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Sample records for evaluate smoking cessation

  1. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur K; Juneja S; Kaushal S

    2008-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  2. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 75% at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, respectively. Based on the Fagerstrom test, nicotine dependence decreased from baseline to the end of the study, 4.89 to 0.33 ( P < .001). Overall, participants rated the program highly. A joint pharmacist and nurse practitioner smoking cessation program can assist patients in becoming smoke-free.

  3. Evaluation of smoking cessation intervention in patients with chronic diseases in smoking cessation clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changxi; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qinghui; An, Huaijie; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fan; Zhang, Li; He, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of psychological intervention and psychological plus drug intervention on smoking cessation among male smokers with single chronic diseases. A total of 509 male smokers were divided into psychological group (n = 290) and psychological plus drugs (n = 219) groups according to their will. The physicians provided free individual counseling and follow-up interviews with brief counseling for all the subjects. In addition to mental intervention, patients in psychological plus drug group also received bupropion hydrochloride or varenicline tartrate to quit smoking. Outcomes were self-reported, regarding the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate and continuous abstinence rates at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up period. Data analyses were performed using intention-to-treat analysis and per protocol analysis. With regards to the 3 follow-up time points, 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rate in psychological plus drugs group was all higher than that in the psychological intervention group. Additionally, the 3-month continuous abstinence rate (21.4%) of the 6-month follow-up in the psychological group was not significantly higher than that (26.9%) in the psychological plus drugs group (P >.05 for all). Fagerström test score, stage of quitting smoking, perceived confidence or difficulty in quitting, and chronic disease types were independently correlated with 3-month continuous abstinence in the 6-month follow up (P intervention and psychological plus drugs intervention exerted good effects on smoking cessation in a short time (1 month). Nevertheless, the advantages did not appear during long-time (6 months) follow-up. PMID:29049178

  4. Evaluation of smoking cessation intervention in patients with chronic diseases in smoking cessation clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changxi; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qinghui; An, Huaijie; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fan; Zhang, Li; He, Yao

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of psychological intervention and psychological plus drug intervention on smoking cessation among male smokers with single chronic diseases.A total of 509 male smokers were divided into psychological group (n = 290) and psychological plus drugs (n = 219) groups according to their will. The physicians provided free individual counseling and follow-up interviews with brief counseling for all the subjects. In addition to mental intervention, patients in psychological plus drug group also received bupropion hydrochloride or varenicline tartrate to quit smoking. Outcomes were self-reported, regarding the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate and continuous abstinence rates at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up period. Data analyses were performed using intention-to-treat analysis and per protocol analysis.With regards to the 3 follow-up time points, 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rate in psychological plus drugs group was all higher than that in the psychological intervention group. Additionally, the 3-month continuous abstinence rate (21.4%) of the 6-month follow-up in the psychological group was not significantly higher than that (26.9%) in the psychological plus drugs group (P >.05 for all). Fagerström test score, stage of quitting smoking, perceived confidence or difficulty in quitting, and chronic disease types were independently correlated with 3-month continuous abstinence in the 6-month follow up (P intervention and psychological plus drugs intervention exerted good effects on smoking cessation in a short time (1 month). Nevertheless, the advantages did not appear during long-time (6 months) follow-up.

  5. Evaluation of a smoking cessation service in elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxony, Jennifer; Cowling, Lis; Catchpole, Leanne; Walker, Natalie

    2017-05-15

    No best practice service models exist for promoting preoperative smoking cessation support, despite smokers experiencing more perioperative complications than nonsmokers. A novel specialist stop smoking service for patients undergoing elective surgery (called 'ELECT') was established in 2012 in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). An evaluation of the service was undertaken in 2014. The ELECT service involved regular staff training and the development of setting-specific and easy-to-use referral procedures. Cessation treatment emphasized temporary abstinence around the time of surgery, as opposed to long-term smoking abstinence. Information on referral rates and cessation outcomes were collated for the evaluation. Summary statistics are reported, with multiple logistic regression analysis undertaken to determine key associations between outcome variables. A total of 527 patients were referred to ELECT over a 27 mo period, representing one-fifth of all identified smokers. Nearly 60% (n = 308) of those referred received at least one treatment session involving intense behavioral support and nicotine replacement treatment; for Māori (indigenous NZers), this figure was 75%. A shorter time to contact of referred patients, older age, being Māori (versus NZ European) and being referred through the surgical hospital services were all positively associated with likelihood of receiving at least one treatment session (P < 0.05). Of the 123 patients who set a formal quit date, 68% (n = 82) self-reported sustained abstinence 4 wk post-quit, and 48% (n = 58) were still abstinent 12 wk post-quit. The ELECT service appears both feasible and sustainable over time and has a clear impact on helping patients achieve smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  7. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical nicotine dependence, but also to introduce cognitive behavioural therapy to deal with his or her emotional attachment to smoking.7. Tobacco use ... interventions, the primary healthcare provider can use the 5. As (Figure 1) to help to ...

  8. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  9. Clickotine, A Personalized Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation: Initial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinerman, Joshua R; Klein, David B; Silver, Theodore L; Berger, Adam G; Luo, Sean X; Schork, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and the annual economic burden attributable to smoking exceeds US $300 billion. Obstacles to smoking cessation include limited access and adherence to effective cessation interventions. Technology can help overcome these obstacles; many smartphone apps have been developed to aid smoking cessation, but few that conform to the US clinical practice guideline (USCPG) have been rigorously tested and reported in the literature. Clickotine is a novel smartphone app for smoking cessation, designed to deliver the essential features of the USCPG and engineered to engage smokers by personalizing intervention components. Objective Our objective was to assess the engagement, efficacy, and safety of Clickotine in an initial, single-arm study. Outcomes measured were indicators of engagement with the smartphone app (number of app opens, number of interactions with the Clickotine program, and weeks active with Clickotine), cessation outcomes of 7- and 30-day self-reported abstinence from smoking, and negative health events. Methods We recruited US residents between 18 and 65 years of age who owned an iPhone and smoked 5 or more cigarettes daily for the study via online advertising. Respondents were prescreened for eligibility by telephone and, if appropriate, directed to a Web portal to provide informed consent, confirm eligibility, and download the Clickotine app. Participants completed study assessments via the online portal at baseline and after 8 weeks. Data were collected in Amazon S3 with no manual data entry, and access to all data was maximally restrictive, logged, and auditable. Results A total of 416 participants downloaded the app and constituted the intention-to-treat (ITT) sample. On average, participants opened the Clickotine app 100.6 times during the 8-week study (median 69), logged 214.4 interactions with the Clickotine program (median 178), and remained engaged with

  10. User Experience Evaluation of a Smoking Cessation App in People With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Rizo, Javier; Kientz, Julie A; McDonell, Michael G; Ries, Richard K; Sobel, Kiley

    2016-05-01

    Smoking rates among people with serious mental illness are 3 to 4 times higher than the general population, yet currently there are no smoking cessation apps specifically designed to address this need. We report the results of a User Experience (UX) evaluation of a National Cancer Institute smoking cessation app, QuitPal, and provide user centered design data that can be used to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population. Two hundred forty hours of field experience with QuitPal, 10 hours of recorded interviews and task performances, usage logs and a self-reported usability scale, informed the results of our study. Participants were five individuals recruited from a community mental health clinic with a reported serious mental illness history. Performance, self-reports, usage logs and interview data were triangulated to identify critical usability errors and UX themes emerging from this population. Data suggests QuitPal has below average levels of usability, elevated time on task performances and required considerable amounts of guidance. UX themes provided critical information to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population, such as the importance of breaking down "cessation" into smaller steps and use of a reward system. This is the first study to examine the UX of a smoking cessation app among people with serious mental illness. Data from this study will inform future research efforts to expand the effectiveness and reach of smoking cessation apps for this highly nicotine dependent yet under-served population. Data from this study will inform future research efforts to expand the effectiveness and reach of smoking cessation apps for people with serious mental illness, a highly nicotine dependent yet under-served population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An evaluation study of a gender-specific smoking cessation program to help Hong Kong Chinese women quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wan, Zoe Siu Fung; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-09-29

