematic qualitative content analysis was conducted with a subsample of 500 individuals, and correlational analysis was used to determine how participant engagement was associated with self-reported session length. Between February 2013 and March 2014, there were 875 posts and 4088 comments from approximately 4243 participants. Social network visualizations revealed the moderator's role in keeping the community together and distributing the most active participants. Correlation analyses suggest that engagement in the network was significantly inversely associated with cessation status (Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.14, P=.03, N=243). The content analysis of 1698 posts from 500 randomly selected participants identified the most frequent interactions in the community as providing support (43%, n=721) and announcing number of days smoke free (41%, n=689). These findings highlight the importance of the moderator for network engagement and provide helpful insights into the patterns and types of interactions participants are engaging in. This study adds knowledge of how the social network of a smoking cessation community

  20. The association of environmental, individual factors, and dopamine pathway gene variation with smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Lulu; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Huijie; Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Nan; Han, Mingkui; Jia, Chongqi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine whether dopamine (DA) pathway gene variation were associated with smoking cessation, and compare the relative importance of infulence factors on smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from 17 villages of Shandong Province, China. Twenty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 DA pathway genes were genotyped. Weighted gene score of each gene was used to analyze the whole gene effect. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of the total gene score for smoking cessation. Dominance analysis was employed to compare the relative importance of individual, heaviness of smoking, psychological and genetic factors on smoking cessation. 415 successful spontaneous smoking quitters served as the cases, and 404 unsuccessful quitters served as the controls. A significant negative association of total DA pathway gene score and smoking cessation was observed (p smoking cessation was heaviness of smoking score (42%), following by individual (40%), genetic (10%) and psychological score (8%). In conclusion, although the DA pathway gene variation was significantly associated with successful smoking cessation, heaviness of smoking and individual factors had bigger effect than genetic factors on smoking cessation.

  1. The impact of smoking cessation on respiratory symptoms, lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, BWM; Postma, DS; Timens, W; ten Hacken, NHT

    Smoking is the main risk factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and smoking cessation is the only effective treatment for avoiding or reducing the progression of this disease. Despite the fact that smoking cessation is a very important health issue, information

  2. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  3. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  4. Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142. Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]; after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2; and at the end of the six-month study period (E3. Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status, as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded.

  5. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81% expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. Results At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75% was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p Conclusions Swedish snus could promote smoking cessation among smokers in Serbia, that is, in a cultural setting without traditional use of oral, smokeless tobacco. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00601042

  6. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  7. Demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Erin; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Correll, Patricia; Bentley, Jason

    2015-04-18

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the child. Rates of smoking during pregnancy, and rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy, vary between demographic groups. This study describes demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, and describes trends in smoking cessation in demographic subgroups over the period 2000 - 2011. Data were obtained from the New South Wales Perinatal Data Collection, a population-based surveillance system covering all births in New South Wales. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between smoking cessation during pregnancy and demographic factors. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation in pregnancy increased from 4.0% to 25.2%. Demographic characteristics associated with lower rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy included being a teenage mother, being an Aboriginal person, and having a higher number of previous pregnancies. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased dramatically across all demographic groups. However, specific demographic groups remain significantly less likely to quit smoking, suggesting a need for targeted efforts to promote smoking cessation in these groups.

  8. Modelling intentions to provide smoking cessation support among mental health professionals in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankers, Matthijs; Buisman, Renate; Hopman, Petra; van Gool, Ronald; van Laar, Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use prevalence is elevated among people with mental illnesses, leading to elevated rates of premature smoking-related mortality. Opportunities to encourage smoking cessation among them are currently underused by mental health professionals. In this paper, we aim to explore mechanisms to invigorate professionals' intentions to help patients stop smoking. Data stem from a recent staff survey on the provision of smoking cessation support to patients with mental illnesses in the Netherlands. Items and underlying constructs were based on the theory of planned behaviour and literature on habitual behaviour. Data were weighted and only data from staff members with regular patient contact (n = 506) were included. Descriptive statistics of the survey items are presented and in a second step using structural equation modelling (SEM), we regressed the latent variables attitudes, subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioural control (PBC), past cessation support behaviour (PB) and current smoking behaviour on intentions to provide support. In optimisation steps, models comprising a subset of this initial model were evaluated. A sample of 506 mental health workers who had direct contact with patients completed the survey. The majority of them were females (70.0 %), respondents had an average age of 42.5 years (SD = 12.0). Seventy-five percent had at least a BSc educational background. Of the respondents, 76 % indicated that patients should be encouraged more to quit smoking. Respondents were supportive to train their direct colleagues to provide cessation support more often (71 %) and also supported the involvement of mental health care facilities in providing cessation support to patients (69 %). The majority of the respondents feels capable to provide cessation support (66 %). Two thirds of the respondents wants to provide support, however only a minority (35 %) intends to actually do so during the coming year. Next, using SEM an acceptable fit was

  9. Comparison of Four Recruiting Strategies in a Smoking Cessation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Meenan, Richard; Severson, Herb; Halperin, Abigail; Edwards, Erika; Magnusson, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare 4 on-line and off-line recruiting methods. Methods Young adult smokers (n=3353) were recruited to a trial comparing smoking cessation services with an on-line health risk assessment (HRA), on-line ads, off-line materials, and quit line screening. Results On-line ads (n=1426; $41.35) and off-line materials recruited the most smokers (n=1341; $56.23) for the lowest cost. Quit line screening was more expensive (n=189; $133.61), but enrollees used cessation services the most (34%-82%). On-line HRA was least successful and most costly (n=397; $630.85) but had the highest follow-up (45%-55%). Conclusions On-line ads and off-line materials were most effective and cost-effective methods. PMID:22584086

  10. Smoking Cessation without Educational Instruction could Promote the Development of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Takase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation is particularly important for maintaining health; however, the subsequent risk of an increased body weight is of major concern. The present study investigated the influence of smoking cessation on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese general population. This study enrolled individuals without metabolic syndrome or a history of smoking via our annual health checkup program (n=5,702, 55.2±11.5 years). Participants were divided into three groups mentioned below and followed up with the endpoint being the development of metabolic syndrome: (1) subjects who had never smoked and did not smoke during the observation period (non-smoker); (2) those who continued smoking during the observation period (continuous smoker); and (3) those who ceased smoking during the observation period (smoking cessation). During the observation period (median 1,089 days), 520 subjects developed metabolic syndrome, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in the smoking cessation group than in the other groups. Smoking cessation was confirmed as an independent predictor of the new onset of metabolic syndrome by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjustment. Subjects only from the smoking cessation group showed a significant deterioration in metabolic factors during the study in correlation with an increased waist circumference after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation without instruction could be followed by the development of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of metabolic syndrome might reduce the benefit obtained from smoking cessation. Therefore, further educational outreach is needed to prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome during the course of smoking cessation.

  11. Mediators of a smoking cessation intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J.; Kypriotakis, George; Li, Liang; Arduino, Roberto C.; Fletcher, Faith E.; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is a pressing public health concern, and efforts to evaluate cessation treatments are needed. The purpose of the present study was to assess potential mechanisms of a cell phone-delivered intervention for HIV-positive smokers. Methods Data from 350 PLWH enrolled in a randomized smoking cessation treatment trial were utilized. Participants were randomized to either usual care (UC) or a cell phone intervention (CPI) group. The independent variable of interest was treatment group membership, while the dependent variable of interest was smoking abstinence at a 3-month follow-up. The hypothesized treatment mechanisms were depression, anxiety, social support, quit motivation and self-efficacy change scores. Results Abstinence rates in the UC and CPI groups were 4.7% (8 of 172) and 15.7% (28 of 178), respectively. The CPI group (vs. UC) experienced a larger decline in depression between baseline and the 3-month follow-up, and a decline in anxiety. Self-efficacy increased for the CPI group and declined for the UC group. Quit motivation and social support change scores did not differ by treatment group. Only self-efficacy met the predefined criteria for mediation. The effect of the cell phone intervention on smoking abstinence through change in self-efficacy was statistically significant (p<.001) and accounted for 17% of the total effect of the intervention on abstinence. Conclusions The findings further emphasize the important mechanistic function of self-efficacy in promoting smoking cessation for PLWH. Additional efforts are required to disentangle the relationships between emotional, distress motivation, and efficacious smoking cessation treatment. PMID:25542824

  12. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1......, and decreased continuously with time since smoking cessation in former smokers. Relative risk estimates for acute coronary events and for stroke events were somewhat lower than for cardiovascular mortality, but patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates and expands evidence from previous studies...

  13. Feasibility, Efficacy and Cost Analysis of Promoting Smoking Cessation at Outdoor Smoking "hotspots": a Pre-post Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Lam, Tai Hing; Li, William Ho Cheung; Wang, Man Ping; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2017-06-24

    To motivate smokers to quit, there is a need for enhanced smoking cessation (SC) recruitment and for innovative and proactive approaches to SC. This study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy and cost of promoting SC in public outdoor areas where smokers gather to smoke (smoking hotspots). We selected 14 smoking hotspots in Hong Kong for SC promotion in 2015. University students were trained as SC ambassadors to deliver brief SC intervention, and to recruit smokers for telephone follow-up. The proportion of smokers accepting the intervention components was recorded. Self-reported abstinence in the past 7 days and knowledge of smoking and health were assessed at the 6-month follow-up. The average costs of each smoker receiving our intervention and quitting were also compared. Of 3,080 smokers approached, 1,278 (41.5%) accepted the souvenir and 920 (29.9%) received brief advice. Of the 210 (6.8%) who consented to the follow-up, 24.5% were aged 15-29 and 46.4% were aged 30-49. Of the 151 smokers successfully contacted within 1 month after recruitment, 16 (10.6%; 1.3% of the 1,278 who received any form of intervention) reported abstinence, and their overall knowledge improved. The average costs for a smoker to receive brief advice, consent to follow-up by telephone, attempt to quit and quit successfully at the 6-month follow-up were US$30, US$132, US$601 and US$1,626, respectively. Promoting SC at smoking hotspots could be a feasible way to achieve satisfactory quitting outcomes at low cost and is useful in the absence of the strengthening of tobacco policies. Our study indicates that outdoor smoking hotspots are feasible platforms for promoting smoking cessation and recruiting smokers for cessation services; satisfactory outcomes can be achieved at a reasonable cost. Our promotion was particularly useful for recruiting young smokers and those who want to quit. It is feasible and efficacious to raise smokers' awareness of smoking cessation when other tobacco control

  14. Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in Indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Esterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.

  15. Real-life effectiveness of smoking-cessation treatments in general practice clinics in Denmark. The Escape Smoke project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Spillemose, Heidi; Nielsen, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The smoking prevalence has not decreased in the last years in Denmark. General practice (GP) offers smoking cessation (SC) treatment. Studies of real-life effectiveness of daily practice SC-activities from the GP-setting opposed to efficacy results from randomized clinical trials...... are few. The study aim was to evaluate the real-life effectiveness of SC-treatments for daily smokers among Danish GP-clinics. METHODS: In a multi-centre-based observational study design Danish GP-clinics with prior SC-activity recruited daily smokers motivated for quitting. As per usual clinical practice...

  16. Cost-utility analysis of varenicline, an oral smoking-cessation drug, in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Ataru; Takuma, Hiroki; Fukuda, Takashi; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2009-01-01

    To conduct a cost-utility analysis of two 12-week smoking-cessation interventions in Japan: smoking-cessation counselling by a physician compared with use of varenicline, an oral smoking-cessation drug, in addition to counselling. A Markov model was constructed to analyse lifetime medical costs and QALYs from the perspective of the healthcare payer. The cycle length was 5 years. Both costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. The cohort of smokers was classified by sex and age, and we assumed that smokers started smoking at the age of 20 years and received smoking-cessation therapy at the ages of 30, 40, 50, 60 or 70 years (five separate models were run). The healthcare costs and QALYs were calculated throughout the term until the age of 90 years. In the base-case analysis, success rates of varenicline plus counselling and counselling alone were assumed to be 37.9% and 25.5%, respectively, in male smokers, and 22.2% and 16.1%, respectively, in female smokers, based on a randomized controlled trial conducted in Japan. Both univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Prescribed varenicline was shown to be more effective and less costly than smoking-cessation counselling alone. Varenicline would save direct medical costs of Japanese Yen (yen)43 846 ($US381; $US1 = yen115; Oct 2007) and generate an increase of 0.094 QALYs in male smokers. In females the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was yen346 143 per QALY gained. Varenicline is estimated to save yen23.7 billion ($US206 million) of the medical costs for tobacco-associated diseases for the whole population. Overall savings are yen9.5 billion. Sensitivity analyses suggested the robustness of the results. As with any data of this nature, there is some uncertainty in the results and further research is warranted. However, based on the results of this pharmacoeconomic evaluation, varenicline, the first non-nicotine, oral treatment developed for smoking cessation, appears to be cost

  17. Improving Adherence to Smoking Cessation Treatment: Smoking Outcomes in a Web-based Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Cha, Sarah; Erar, Bahar; Amato, Michael S

    2018-03-15

    Partial adherence in Internet smoking cessation interventions presents treatment and evaluation challenges. Increasing adherence may improve outcomes. To present smoking outcomes from an Internet randomized trial of two strategies to encourage adherence to tobacco dependence treatment components: (i) a social network (SN) strategy to integrate smokers into an online community and (ii) free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition to intent-to-treat analyses, we used novel statistical methods to distinguish the impact of treatment assignment from treatment utilization. A total of 5,290 current smokers on a cessation website (WEB) were randomized to WEB, WEB + SN, WEB + NRT, or WEB + SN + NRT. The main outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 and 9 months post-randomization. Adherence measures included self-reported medication use (meds), and website metrics of skills training (sk) and community use (comm). Inverse Probability of Retention Weighting and Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting jointly addressed dropout and treatment selection. Propensity weights were used to calculate Average Treatment effects on the Treated. Treatment assignment analyses showed no effects on abstinence for either adherence strategy. Abstinence rates were 25.7%-32.2% among participants that used all three treatment components (sk+comm +meds).Treatment utilization analyses revealed that among such participants, sk+comm+meds yielded large percentage point increases in 3-month abstinence rates over sk alone across arms: WEB = 20.6 (95% CI = 10.8, 30.4), WEB + SN = 19.2 (95% CI = 11.1, 27.3), WEB + NRT = 13.1 (95% CI = 4.1, 22.0), and WEB + SN + NRT = 20.0 (95% CI = 12.2, 27.7). Novel propensity weighting approaches can serve as a model for establishing efficacy of Internet interventions and yield important insights about mechanisms. NCT01544153.

  18. Hypnosis and behavioral treatment in a worksite smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R G; Umlauf, R L; Wonderlich, S A; Ashkanazi, G S

    1986-01-01

    In the initial study, 48 subjects of the total (N = 63) ultimately used, were assigned to one of three treatments: four hypnotic sessions with a booster, two hypnotic sessions, or two hypnotic and two behavioral sessions with a booster. A follow-up group was later recruited composed of 15 subjects who received four hypnotic sessions and a booster session with less time between sessions. The results indicated no difference in smoking cessation 6 months after treatment regardless of the frequency, length between sessions, or addition of behavioral methods. Successful subjects were more educated, less able to utilize their imagination, and had fewer smokers at home.

  19. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  20. Smoking cessation apps for smartphones: content analysis with the self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jounghwa; Noh, Ghee-Young; Park, Dong-Jin

    2014-02-12

    Smartphones are increasingly receiving attention from public health scholars and practitioners as a means to assist individuals' health management. A number of smartphone apps for smoking cessation are also available; however, little effort has been made to evaluate the content and functions of these apps employing a theoretical framework. The present study aims to analyze and evaluate the contents of smoking cessation apps available in South Korea employing the self-determination theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework for analysis. This study analyzes the extent to which smoking cessation apps have features that satisfy the basic needs identified in the SDT, which stimulate autonomous motivation. The type of motivational goal content manifested in the apps and how the goal content was framed are also explored. By assessing the features of smoking cessation apps based on the SDT, this study aims to offer direction for improvement for these apps. Out of 309 apps identified from the iTunes store and Google Play (excluding 27 duplications), 175 apps were randomly drawn and analyzed. The coding scheme was drafted by the authors based on the SDT and gain/loss framing theory and was further finely tuned through the process of coder training and by establishing intercoder reliability. Once the intercoder reliability was established, the coders divided up the rest of the sample and coded them independently. The analysis revealed that most apps (94.3%, 165/175) had at least one feature that tapped at least 1 of the 3 basic needs. Only 18 of 175 apps (10.3%) addressed all 3 basic needs. For goal content, money (53.7%, 94/175) showed the highest frequency, followed by health (32.0%, 56/175), time (7.4%, 13/175), and appearance (1.1%, 2/175), suggesting that extrinsic goals are more dominantly presented in smoking cessation apps. For the framing of goal content, gain framing appeared more frequently (41.7%, 73/175). The results suggest that these smoking cessation apps may

  1. Profile and motivation for smoking cessation in surgical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida Corrêa

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the profile of smokers hospitalized for surgery, and investigate their motivation to quit. The sample consisted of 100 patients recruited from a university hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected between February and May 2013, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample was predominantly male (n=58; 58% and had a mean age of 54.5±13.8 years. Seventy-nine (79% of the participants were white, 38(38% were married and 67(67% had primary education only. Patients started smoking at a mean age of 17±6.6 years, smoked approximately 20(10 to 28.7 cigarettes/day and had been smoking for a mean of 37.4±14.4 years. Ninety-one (91% patients wanted to stop smoking, 57(57% were in the preparation phase, 36(36% had low nicotine dependence and 35(35% had been encouraged to quit. We concluded that, although hospitalization is a good moment to address smoking cessation, health care professionals do not enact effective and systematic interventions in this regard.

  2. A randomized controlled trial of directive and nondirective smoking cessation coaching through an employee quitline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Sumner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone quitlines can help employees quit smoking. Quitlines typically use directive coaching, but nondirective, flexible coaching is an alternative. Call-2-Quit used a worksite-sponsored quitline to compare directive and nondirective coaching modes, and evaluated employee race and income as potential moderators. Methods An unblinded randomized controlled trial compared directive and nondirective telephone coaching by trained laypersons. Participants were smoking employees and spouses recruited through workplace smoking cessation campaigns in a hospital system and affiliated medical school. Coaches were four non-medical women trained to use both coaching modes. Participants were randomized by family to coaching mode. Participants received up to 7 calls from coaches who used computer assisted telephone interview software to track topics and time. Outcomes were reported smoking abstinence for 7 days at last contact, 6 or 12 months after coaching began. Both worksites implemented new tobacco control policies during the study. Results Most participants responded to an insurance incentive introduced at the hospital. Call-2-Quit coached 518 participants: 22 % were African-American; 45 % had incomes below $30,000. Income, race, and intervention did not affect coaching completion rates. Cessation rates were comparable with directive and nondirective coaching (26 % versus 30 % quit, NS. A full factorial logistic regression model identified above median income (odds ratio = 1.8, p = 0.02, especially among African Americans (p = 0.04, and recent quit attempts (OR = 1.6, p = 0.03 as predictors of cessation. Nondirective coaching was associated with high cessation rates among subgroups of smokers reporting income above the median, recent quit attempts, or use of alternative therapies. Waiting up to 4 weeks to start coaching did not affect cessation. Of 41 highly addicted or depressed smokers who had never quit

  3. A randomized controlled trial of directive and nondirective smoking cessation coaching through an employee quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Walton; Walker, Mark S; Highstein, Gabrielle R; Fischer, Irene; Yan, Yan; McQueen, Amy; Fisher, Edwin B

    2016-07-11

    Telephone quitlines can help employees quit smoking. Quitlines typically use directive coaching, but nondirective, flexible coaching is an alternative. Call-2-Quit used a worksite-sponsored quitline to compare directive and nondirective coaching modes, and evaluated employee race and income as potential moderators. An unblinded randomized controlled trial compared directive and nondirective telephone coaching by trained laypersons. Participants were smoking employees and spouses recruited through workplace smoking cessation campaigns in a hospital system and affiliated medical school. Coaches were four non-medical women trained to use both coaching modes. Participants were randomized by family to coaching mode. Participants received up to 7 calls from coaches who used computer assisted telephone interview software to track topics and time. Outcomes were reported smoking abstinence for 7 days at last contact, 6 or 12 months after coaching began. Both worksites implemented new tobacco control policies during the study. Most participants responded to an insurance incentive introduced at the hospital. Call-2-Quit coached 518 participants: 22 % were African-American; 45 % had incomes below $30,000. Income, race, and intervention did not affect coaching completion rates. Cessation rates were comparable with directive and nondirective coaching (26 % versus 30 % quit, NS). A full factorial logistic regression model identified above median income (odds ratio = 1.8, p = 0.02), especially among African Americans (p = 0.04), and recent quit attempts (OR = 1.6, p = 0.03) as predictors of cessation. Nondirective coaching was associated with high cessation rates among subgroups of smokers reporting income above the median, recent quit attempts, or use of alternative therapies. Waiting up to 4 weeks to start coaching did not affect cessation. Of 41 highly addicted or depressed smokers who had never quit more than 30 days, none quit. Nondirective

  4. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Michie, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. \\ud \\ud Method: A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral s...

  5. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    meetings and at follow-up. Discussion: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been......Background: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. Methods/design: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who...

  6. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome

  7. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Kraemer, Thomas; Rust, Kristina; Schaub, Michael

    2012-04-04

    A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic

  8. Inferring Smoking Status from User Generated Content in an Online Cessation Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; Papandonatos, George D; Cha, Sarah; Wang, Xi; Zhao, Kang; Cohn, Amy M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Graham, Amanda L

    2018-01-22

    User generated content (UGC) is a valuable but underutilized source of information about individuals who participate in online cessation interventions. This study represents a first effort to passively detect smoking status among members of an online cessation program using UGC. Secondary data analysis was performed on data from 826 participants in a web-based smoking cessation randomized trial that included an online community. Domain experts from the online community reviewed each post and comment written by participants and attempted to infer the author's smoking status at the time it was written. Inferences from UGC were validated by comparison with self-reported 30-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA). Following validation, the impact of this method was evaluated across all individuals and timepoints in the study period. Of the 826 participants in the analytic sample, 719 had written at least one post from which content inference was possible. Among participants for whom unambiguous smoking status was inferred during the 30 days preceding their 3-month follow-up survey, concordance with self-report was almost perfect (kappa = 0.94). Posts indicating abstinence tended to be written shortly after enrollment (median = 14 days). Passive inference of smoking status from UGC in online cessation communities is possible and highly reliable for smokers who actively produce content. These results lay the groundwork for further development of observational research tools and intervention innovations. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Comparing abrupt and gradual smoking cessation: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2011-11-01

    To compare abrupt and gradual smoking cessation. Randomized trial and observational study, Internet, 2007-2010. Smokers with no strong preference for abrupt or gradual quitting were randomly assigned to quitting immediately (n=472), or to gradually reducing their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks and then quit (n=502). Smokers who strongly preferred to quit abruptly were instructed to do so immediately (n=2456), those who strongly preferred gradual were instructed to reduce their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks, then quit (n=1801). Follow-up was conducted 4 weeks after target quit dates. Those who preferred abrupt quitting were the most motivated to quit and the most confident in their ability to quit. At follow-up, quit rates were 16% in those who preferred abrupt cessation, 7% in those who preferred gradual cessation and 9% in those who had no preference (pmotivation to quit and confidence in ability to quit: those who had low levels of motivation or low levels of confidence were more likely to quit at follow-up if they preferred and used abrupt rather than gradual. In those who had no strong preference for either method, abrupt and gradual produced similar results. Those who preferred and used the abrupt method were more likely to quit than those who preferred and used the gradual method, in particular when they had low motivation and confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of Users for a Smoking Cessation Mobile App : Quantitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalking, S.K. Leon; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Postel, Marloes G.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The number of mobile apps that support smoking cessation is growing, indicating the potential of the mobile phone as a means to support cessation. Knowledge about the potential end users for cessation apps results in suggestions to target potential user groups in a dissemination

  11. Predictive value of the transtheoretical model to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Robichaud-Ekstrand, Sylvie

    2007-02-01

    Several authors have questioned the transtheoretical model. Determining the predictive value of each cognitive-behavioural element within this model could explain the multiple successes reported in smoking cessation programmes. The purpose of this study was to predict point-prevalent smoking abstinence at 2 and 6 months, using the constructs of the transtheoretical model, when applied to a pooled sample of individuals who were hospitalized for a cardiovascular event. The study follows a predictive correlation design. Recently hospitalized patients (n=168) with cardiovascular disease were pooled from a randomized, controlled trial. Independent variables of the predictive transtheoretical model comprise stages and processes of change, pros and cons to quit smoking (decisional balance), self-efficacy, and social support. These were evaluated at baseline, 2 and 6 months. Compared to smokers, individuals who abstained from smoking at 2 and 6 months were more confident at baseline to remain non-smokers, perceived less pros and cons to continue smoking, utilized less consciousness raising and self-re-evaluation experiential processes of change, and received more positive reinforcement from their social network with regard to their smoke-free behaviour. Self-efficacy and stages of change at baseline were predictive of smoking abstinence after 6 months. Other variables found to be predictive of smoking abstinence at 6 months were an increase in self-efficacy; an increase in positive social support behaviour and a decrease of the pros within the decisional balance. The results partially support the predictive value of the transtheoretical model constructs in smoking cessation for cardiovascular disease patients.

  12. Cessation and reduction in smoking behavior: impact of creating a smoke-free home on smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardörfer, R; Kreuter, M; Berg, C J; Escoffery, C; Bundy, L T; Hovell, M; Mullen, P D; Williams, R; Kegler, M C

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a creating a smoke-free home (SFH) on cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking on low-income smokers. This secondary data analysis uses data from study participants who were originally recruited through 2-1-1 information and referral call centers in Atlanta (Georgia, 2013), North Carolina (2014) and the Texas Gulf Coast (2015) across three randomized controlled trials testing an intervention aimed at creating SFHs, pooling data from 941 smokers. Participants who reported adopting a SFH were more likely to report quitting smoking than those who did not adopt a SFH. This was true at 3-month follow-up and even more pronounced at 6-month follow-up and persisted when considering only those who consistently reported no smoking at 3 and 6 months. Among those who did not stop smoking, the number of cigarettes per day declined significantly more and quit attempts were more frequent for those who created a SFH compared with those who did not. Findings suggest that creating a SFH facilitates cessation, reduces cigarette consumption and increases quit attempts. Future studies should assess the long-term impact of SFHs on sustaining cessation.

  13. The effect of Varenicline on smoking cessation in a group of young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian G; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco use causes long-term morbidity and mortality. In patients with asthma, the frequency of smokers is high; however, asthmatic smokers experience more pronounced symptoms, accelerated loss of lung function and treatment resistance. Varenicline is an effective drug in smoking...... cessation, when investigated in COPD patients and general populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Varenicline on tobacco cessation in young asthmatics. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial, 52 asthmatic current smokers (age 19-40) ≥ 10 cigarettes....... RESULTS: In the Varenicline group, at week 12, 69% of the patients quit smoking vs. 36% in the placebo group (p = 0.017, intended-to-treat analysis), but after 24 weeks, a high relapse rate was present (quit rates 19% vs. 16%, NS). After 6 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in airway...

  14. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Uutela, A; Korhonen, H J; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes an impact evaluation of the North Karelia Project (Finnish CINDI program) on smoking cessation attempts. During the period 1989-1996, data were collected by annual surveys, with response rates varying from 66% to 76%. This study included 1,694 adult current smokers or persons who had quit smoking during the past year, out of a total of 6,011 respondents. Smoking cessation attempts during the past 12 months were examined as a dependent variable. Reported exposures to mass media and interpersonal health communication were examined as possible determinants of smoking cessation. Weekly exposure to mass media health messages was significantly associated with cessation attempts among men only. In contrast, interpersonal health communication, or social influence, was a significant determinant of cessation attempts among both sexes. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal health communication had an even stronger impact on cessation attempts. Thus, interpersonal communication appears to be an important catalyst of community programs, and its inclusion should be emphasized to obtain a higher impact with community programs.

  15. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshuizen Hendriek C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Furthermore, many people who quit smoking relapse, most of them within a relatively short period. Methods In this paper, a method is presented for calculating the effects of smoking cessation interventions on disease incidence that allows to deal with relapse and the effect of time since quitting. A simulation model is described that links smoking to the incidence of 14 smoking related diseases. To demonstrate the model, health effects are estimated of two interventions in which part of current smokers in the Netherlands quits smoking. To illustrate the advantages of the model its results are compared with those of two simpler versions of the model. In one version we assumed no relapse after quitting and equal incidence rates for all former smokers. In the second version, incidence rates depend on time since cessation, but we assumed still no relapse after quitting. Results Not taking into account time since smoking cessation on disease incidence rates results in biased estimates of the effects of interventions. The immediate public health effects are overestimated, since the health risk of quitters immediately drops to the mean level of all former smokers. However, the long-term public health effects are underestimated since after longer periods of time the effects of past smoking disappear and so surviving quitters start to resemble never smokers. On balance, total health gains of smoking cessation are underestimated if one does not account for the effect of time since cessation on disease incidence rates. Not taking into account relapse of quitters overestimates health gains substantially. Conclusion The results show that simulation models are

  16. Employee characteristics and health belief variables related to smoking cessation engagement attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J

    2018-05-01

    Workplace smoking cessation programs can effectively assist employees to quit smoking. However, little is known about employees' attitudes towards engagement in workplace smoking cessation programs. This study aimed to address the limited understanding of the interaction between employee characteristics and their health beliefs toward engaging in a workplace smoking cessation program. Self-report data was collected from 897 employees of a mining company operating in two remote towns in Australia. The majority of participants were male (73%), the mean age was 36.9 years (SD = 11.5). Chi square tests of independence were used to analyze relationships between employee characteristics and smoking cessation engagement attitudes. Engagement attitudes included: A desire to cease smoking; desire for assistance with the smoking cessation process; and intention to participate in a workplace smoking intervention. The findings from this study indicated that attitudes towards engagement in smoking cessation programs varied for mining employees according to gender, age, perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change. These findings provide insights that health promotion practitioners may apply to inform the design and marketing of effective workplace smoking cessation programs for similar employees.