    There is a lack of population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting woman smokers in Hong Kong, and in Asia generally. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a gender-specific smoking cessation program for female smokers in Hong Kong. To evaluate the effectiveness of the service, a total of 457 eligible smokers were recruited. After the baseline questionnaire had been completed, a cessation counseling intervention was given by a trained counselor according to the stage of readiness to quit. Self-reported seven-day point prevalence of abstinence and reduction of cigarette consumption (≥50 %) and self-efficacy in rejecting tobacco were documented at one week and at two, three and six months. The 7-day point prevalence quit rate was 28.4 % (130/457), and 21.9 % (100/457) had reduced their cigarette consumption by at least 50 % at the six-month follow-up. The average daily cigarette consumption was reduced from 8.3 at baseline to 6.3 at six months. Moreover, both internal and external stimuli of anti-smoking self-efficacy increased from baseline to six months. The study provides some evidence for the effectiveness of the gender-specific smoking cessation program for female smokers. Furthermore, helping smokers to improve their self-efficacy in resisting both internal and external stimuli of tobacco use can be a way of enhancing the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention.

  12. Promoting smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele M; Williams, Dave E

    2012-03-15

    Cigarette smoking causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Physicians can use the five A's framework (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) to promote smoking cessation. All patients should be asked about tobacco use and assessed for motivation to quit at every clinical encounter. Physicians should strongly advise patients to quit smoking, and use motivational interviewing techniques for patients who are not yet willing to stop smoking. Clinical contacts with unmotivated patients should emphasize the rewards and relevance of quitting, as well as the risks of smoking and anticipated barriers to abstinence. These messages should be repeated at every opportunity. Appropriate patients should be offered pharmacologic assistance in quitting, such as nicotine replacement therapies, bupropion, and varenicline. Use of pharmacologic support during smoking cessation can double the rate of successful abstinence. Using more than one type of nicotine replacement therapy ("patch plus" method) and combining these therapies with bupropion provide additional benefit. However, special populations pose unique challenges in pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine replacement therapies increase the risk of birth defects and should not be used during pregnancy. They are usually safe in patients with cardiovascular conditions, except for those with unstable angina or within two weeks of a coronary event. Varenicline may increase the risk of coronary events. Nicotine replacement therapies are safe for use in adolescents; however, they are less effective than in adults. Physicians also should arrange to have repeated contact with smokers around their quit date to reinforce cessation messages.

  13. [Smoking cessation and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Pourrat, O; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Jaafari, N

    2017-10-01

    Active and passive smoking during pregnancy induce several deleterious effects that may have a negative impact on pregnancy progress, fetus development and both mother and newborn health. Smoking cessation should be a rule for any woman as soon as the beginning of her pregnancy, or better in anticipation of a pregnancy when contraception is no more taken. Every caregiver must help every pregnant woman who smokes to quit smoking. Smoking cessation interventions in pregnant women must combine a psychological support (mainly with cognitive behavioral therapy) and nicotine replacement therapy, which can also be used during breast feeding. It is recommended to adjust the dosage of nicotine replacement therapy according to the symptoms of under or over dosage at the end of the first week of use. On the other hand, vareniclin and bupropion are contra-indicated during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Electronic cigarette is not advised during pregnancy. Prevention of smoking relapse in postpartum period is essential since a percentage as high as 50% of women having quit during their pregnancy resume smoking during the 6 months following delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  15. The Danish Smoking Cessation Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve......, and prognostic factors. The outcome data are smoking status at the end of the programme and after six months and satisfaction with the SC intervention. Validity: Approximately 80-90% of all SC clinics offering systematic face-to-face SC interventions are reporting data to the SCDB. The data completeness...... of the SCDB is very high, at 95-100%. Validation checks have been implemented to ensure high data quality. Conclusion: The SCDB is a well-established clinical database and a priceless tool for monitoring and improving SC interventions in Denmark to identify the best solution to helping smokers become smoke...

  16. Lung Cancer: Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients. All smokers should be offered behavioral and pharmacotherapy assistance in quitting. Pregnant women who smoke should be offered behavioral methods first. However, if these methods are unlikely to be effective, pharmacotherapy can be offered after a discussion about risks and benefits. The behavioral method with the most evidence of efficacy is group therapy. Nicotine replacement therapy (eg, gums, lozenges, transdermal patches, inhalers, nasal sprays), bupropion SR, and varenicline are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for management of nicotine withdrawal during smoking cessation. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Initial evaluation of a real-world Internet smoking cessation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K.; Graham, Amanda L.; Bock, Beth C.; Papandonatos, George; Abrams, David B.

    2010-01-01

    To significantly reduce smoking prevalence, treatments must balance reach, efficacy, and cost. The Internet can reach millions of smokers cost-effectively. Many cessation Web sites exist, but few have been evaluated. As a result, the potential impact of the Internet on smoking prevalence remains unknown. The present study reports the results, challenges, and limitations of a preliminary, large-scale evaluation of a broadly disseminated smoking cessation Web site used worldwide (QuitNet). Consecutive registrants (N=1,501) were surveyed 3 months after they registered on the Web site to assess 7-day point prevalence abstinence. Results must be interpreted cautiously because this is an uncontrolled study with a 25.6% response rate. Approximately 30% of those surveyed indicated they had already quit smoking at registration. Excluding these participants, an intention-to-treat analysis yielded 7% point prevalence abstinence (for the responders only, abstinence was 30%). A range of plausible cessation outcomes (9.8%–13.1%) among various subgroups is presented to illustrate the strengths and limitations of conducting Web-based evaluations, and the tensions between clinical and dissemination research methods. Process-to-outcome analyses indicated that sustained use of QuitNet, especially the use of social support, was associated with more than three times greater point prevalence abstinence and more than four times greater continuous abstinence. Despite its limitations, the present study provides useful information about the potential efficacy, challenging design and methodological issues, process-to-outcome mechanisms of action, and potential public health impact of Internet-based behavior change programs for smoking cessation. PMID:16036277

  18. TABADO: "Evaluation of a smoking cessation program among Adolescents in Vocational Training Centers": Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinet Yves

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the efforts to reduce teenagers' tobacco addiction have focused on smoking prevention and little on smoking cessation. A smoking cessation program (TABADO study, associating pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioural strategy, on a particularly vulnerable population (vocational trainees, was developed. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the program which was offered to all smokers in a population aged 15 to 20 years in Vocational Training Centers (VTC. This paper presents the TABADO study protocol. Methods The study is quasi-experimental, prospective, evaluative and comparative and takes place during the 2 years of vocational training. The final population will be composed of 2000 trainees entering a VTC in Lorraine, France, during the 2008-2009 period. The intervention group (1000 trainees benefited from the TABADO program while no specific intervention took place in the "control" group (1000 trainees other than the treatment and education services usually available. Our primary outcome will be the tobacco abstinence rate at 12 months. Discussion If the program proves effective, it will be a new tool in the action against smoking in populations that have been seldom targeted until now. In addition, the approach could be expanded to other young subjects from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in the context of a public health policy against smoking among adolescents. Trial registration Clinical trial identification number is NTC00973570.