  17. The Importance of Partner Support and Psychological Status in Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The habit of smoking is more common in members of a family living in the same house. People with psychiatric symptoms smoke more cigarettes. We conducted a study to examine whether the psychological status of couples and partner support affects smoking cessation success. Methods: The outpatients who started taking a therapy for smoking cessation between July 2014 and January 2015 in our clinic were included in this prospective, single-center study. Each couple was assessed on the basis of the Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS. The smoking status of the participants was assessed after 6 months, and they filled out the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ. Results: Of 141 volunteers, 55% joined the smoking cessation program as couples. A total of 55.3% of the participants managed to quit smoking. Further, 42.3% of couples quitted smoking. Nearly 96.2% of couples had the same result regarding smoking cessation. The smoking cessation rate was significantly lower in couples with high anxiety depression scores (participant: p=0.028 and 0.037; partner: p=0.003 and 0.007, smoker partners (p<0.01, and participants with low marital adjustments (p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent parameters affecting smoking cessation success were support and the smoking status of partners (p<0.001 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: Partner support and psychological status were important parameters associated with smoking cessation. The presence of non-smoker partners made quitting smoking easier. Reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms and support of partners may help in smoking cessation.

  18. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were ...

  19. Smoking cessation for free: outcomes of a study of three Romanian clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofor Antigona Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Romania implemented a national program for smoking cessation, providing medication and counseling, entirely for free. The present study focuses on the results of the program among participating smokers treated in three smoking cessation centers from three main cities of Romania: Iasi, Targu Mures and Cluj.

  20. Weekly enrollment and usage patterns in an Internet smoking cessation intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Welding

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior research, the beginning of the week appears to be a time when individuals are more likely to enroll in an Internet smoking cessation intervention and engage with its core features. Emphasizing marketing and promotional efforts during the beginning of the week could result in greater reach of Internet smoking cessation interventions.

  1. Optimal locations of establishing smoking cessation services for cancer patients in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla

    2017-05-01

    The proposed optimum locations for establishing smoking cessation services are expected to contribute to the enhancement of cancer control in Crete. Furthermore, this study will guide a smoking cessation program in the region of Crete aiming to minimize the burden of tobacco-induced cancers.

  2. Influence of dental education in motivational interviewing on the efficacy of interventions for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonheim-Klein, M.; Gresnigt, C.; van der Velden, U.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test whether education of dental students in motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation counselling will increase the number of patients and students who quit smoking and will improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards tobacco cessation counselling. Methods Over 2

  3. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  4. The effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation in young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Porsbjerg, C; Backer, V

    2014-01-01

    changes in asthmatic smokers before and during smoking cessation. METHODS: Forty-six smokers with asthma, all steroid-free (age range: 19-40), were recruited. All participants attempted smoking cessation over a period of 3 months. Visits were performed at weeks 0, 6 and 12 and included induced sputum, Fe...

  5. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Martine; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation interventions in

  6. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation

  7. Smoking behavior, attitudes, and cessation counseling among healthcare professionals in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movsisyan Narine K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation counseling by health professionals has been effective in increasing cessation rates. However, little is known about smoking cessation training and practices in transition countries with high smoking prevalence such as Armenia. This study identified smoking-related attitudes and behavior of physicians and nurses in a 500-bed hospital in Yerevan, Armenia, the largest cancer hospital in the country, and explored barriers to their effective participation in smoking cessation interventions. Methods This study used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Trained interviewers conducted a survey with physicians and nurses using a 42-item self-administered questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related attitudes and behavior and smoking cessation counseling training. Four focus group discussions with hospital physicians and nurses explored barriers to effective smoking cessation interventions. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. Results The survey response rate was 58.5% (93/159 for physicians and 72.2% (122/169 for nurses. Smoking prevalence was almost five times higher in physicians compared to nurses (31.2% vs. 6.6%, p  Conclusions This study was the first to explore differences in smoking-related attitudes and behavior among hospital physicians and nurses in Yerevan, Armenia. The study found substantial behavioral and attitudinal differences in these two groups. The study revealed a critical need for integrating cessation counseling training into Armenia’s medical education. As nurses had more positive attitudes toward cessation counseling compared to physicians, and more often reported having cessation training, they are an untapped resource that could be more actively engaged in smoking cessation interventions in healthcare settings.

  8. Mobile Phone Apps for Smoking Cessation: Quality and Usability Among Smokers With Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferron, Joelle C; Brunette, Mary F; Geiger, Pamela; Marsch, Lisa A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the top preventable causes of mortality in people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Cessation treatment improves abstinence outcomes, but access is a barrier. Mobile phone apps are one way to increase access to cessation treatment; however, whether they are usable by people with psychotic disorders, who often have special learning needs, is not known. Objective Researchers reviewed 100 randomly selected apps for smoking cessation to rate them based o...

  9. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential confounders. Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in December 2013. Great Britain. National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759 (43%) followed-up. Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day (CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year (analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use. Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not. Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or reduced smoking. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly...

  11. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  12. DENTAL PATIENT KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING AND ATTITUDES ABOUT THE ROLE OF DENTISTS IN SMOKING CESSATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Nurul Asyikin; Saub, Roslan; Nor, Mariani Md; Yusoff, Noriah

    2017-03-01

    Dentists can offer their patients who smoke tobacco assistance with smoking cessation. We conducted this study to assess dental patient knowledge about the effects of smoking and perceptions and attitudes regarding the role of dentists in smoking cessation counselling. We conducted this study to inform tobacco cessation programs that could potentially include dentists. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among 375 patients. The mean age of subjects was 33.4 years; females comprised 51.5%. Participants were divided into 3 groups: those who never smoked (n = 263, 70.7%), smokers (n = 92, 24.7%), and ex-smokers (n = 17, 4.5%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.046) who never smoked (92.9%) knew smoking can cause bad breath than smokers (86.9%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.002) who never smoked (74.8%) knew smoking can cause periodontal disease than smokers (57.6%). Significantly more participants (p smoked (84.5%) knew smoking can cause oral cancer than smokers (66.7%). Significantly more participants (p smoked (86.7%) knew smoking can cause lung cancer than smokers (69.7%). Significantly more participants who never smoked (85.5%) felt dentists should be interested in the smoking status of their patients (p = 0.004) than smokers (72.6%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.08) who never smoked (69.6%) stated dentists should give smoking cessation advice than smokers/ex-smokers (59.0%). Smoker/ ex-smokers had less knowledge about the effects of smoking on oral and general health than non-smokers. Both smokers/ex-smokers and non-smokers felt dentists should provide smoking cessation advice.

  13. A mixed-method systematic review and meta-analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes toward smoking and smoking cessation among people with mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheals, Kate; Tombor, Ildiko; McNeill, Ann; Shahab, Lion

    2016-09-01

    People with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders are important targets for smoking cessation interventions. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are ideally placed to deliver interventions, but their attitudes may prevent this. This systematic review therefore aimed to identify and estimate quantitatively MHPs attitudes towards smoking and main barriers for providing smoking cessation support and to explore these attitudes in-depth through qualitative synthesis. The online databases AMED, EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO, HMIC and CINAHL were searched in March 2015 using terms relating to three concepts: 'attitudes', 'mental health professionals' and 'smoking cessation'. Quantitative or qualitative studies of any type were included. Proportions of MHPs' attitudes towards smoking and smoking cessation were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Qualitative findings were evaluated using thematic synthesis. Thirty-eight studies including 16 369 participants were eligible for inclusion. Pooled proportions revealed that 42.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 35.7-48.8] of MHPs reported perceived barriers to smoking cessation interventions, 40.5% (95% CI = 30.4-51.0) negative attitudes towards smoking cessation and 45.0% (95% CI = 31.9-58.4) permissive attitudes towards smoking. The most commonly held beliefs were that patients are not interested in quitting (51.4%, 95% CI = 33.4-69.2) and that quitting smoking is too much for patients to take on (38%, 95% CI = 16.4-62.6). Qualitative findings were consistent with quantitative results, revealing a culture of smoking as 'the norm' and a perception of cigarettes as a useful tool for patients and staff. A significant proportion of mental health professionals hold attitudes and misconceptions that may undermine the delivery of smoking cessation interventions; many report a lack of time, training and confidence as main barriers to addressing smoking in their patients. © 2016 The Authors

  14. Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsophon, Thaniya; Thaveeratitham, Premtip; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2017-09-06

    Exercise is one choice of additional treatment for smoking cessation by relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving. The possible mechanism of the effect of exercise on relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving is including affect, biological, and cognitive hypotheses. Evidence suggests that different types of exercise have different effects on these mechanisms. Therefore, type of exercise might have effect on smoking cessation. The purpose of this study is to systematically review randomized controlled trials to gain insight into which types of exercise are effective for smoking cessation. Publications were systemically searched up to November 2016 in several databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, PEDro, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library), using the following keywords: "physical activity", "exercise", "smoking", "tobacco" and "cigarette". The methodological quality was assessed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the type of exercise on smoking cessation. The quality of the evidence was assessed and rated according to the GRADE approach. 20 articles on 19 studies were judged to meet the selection criteria (seven low-risk of bias RCTs and 12 high-risk of bias RCTs). The findings revealed low quality evidence for the effectiveness of yoga for smoking cessation at the end of the treatment. The evidence found for no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, and a combined aerobic and resisted exercise program on smoking cessation was of low to moderate quality. Furthermore, very low to low quality evidence was found for no effect of physical activity on smoking cessation. There was no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, physical activity and combined aerobic and resisted exercise on smoking cessation. There was a positive effect on smoking cessation at the end of treatment in the program where yoga plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was used. However, which

  15. [Effectiveness of Varenicline with counseling programs on smoking cessation in a targeted clinical setting in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; He, Yao; Zuo, Fang; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi; Cheng, Kk; Chan, Sc; Lam, Th

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Varenicline for smoking cessation in a community-based smoking-cessation-clinic (SCC) in Chinese smokers. A prospective observational study was conducted in Beijing, China. 799 smokers (762 men and 37 women) were assessed on data gathered from structured questionnaires at baseline and follow up programs at 1, 3 and 6 months. Trained physician counselors provided free individual counseling and follow-up interviews with brief counseling for all the subjects. 272 subjects were additionally prescribed Varenicline according to their own choice and reported data were compared to those without Varenicline. Outcomes were self-reported, regarding the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate and continuous abstinence rates at 1, 3 and 6 month follow-up periods. At 6-month and by intention-to-treat, the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate with Varenicline and counseling, was significantly higher than the group with counseling only (34.6% versus 23.1%; OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.27-2.42;P group with Varenicline(31.3% versus 18.2% ;OR = 2.04, 95% CI:1.46-2.86;P < 0.001). Varenicline also showed better outcomes at 1 and 3 month follow-up. Varenicline prescription in the smoking cessation clinic appeared to be effective that doubled the rates of quitting among Chinese smokers in the practice at a community-based SCC.

  16. Exercise to Enhance Smoking Cessation: the Getting Physical on Cigarette Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavessis, Harry; De Jesus, Stefanie; Fitzgeorge, Lindsay; Faulkner, Guy; Maddison, Ralph; Batten, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Exercise has been proposed as a useful smoking cessation aid. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention program, with built-in maintenance components, on post-intervention 14-, 26- and 56-week cessation rates. Female cigarette smokers (n = 413) participating in a supervised exercise and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) smoking cessation program were randomized to one of four conditions: exercise + smoking cessation maintenance, exercise maintenance + contact control, smoking cessation maintenance + contact control or contact control. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence. Abstinence differences were found between the exercise and equal contact non-exercise maintenance groups at weeks 14 (57 vs 43 %), 26 (27 vs 21 %) and 56 (26 vs 23.5 %), respectively. Only the week 14 difference approached significance, p = 0.08. An exercise-aided NRT smoking cessation program with built-in maintenance components enhances post-intervention cessation rates at week 14 but not at weeks 26 and 56.

  17. Effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy: Results after 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francisca Rosa, Ecinele; Corraini, Priscila; Inoue, Gislene

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this 24-month prospective study was to assess the effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative to a previous 12-month follow-up study, recruitment and follow-up period were.......05). CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation promoted additional benefits on NSPT in chronic periodontitis subjects....... extended, resulting in 116 eligible among the 286 screened subjects. They received NSPT and concurrent smoking cessation interventions. Periodontal maintenance was performed every three months. A calibrated examined, blinded to smoking status, performed full-mouth periodontal examination in six sites per...

  18. Perceptions Toward a Smoking Cessation App Targeting LGBTQ+ Youth and Young Adults: A Qualitative Framework Analysis of Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, N Bruce; Dash, Darly; Wong, Katy; Shuh, Alanna; Abramowicz, Aneta

    2016-11-18

    perspectives of LGBTQ+ YYA on a smoking cessation intervention delivered through a mobile app. The findings suggested a number of components of a mobile app that were valued and those that were concerning, as well as suggestions on how to make a mobile app cessation program successful. App development for this subpopulation should take into consideration the opinions of the intended users and involve them in the development and evaluation of mobile-based smoking cessation programs. ©N Bruce Baskerville, Darly Dash, Katy Wong, Alanna Shuh, Aneta Abramowicz. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 18.11.2016.

  19. Discontinuation of nicotine replacement therapy among smoking-cessation attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily K; Levinson, Arnold H

    2008-03-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) doubles successful quitting, but more than half of NRT users do not comply with optimal treatment regimens. From the 2005 Colorado state tobacco survey, quit attempters who utilized NRT (N=366) were analyzed in spring 2007. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to examine reasons for discontinuing NRT, length of time on NRT, and quit intentions. The reasons for discontinuing NRT were resuming smoking (34%), side effects (17%), NRT not helping with quitting (14%), quitting smoking (10%), and cost (5%). Poverty, age, and non-Latino minority status were associated with reasons for discontinuation other than quitting smoking. Having side effects was associated with a short duration of NRT use and 95% lower odds of intending to quit in the next month. In the first population-level study examining reasons for discontinuing NRT, general-population smokers who initiate NRT use when attempting to quit are highly likely to discontinue NRT prematurely. Age and culturally-appropriate medication management interventions may increase NRT compliance and improve cessation outcomes.

  20. Income Levels and Response to Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Núñez, Carla; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-06-07

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation. A total of 92 treatment-seeking smokers in a community setting were randomly assigned to a CBT group (N = 49) or to a CBT plus CM group (N = 43). The CM procedure included a voucher program through which smoking abstinence was reinforced on a schedule of escalating magnitude of reinforcement with a reset contingency. We analyzed the impact of self-reported monthly income, alone and in combination with treatment condition, on short-term (treatment retention) and long-term (self-reported number of days of continuous smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up) results. Income had no effect on treatment retention and continuous abstinence outcomes at 6-month follow-up in either treatment condition. Treatment modality emerged as the only significant predictor of treatment success. Our findings suggest that treatment-seeking smokers from the general population respond equally well to CM regardless of their income levels. The results of this randomized controlled trial support the generalizability of this evidenced-based program into community settings.

  1. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.

  2. Smoking cessation induces profound changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Biedermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Yet, knowledge about the role of environmental factors such as smoking (which is known to influence theses aforementioned disease states on the complex microbial composition is sparse. We aimed to investigate the role of smoking cessation on intestinal microbial composition in 10 healthy smoking subjects undergoing controlled smoking cessation. METHODS: During the observational period of 9 weeks repetitive stool samples were collected. Based on abundance of 16S rRNA genes bacterial composition was analysed and compared to 10 control subjects (5 continuing smokers and 5 non-smokers by means of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis and high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: Profound shifts in the microbial composition after smoking cessation were observed with an increase of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria on the phylum level. In addition, after smoking cessation there was an increase in microbial diversity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that smoking is an environmental factor modulating the composition of human gut microbiota. The observed changes after smoking cessation revealed to be similar to the previously reported differences in obese compared to lean humans and mice respectively, suggesting a potential pathogenetic link between weight gain and smoking cessation. In addition they give rise to a potential association of smoking status and the course of IBD.

  3. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Gislene; Rosa, Ecinele F.; Fueta Gomes, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking...... cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation...... counseling and support were also provided by the dentists, during periodontal maintenance sessions at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Smoking status was assessed by means of a structured questionnaire, and was validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The Fagerström Test for Cigarette...

  4. Implicit and explicit attitudes predict smoking cessation: moderating effects of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Steven J; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jonathan T

    2010-12-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  6. ADHD symptoms impact smoking outcomes and withdrawal in response to Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Karoly, Hollis C; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2017-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34.13(10.07), average baseline cigarettes per day=14.71(7.06)]. Given that varenicline's putative therapeutic mechanism is attenuation of withdrawal severity during abstinence, we also tested changes in withdrawal as a mediator of treatment effects in high and low ADHD groups. ADHD symptom severity in this sample was in the subclinical range. Cessation was associated with HI, but not IN, such that high HI individuals on varenicline reported the lowest smoking levels at the end of treatment across all groups (3.06cig/day for high HI vs 4.02cig/day for low HI). Individuals with high HI who received placebo had the highest smoking at the end of treatment (7.69cigs/day for high HI vs 5.56cig/day for low HI). Patterns continued at follow-up. Varenicline significantly reduced withdrawal for those with high HI, but not low HI. However, path models did not support an indirect effect of medication on reducing smoking via withdrawal in either group, suggesting that unmeasured variables are involved in varenicline's effect on reducing smoking. These data add to a gap in the smoking cessation literature regarding the impact of ADHD symptoms on the efficacy and mechanisms of frontline pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief preoperative smoking cessation counselling in relation to breast cancer surgery: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Samuelsen, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    of cancer diagnosis was difficult for some women. They relapsed to smoking as an ingrown response to emotional distress. The smoking intervention heightened the women's awareness of their addiction to smoking; however, they expressed a need for prolonged smoking cessation support. For others, the smoking......AIM: To describe how women smokers with newly diagnosed breast cancer experienced brief preoperative smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery. BACKGROUND: Preoperative smoking cessation intervention is relevant for short- and long-term risk reduction in newly diagnosed...... cancer patients. Our knowledge of how patients with malignant diagnoses experience preoperative smoking intervention is however scarce. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study that collected data through one-time individual, semi-structured interviews with 11 Danish women. Ricoeur's theory...

  8. Smoking, it is slow suicide - aiming for smoking cessation; Kitsuen sore wa kanmannaru jisatsu. Kin'en wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Keiko [sophia University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Toxic substances content rate in the particle phase and the gas phase of paper roll tobacco and included substances in mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke were shown. Delay of information disclosure in developing countries including Japan was introduced along with explanation of the smoking situation in Japan and each country in world in the man and woman independence. As health hazard by smoking, symptom by nicotin, carbon dioxide and included other substances was described separately and smoking cessation countermeasure was introduced. (NEDO)

  9. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  10. Smoking cessation: Exploration of perceived technology-related information value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychav, Iris; McHaney, Roger; Hirak, Eyal; Merker, Ben

    2018-01-01

    This study describes a unique approach to information transfer affecting the perceived value of this information and related impact on smoker behavior. Data were collected via survey, sampling approximately 120 participants. An online survey tool was used for the survey creation, data collection and monitoring. Another online tool was used by participants to create short animation videos as a means of increasing their engagement with information in an experiential fashion. Study findings included that the process experienced by the test group was influential and facilitated participants' change of mind regarding enrollment in a smoking cessation workshop. This was partly attributable to the IKEA effect. The study provides evidence that a change in habits crucial to improve health and enhance positive lifestyle choices can be stimulated through active engagement with artifact creation in a technology-mediated environment.

  11. Systematic review of health and behavioural outcomes of smoking cessation interventions in prisons

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Dominique; Kinner, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a systematic review to examine the impact of smoking cessation interventions, including smoking bans, on prisoners and prison staff. Data sources We systematically searched health and criminal justice databases for relevant studies. Search strings were used to combine terms related to smoking cessation interventions with terms related to incarceration. We used forward and backward snowballing to capture additional studies. Study selection Studies were included if: they ...

  12. Altered White Matter Integrity in Smokers Is Associated with Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Peiyu; Shen, Zhujing; Wang, Chao; Qian, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a significant cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Understanding the neural mechanisms of nicotine addiction and smoking cessation may provide effective targets for developing treatment strategies. In the present study, we explored whether smokers have white matter alterations and whether these alterations are related to cessation outcomes and smoking behaviors. Sixty-six smokers and thirty-seven healthy non-smokers were enrolled. The participants underwent magnetic resonance ...

  13. Concept Test of a Smoking Cessation Smart Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Porter, Jeannette H

    2018-04-05

    Wearable/portable devices that unobtrusively detect smoking and contextual data offer the potential to provide Just-In-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI) support for mobile cessation programs. Little has been reported on the development of these technologies. To address this gap, we offer a case report of users' experiences with a prototype "smart" cigarette case that automatically tracks time and location of smoking. Small-scale user-experience studies are typical of iterative product design and are especially helpful when proposing novel ideas. The purpose of the study was to assess concept acceptability and potential for further development. We tested the prototype case with a small sample of potential users (n = 7). Participants used the hardware/software for 2 weeks and reconvened for a 90-min focus group to discuss experiences and provide feedback. Participants liked the smart case in principle but found the prototype too bulky for easy portability. The potential for the case to convey positive messages about self also emerged as a finding. Participants indicated willingness to pay for improved technology (USD $15-$60 on a one-time basis). The smart case is a viable concept, but design detail is critical to user acceptance. Future research should examine designs that maximize convenience and that explore the device's ability to cue intentions and other cognitions that would support cessation. This study is the first to our knowledge to report formative research on the smart case concept. This initial exploration provides insights that may be helpful to other developers of JITAI-support technology.

  14. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E; Connell, Christian M; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults' perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students' beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, "healthier" alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  15. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  16. Role of E-Cigarettes in smoking cessation: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: E-cigarettes (EC are devices that heat liquid into an aerosol that user inhales. Youth are using EC at increasing and alarming rates. The tobacco industry aggressively markets EC to youth, glamorizing EC use in advertisements, and offering EC in candy flavors such as bubble gum and gummy bears. The liquid usually in EC has nicotine and other additives which is addictive. Aim: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: A literature review was performed; PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane Library, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched from 1970 to December 2017 to identify appropriate studies. Results: Out of the total 817 titles appeared, 17 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Two articles which were hand searched and one article which was through E-mail was also included in this review. EC have a direct impact on smokers and efficiency in quitting smoking was assessed very low. Majority of the study found that EC could increase the risk of smokers developing nicotine dependence and thus evidence on smoking reduction was found very low. Conclusions: There are relatively a few studies evaluating the role of EC in smoking cessation. EC products are marketed in a wide variety of channels that have broad reach among youth and young adults, including magazines, television, radio, and the Internet. More randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify the role of EC in smoking cessation.

  17. Print-based self-help interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F

    2014-06-03

    Many smokers give up smoking on their own, but materials giving advice and information may help them and increase the number who quit successfully. The aims of this review were to determine: the effectiveness of different forms of print-based self-help materials, compared with no treatment and with other minimal contact strategies; the effectiveness of adjuncts to print-based self help, such as computer-generated feedback, telephone hotlines and pharmacotherapy; and the effectiveness of approaches tailored to the individual compared with non-tailored materials. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register. Date of the most recent search April 2014. We included randomized trials of smoking cessation with follow-up of at least six months, where at least one arm tested a print-based self-help intervention. We defined self help as structured programming for smokers trying to quit without intensive contact with a therapist. We extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the nature of the self-help materials, the amount of face-to-face contact given to intervention and to control conditions, outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in people smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates when available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We identified 74 trials which met the inclusion criteria. Many study reports did not include sufficient detail to judge risk of bias for some domains. Twenty-eight studies (38%) were judged at high risk of bias for one or more domains but the overall risk of bias across all included studies was judged to be moderate, and unlikely to alter the conclusions.Thirty-four trials evaluated the effect of standard, non-tailored self-help materials. Pooling 11 of these trials in which there

  18. A mixed‐method systematic review and meta‐analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes toward smoking and smoking cessation among people with mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheals, Kate; Tombor, Ildiko; McNeill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims People with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders are important targets for smoking cessation interventions. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are ideally placed to deliver interventions, but their attitudes may prevent this. This systematic review therefore aimed to identify and estimate quantitatively MHPs attitudes towards smoking and main barriers for providing smoking cessation support and to explore these attitudes in‐depth through qualitative synthesis. Methods The online databases AMED, EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO, HMIC and CINAHL were searched in March 2015 using terms relating to three concepts: ‘attitudes’, ‘mental health professionals’ and ‘smoking cessation’. Quantitative or qualitative studies of any type were included. Proportions of MHPs' attitudes towards smoking and smoking cessation were pooled across studies using random effects meta‐analysis. Qualitative findings were evaluated using thematic synthesis. Results Thirty‐eight studies including 16 369 participants were eligible for inclusion. Pooled proportions revealed that 42.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 35.7–48.8] of MHPs reported perceived barriers to smoking cessation interventions, 40.5% (95% CI = 30.4–51.0) negative attitudes towards smoking cessation and 45.0% (95% CI = 31.9–58.4) permissive attitudes towards smoking. The most commonly held beliefs were that patients are not interested in quitting (51.4%, 95% CI = 33.4–69.2) and that quitting smoking is too much for patients to take on (38%, 95% CI = 16.4–62.6). Qualitative findings were consistent with quantitative results, revealing a culture of smoking as ‘the norm’ and a perception of cigarettes as a useful tool for patients and staff. Conclusions A significant proportion of mental health professionals hold attitudes and misconceptions that may undermine the delivery of smoking cessation interventions; many report a lack of time, training and

  19. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Hearing Loss: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Nagahama, Satsue; Akter, Shamima; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kashino, Ikuko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kentaro; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-03-14

    We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss. During follow-up, 3532 individuals developed high-frequency hearing loss, and 1575 developed low-frequency hearing loss. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with current smokers was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.4) for high- and low-frequency hearing loss, respectively, as compared with never smokers. The risk of high- and low-frequency hearing loss increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (both p for trend hearing loss, respectively. The analysis by quitting years showed a decline in risk of hearing loss after quitting smoking, even among those who quitted less than 5 years before baseline. Smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss, especially at the high frequency, in a dose-response manner. The excess risk of hearing loss associated with smoking disappears in a relatively short period after quitting. The prospective association between smoking and hearing loss has not been well studied. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the largest to date investigating the association between smoking and incident hearing loss. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in a dose-response manner. Quitting smoking virtually eliminates the excess risk of hearing loss, even among quitters with short duration of cessation. These results suggest that smoking may be a causal factor for hearing loss, although further research would

  20. Smoking cessation at the workplace: 1 year success of short seminars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Hp; Moshammer, H; Neuberger, M

    2006-01-01

    In search of less time-consuming methods of smoking cessation Allen Carr' seminars performed at workplaces in Austria were evaluated. Of all the 357 smokers attending a seminar in summer 2002, 308 (86%), consented to participate in a repeated health survey, including the SF-36 questionnaire. After 3 months 268 (87%) gave computer-aided telephone interviews and 223 (72%) after 1 year. Analysis by logistic regression was done separately for males and females. The 1-year quit rate was 40% (worst case assumption) to 55% (best estimate). In 96% of quitters an intensive counseling for 6 h without pharmaceutical aid thereafter was sufficient to maintain abstinence for 12 months. A long smoking history or many earlier unsuccessful attempts to quit did not predict failure. The risk of relapse was found higher in young men with a high number of pack-years and in women with good physical fitness but high Fagerstroem score and financial reasons for the intention to quit smoking. While an average weight gain of 3 kg in males was not associated with failure to quit smoking, we found the highest weight gain (4 kg) in females in the group abstinent at 3 months but smoking again at 12 months. In all participants subjective life quality scored by SF-36 improved. In quitters perception of general health improved more. Group counseling at the workplace was found to be an efficient method of smoking cessation, capable of increasing subjective life quality and health and to smooth the way to smoke-free enterprises.