  19. [Medical therapy for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. Physicians are in the unique position to promote smoking cessation and to support patients in quitting smoking is a key task for every single health care provider. Counselling smoking cessation is clearly shown to be both efficient and cost-effective in terms of years of live saved. Nicotine is highly addictive and to achieve long-term abstinence pharmacotherapy is frequently inevitable. Nicotine replacement therapy is efficacious and doubles the odds of permanently abstain from smoking. Further, strong evidence supports the use of buproprion, an atypical antidepressive agent, for quit smoking. Varenicline is the first medication specifically developed for smoking cessation. Varenicline is a partial agonist and antagonist at the nicotinic receptor that reduces craving, withdrawal symptoms and the reinforcing effect of smoking. This review summarises the current clinical data on the pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and provides practical advice for daily clinical practice.

  20. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  1. Smoking cessation therapy with varenicline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma M Mohanasundaram

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma M Mohanasundaram, Rajinder Chitkara, Ganesh KrishnaDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USAAbstract: Smoking cessation is the only available intervention proven to halt progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The authors discuss the current existing treatment modalities and the role of a newly approved agent, varenicline, in promotion of smoking cessation. Varenicline is a novel agent that is a centrally acting partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. It has both agonistic and antagonistic properties that together are believed to account for reduction of craving and withdrawal as well as blocking the rewarding effects of smoking. Its targeted mechanism of action, better efficacy and tolerability makes varenicline a useful therapeutic option for smoking cessation. In this article, we discuss presently available options for smoking cessation and review the literature on efficacy of varenicline.Keywords: smoking cessation, varenicline, nicotine, receptors, therapy, COPD

  2. Examining mixing methods in an evaluation of a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Lawrenz, Frances P; Thao, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Three different methods were used in an evaluation of a smoking cessation study: surveys, focus groups, and phenomenological interviews. The results of each method were analyzed separately and then combined using both a pragmatic and dialectic stance to examine the effects of different approaches to mixing methods. Results show that the further apart the methods are philosophically, the more diverse the findings. Comparisons of decision maker opinions and costs of the different methods are provided along with recommendations for evaluators' uses of different methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  4. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  5. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; van Riet, Evelien E S; Rutten, Frans H

    2013-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in COPD patients. MEDLINE was searched from January 2002 to October 2011....... Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of smoking cessation interventions for COPD patients, published in English, were selected. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Delphi list by two reviewers independently. The relative risks of smoking cessation due...... to be of acceptable quality. Pharmacological therapy combined with behavioural counselling was more effective than each strategy separately. In COPD patients, the intensity of counselling did not seem to influence the results, nor did the choice of drug therapy make a difference. This systematic review makes clear...

  6. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking and/or the incidence of postoperative complications. Data collection and analysis The authors independently assessed studies to determine eligibility. Results were discussed between the authors. Main results...

  7. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  8. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  9. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  10. [Smoking cessation and social deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, F; Perriot, J; Underner, M; Peiffer, G; Fieulaine, N

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is a major of public health policy issue; one in two lifelong smokers will die from a disease related to tobacco use. In France, smoking is responsible for more than 70,000 deaths every year. The benefits linked to stopping smoking include reduced mortality and morbidity related to the use of tobacco. Recent data show an increase in the prevalence of smoking in the lowest socioeconomic population. Tobacco control needs a better understanding of the determinants of smoking in this population, which are also factors in the failure of cessation attempts. Based on international literature, this review specifies the educational and socioeconomic factors involved in tobacco smoking and in the result of an attempt to quit. Its aim is to propose ways to improve the management of smoking cessation in a socially deprived population. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  12. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bracing: What Works?Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthLow-purine DietHealthy Ways to Gain Weight If You’re Underweight Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Self-care Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics Smoking ...

  13. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. System change interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis; Abramson, Michael J; Bonevski, Billie; George, Johnson

    2017-02-10

    System change interventions for smoking cessation are policies and practices designed by organizations to integrate the identification of smokers and the subsequent offering of evidence-based nicotine dependence treatments into usual care. Such strategies have the potential to improve the provision of smoking cessation support in healthcare settings, and cessation outcomes among those who use them. To assess the effectiveness of system change interventions within healthcare settings, for increasing smoking cessation or the provision of smoking cessation care, or both. We searched databases including the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO in February 2016. We also searched clinical trial registries: WHO clinical trial registry, US National Institute of Health (NIH) clinical trial registry. We checked 'grey' literature, and handsearched bibliographies of relevant papers and publications. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and interrupted time series studies that evaluated a system change intervention, which included identification of all smokers and subsequent offering of evidence-based nicotine dependence treatment. Using a standardized form, we extracted data from eligible studies on study settings, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest (both cessation and system-level outcomes). For cessation outcomes, we used the strictest available criteria to define abstinence. System-level outcomes included assessment and documentation of smoking status, provision of advice to quit or cessation counselling, referral and enrolment in quitline services, and prescribing of cessation medications. We assessed risks of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook and categorized each study as being at high, low or unclear risk of bias. We used a narrative synthesis to describe the effectiveness of the interventions on various outcomes, because of significant heterogeneity among

  15. Evaluation of a structured smoking cessation program for primary care medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaehne, A.; Ruether, T.; Deest, H.; Gehrig, H.; de Zeeuw, J.; Alberti, A.; Mulzer, K.

    Background: Despite the fact that 9 of 10 general practitioners in Germany believe that smoking cessation is an important topic structured programs are only rarely offered to patients. Beside a lack of time and missing reimbursement, physician's limited treatment skills are frequent reasons for this

  16. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  17. Urinary alkalinization and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A J; Daughton, D; Kass, I; Smith, J L; Wickiser, A; Golden, C J; Wass, A R

    1983-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that large doses of a urinary alkalinizing agent reduced cigarette consumption spontaneously among smokers. After establishing a safe daily dose of an alkalinizing agent, sodium bicarbonate, its effect upon smoking cessation rates among 72 enrollees in a smoking cessation program was studied. In the first study, we determined that sodium bicarbonate (3900 mg per day) significantly increased urinary pH (from 6.0 to 6.7) and lowered titratable acidity. Ascorbic acid (1500 mg per day) had no effect of pH or acidity. In a second study, a group given sodium bicarbonate surpassed a placebo control group (who were given 1500 mg per day ascorbic acid) in total daily cigarette reduction after 5 weeks and in week-to-week smoking reduction. The groups did not, however, differ in the number who achieved total abstinence.

  18. Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2017-06-01

    To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist-based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model-based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high-income country were excluded. Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state-transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life-time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35-0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Model‐based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L.; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J. A.; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. Methods A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist‐based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model‐based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high‐income country were excluded. Findings Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state‐transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life‐time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35–0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. Conclusion All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. PMID:28060453

  20. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  1. Formulation of nicotine mucoadhesive tablet for smoking cessation and evaluation of its pharmaceuticals properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Bahri-Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT with gradual decreasing of nicotine is one of the smoking cessation methods. Muccoadhesive formulations are among the novel drug delivery systems that are available in the form of tablets and films, and can be used for NRT. Muccoadhesive nicotine tablets when placed in the upper gum will attach to the buccal mucosa and release nicotine content in a controlled manner. This will meet the immediate and long-term need of the individual to the nicotine, such that the person can decrease his/her dependency on smoking. [1] Materials and Methods: In this study, the tablets were prepared using different conventional bioadhesive polymers such as Hydroxypropyl Methycellulose (HPMC 50cps, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and carbapol 934 (CP934 in singular or mixture form. Magnesium hydroxide were used as the pH increasing agent; magnesium stearate as the lubricant; and lactose as the excipiente. Nicotine hydrogen bitartrate, more stable than the liquid, was used in different formulations. Pharmaceutics characteristics such as adhesion degree and drug release rate were evaluated. Results: Increasing of HPMC 50cps in the formulations decrease speed release of nicotine. The carbapol in formulations beget slow releasing of nicotine. With increasing the percent of lactose, the rate of release in formulations was increased. Formulations, which have HPMC 50cps has best adhesiveness and the formulations contains carbapol had not suitable adhesiveness. Formulations contains NaCMC were very fast release and had not suitable adhesiveness. Conclusion: The formulation contains mixture of HPMC50cps and CP934 was the best because of suitable adhesiveness and minimum swing in release.