  1. Moderators of smoking cessation outcomes in a randomized-controlled trial of varenicline versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A; Claus, Eric D; Wilcox, Claire E; Mickey, Jessica; Arenella, Pamela B; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2017-12-01

    Varenicline has gained a reputation as the optimal intervention for treatment resistant smokers, yet more than half of those who try it do not succeed. To better understand individual differences in the effectiveness of varenicline, this study evaluates the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and examines the influence of psychological factors on treatment outcome. Two hundred five cigarette smokers interested in quitting were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of varenicline or placebo. Outcomes examined were CO-confirmed continuous abstinence for the past month, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 7-day point prevalence. Varenicline-treated participants were more likely than placebo to achieve continuous abstinence at the end of treatment (OR = 3.29; RR = 2.62), and 7-day point prevalence rates showed an effect of medication at each time point. Participants in both groups significantly reduced their smoking during the course of treatment and follow-up, and the medication by visit interaction was significant in the expected direction. Impulsivity and personality style emerged as moderators of the relationship between medication condition and treatment outcome. In addition to replicating efficacy results for varenicline versus placebo, the present study shows that the efficacy of pharmacotherapy is influenced by psychological factors. In an era where pharmacotherapy is often perceived as the "silver bullet," we are reminded that smoking cessation is a dynamic process and intervention must be adaptable to address individual differences.

  2. Do social characteristics influence smoking uptake and cessation during young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Gagné, Thierry; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Frohlich, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    This study uses a Bourdieusian approach to assess young adults' resources and examines their association with smoking initiation and cessation. Data were drawn from 1450 young adults participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, a cohort study in Montreal, Canada. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between young adults' income, education, and peer smoking at baseline and smoking onset and cessation. Young adults where most or all of their friends smoked had greater odds of smoking onset. Young adults that had completed pre-university postsecondary education also had higher odds of smoking onset after controlling for social support, employment status, and lacking money to pay for expenses. Income and the sociodemographic variables age and sex were not associated with smoking onset. Young adults where half of their friends smoked or where most to all of their friends smoked had lowers odds of smoking cessation. Men were more likely to cease smoking than women. Education, income and age were not associated with cessation. Interventions focusing on peer smoking may present promising avenues for tobacco prevention in young adults.

  3. Lessons learned implementing a province-wide smoking cessation initiative in Ontario's cancer centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W K; Truscott, R; Cameron, E; Peter, A; Reid, R; Selby, P; Smith, P; Hey, A

    2017-06-01

    A large body of evidence clearly shows that cancer patients experience significant health benefits with smoking cessation. Cancer Care Ontario, the provincial agency responsible for the quality of cancer services in Ontario, has undertaken a province-wide smoking cessation initiative. The strategies used, the results achieved, and the lessons learned are the subject of the present article. Evidence related to the health benefits of smoking cessation in cancer patients was reviewed. A steering committee developed a vision statement for the initiative, created a framework for implementation, and made recommendations for the key elements of the initiative and for smoking cessation best practices. New ambulatory cancer patients are being screened for their smoking status in each of Ontario's 14 regional cancer centres. Current or recent smokers are advised of the benefits of cessation and are directed to smoking cessation resources as appropriate. Performance metrics are captured and used to drive improvement through quarterly performance reviews and provincial rankings of the regional cancer centres. Regional smoking cessation champions, commitment from Cancer Care Ontario senior leadership, a provincial secretariat, and guidance from smoking cessation experts have been important enablers of early success. Data capture has been difficult because of the variety of information systems in use and non-standardized administrative and clinical processes. Numerous challenges remain, including increasing physician engagement; obtaining funding for key program elements, including in-house resources to support smoking cessation; and overcoming financial barriers to access nicotine replacement therapy. Future efforts will focus on standardizing processes to the extent possible, while tailoring the approaches to the populations served and the resources available within the individual regional cancer programs.

  4. Medicaid Coverage Expansions and Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Low-income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Jonathan W; Donohue, Julie M; Barry, Colleen L; Huskamp, Haiden A; Jarlenski, Marian

    2017-12-01

    Expanding Medicaid coverage to low-income adults may have increased smoking cessation through improved access to evidence-based treatments. Our study sought to determine if states' decisions to expand Medicaid increased recent smoking cessation. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the years 2011-2015, we examined the association between state Medicaid coverage and the probability of recent smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children who were current or former smokers (n=36,083). We used difference-in-differences estimation to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage on smoking cessation, comparing low-income adult smokers in states with Medicaid coverage to comparable adults in states without Medicaid coverage, with ages 18-64 years to those ages 65 years and above. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by sex. Residence in a state with Medicaid coverage among low-income adult smokers ages 18-64 years was associated with an increase in recent smoking cessation of 2.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.9). In the comparison group of individuals ages 65 years and above, residence in a state with Medicaid coverage expansion was not associated with a change in recent smoking cessation (-0.1 percentage point, 95% confidence interval, -2.1 to 1.8). Similar increases in smoking cessation among those ages 18-64 years were estimated for females and males (1.9 and 2.2 percentage point, respectively). Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Medicaid coverage expansions may have increased smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children via greater access to preventive health care services, including evidence-based smoking cessation services.

  5. Topic Modeling of Smoking- and Cessation-Related Posts to the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivor Network (CSN): Implications for Cessation Treatment for Cancer Survivors Who Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmaas, J Lee; McDonald, Bennett R; Portier, Kenneth M

    2017-08-01

    Smoking is a risk factor in at least 18 cancers, and approximately two-thirds of cancer survivors continue smoking following diagnosis. Text mining of survivors' online posts related to smoking and quitting could inform strategies to reduce smoking in this vulnerable population. We identified posts containing smoking/cessation-related keywords from the Cancer Survivors Network (CSN), an online cancer survivor community of 166 000 members and over 468 000 posts since inception. Unsupervised topic model analysis of posts since 2000 using Latent Dirichlet Allocation extracted 70 latent topics which two subject experts inspected for themes based on representative terms. Posterior analysis assessed the distribution of topics within posts, and the range of themes discussed across posts. Less than 1% of posts (n = 3998) contained smoking/cessation-related terms, and covered topics related to cancer diagnoses, treatments, and coping. The most frequent smoking-related topics were quit smoking methods (5.4% of posts), and the environment for quitters (2.9% of posts), such as the stigma associated with being a smoker diagnosed with cancer and lack of empathy experienced compared to nonsmokers. Smoking as a risk factor for one's diagnosis was a primary topic in only 1.7% of smoking/cessation-related posts. The low frequency of smoking/cessation-related posts may be due to expected criticism/stigma for smoking but may also suggests a need for health care providers to address smoking and assist with quitting in the diagnostic and treatment process. Topic model analysis revealed potential barriers that should be addressed in devising clinical or population-level interventions for cancer survivors who smoke. Although smoking is a major risk factor for cancer, little is known about cancer patients' or survivors' views or concerns about smoking and quitting. This study used text mining of posts to an online community of cancer patients and survivors to investigate contexts in which

  6. Perceptions towards electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation among Stop Smoking Service users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Frances C; Newson, Lisa; Marcus, Michael W; Field, John K; Robinson, Jude

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are promoted as smoking cessation tools, yet they remain unavailable from Stop Smoking Services in England; the debate over their safety and efficacy is ongoing. This study was designed to explore perceptions and reasons for use or non-use of electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tools, among individuals engaged in Stop Smoking Services. Semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with twenty participants engaged in Stop Smoking Services in the north-west of England. Participants comprised of both individuals who had tried e-cigarettes (n = 6) and those who had not (n = 14). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subject to thematic analysis, which explored participants' beliefs and experiences of e-cigarettes. A thematic analysis of transcripts suggested that the following three superordinate themes were prominent: (1) self-efficacy and beliefs in e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid; and (3) cues for e-cigarette use. Participants, particularly never users, were especially concerned regarding e-cigarette efficacy and safety. Overall, participants largely expressed uncertainty regarding e-cigarette safety and efficacy, with some evidence of misunderstanding. Evidence of uncertainty and misunderstanding regarding information on e-cigarettes highlights the importance of providing smokers with concise, up-to-date information regarding e-cigarettes, enabling smokers to make informed treatment decisions. Furthermore, identification of potential predictors of e-cigarette use can be used to inform Stop Smoking Services provision and future research. What is already known on this subject? Research suggests that e-cigarettes may help smokers quit smoking, but further studies are needed. Electronic cigarette use in Stop Smoking Services has increased substantially in recent years, although e-cigarettes are currently not regulated. There is debate within the

  7. Predictors of Smoking Reduction and Cessation in a Cohort of Danish Moderate and Heavy Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, E.; Osler, Merete

    2001-01-01

    daily tobacco consumption of 10 g or more. Using multivariate logistic regression, subjects who reported reduced smoking or who reported smoking cessation were compared with subjects who continued the habit unchanged. RESULTS: After 5 years 13% of the men and 9% of the women had reduced their tobacco...... function and a tobacco consumption of 15-24 g/day. Additional determinants of smoking reduction and cessation such as inhalation habits and sociodemographic variables differed by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Several predictors of smoking reduction and cessation were identified, indicating that these subgroups......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the extent and gender distribution of unassisted tobacco reduction and cessation in a cohort of moderate and heavy smokers and to identify possible predictor variables associated with these changes in smoking behavior. METHODS: This was a prospective...

  8. Smoking behavior, attitudes, and cessation counseling among healthcare professionals in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Varduhi, Petrosyan; Arusyak, Harutyunyan; Diana, Petrosyan; Armen, Muradyan; Frances, Stillman A

    2012-11-24

    Smoking cessation counseling by health professionals has been effective in increasing cessation rates. However, little is known about smoking cessation training and practices in transition countries with high smoking prevalence such as Armenia. This study identified smoking-related attitudes and behavior of physicians and nurses in a 500-bed hospital in Yerevan, Armenia, the largest cancer hospital in the country, and explored barriers to their effective participation in smoking cessation interventions. This study used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Trained interviewers conducted a survey with physicians and nurses using a 42-item self-administered questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related attitudes and behavior and smoking cessation counseling training. Four focus group discussions with hospital physicians and nurses explored barriers to effective smoking cessation interventions. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. The survey response rate was 58.5% (93/159) for physicians and 72.2% (122/169) for nurses. Smoking prevalence was almost five times higher in physicians compared to nurses (31.2% vs. 6.6%, p attitudes toward the hospital's smoke-free policy compared to smokers (90.1% and 88.2% vs. 73.0%). About 42.6% of nurses and 26.9% of physicians reported having had formal training on smoking cessation methods. While both groups showed high support for routinely assisting patients to quit smoking, nurses more often than physicians considered health professionals as role models for patients. This study was the first to explore differences in smoking-related attitudes and behavior among hospital physicians and nurses in Yerevan, Armenia. The study found substantial behavioral and attitudinal differences in these two groups. The study revealed a critical need for integrating cessation counseling training into Armenia's medical education. As nurses had more positive attitudes toward cessation counseling compared

  9. Computer-Assisted, Counselor-Delivered Smoking Cessation Counseling for Community College Students: Intervention Approach and Sample Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; de Moor, Carl; Warneke, Carla L.; Luca, Mario; Jones, Mary Mullin; Rosenblum, Carol; Emmons, Karen M.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Yost, Tracey E.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the experimental approach and baseline findings from "Look at Your Health," an ongoing study to develop and evaluate a computer-assisted, counselor-delivered smoking cessation program for community college students. It describes the expert system software program used for data collection and for provision of tailored feedback,…

  10. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M

    2015-04-01

    Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related IMB factors in this population. Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n = 35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Commonly known IMB factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). IMB factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). IMB strengths and deficits varied by individual. Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population.

  11. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. Objective To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related information, motivation, and behavioral skills in this population. Methods Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n=35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Results Commonly known information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills strengths and deficits varied by individual. Conclusions Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population. PMID:25559697

  12. Predictors of perceiving smoking cessation counselling as a midwife's role: a survey of Dutch midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Martijntje J; de Vries, Hein; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Kok, Gerjo

    2005-02-01

    Smoking during pregnancy can have many serious consequences. As the usual providers of pregnancy care in the Netherlands, midwives could serve as effective counsellors to pregnant women about cigarette smoking. The aim of the present study was to identify relevant factors that hamper or promote the provision of effective smoking cessation advice and counselling. Questionnaires were mailed to midwives; 237 (64.4%) were returned. Questions were asked about advantages and disadvantages of giving smoking cessation advice, perceived health benefits for mother and child, smoking behaviour and normative beliefs of colleagues, self-efficacy and role definition of midwives with regard to giving smoking cessation advice. Midwives who have a more positive role definition regarding giving smoking cessation advice are more convinced of the advantages of giving advice, the advantages of quitting for their clients and perceive more support from their colleagues with regard to giving advice. In general, midwives were motivated to provide their clients with smoking cessation advice. They were less comfortable with guiding women through the cessation process. Therefore, effective materials and training should be developed to facilitate and stimulate midwives in their role as effective counsellors.

  13. Smoking cessation treatment by Dutch respiratory nurses: reported practice, attitudes and perceived effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, D; van Litsenburg, W; van Duurling, R; van Schayck, C P; Wesseling, G J

    2008-01-01

    To describe Dutch respiratory nurses' current smoking cessation practices, attitudes and beliefs, and to compare these with a survey from the year 2000, before the national introduction of a protocol for the treatment of nicotine and tobacco addiction (the L-MIS protocol). Questionnaire survey among all 413 registered respiratory nurses in the Netherlands in 2006. The response rate was 62%. Seventy-seven percent of the respondents reported to have "fairly good" or "good" knowledge of all steps of the L-MIS protocol. Seven out of 10 behavioural techniques for smoking cessation from the protocol were used by more than 94% of the respondents. Seventy-four percent of the respiratory nurses recommended the use of either nicotine replacement therapy (70%) or bupropion (44%). Almost two-thirds (65% of 254) perceived lack of patient's motivation as the most important barrier for smoking cessation treatment; a four-fold increase compared to the year 2000. We conclude that respiratory nurses are compliant with the L-MIS protocol. They offer intensive support and use behavioural techniques for smoking cessation more frequently than evidence-based pharmacological aids for smoking cessation. Perceived lack of patient's motivation forms the most important threat to respiratory nurses' future smoking cessation activities. International guidelines acknowledge that respiratory patients have a more urgent need to stop smoking but have more difficulty doing so. They should be offered the most intensive smoking cessation counselling in combination with pharmacotherapy. This kind of counselling may be more feasible for respiratory nurses than for physicians who often lack time. Their efforts could be increased by reimbursing pharmacological aids for smoking cessation and by developing simple tools to systematically assess motivation to quit and psychiatric co-morbidity in smoking patients.

  14. A multimedia mobile phone-based youth smoking cessation intervention: findings from content development and piloting studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Dorey, Enid; Ellis-Pegler, Mary; van Rooyen, Jaco; Rodgers, Anthony

    2008-11-25

    of the time and found the role model to be believable; 7 liked the role model video messages (5 were unsure); 8 used the extra assistance for cravings; and 9 were happy with two messages per day. Nine participants (60%) stopped smoking during the program. Some technical challenges were encountered during the pilot study. A multimedia mobile phone smoking cessation program is technically feasible, and the content developed is appropriate for this medium and is acceptable to our target population. These results have informed the design of a 6-month intervention currently being evaluated for its effectiveness in increasing smoking cessation rates in young people.

  15. Identifying and recruiting smokers for preoperative smoking cessation--a systematic review of methods reported in published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fujian; Brown, Tracey J; Blyth, Annie; Maskrey, Vivienne; McNamara, Iain; Donell, Simon

    2015-11-11

    Smoking cessation before surgery reduces postoperative complications, and the benefit is positively associated with the duration of being abstinent before a surgical procedure. A key issue in providing preoperative smoking cessation support is to identify people who smoke as early as possible before elective surgery. This review aims to summarise methods used to identify and recruit smokers awaiting elective surgery. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, and references of relevant reviews (up to May 2014) to identify prospective studies that evaluated preoperative smoking cessation programmes. One reviewer extracted and a second reviewer checked data from the included studies. Data extracted from included studies were presented in tables and narratively described. We included 32 relevant studies, including 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 14 non-randomised studies (NRS). Smokers were recruited at preoperative clinics (n = 18), from surgery waiting lists (n = 6), or by general practitioners (n = 1), and the recruitment methods were not explicitly described in seven studies. Time points of preoperative recruitment of smokers was unclear in four studies, less than 4 weeks before surgery in 17 studies, and at least 4 weeks before surgery in only 11 studies. The recruitment rate tended to be lower in RCTs (median 58.2 %, range 9.1 to 90.9 %) than that in NRS (median 99.1 %, range 12.3 to 100 %) and lower in preoperative clinic-based RCTs (median 54.4 %, range 9.1 to 82.4 %) than that in waiting list-based RCTs (median 70.1 %, range 36.8 to 85.0 %). Smokers were recruited at least 4 weeks before surgery in four of the six waiting list-based studies and in only three of the 18 preoperative clinic-based studies. Published studies often inadequately described the methods for recruiting smokers into preoperative smoking cessation programmes. Although smoking cessation at any time is beneficial, many programmes recruited smokers at times

  16. Randomized trial of a smartphone mobile application compared to text messaging to support smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Borland, Ron; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Shane, James H; Zimmerman, Donald E

    2014-03-01

    Text messaging has successfully supported smoking cessation. This study compares a mobile application with text messaging to support smoking cessation. Young adult smokers 18-30 years old (n = 102) participated in a randomized pretest-posttest trial. Smokers received a smartphone application (REQ-Mobile) with short messages and interactive tools or a text messaging system (onQ), managed by an expert system. Self-reported usability of REQ-Mobile and quitting behavior (quit attempts, point-prevalence, 30-day point-prevalence, and continued abstinence) were assessed in posttests. Overall, 60% of smokers used mobile services (REQ-Mobile, 61%, mean of 128.5 messages received; onQ, 59%, mean of 107.8 messages), and 75% evaluated REQ-Mobile as user-friendly. A majority of smokers reported being abstinent at posttest (6 weeks, 53% of completers; 12 weeks, 66% of completers [44% of all cases]). Also, 37% (25%of all cases) reported 30-day point-prevalence abstinence, and 32% (22% of all cases) reported continuous abstinence at 12 weeks. OnQ produced more abstinence (ptext messaging. Text messaging may work better because it is simple, well known, and delivered to a primary inbox. These advantages may disappear as smokers become more experienced with new handsets. Mobile phones may be promising delivery platforms for cessation services using either smartphone applications or text messaging.

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of depression on subsequent smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: 1990 to 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), yet depression may impede cessation success. We systematically reviewed the prospective association between depression and subsequent smoking cessation in individuals with CHD to quantify this effect.

  18. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  19. Experience of a smoking cessation program among high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Ting-Ting; Mills, Mary Etta

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, the prevalence of smoking among teenagers has led to a required smoking cessation program in schools. Students caught smoking in school are required to participate in a weekly smoking cessation class. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of high school students in a smoking cessation program. Fifteen adolescents participated in a one-on-one in-depth semistructured interview, and the content was analyzed for patterns based on the methods of Miles and Huberman. In addition, Lewin's change theory of drive forces and restraining forces was used to describe the change in behavior as a result of the program. Five major themes were identified: the onset of smoking-change influenced by families and friends; intention to quit smoking-driving force; the irresistible temptation to smoke-restraining force; limited change effects-more attention and assistance needed; and change in attitude rather than behavior-smoking remained unchanged. Changes were seen in the perceptions and attitudes of these students toward smoking at the end of the program; however, none of them were able to really quit. Most participants revealed that they used improper means to pass the carbon monoxide test requirement that was used as a measure of not smoking. Alternative future intervention strategies for further study include change in health policy to support nicotine replacement methods for heavy adolescent smoker, use of teacher support, and exercise programs to support students going through the smoking cessation period.

  20. The effectiveness of interventions for primary care physicians to assist in smoking cessation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Stoyka

    2017-05-01

    Implementation of standards for health care professionals to aid to quit smoking is extremely important for public health in Ukraine. Creating a system of antismoking education of health workers - the only way of forming their professional relationship to smoking cessation- and one of the most effective measures to protect people from illness and death associated with smoking.

  1. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-11-10

    To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. Analisar os custos do Programa de Tratamento do Tabagismo no Sistema Único de Saúde e estimar o custo de sua implementação plena em um município brasileiro. A

  2. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children’s Secondhand Smoke (SHS Exposure in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children’s SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%, did not smoke at home at all (37%, did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%, or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57% were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49% and in the car (22% were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children’s SHS exposure.

  3. Public acceptability of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breast feeding: a survey of the British public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Sewel, Kate; Thomson, Gill; Bauld, Linda; Yi, Deokhee; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey public attitudes about incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and for breast feeding to inform trial design. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants British general public. Methods Seven promising incentive strategies had been identified from evidence syntheses and qualitative interview data from service users and providers. These were shopping vouchers for: (1) validated smoking cessation in pregnancy and (2) after birth; (3) for a smoke-free home; (4) for proven breast feeding; (5) a free breast pump; (6) payments to health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy targets and (7) breastfeeding targets. Ipsos MORI used area quota sampling and home-administered computer-assisted questionnaires, with randomised question order to assess agreement with different incentives (measured on a five-point scale). Demographic data and target behaviour experience were recorded. Analysis used multivariable ordered logit models. Results Agreement with incentives was mixed (ranging from 34% to 46%) among a representative sample of 1144 British adults. Mean agreement score was highest for a free breast pump, and lowest for incentives for smoking abstinence after birth. More women disagreed with shopping vouchers than men. Those with lower levels of education disagreed more with smoking cessation incentives and a breast pump. Those aged 44 or under agreed more with all incentive strategies compared with those aged 65 and over, particularly provider targets for smoking cessation. Non-white ethnic groups agreed particularly with breastfeeding incentives. Current smokers with previous stop attempts and respondents who had breast fed children agreed with providing vouchers for the respective behaviours. Up to £40/month vouchers for behaviour change were acceptable (>85%). Conclusions Women and the less educated were more likely to disagree, but men and women of childbearing age to agree, with incentives designed for their benefit

  4. Study of pharmacotherapy role in smoking cessation giving an insight into the frequency of smoking among Zagazig University Hospitals’ staff in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: (1 Programs promoting smoking cessation including behavioral therapy in addition to the complementary role of pharmacotherapy (Bubropion SR enhanced the chance of success in smoking cessation. (2 This pilot study (regarding the number of the studied individuals pointed to the smoking dilemma in a locality where smoking behavior should be brought to a minimum especially among physicians.

  5. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jasper A J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Frierson, Georita M; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Davis, Michelle L; DeBoer, Lindsey B; Briceno, Nicole F

    2012-11-13

    cessation outcomes as well as putative mediator variables will be measured up to 6 months following the quit date. The primary objective of STEP is to evaluate whether vigorous-intensity exercise can aid smoking cessation in anxiety vulnerable adults. If effective, the use of vigorous-intensity exercise as a component of smoking cessation interventions would have a significant public health impact. Specifically, in addition to improving smoking cessation treatment outcome, exercise is expected to offer benefits to overall health, which may be particularly important for smokers. The study is also designed to test putative mediators of the intervention effects and therefore has the potential to advance the understanding of exercise-anxiety-smoking relations and guide future research on this topic. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01065506, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01065506.

  6. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    the baseline visit, and smoking cessation outcomes as well as putative mediator variables will be measured up to 6 months following the quit date. Discussion The primary objective of STEP is to evaluate whether vigorous-intensity exercise can aid smoking cessation in anxiety vulnerable adults. If effective, the use of vigorous-intensity exercise as a component of smoking cessation interventions would have a significant public health impact. Specifically, in addition to improving smoking cessation treatment outcome, exercise is expected to offer benefits to overall health, which may be particularly important for smokers. The study is also designed to test putative mediators of the intervention effects and therefore has the potential to advance the understanding of exercise-anxiety-smoking relations and guide future research on this topic. Clinical trials registry ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01065506, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01065506

  7. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  8. Smoking cessation and its predictors: results from a community-based pharmacy tobacco cessation program in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasreen; Anderson, Joe R; Du, Juan; Tinker, Dale; Bachyrycz, Amy M; Namdar, Rocsanna

    2012-09-01

    The New Mexico Pharmaceutical Care Foundation received funding through the Tobacco Use Prevention and Control Program (TUPAC) to provide support for pharmacist-delivered tobacco cessation services. The goal of the program was to increase the availability of tobacco cessation services to residents of New Mexico. Program outcomes are presented, using data from the first 2 fiscal years. To assess tobacco quit rates among smokers who participated in the community pharmacist-based program and identify the predictors of quitting at the end of a 6-month program. Pharmacists, who had received Rx for Change training, provided tobacco cessation services. Patients were scheduled for an initial visit and then were seen at regularly scheduled follow-up visits at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months from the initial visit. Data collected at the initial visit included demographics, smoking history, and readiness for quitting. Smoking status was collected at each of the follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute) and STATA (StataCorp LP) statistical software. Tobacco quit rates were calculated at 1, 3, and 6 months. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of quitting. Standard errors were adjusted for repeated observation. Data were available for 346 participants. The average quit rate at the end of 6 months was 25%. Significant predictors of quitting were high confidence levels in quitting at baseline, individuals who had first cigarettes at least 30 minutes after waking up, first cessation attempt, and nonwhite patients. A smoking cessation program delivered through trained community pharmacists with prescriptive authority is an effective approach to reducing smoking. Further research should be conducted to compare the effectiveness of pharmacists with that of other providers of tobacco cessation services.

  9. The meanings of smoking to women and their implications for cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2015-01-27

    Smoking cigarettes is a gendered activity with sex- and gender-specific uptake trends and cessation patterns. While global male smoking rates have peaked, female rates are set to escalate in the 21st century, especially in low and middle income countries. Hence, smoking cessation for women will be an ongoing issue and requires refreshed attention. Public health and health promotion messages are being challenged to be increasingly tailored, taking gender into account. Women-centred approaches that include harm-reduction, motivational interviewing and trauma-informed elements are the new frontiers in interventions to encourage smoking cessation for women. Such approaches are linked to the meanings of smoking to women, the adaptive function of, and the overall role of smoking cigarettes in the context of women's lives. These approaches respect gender and sex-related factors that affect smoking and smoking cessation and respond to these issues, not by reinforcing destructive or negative gender norms, but with insight. This article discusses a women-centred approach to smoking cessation that could underpin initiatives in clinical, community or public health settings and could inform campaigns and messaging.

  10. Smoking cessation alters intestinal microbiota: insights from quantitative investigations on human fecal samples using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Luc; Brülisauer, Karin; Zeitz, Jonas; Frei, Pascal; Scharl, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fried, Michael; Loessner, Martin J; Rogler, Gerhard; Schuppler, Markus

    2014-09-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in investigations on the potential mechanistic role of the intestinal microbiota in various diseases and factors modulating intestinal microbial composition. We recently reported on intestinal microbial shifts after smoking cessation in humans. In this study, we aimed to conduct further microbial analyses and verify our previous results obtained by pyrosequencing using a direct quantitative microbial approach. Stool samples of healthy smoking human subjects undergoing controlled smoking cessation during a 9-week observational period were analyzed and compared with 2 control groups, ongoing smoking and nonsmoking subjects. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify specific bacterial groups. Intestinal microbiota composition was substantially altered after smoking cessation as characterized by an increase in key representatives from the phyla of Firmicutes (Clostridium coccoides, Eubacterium rectale, and Clostridium leptum subgroup) and Actinobacteria (HGC bacteria and Bifidobacteria) as well as a decrease in Bacteroidetes (Prevotella spp. and Bacteroides spp.) and Proteobacteria (β- and γ-subgroup of Proteobacteria). As determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, an independent direct quantitative microbial approach, we could confirm that intestinal microbiota composition in humans is influenced by smoking. The characteristics of observed microbial shifts suggest a potential mechanistic association to alterations in body weight subsequent to smoking cessation. More importantly, regarding previously described microbial hallmarks of dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases, a variety of observed microbial alterations after smoking cessation deserve further consideration in view of the divergent effect of smoking on the clinical course of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  11. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  12. Nursing Intervention Practices for Smoking Cessation: A Large Survey in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim Wah Mak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that nursing interventions are effective in helping people to stop smoking, but that the participation of nurses in tobacco control activities has been far from satisfactory. The primary objective of this study is to identify factors that encourage or discourage nurses from participating in providing smoking-cessation interventions to their clients, based on the 5 A’s (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange framework. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4413 nurses in Hong Kong from different clinical specialties. A logistics regression analysis found that predictors for the practicing of all of the 5 A’s are nurses who want to receive training in smoking-cessation interventions, those who have received such training, and those who are primarily working in a medical unit or in ambulatory/outpatient settings. The regression model also showed that attitude towards smoking cessation was positively associated with all of the 5 A’s. The results indicate a need to encourage and provide nurses with opportunities to receive training on smoking-cessation interventions. Strategies to persuade nurses to provide smoking-cessation interventions are also important, since nurses are motivated to perform smoking-cessation interventions when they feel a stronger sense of mission to control tobacco use.

  13. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  14. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Figueira Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  15. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: Treatment Development, Feasibility and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Day, Anne; Clerkin, Elise; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M; Brown, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Low positive and high negative affect predict low rates of smoking abstinence among smokers making a quit attempt. Positive Psychotherapy can both increase positive affect and decrease negative affect and therefore may be a useful adjunct to behavioral smoking counseling. The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation (PPT-S) intervention that integrates standard smoking cessation counseling with nicotine patch and a package of positive psychology interventions. We delivered PPT-S to 19 smokers who were low in positive affect at baseline. Rates of session attendance and satisfaction with treatment were high, and most participants reported using and benefiting from the positive psychology interventions. Almost one-third of participants (31.6%) sustained smoking abstinence for 6 months after their quit date. Future studies to assess the relative efficacy of PPT-S compared to standard smoking cessation treatment are warranted.