  2. Evaluating a collaborative smoking cessation intervention in primary care (ENTER): study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härter, Martin; Bartsch, Anna-Lena; Egger, Nina; König, Hans-Helmut; Kriston, Levente; Schulz, Holger; Tiemann, Michael; Brütt, Anna Levke; Buchholz, Angela

    2015-10-09

    Tobacco consumption is a preventable risk factor for chronic disease and complicates the treatment of medical conditions. Therefore, the German health insurance company AOK NORDWEST has developed a collaborative smoking cessation intervention for individuals with cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heavy smokers, with the aim of reducing tobacco consumption. The objective of the study ENTER is to evaluate the effectiveness of the collaborative smoking cessation intervention and determine its cost-effectiveness. This study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted with 40 medical practices that are being selected from different geographic regions in Germany. Participating medical practices will be randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. Within the medical practices, a total of 800 patients will be recruited for participation in the study and blinded to group assignment. Patients are included in the study if they are 18 years or older, insured by AOK, heavy smokers (smoke at least 20 cigarettes per day) and/or suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cardiovascular disease. Exclusion criteria are patients who are nonsmokers, who have cognitive impairments or who are illiterate. Physicians from medical practices in the intervention group will motivate patients to participate in a smoking cessation program offered by the health insurance, refer them to the program and ask about their program participation. Physicians from medical practices in the control group will provide usual care. Data collection will take place on the date of study inclusion and after 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the amount of cigarettes consumed during the past 30 days, 12 months after the initial medical consultation. Secondary outcomes are abstinence from smoking, health-related quality of life and respiratory complaints. Moreover, a process evaluation and health economic analysis will be performed. The

  3. [The ABC of smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölcskei, Pál L; Walden, Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    The professional support increased chances of success for smoking cessation and is an important goal in health politics. A short advice by pharmacists can make a significant contribution to this. This article describes tobacco dependence and the "stages of change-model". Afterwards we explain possible therapies: besides cognitive-behavioral intervention, different forms of medical treatment, e.g. nicotin replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, will be discussed.

  4. Evaluation of a web-based cognitive behavioral smoking cessation treatment for overweight/obese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marney A; Ivezaj, Valentina; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-04-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of an Internet-administered smoking cessation treatment for overweight/obese smokers. Participants were 54 community volunteers with overweight/obesity who were regular smokers. Treatment consisted of 12 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy and randomization to Internet-administered cognitive behavioral treatment or health education. In-person assessments of key outcomes occurred at baseline, post-treatment, and at 24-week follow-up. Cessation rates did not differ across the two treatments (25.9% vs 18.5%). Participants receiving cognitive behavioral treatment gained less weight when abstinent than those receiving the standard treatment. Larger studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  5. Smoking cessation services in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arusyak Harutyunyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe has the highest smoking rates in Europe, yet tobacco dependence treatments are virtually unavailable in many Eastern European countries. Smoking rate among the Armenian men is one of the highest in the European region (63%, 2010. Armenia was the first former soviet union country to accede to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC (2004; soon after that it adopted a national tobacco control law to ban smoking in healthcare, education, culture facilities and public transport. The country also banned tobacco advertising on TV and radio (2002 and on billboards (2006 and introduced larger (30% health warnings on cigarette packs (2006. One of the areas where Armenia’s progress is less than satisfactory is the implementation of the FCTC Article 14. Current situation of smoking cessation services in Armenia will be presented based on the results of qualitative research among primary healthcare physicians and pharmaceutical market research.

  6. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...... of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  7. Developing a Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimer, Pip; Stamp, Lisa K; Stebbings, Simon; Cameron, Vicky; Kirby, Sandra; Croft, Suzanne; Treharne, Gareth J

    2016-03-01

    Smoking is associated with an increased risk of comorbidities in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may reduce the efficacy of anti-rheumatic therapies. Smoking cessation is therefore an important goal in RA. Our previous qualitative research identified five RA-related barriers to smoking cessation: lack of support; limited knowledge of the relationship between smoking and RA; uncontrolled pain; inability to exercise; and using smoking as a coping strategy. The aim of this article is to describe the process of developing a smoking cessation intervention for RA patients based on these themes. A comprehensive review of the literature on smoking cessation was undertaken. A tailored smoking cessation programme was designed to address each RA-specific barrier. A meeting was convened with key staff of Arthritis New Zealand to develop a consensus on feasible design to deliver a smoking cessation programme based on existing best practice and smoking cessation resources, and tailored within existing Arthritis New Zealand service delivery frameworks. A three-month intervention was designed to be delivered by trained arthritis educators, with the following key components: nicotine replacement therapy for eight weeks; a telephone or face-to-face interview with each patient to determine their individual specific RA-related barriers to smoking cessation; and individualized education and support activities which addressed these barriers. The intervention also included three follow-up telephone calls; a support website; and 12 weekly smoking cessation advice emails. A RA-specific smoking cessation invention was developed, matching support to specific issues within each patient's experience. A pilot study is in progress to evaluate the programme's efficacy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Dental Practitioners and Smoking Cessation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Keogan

    2015-10-01

    Smoking prevalence is low among dentists in Ireland. Most recognized the need to provide adequate smoking cessation support and advice to patients but felt under-trained to do so. Most were not aware of existing referral pathways to specialist smoking cessation services and, thus, referral rates were low.

  9. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  10. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  11. [Effects of physical activity on tobacco craving for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2016-06-01

    One in two people who smoke for their whole lifetime will die from a disease related to tobacco use. The smoking habit is sustained by nicotine dependence, which makes smoking cessation very difficult because of withdrawal syndrome and craving (urge to smoke without delay). The aim of this review was to evaluate the impact of physical activity interventions to reduce tobacco craving in smoking cessation. It included 18 randomized controlled trials, which incorporated physical activity. Seventeen of the 18 trials demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical activity in reducing tobacco craving. The consistency of these results constitutes solid evidence of the importance of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation. Advice to increase physical activity should therefore be given during quit attempts and should be incorporated into smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  13. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  14. Smoking cessation and response to periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridi, F; Tsantila, S; Pepelassi, E

    2017-09-16

    Smoking has detrimental oral effects. The aim of this study was to review the literature related to the impact of smoking cessation on periodontal health, periodontal disease and periodontal treatment outcome as well as to review the smoking cessation strategies and the dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort. Smoking cessation seems to have a positive effect on the periodontium, to decrease the risk for incidence and progression of periodontitis and to lead to a non-significant trend for greater mean probing depth reductions after non-surgical treatment over a 12-month period. Smoking cessation effect on the periodontium should be further investigated. Dentists should inform their patients on the harmful effect of smoking and the beneficial effect of smoking cessation on oral health. They should advise, motivate and support their patients to quit smoking. Smoking-control strategies should be incorporated in dental practise. The dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort is important. Guidelines on smoking-control strategies applied in the dental office are required. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2012-06-13

    AbstractBackgroundIn addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.MethodsAn evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.ResultsAt week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0

  16. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelton Helen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers. Methods An evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet. Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test. Results At week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA. The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0