  16. A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative public health interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pam; Skirrow, Helen; George, Abraham; Memon, Anjum

    2018-02-16

    Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative public health interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling of local authority commissioned public health preventative interventions in the UK. Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation. The systematic review identified studies between January 1994 and February 2015, using five databases. We synthesized the studies to identify the key methods and examined results of the economic evaluations. The majority of the evaluations related to cost-effectiveness, rather than cost-benefit analyses or cost-utility analyses. These analyses found preventative interventions to be cost effective, though the context of the interventions differed between the studies. Preventative public health interventions in general are cost-effective. There is a need for further studies to support justification of continued and/or increased funding for public health interventions. There is much variation between the types of economically evaluated preventative interventions in our review. Broader studies incorporating different contexts may help support funding for local authority-sponsored public health initiatives.

  17. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacist prescriptive authority for smoking cessation medications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alex J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2018-02-06

    To characterize the status of state laws regarding the expansion of pharmacists' prescriptive authority for smoking cessation medications and to summarize frequently asked questions and answers that arose during the associated legislative debates. Legislative language was reviewed and summarized for all states with expanded authority, and literature supporting the pharmacist's capacity for an expanded role in smoking cessation is described. The core elements of autonomous tobacco cessation prescribing models for pharmacists vary across states. Of 7 states that currently have fully or partially delineated protocols, 4 states (Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, New Mexico) include all medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation, and 3 (Arizona, California, Maine) include nicotine replacement therapy products only. The state protocol in Oregon is under development. Most states specify minimum cessation education requirements and define specific elements (e.g., patient screening, cessation intervention components, and documentation requirements) for the autonomous prescribing models. Through expanded authority and national efforts to advance the tobacco cessation knowledge and skills of pharmacy students and licensed pharmacists, the profession's role in tobacco cessation has evolved substantially in recent years. Eight states have created, or are in the process of creating, pathways for autonomous pharmacist prescriptive authority. States aiming to advance tobacco control strategies to help patients quit smoking might consider approaches like those undertaken in 8 states. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy of a smoking cessation programme in patients undergoing elective surgery - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azodi, O. Sadr; Lindstrom, D.; Adami, J.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that smokers constitute an important risk group of patients undergoing surgery. It is unknown how smoking cessation intervention initiated 4 weeks prior to elective surgery affects the probability of permanent cessation. We randomly assigned 117 patients, scheduled to undergo elective...

  20. Motives for smoking cessation are associated with stage of readiness to quit smoking and sociodemographics among German industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Birgit; Ratner, Pamela A; Seidenstücker, Sabine; Janssen, Patricia A; Novak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To test the relationships among particular motives for smoking cessation, stage of readiness to quit (preparation or contemplation), and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study to examine attitudes toward and use of health promotion at the worksite, using a self-administered questionnaire. Two German metal companies. Of 1641 responding employees (response rate 65% in company A and 44% in company B), 360 smokers who intended to quit immediately (n = 105) or in the near future (n = 255) were analyzed. The questionnaire comprised of sociodemographic characteristics, smoking behavior, smoking history, readiness to quit smoking, motives to quit, such as coworkers' complaints and health-related or financial concerns. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Health-related reasons (94%) predominated financial (27%) or image-related (14%) reasons for smoking cessation. Participants in the cessation preparation group were more likely to report an awareness of being addicted (79.6% vs. 58.2%; p motives for smoking cessation, including reduced performance, family's and coworkers' complaints, pregnancy/children, and negative public image, but not health-related and financial concerns, differed significantly by gender, age, marital status, education, and occupational status. Motives for smoking cessation vary according to the individual's level of readiness to quit and sociodemographic background.

  1. Is this for real?! Smoking cessation groups for Muslim women in Baka-El-Gharbie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameera Yahya

    2017-05-01

    This study demonstrates the need for tailored smoking cessation recruitment and intervention among Muslim women in spite of the challenging recruitment process. It is essential to conduct individual preparation with each woman during the recruitment process to avoid social embarrassment.

  2. A review of strategies to stimulate dental professionals to integrate smoking cessation interventions into primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence regarding the effectiveness of various implementation strategies to stimulate the delivery of smoking cessation advice and support during daily dental care. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Search of online medical and psychological databases, correspondence with authors and

  3. Barriers And Motivators for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Deirdra R; Stewart, Lauren M; Tolma, Eleni L; McClain, Rebekah; Vesely, Sara K; James, Judith A

    2015-11-01

    Although studies have shown that smoking is detrimental to the health of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), studies regarding barriers and motivators for smoking cessation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to generate hypotheses regarding the barriers and motivators for smoking cessation in SLE patients. This study was based on the theoretical framework of the stages of change model. All participants met SLE classification criteria. Interviews were conducted with 16 current and 10 former smokers. Motivators included: medical reasons, readiness, and concern for others. Barriers included: enjoyment, coping mechanism, and an emotional connection. Participants were unsure of the impact of smoking on their medication and disease, and had mixed feelings regarding the impact on pain. The main motivator for cessation in this population was concern for one's health. Rheumatologists need to include disease specific harms and assess pain management strategies as part of cessation counseling.

  4. Multimodal e-Health Services for Smoking Cessation and Public Health: The SmokeFreeBrain Project Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Spachos, Dimitris; Billis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the largest avoidable cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. It causes most of the cases of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contributes to the development of other lung diseases. SmokeFreeBrain aims to address the effectiveness of a multi-level variety of interventions aiming at smoking cessation in high risk target groups within High Middle Income Countries (HMIC) such as unemployed young adults, COPD and asthma patients, and within the general population in Low-Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The project addresses existing approaches aimed to prevent lung diseases caused by tobacco while developing new treatments and evaluating: (i) Public Service Announcement (PSA) against smoking, (ii) the use of electronic cigarettes, (iii) neurofeedback protocols against smoking addiction, (iv) a specifically developed intervention protocol based on behavioral therapy, social media/mobile apps and short text messages (sms) and (v) pharmacologic interventions. Emphasis in this paper, however, is placed on the e-heath, m-health, open (big) data, mobile game and neuroscientific challenges and developments upon facilitating the aforementioned interventions.

  5. A TRANSLATIONAL INVESTIGATION TARGETING STRESS-REACTIVITY AND PRE-FRONTAL COGNITIVE CONTROL WITH GUANFACINE FOR SMOKING CESSATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Kober, Hedy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Ashare, Rebecca; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Stress and pre-frontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking, however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation which attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors. We used a novel translational approach employing a validated laboratory analogue of stress-precipitated smoking, fMRI, and a proof-of-concept treatment period to evaluate whether the noradrenergic α2a agonist, guanfacine (3mg/day) versus placebo (0mg/day) reduced stress-precipitated smoking in the laboratory, altered cortico-striatal activation during the Stroop cognitive-control task, and reduced smoking following a quit attempt. In nicotine-deprived smokers (n=33), stress versus a neutral condition significantly decreased the latency to smoke, and increased tobacco craving, ad-libitum smoking, and systolic blood pressure in placebo-treated subjects, and these effects were absent or reduced in guanfacine-treated subjects. Following stress, placebo-treated subjects demonstrated decreased cortisol levels whereas guanfacine-treated subjects demonstrated increased levels. Guanfacine, compared to placebo, altered prefrontal activity during a cognitive control task, and reduced cigarette use but did not increase complete abstinence during treatment. These preliminary laboratory, neuroimaging and clinical outcome data were consistent and complementary and support further development of guanfacine for smoking cessation. PMID:25516371

  6. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  7. An educational campaign to increase chiropractic intern advising roles on patient smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser Sheryl M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use, particularly smoking, is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. More than 400,000 premature deaths are associated with its use and the health care costs are in the billions. All health care provider groups should be concerned with patients who continue to smoke and use tobacco. The US Preventive Services Taskforce and Health People 2010 guidelines encourage providers to counsel smokers on cessation. Current studies, though limited regarding chiropractic advising practices indicate a low engagement rate when it comes to providing cessation information. Objective To test a campaign regarding initial impact aimed at increasing chiropractic interns advising on cessation and delivery of information to smokers on cessation. Discussion Chiropractic interns do engage patients on smoking status and can be encouraged to provide more cessation messages and information to patients. The initial impact assessment of this campaign increased the provision of information to patients by about 25%. The prevalence of smoking among chiropractic patients, particularly at teaching clinics may be lower than the national averages. Conclusion Chiropractic interns can and should be encouraged to advise smokers about cessation. A systematic method of intake information on smoking status is needed and a standardized education protocol for chiropractic colleges is needed. Chiropractic colleges should assess the adequacy of their advising roles and implement changes to increase cessation messages to their patients as soon as possible.

  8. Randomized Trial of a Smartphone Mobile Application Compared to Text Messaging to Support Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.; Shane, James H.; Zimmerman, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text messaging has successfully supported smoking cessation. This study compares a mobile application with text messaging to support smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: Young adult smokers 18–30 years old (n=102) participated in a randomized pretest–posttest trial. Smokers received a smartphone application (REQ-Mobile) with short messages and interactive tools or a text messaging system (onQ), managed by an expert system. Self-reported usability of REQ-Mobile and qu...

  9. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Weight Concern in Smoking Cessation Among Women: The WE QUIT Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Wing, Rena R; Kahler, Christopher W; Thompson, J Kevin; Meltzer, Sari; Hecht, Jacki; Minami, Haruka; Price, Lawrence H; Brown, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    Fear of gaining weight after quitting cigarette smoking is a major barrier to smoking cessation among women. Distress tolerance, which refers to one's ability and willingness to tolerate physical and emotional discomfort, predicts successful behavior change. Novel interventions rooted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have emerged that aim to increase distress tolerance and engagement in values-oriented behavior. In this study, we developed a 9-week, group-based distress tolerance intervention for weight concern in smoking cessation among women (DT-W). Using an iterative process, we piloted DT-W with two small groups ( n = 4 and n = 7) of female weight-concerned smokers. Results indicated that we successfully established the feasibility and acceptability of DT-W, which was well-attended and well-received. Biochemically verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rates at post-intervention, 1, 3, and 6 months were 64%, 36%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. We are now evaluating DT-W in a randomized controlled trial.

  10. Identifying attendance patterns in a smoking cessation treatment and their relationships with quit success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, Jolene; Papini, Santiago; Davis, Michelle L; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Frierson, Georita M; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Baird, Scarlett O; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Otto, Michael W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-05-01

    While important for substance use outcomes, knowledge about treatment attendance patterns, and their relation with clinical outcomes is limited. We examined the association between attendance patterns and smoking outcomes in a randomized, controlled smoking cessation intervention trial. In addition to standard smoking cessation treatment, participants were randomized to 15 weeks of an exercise intervention (n=72) or an education control condition (n=64). Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) tested whether intervention attendance would be better modeled as qualitatively distinct attendance patterns rather than as a single mean pattern. Multivariate generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) was used to evaluate associations between the attendance patterns and abstinence at the end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The LCGA solution with three patterns characterized by high probability of attendance throughout (Completers, 46.3%), gradual decreasing probability of attendance (Titrators, 23.5%), and high probability of dropout within the first few weeks (Droppers, 30.1%) provided the best fit. The GLMM analysis indicated an interaction of attendance pattern by treatment condition, such that titration was associated with lower probability of quit success for those in the control condition. Probability of quit success was not significantly different between Titrators and Completers in the exercise condition. These findings underscore the importance of examining how treatment efficacy may vary as a function of attendance patterns. Importantly, treatment discontinuation is not necessarily indicative of poorer abstinence outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethical analysis of the justifiability of labelling with COPD for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, D; Vos, R; Huibers, M J H

    2009-09-01

    Spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smoking cessation is criticised because of the potential negative effects of labelling with disease. To assess the effects of opinions of smokers with mild to moderate COPD on the effectiveness of spirometry for smoking cessation, the justification of early detection of airflow limitation in smokers and the impact of confrontation with COPD. Qualitative study with data from a randomised controlled trial. General population of Dutch and Belgian Limburg. Semistructured ethical exit interviews were conducted with 205 smokers who were motivated to quit smoking and had no prior diagnosis of COPD but were detected with airflows limitation by means of spirometry. They received either (1) counselling, including labelling with COPD, plus with nortriptyline for smoking cessation, (2) counselling excluding labelling with COPD, plus nortriptyline for smoking cessation or (3) care as usual for smoking cessation by the general practitioner, without labelling with COPD. Of the participants, 177 (86%) agreed or completely agreed that it is justified to measure lung function in heavy smokers. These participants argued that measuring lung function raises consciousness of the negative effects of smoking, helps to prevent disease or increases motivation to stop smoking. Most of the 18 participants who disagreed argued that routinely measuring lung function in smokers would interfere with freedom of choice. Labelling with disease is probably a less important issue in the discussion about the pros and cons of early detection of COPD.

  12. Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey; Ford, Pauline; Fizgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Yuke, Kym; Bonevski, Billie; Gartner, Coral

    2016-06-01

    To explore how smoking and smoking cessation is perceived within the context of disadvantage, across a broad cross-section of defined populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Qualitative focus groups with participants recruited through community service organizations (CSO). Metropolitan and regional settings in Queensland, Australia. Focus groups were held at the respective CSO facilities. Fifty-six participants across nine focus groups, including people living with mental illness, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness (adult and youth populations), people living with HIV, people living in a low-income area and Indigenous Australians. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus group discussions. Participant demographic information and smoking history was recorded. Smoking behaviour, smoking identity and feelings about smoking were reflective of individual circumstances and social and environmental context. Participants felt 'trapped' in smoking because they felt unable to control the stressful life circumstances that triggered and sustained their smoking. Smoking cessation was viewed as an individual's responsibility, which was at odds with participants' statements about the broader factors outside of their own control that were responsible for their smoking. Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility, while at the same time feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Tobacco control programmes aiming to reduce smoking among disadvantaged groups are unlikely to be successful unless the complex interplay of social factors is carefully considered. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. A cost-benefit analysis of the outpatient smoking cessation services in Taiwan from a societal viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Tsai, Shih-Tzu; Lai, Chih-Kuan

    2012-05-01

    This study applied a cost-benefit analysis from a societal viewpoint to evaluate the Outpatient Smoking Cessation Services (OSCS) program. The costs measured in this study include the cost to the health sector, non-health sectors, the patients and their family, as well as the loss of productivity as a result of smoking. The benefits measured the medical costs savings and the earnings due to the increased life expectancy of a person that has stopped smoking for 15 years. Data were obtained from the primary data of a telephone survey, the literatures and reports from the Outpatient Smoking Cessation Management Center and government. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to verify the robustness of the results. There were 169,761 cases that participated in the outpatient smoking cessation program in the years 2007 and 2008, of those cases, 8,282 successfully stopped smoking. The total cost of the OSCS program was 18 million USD. The total benefits of the program were 215 million USD with a 3% discount rate; the net benefit to society was 196 million USD. After conducting sensitivity analyses on the different abstinence, relapse, and discount rates, from a societal perspective, the benefits still far exceeded the costs, while from a health care perspective, there was only a net benefit when the respondent's abstinence rate was used. From a societal perspective, the OSCS program in Taiwan is cost-beneficial. This study provides partial support for the policy makers to increase the budget and expand the OSCS program.

  14. Effectiveness of Switching Smoking-Cessation Medications Following Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Bryan W; Cummings, K Michael; Kasza, Karin A; Borland, Ron; Burris, Jessica L; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom, U.S., Canada, and Australia (N=795) who: (1) completed two consecutive surveys between 2006 and 2011; (2) initiated a QA at least 1 month before each survey; and (3) provided data for the primary predictor (SCM use during most recent QA), outcome (1-month point prevalence abstinence), and relevant covariates. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Five SCM user classifications were identified: (1) non-users (43.5%); (2) early users (SCM used for initial, but not subsequent QA; 11.4%); (3) later users (SCM used for subsequent, but not initial QA; 18.4%); (4) repeaters (same SCM used for both QAs; 10.7%); and (5) switchers (different SCM used for each QA; 14.2%). Abstinence rates were lower for non-users (15.9%, OR=0.48, p=0.002), early users (16.6%, OR=0.27, p=0.03), and repeaters (12.4%, OR=0.36, p=0.004) relative to switchers (28.5%). Findings suggest smokers will be more successful if they use a SCM in QAs and vary the SCM they use across time. That smokers can increase their odds of quitting by switching SCMs is an important message that could be communicated to smokers. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Jennifer; Pettey, Donna; Aubry, Tim; Stol, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    People with severe mental illness are much more likely to smoke than are members of the general population. Smoking cessation interventions that combine counseling and medication have been shown to be moderately effective, but quit rates remain low and little is known about the experiences of people with severe mental illness in smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate factors that help or hinder the smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness. We recruited 16 people with severe mental illness who had participated in a clinical trial of two different smoking cessation interventions, one involving nicotine replacement therapy only and the other nicotine replacement therapy combined with motivational interviewing and a peer support group. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews with participants, who ranged in age from 20 to 56 years old, were equally distributed by gender (eight men and eight women), and were predominantly Caucasian (n = 13, 81%). Primary mental illness diagnoses included schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 6, 38%), depression (n = 5, 31%), bipolar disorder (n = 4, 25%), and anxiety disorder (n = 1, 6%). At entry into the clinical trial, participants smoked an average of 22.6 cigarettes per day (SD = 13.0). RESULTS indicated that people with mental illness have a diverse range of experiences in the same smoking cessation intervention. Smoking cessation experiences were influenced by factors related to the intervention itself (such as presence of smoking cessation aids, group supports, and emphasis on individual choice and needs), as well as individual factors (such as mental health, physical health, and substance use), and social-environmental factors (such as difficult life events and social relationships). An improved understanding of the smoking cessation experiences of people with severe mental illness can inform the delivery of

  16. General and smoking cessation weight concern in a Hispanic sample of light and intermittent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrau-Cribbs, Erica; Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed general and cessation related weight concerns in a Hispanic sample of light (≤10 cigarettes per day) and intermittent (non-daily smoking) smokers (LITS) participating in a brief smoking cessation intervention. Three hundred and fifty-four Hispanic LITS (Mage=34.2, SD=14; 51.1% male; 57.9% Mexican American; 59.0% daily light, 41.0% intermittent) completed baseline measures assessing demographics, tobacco use/history, stage of change (SOC), general weight concern, and cessation related weight concern. Three multiple logistic regression models examined potential predictors (i.e., age, gender, SOC, cigarettes per month, smoking status [daily vs non-daily], weight, cessation related weight concern, general weight concern) of general weight concern, cessation related weight concern, and past 30day abstinence (controlling for the intervention). Study results indicated that a majority of participants reported general weight concern (59.6%), and slightly more than a third (35.6%) reported post cessation weight gain concern (mean and median weight tolerated before relapse were within the 10-12lb range). Lower weight and endorsing general weight concern were associated with cessation related weight concern. Female gender, higher weight, and endorsing cessation related weight concern were associated with general weight concern. Monthly cigarette use was associated with smoking cessation at the three-month follow-up. The results indicate a substantial prevalence of general weight concern and non-trivial rates of cessation related weight concern in Hispanic LITS attempting to quit, and greater success in quitting among those who reported lower rates of cigarettes smoked per month. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  18. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene INOUE

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation counseling and support were also provided by the dentists, during periodontal maintenance sessions at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Smoking status was assessed by means of a structured questionnaire, and was validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO measurements. The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence was used to assess smoking dependence. Of the 61 individuals that remained up to the 24-month examination, 31, 21 and 18 declared that they were not smoking at 3, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Smoking cessation after 24 months was associated with the male gender (OR = 3.77, 95%CI = 1.16–12.30, baseline CO levels less than 10ppm (OR = 5.81, 95%CI 1.76–19.23, not living or working with another smoker (OR = 7.38, 95%CI 1.76–30.98 and a lower mean Fagerström test score (OR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.55–20.43. We concluded that smoking cessation was associated with demographic, smoking history and cigarette dependence variables.

  19. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation in a Representative Sample of Korean Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Seo, Hong-Gwan

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the stages of change in smoking cessation in a representative sample of Korean adult smokers. The study subjects, all adult smokers (n=2,422), were recruited from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2001. The stages of change were categorized using demographic (age and sex), socioeconomic (education, residence, and household income), and smoking characteristics (age at smoking onset, duration of smoking, and number of cigarettes sm...

  20. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had sm...

  1. Social capital, political trust and daily smoking and smoking cessation: a population-based study in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, M

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the associations between vertical (institutional) political trust in the Riksdag and daily smoking and smoking cessation. Cross-sectional study. In total, 27,757 individuals aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust in the Riksdag and daily smoking and smoking cessation. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders on the differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation according to political trust. In total, 14.9% of the men and 18.1% of the women were daily smokers. Middle-aged respondents were significantly more likely to be daily smokers than the young. The proportion of ever smokers who had quit smoking increased with age. Respondents with low generalized trust in other people [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-1.8 among men; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.8 among women] and not high political trust/no political trust at all (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8 among men; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0 among women) had significantly higher ORs of daily smoking. Men and women with not particularly high political trust/no political trust at all and no opinion of the Riksdag had significantly lower ORs of smoking cessation than people with very high/high political trust. These associations remained significant after multiple adjustments. The results suggest that political trust is independently associated with both daily smoking and smoking cessation.

  2. [Smoking and young people; effectiveness of smoking prevention and cessation programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, K; Onrust, S; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E; Lammers, J

    2017-01-01

    - In this article, we discuss the scientific knowledge on the effects of interventions that help young people to quit smoking and interventions that should prevent young people from starting to smoke.- We also describe the interventions in the Netherlands that, after a quality assessment, have been included in the database of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Centre for Healthy Living.- Interventions have varying degrees of success in helping young people to quit smoking. There are only indications of a modest effect of behavioural interventions.- Preventive interventions mostly occur in a school setting and are making a modest contribution to the reduction of the number of young people that start smoking.- There are preliminary indications of the effectiveness of interventions in a medical setting. However, research into this is rare and there is no insight in long-term effects.- The database of the RIVM Centre for Healthy Living includes mainly preventive interventions in a school setting and only one smoking cessation intervention.

  3. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K.; Raha, Sandeep; Nicholson, Catherine J.; Holloway, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  4. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  5. Demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of users of an on-line smoking cessation programme in the Spanish language

    OpenAIRE

    Mañanes, Guillermo; Vallejo, Miguel A.; Vallejo-Slocker, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristics of users of a smoking cessation programme run by the Open University of Spain (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia [UNED]). Methods: We examined the demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of 23,763 smokers who participated in the on-line smoking cessation program of the UNED. The programme was open to any smoker, free of charge, and was fully automated and with direct access. Results: A total of 93.5% of the users were Span...

  6. Demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of users of an on-line smoking cessation programme in the Spanish language

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Mañanes; Miguel A. Vallejo; Laura Vallejo-Slocker

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristics of users of a smoking cessation programme run by the Open University of Spain (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia [UNED]). Methods: We examined the demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of 23,763 smokers who participated in the on-line smoking cessation program of the UNED. The programme was open to any smoker, free of charge, and was fully automated and with direct access. Results: A total of 93.5% of the users wer...

  7. Design of effective interventions for smoking cessation through financial and non-financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama, Fanor; Longo, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Smoking has a tremendous negative impact on the Canadian economy and contributes to growing costs in the healthcare system. Efforts to reduce smoking rates may therefore reduce strain on the healthcare system and free up scarce resources. Academic literature on economic smoking cessation incentives presents a countless variety of interventions that have met with varying degrees of success. This study reviews six different variables used in the design of incentives in smoking cessation interventions: direction, form, magnitude, certainty, recipient grouping, and target demographic. The purpose of this study is to provide analysis and recommendations about the contribution of each variable into the overall effectiveness of smoking cessation programs and help health leaders design better interventions according to their specific needs.

  8. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  9. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was estimated using multiple linear regression adjusted for time and the presence of smoke-free legislation. The immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2006 smoke-free law on quit-ratio was estimated using segmented linear regression analysis. The analyses were performed separately in men and women with high and low education, respectively. No relationship was observed between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio, except in women having a low educational level, among whom a rise in price was associated with a decrease in quit-ratio. The smoke-free law altered the smoking quit-ratio in the short term and altered also pre-existing trends. Smoking quit-ratio increased immediately after the ban - though this increase was significant only among women with a low educational level - and then decreased in subsequent years except among men with a high educational level. A clear relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was not observed in a recent period. After the implementation of smoke-free legislation the trend in the quit ratio in most of the socio-economic groups was different from the trend observed before implementation, so existing inequalities in smoking quit-ratio were not widened or narrowed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing fidelity of delivery of smoking cessation behavioural support in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Christopherson, Charlotte; Michie, Susan

    2013-04-04

    Effectiveness of evidence-based behaviour change interventions is likely to be undermined by failure to deliver interventions as planned. Behavioural support for smoking cessation can be a highly cost-effective, life-saving intervention. However, in practice, outcomes are highly variable. Part of this may be due to variability in fidelity of intervention implementation. To date, there have been no published studies on this. The present study aimed to: evaluate a method for assessing fidelity of behavioural support; assess fidelity of delivery in two English Stop-Smoking Services; and compare the extent of fidelity according to session types, duration, individual practitioners, and component behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Treatment manuals and transcripts of 34 audio-recorded behavioural support sessions were obtained from two Stop-Smoking Services and coded into component BCTs using a taxonomy of 43 BCTs. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by examining the proportion of BCTs specified in the manuals that were delivered in individual sessions. This was assessed by session type (i.e., pre-quit, quit, post-quit), duration, individual practitioner, and BCT. Inter-coder reliability was high (87.1%). On average, 66% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD 15.3, range: 35% to 90%). In Service 1, average fidelity was highest for post-quit sessions (69%) and lowest for pre-quit (58%). In Service 2, fidelity was highest for quit-day (81%) and lowest for post-quit sessions (56%). Session duration was not significantly correlated with fidelity. Individual practitioner fidelity ranged from 55% to 78%. Individual manual-specified BCTs were delivered on average 63% of the time (SD 28.5, range: 0 to 100%). The extent to which smoking cessation behavioural support is delivered as specified in treatment manuals can be reliably assessed using transcripts of audiotaped sessions. This allows the investigation of

  11. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim with Bergen and Norway. Methods Sequential birth cohorts were established to evaluate the intervention programme from September 2000 to December 2004 in primary care as a part of the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim study (PACT. The primary outcome variables were self reported smoking behaviour at inclusion and six weeks postnatal. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBR were used to describe smoking cessation during pregnancy in Trondheim, Bergen and Norway 1999–2004. Results Maternal smoking prevalence at inclusion during pregnancy were 5% (CI 95% 4–6 in the intervention cohort compared to 7% (CI 95% 6–9, p = 0.03, in the control cohort. Of the pre-pregnancy maternal smokers 25% (CI 95% 20–31 and 32% (CI 95% 26–38, p = 0.17, were still smoking at inclusion in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. Six weeks postnatal 72% (CI 95% 59–83 and 68% (CI 95% 57–77, p = 0.34 of the maternal smokers at inclusion still smoked. No significant difference in paternal smoking between the cohorts was found after the intervention period. Data from the MBR showed a significantly higher proportion of women who stopped smoking during pregnancy in Trondheim than in Bergen in 2003 and 2004, p = 0.03 and Conclusion No impact on parental smoking behaviour between the cohorts was observed after the smoking intervention programme. Of the women who stopped smoking during pregnancy most of them stopped smoking before the intervention. However, we observed a significantly higher quitting

  12. Financial strain and smoking cessation among men and women within a self-guided quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Langdon, Kirsten J; Nguyen, Nga T; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Financial strain, defined as an unfavorable asset-to-needs ratio, has been associated with reduced odds of smoking cessation in the context of a structured clinical study providing cessation assistance. This study reports on a secondary data analysis that assessed the association of financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence within a structured clinical study of smokers making a self-guided cessation attempt. Participants (N=58; 65.5% men) were enrolled in a study about anxiety sensitivity and smoking cessation whereby they were instructed to initiate a self-guided quit attempt. Relations between financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence on the quit day and at Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 post-quit were assessed using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, sex, race, education, partner status, pre-quit cigarettes smoked per day, and time. Associations between financial strain and abstinence in the whole sample were marginal (aOR=.94, 95% CI=.87-1.01, observations=293; p=.07). However, sex was a significant moderator: greater financial strain was associated with lower odds of abstinence for men (aOR=.90, 95% CI=.80-1.00, observations=201; p=.05), but not women (aOR=1.05, 95% CI=.91-1.21, observations=92; p=.48). Results indicated that financial strain was associated with lower odds of cessation among men undergoing a self-guided quit attempt in the context of a structured clinical study. These data suggest that financial strain may be an important socioeconomic determinant of smoking cessation and support its relevance for better understanding socioeconomic-based smoking-related health disparities. Future work may benefit by exploring sex-specific models of financial strain in the context of smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factor