  17. Designing and evaluating culturally specific smoking cessation interventions for American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Steven S; Rhodes, Kristine L; Robert, Christina; Widome, Rachel; Forster, Jean L; Joseph, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    American Indians have the highest smoking rates in the United States, yet few randomized controlled trials of culturally specific interventions exist. This study assessed American Indians' opinions about evidence-based treatment and attitudes toward participating in clinical trials. Six focus groups were conducted based on smoking status (current/former smoker), sex, and elder status (55 years and older or younger). Meetings were held at local American Indian community organizations. This project was accomplished in partnership with the American Indian Community Tobacco Projects, a community-academic research partnership at the University of Minnesota. Thematic qualitative data analyses were conducted. Participants desired the following: (a) programs led by trained American Indian community members, (b) the opportunity to connect with other American Indian smokers interested in quitting, and (c) programs promoting healthy lifestyles. Strategies desired for treatment included (a) free pharmacotherapy, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); (b) nominal incentives, e.g., gift cards for groceries; and (c) culturally specific program components such as American Indian images, education on traditional tobacco use, and quit-smoking messages that target the value of family and include narratives or story telling in recruitment and program materials. Biochemical verification of smoking abstinence, such as salivary cotinine or carbon monoxide breathalyzers, is likely acceptable. Standard treatment or delayed treatment control groups were viewed as potentially acceptable for randomized study designs. Rigorously conducted randomized controlled trials of culturally specific smoking cessation interventions are sorely needed but will only be accomplished with the commitment of funders, researchers, and collaborative trusting relationships with the community.

  18. An evaluation of the range and availability of intensive smoking cessation services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Currie, LM

    2009-06-27

    BACKGROUND: A review of smoking cessation (SC) services in Ireland is a necessary step in improving service planning and provision. AIMS: To assess the range and availability of intensive SC services in Ireland in 2006. METHODS: A survey of SC service providers in Ireland was conducted. Descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.3% (63\\/73). All service providers surveyed are employing evidence-based interventions; the most common form of support is individual counselling with initial sessions averaging 40 min and weekly review sessions 20 min in duration. Reaching the recommended target of treating 5.0% of smokers does not seem feasible given the current distribution of resources and there appears to be regional differences in resource allocation. CONCLUSIONS: While intensive SC services are available in all four Health Service Executive Areas, it would appear that there is little uniformity or consistency countrywide in the scope and structure of these services.

  19. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  20. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  1. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael; Lancaster, Tim

    2013-08-12

    Telephone services can provide information and support for smokers. Counselling may be provided proactively or offered reactively to callers to smoking cessation helplines. To evaluate the effect of proactive and reactive telephone support via helplines and in other settings to help smokers quit. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for studies of telephone counselling, using search terms including 'hotlines' or 'quitline' or 'helpline'. Date of the most recent search: May 2013. randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which proactive or reactive telephone counselling to assist smoking cessation was offered to smokers or recent quitters. One author identified and data extracted trials, and a second author checked them. The main outcome measure was the risk ratio for abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We selected the strictest measure of abstinence, using biochemically validated rates where available. We considered participants lost to follow-up to be continuing smokers. Where trials had more than one arm with a less intensive intervention we used only the most similar intervention without the telephone component as the control group in the primary analysis. We assessed statistical heterogeneity amongst subgroups of clinically comparable studies using the I² statistic. We considered trials recruiting callers to quitlines separately from studies recruiting in other settings. Where appropriate, we pooled studies using a fixed-effect model. We used a meta-regression to investigate the effect of differences in planned number of calls, selection for motivation, and the nature of the control condition (self help only, minimal intervention, pharmacotherapy) in the group of studies recruiting in non-quitline settings. Seventy-seven trials met the inclusion criteria. Some trials were judged to be at risk of bias in some domains but overall we did not judge the results to be at high risk of bias. Among

  2. Exercise-based smoking cessation interventions among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Ussher, Michael; Marcus, Bess H

    2013-01-01

    Although smoking rates are lower among women than men, women are less likely to quit smoking in cessation trials. This is in part due to their tendency to smoke to help prevent or mitigate negative mood/affect, depression and/or postcessation weight gain. Exercise helps to alleviate women's fear of postcessation weight gain and reduces their cessation-related mood symptoms, making it a theoretically ideal smoking cessation intervention for women. In addition, short bouts of exercise decrease cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms among temporarily abstinent smokers. However, results from exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to date have been mostly nonsignificant. This paper describes the theoretical mechanisms (psychological, behavioral, physiological and neurobiological) and practical reasons underlying our belief that exercise-based smoking cessation interventions should not yet be abandoned despite their current paucity of supporting evidence. It also presents ideas for modifying future exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to increase adherence and, as a result, more accurately evaluate the effect of exercise on smoking cessation.

  3. Increasing Rates of Tobacco Treatment Delivery in Primary Care Practice: Evaluation of the Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Sophia; Cole, Adam G; Reid, Robert D; Coja, Mustafa; Aitken, Debbie; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Gharib, Marie; Pipe, Andrew L

    2016-05-01

    We report on the effectiveness of the Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation (OMSC), a multicomponent knowledge translation intervention, in increasing the rate at which primary care providers delivered smoking cessation interventions using the 3 A's model-Ask, Advise, and Act, and examine clinic-, provider-and patient-level determinants of 3 A's delivery. We examined the effect of the knowledge translation intervention in 32 primary care practices in Ontario, Canada, by assessing a cross-sectional sample of patients before the implementation of the OMSC and a second cross-sectional sample following implementation. We used 3-level modeling (clinic, clinician, patient) to examine the main effects and predictors of 3 A's delivery. Four hundred eighty-one primary care clinicians and more than 3,500 tobacco users contributed data to the evaluation. Rates of delivery of the 3 A's increased significantly following program implementation (Ask: 55.3% vs 71.3%, P <.001; Advise: 45.5% vs 63.6%, P <.001; Act: 35.4% vs 54.4%, P <.001). The adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for the delivery of 3 A's between the pre- and post-assessments were AOR = 1.94; (95% CI, 1.61-2.34) for Ask, AOR = 1.92; (95% CI, 1.60-2.29) for Advise, and AOR = 2.03; (95% CI, 1.71-2.42) for Act. The quality of program implementation and the reason for clinic visit were associated with increased rates of 3 A's delivery. Implementation of the OMSC was associated with increased rates of smoking cessation treatment delivery. High quality implementation of the OMSC program was associated with increased rates of 3 A's delivery. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. [Brief text messaging (SMS)-delivered smoking cessation intervention for apprentices in vocational schools: a longitudinal intervention study for process and outcome evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S; Bitter, G; Hanke, M; Ulbricht, S; Meyer, C; John, U

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to test the acceptance and efficacy of an individualised text messaging (SMS)-based intervention to support smoking cessation in apprentices of vocational schools. The SMS program MyWay, which generated individualised text messages to support smoking cessation based on an online assessment and a weekly SMS assessment, was developed. The text messages were based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change and sent to the programme participants over a period of 3 months. The programme was tested in 62 school classes at 6 vocational schools in Bremen, Germany, where 1 086 apprentices participated in an online assessment addressing demographic and smoking related variables. A total of 415 persons (38%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria "daily cigarette smoking", "ownership of a cell phone" and "regular use of text messaging". Of these, 210 persons (51%) participated in the programme. A 6-month follow-up telephone interview for the evaluation of the SMS programme and the assessment of smoking-related variables could be conducted in 125 (60%) of the 210 programme participants. Compared to the baseline assessment, the smoking prevalence (7-day-point prevalence abstinence, 11%) and the intention to stop smoking (psmoked at this point in time (psmoking cessation services, this intervention approach allows us to reach a substantial part of smokers in vocational schools. The text messaging programme is promising for the support of smoking cessation in young adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Allison C; Miceli, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menth...

  6. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  7. Perceptions of smoking cessation among Glasgow's Chinese community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Spence

    2017-10-01

    Smoking-cessation services should consider the culture of this ethnic minority population to improve cessation uptake. Further investigation of this community’s needs and expectations is needed to tailor smoking-cessation interventions for Chinese immigrants in Glasgow.

  8. The public health impact of smoking and smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence that smoking cessation reduces the risk for several chronic diseases, information on the magnitude of these public health benefits is scarce. It has furthermore been suggested that smoking cessation also improves health-related quality of life, but this has not been

  9. Evaluating the efficacy of an integrated smoking cessation intervention for mental health patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metse, Alexandra P; Bowman, Jenny A; Wye, Paula; Stockings, Emily; Adams, Maree; Clancy, Richard; Terry, Margarett; Wolfenden, Luke; Freund, Megan; Allan, John; Prochaska, Judith J; Wiggers, John

    2014-07-05

    Smoking rates, and associated negative health outcomes, are disproportionately high among people with mental illness compared to the general population. Smoke-free policies within mental health hospitals can positively impact on patients' motivation and self-efficacy to address their smoking. However, without post-discharge support, preadmission smoking behaviours typically resume. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that aims to assess the efficacy of linking mental health inpatients to community-based smoking cessation supports upon discharge as a means of reducing smoking prevalence. Eight hundred participants with acute mental illness will be recruited into the randomised controlled trial whilst inpatients at one of four psychiatric inpatient facilities in the state of New South Wales, Australia. After completing a baseline interview, participants will be randomly allocated to receive either: 'Supported Care', a multimodal smoking cessation intervention; or 'Normal Care', consisting of existing hospital care only. The 'Supported Care' intervention will consist of a brief motivational interview and a package of self-help material for abstaining from smoking whilst in hospital, and, following discharge, 16 weeks of motivational telephone-based counselling, 12 weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy, and a referral to the Quitline. Data will be collected at 1, 6 and 12 months post-discharge via computer-assisted telephone interview. The primary outcomes are abstinence from smoking (7-day point prevalence and prolonged cessation), and secondary outcomes comprise daily cigarette consumption, nicotine dependence, quit attempts, and readiness to change smoking behaviour. If shown to be effective, the study will provide evidence in support of systemic changes in the provision of smoking cessation care to patients following discharge from psychiatric inpatient facilities. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZTCN: ACTRN12612001042831

  10. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindson-Hawley, Nicola; Thompson, Tom P; Begh, Rachna

    2015-03-02

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a directive patient-centred style of counselling, designed to help people to explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change. It was developed as a treatment for alcohol abuse, but may help people to a make a successful attempt to quit smoking. To determine whether or not motivational interviewing (MI) promotes smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for studies using the term motivat* NEAR2 (interview* OR enhanc* OR session* OR counsel* OR practi* OR behav*) in the title or abstract, or motivation* as a keyword. Date of the most recent search: August 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing or its variants were offered to tobacco users to assist cessation. We extracted data in duplicate. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. We counted participants lost to follow-up as continuing smoking or relapsed. We performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model. We identified 28 studies published between 1997 and 2014, involving over 16,000 participants. MI was conducted in one to six sessions, with the duration of each session ranging from 10 to 60 minutes. Interventions were delivered by primary care physicians, hospital clinicians, nurses or counsellors. Our meta-analysis of MI versus brief advice or usual care yielded a modest but significant increase in quitting (risk ratio (RR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16 to 1.36; 28 studies; N = 16,803). Subgroup analyses found that MI delivered by primary care physicians resulted in an RR of 3.49 (95% CI 1.53 to 7.94; 2 trials; N = 736). When delivered by counsellors the RR was smaller (1.25; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.63; 22 trials; N = 13,593) but MI still resulted in higher quit rates than brief advice or usual care. When we

  11. A rural Appalachian faith-placed smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Bundy, Henry E; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A; Studts, Christina R; Shelton, Brent J; Fields, Nell

    2015-04-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants' positive evaluation of the program; the program's ability to leverage social connections; the program's convenience orientation; and the program's financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation programs offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms.

  12. Smoking cessation interventions in cardiovascular patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, L. C. W.; Smets, E. M. A.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Peters, R. J. G.; Legemate, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. To review current evidence for the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in cardiovascular patient populations. Design and materials. Studies were obtained from systematic reviews of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group. Twelve Cochrane reviews related to secondary

  13. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial...

  14. The relative role of nicotine dependence and smoking-related cognitions in adolescents’ process of smoking cessation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluates the role of distinct components of nicotine dependence (craving, withdrawal, behavioural dependence) in comparison to smoking-related cognitions (attitudes, perceived social approval, self-efficacy) in adolescent smoking cessation. In the process towards smoking

  15. Evaluating an Adaptive and Interactive mHealth Smoking Cessation and Medication Adherence Program: A Randomized Pilot Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Anderson, Melissa L; Bradley, Katharine; An, Lawrence C; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-08-03

    Mobile health (mHealth) interventions hold great promise for helping smokers quit since these programs can have wide reach and facilitate access to comprehensive, interactive, and adaptive treatment content. However, the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of these programs remain largely untested. To assess feasibility and acceptability of the My Mobile Advice Program (MyMAP) smoking cessation program and estimate its effects on smoking cessation and medication adherence to inform future research planning. Sixty-six smokers ready to quit were recruited from a large regional health care system and randomized to one of two mHealth programs: (1) standard self-help including psychoeducational materials and guidance how to quit smoking or (2) an adaptive and interactive program consisting of the same standard mHealth self-help content as controls received plus a) real-time, adaptively tailored advice for managing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side-effects and b) asynchronous secure messaging with a cessation counselor. Participants in both arms were also prescribed a 12-week course of varenicline. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 2 weeks post-target quit date (TQD), 3 months post-TQD, and 5 months post-TQD. Indices of program feasibility and acceptability included acceptability ratings, utilization metrics including use of each MyMAP program component (self-help content, secure messaging, and adaptively tailored advice), and open-ended feedback from participants. Smoking abstinence and medication adherence were also assessed to estimate effects on these treatment outcomes. Utilization data indicated the MyMAP program was actively used, with higher mean program log-ins by experimental than control participants (10.6 vs 2.7, Pprogram could help other people quit smoking (22/24, 92%) and consistently take their stop-smoking medication (17/22, 97%) and would recommend the program to others (20/23, 87%). They also rated the program as

  16. Training health professionals in smoking cessation (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  17. Training health professionals in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  18. Hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke and smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Reverte Bernal, María Perpetuo Socorro; Aparicio-Erroz, Sergio; López de la Fuente, Raquel

    2003-01-01

    Smoking cessation is considered as a good solution for stroke prevention. Unfortunately, first-line therapies to reduce cigarette smoking are not always useful. Some clinical effects of these drugs are able to produce cardiovascular adverse events. El artículo trata sobre la hipertensión arterial, las enfermedades cerebrovasculares y el hecho de dejar de fumar.

  19. Tobacco control policies and socio-economic inequalities in smoking cessation : Evaluating natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Smoking has been the most important cause of death and disease throughout the world for many years. Although smoking rates have steadily decreased, this was mostly just the case among the higher educated. Many policies and interventions have been implemented to encourage adults to quit smoking, and

  20. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    -help programme; there was an increase in cessation with the use of a group programme (N = 4395, risk ratio (RR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52 to 2.33, I2 = 0%). We judged the GRADE quality of evidence to be moderate, downgraded due to there being few studies at low risk of bias. Fourteen trials compared a group programme with brief support from a health care provider. There was a small increase in cessation (N = 7286, RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.43, I2 = 59%). We judged the GRADE quality of evidence to be low, downgraded due to inconsistency in addition to risk of bias. There was also low quality evidence of benefit of a group programme compared to no-intervention controls, (9 trials, N = 1098, RR 2.60, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.76 I2 = 55%). We did not detect evidence that group therapy was more effective than a similar intensity of individual counselling (6 trials, N = 980, RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.28, I2 = 9%). Programmes which included components for increasing cognitive and behavioural skills were not shown to be more effective than same-length or shorter programmes without these components. Group therapy is better for helping people stop smoking than self-help, and other less intensive interventions. There is not enough evidence to evaluate whether groups are more effective, or cost-effective, than intensive individual counselling. There is not enough evidence to support the use of particular psychological components in a programme beyond the support and skills training normally included.

  1. [Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roberta de Paiva; Chaves, Erika de Cássia Lopes; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Silva, Andréia Maria; Moreira, Denis da Silva; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking) and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research). Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002), in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050) and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025). Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  2. Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Paiva Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Method Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research. Results Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002, in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050 and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025. Conclusion Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  3. A Workshop on Smoking Cessation for Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittoun, Renee; Saini, Bandana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students. Assessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8±9.1 and 86.4±12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9±8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8±9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation. PMID:24249860

  4. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  5. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive......, medium intensity and less intensive. Follow-up for postoperative complications was 30 days. For smoking cessation it was from the day of surgery to 12 months thereafter. Overall, the interventions significantly reduced the occurrence of complications (pooled risk ratio 0.56 (95 per cent confidence...

  6. Real world evaluation of three models of NHS smoking cessation service in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardle Tony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NHS Stop Smoking Services provide various options for support and counselling. Most services have evolved to suit local needs without any retrospective evaluation of their efficiency. Three local service evaluations were carried out at Bournemouth & Poole Teaching Primary Care Trust (PCT (PCT1, NHS South East Essex (PCT2 and NHS Warwickshire (PCT3 to describe the structure and outcomes associated with different services. Result Standardised interviews with key personnel in addition to analysis of data from 400 clients accessing the service after 1st April 2008 in each PCT. The PCTs varied in geography, population size and quit rate (47%-63%. Services were delivered by PCT-led specialist teams (PCT1, community-based healthcare providers (PCT3 and a combination of the two (PCT2 with varying resources and interventions in each. Group support resulted in the highest quit rates (64.3% for closed groups v 42.6% for one-to-one support (PCT1. Quit rates were higher for PCT (75.0% v GP (62.0% and pharmacist-delivered care (41.0% where all existed in the same model (PCT2. The most-prescribed therapy was NRT (55.8%-65.0%, followed by varenicline (24.5%-34.3%, counselling alone (6.0%-7.8% and bupropion (2.0%-4.0%. Conclusion The results suggest that service structure, method of support, healthcare professional involved and pharmacotherapy all play a role in a successful quit. Services must be tailored to support individual needs with patient choice and access to varied services being key factors.

  7. A content analysis of popular smartphone apps for smoking cessation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abroms, Lorien C; Lee Westmaas, J; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-01-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012...

  8. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; LaChance, Heather R; Kahler, Christopher W

    2008-03-01

    Because different psychopathologic components of depressive symptoms may have distinct etiologies, examining their differential effects on smoking cessation may elucidate mechanisms underlying the smoking-depression relationship. Negative affect (NA), somatic features (SF), low positive affect/anhedonia (PA), and interpersonal disturbance (IP) have been identified as unique dimensions of depression that can be measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). This study examined common and unique associations between CESD subscales and baseline smoking characteristics, nicotine withdrawal, and relapse in 157 participants enrolled in a smoking cessation trial for heavy social drinkers. Each dimension was univariately associated with negative and positive reinforcement smoking motives. Only SF had unique relations with tolerance smoking motives and univariate associations with nicotine dependence severity. Only PA predicted cessation-related changes in withdrawal symptoms on quit day. Analyses predicting abstinence at 8, 16, and 26 weeks post quit date showed that NA, SF, and PA each univariately predicted relapse, pspredicted poorer outcomes incrementally to the other dimensions, even when controlling for level of nicotine dependence, smoking frequency, and history of major depression, p = .0018. Interventions targeting anhedonia and low positive affect may be useful for smokers trying to quit.

  9. Nonjudging facet of mindfulness predicts enhanced smoking cessation in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Stewart, Diana W; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Wetter, David W

    2015-12-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations, including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age of 39 years, 77.9% with a high school education or less) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 postquit (biochemically confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficient regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting With Awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks postquit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Brown, Richard A.; LaChance, Heather R.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    Because different psychopathologic components of depressive symptoms may have distinct etiologies, examining their differential effects on smoking cessation may elucidate mechanisms underlying the smoking-depression relationship. Negative affect (NA), somatic features (SF), low positive affect/anhedonia (PA), and interpersonal disturbance (IP) have been identified as unique dimensions of depression that can be measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). This s...

  11. Smoking cessation intervention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuz, J

    2002-10-01

    Physicians are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit because of their ability to integrate the various aspects of nicotine dependence. This review provides an overview on interventions with smokers presenting in a primary care setting. Strategies used for smoking cessation counseling differ according to patient's readiness to quit. For smokers who do not intent to quit smoking, physicians should inform and sensitize patients about tobacco use and cessation, especially by personalizing benefits to quit and challenging smokers' beliefs. For smokers who are insecure, physicians should use motivational strategies, such as discussing barriers to cessation and their solutions. For smokers ready to quit, the physician should show strong support, help set a quitting date, prescribe pharmaceutical therapies for nicotine dependence, such as replacement therapy and/or bupropion, with instructions for use, and suggest behavioral strategies to prevent relapse. Copyright 2002 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  12. Alcohol consumption and smoking status: the role of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberger, Debra J; Grant, Kathleen

    2004-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among persons with alcohol dependence or abuse with as many as 80% of persons who are alcohol dependent also being smokers. Not only is smoking common in persons with heavy alcohol consumption, but also nicotine dependence appears more severe in smokers with a history of alcohol dependence. This combined exposure to both tobacco smoke and alcohol results in major health consequences including additive risks for some diseases such as head and neck cancers. Although modest alcohol consumption has some positive health benefits, smoking typically negates these benefits. The cellular mechanisms impacted by combined smoking and alcohol exposure are poorly understood, but molecular epidemiology approaches are providing insights regarding the importance of effects on oxidant/antioxidant pathways and on metabolic pathways involving the cytochrome P450 system. Given the prevalence of smoking in the alcohol dependent population, smoking cessation in this group has the potential for tremendous impact. In recent years, smoking cessation approaches have been initiated in this population, but much work remains in order to define the optimal smoking cessation strategies for persons in alcohol treatment programs.

  13. Smoking cessation counseling in Qatar: community pharmacists' attitudes, role perceptions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al Nakeeb, Reem Raad; Al-Qudah, Raja'a Ali

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem in Qatar. The potential for community pharmacists to offer smoking cessation counseling in this country can be high. To determine the current smoking cessation practices of community pharmacists in Qatar, to examine their attitudes about tobacco use and smoking cessation, to evaluate their perceptions about performing professional roles with respect to smoking cessation and to assess their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling in the pharmacy setting in Qatar. Community pharmacies in Qatar. The objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar from June 2010 to October 2010. A phone call was made to all community pharmacists in Qatar (318 pharmacists) inviting them to participate. Consenting pharmacists anonymously completed the survey either online or as paper using fax. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) Version 18. Qatar community pharmacists' smoking cessation practices, their attitudes toward tobacco use, smoking cessation and smoking cessation counseling and their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling. Over 5 months, we collected 127 surveys (40 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents reported that they always or most of the time asked their patients if they smoke. When the patients' smoking status was identified, advising quitting and assessing readiness to quit were always or most of the time performed by 66 and 52 % of respondents respectively. Only 15 % always or most of the time arranged follow-up with smokers and 22 % always or most of the time made smoking cessation referrals. Most respondents (>80 %) agreed that smoking could cause adverse health effects and that smoking cessation could decrease the risk of these effects. In addition, the majority (>80 %) believed that smoking cessation counseling was an important activity and was an efficient use of their time. The top two perceived barriers for smoking

  14. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Cahill

    found that more participants taking cytisine stopped smoking compared with placebo at longest follow-up, with a pooled RR of 3.98 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.01 to 7.87. One trial of dianicline (602 people failed to find evidence that it was effective (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.75. Fifteen trials compared varenicline with placebo for smoking cessation; three of these also included a bupropion treatment arm. We also found one open-label trial comparing varenicline plus counselling with counselling alone. We found one relapse prevention trial, comparing varenicline with placebo, and two open-label trials comparing varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. We also included one trial in which all the participants were given varenicline, but received behavioural support either online or by phone calls, or by both methods. This trial is not included in the analyses, but contributes to the data on safety and tolerability. The included studies covered 12,223 participants, 8100 of whom used varenicline. The pooled RR for continuous or sustained abstinence at six months or longer for varenicline at standard dosage versus placebo was 2.27 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.55; 14 trials, 6166 people, excluding one trial evaluating long term safety. Varenicline at lower or variable doses was also shown to be effective, with an RR of 2.09 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.78; 4 trials, 1272 people. The pooled RR for varenicline versus bupropion at one year was 1.52 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.88; 3 trials, 1622 people. The RR for varenicline versus NRT for point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks was 1.13 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.35; 2 trials, 778 people. The two trials which tested the use of varenicline beyond the 12-week standard regimen found the drug to be well-tolerated during long-term use. The main adverse effect of varenicline was nausea, which was mostly at mild to moderate levels and usually subsided over time. A meta-analysis of reported serious adverse events occurring during or after active treatment and

  15. [Smoking cessation therapy in thoracic oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, A-M; Amrioui, F; Gounant, V; Wislez, M; Bouvier, F; Cadranel, J

    2013-10-01

    In France, the number of tobacco-related deaths is estimated at 73,000 per year, including 44,000 from cancer and more than 20,000 from lung cancer (LC). Smoking cessation is the most effective measure to reduce the epidemic of LC, but it is also important in the management of patients with LC regardless on stage. In localized cancers, continuing to smoke is associated with decreased survival by increasing the risk of recurrence and of developing a second cancer. During the perioperative period, smoking cessation reduces infectious complications and length of hospitalization. At all stages of the cancer, smoking cessation improves dyspnoea and appetite, and reduces fatigue, leading to improved quality of life. Tobacco addiction causes a strong physical, psychological and behavioral dependence, explaining the high rate of recurrence at 1year of approximately 80%. Nicotine replacement therapy is indicated in cases of physical addiction to nicotine. Cognitive behavioral therapy helps the smoker to get rid of the smoking habit and is important in preventing relapse. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Counseling Is Effective for Smoking Cessation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Ingrid; Wangsmo Steffenssen, Mia Charlotte; Bakholdt, Vivi T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the efficacy of smoking cessation counseling and the resulting quit rate in patients with head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Predictor...... variables were smoking cessation counseling and smoking cessation interventions. The outcome was smoking cessation. Data collection and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 of the authors. Selected publications were assessed for potential risk of bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated...... in patients who received smoking cessation counseling compared with those who received usual care. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that counseling supplemented with nicotine replacement therapy increases the possibility for smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer....

  17. Free smoking cessation mobile apps available in Australia: a quality review and content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Birrell, Louise; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Shaw, Brad; Forbes, Erin; Deady, Mark; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-12-01

    This review aimed to identify free, high-quality, smoking cessation mobile applications (apps) that adhere to Australian smoking cessation treatment guidelines. A systematic search of smoking cessation apps was conducted using Google. The technical quality of relevant apps was rated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale. The content of apps identified as high quality was assessed for adherence to smoking cessation treatment guidelines. 112 relevant apps were identified. The majority were of poor technical quality and only six 'high-quality' apps were identified. These apps adhered to Australian treatment guidelines in part. The efficacy of two apps had been previously evaluated. In lieu of more substantial research in this area, it is suggested that the high-quality apps identified in this review may be more likely than other available apps to encourage smoking cessation. Implications for public health: Smoking cessation apps have the potential to address many barriers that prevent smoking cessation support being provided; however few high-quality smoking cessation apps are currently available in Australia, very few have been evaluated and the app market is extremely volatile. More research to evaluate smoking cessation apps, and sustained funding for evidence-based apps, is needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  19. Styles of Physician Advice about Smoking Cessation in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Leigh; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether young adult cigarette smokers who were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages of change for smoking cessation would differ in their evaluations of vignettes depicting 2 types of physician advice. Participants: Fifty-seven young adult cigarette smokers who were undergraduate students (49.1% female, mean age =…

  20. The role of gender in a smoking cessation intervention: a cluster randomized clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puente, Diana; Cabezas, Carmen; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Cebrian, Tránsito; Torrecilla, Miguel; Clemente, Lourdes; Martín, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking in Spain is high in both men and women. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of gender in the effectiveness of a specific smoking cessation intervention conducted in Spain...

  1. Outcome research methodology of smoking cessation trials (1994-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Lori B; Sobell, Linda Carter; Prevo, Melissa H; Toll, Benjamin A; Gutwein, Cindy Levin; Sobell, Mark B; Hyman, Scott M

    2004-05-01

    Although several reviews of smoking cessation trials have been published, none have specifically evaluated the adequacy of the studies' reporting practices in terms of describing the intervention and outcome variables used. This review evaluates the reporting procedures of 109 smoking cessation trials published in English language peer-reviewed publications from 1994 through 1998. MedLine and PsychLIT searches were used to identify potential studies. Each study was evaluated as to whether the following information was reported: (a) demographic characteristics, (b) pretreatment smoking variables, (c) study characteristics, (d) descriptions of the clinical trial, (e) follow-up procedures, and (f) posttreatment outcome measures. Although some areas of methodological strength were identified, inadequate reporting of pre- and posttreatment demographic and smoking variables was also evident. Based on this review, several areas in need of further research are identified and discussed. Lastly, consistent with other recent reviews of smoking cessation trials, this review concluded that the smoking field should consider delineating a uniform set of assessment and outcome measures and a minimum follow-up interval.

  2. Effectiveness of smoking cessation programs for seriously mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Linde, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have supported the significant association between mental illness and smoking habit, with relative independence of socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to review effective strategies for smoking cessation of adults with major depression, schizophrenia and psychosis. An extensive literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Center for Reviews and Dissemination, ECRI, clinicaltrials.gov, UK National Research Register, Current Controlled Trials, Trip Database, NLM Gateway, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs)), TESEO, Dialnet, Lilacs, SciELO, EMI, Doyma, and Catalogue et Index des Sites Medical Francophones. We selected all systematic reviews, comprehensive reports, clinical trials, observational studies and recommendations, which had evaluated smoking cessation programs in patients with severe mental illness. Few studies focusing on smoking cessation in severe mental illness were found. In the treatment of smokers who suffer these mental disorders, it is recommended to increase and prolong the treatment period, to implement joint psychoeducation techniques, cognitive-behavioral techniques and the use of any drug treatment that helps to control and / or reduce the occurrence of relapses in tobacco consumption or baseline psychiatric symptoms. However, there is great heterogeneity in the recommendations given by the studies. It remains unclear whether people with severe mental illness could benefit from access to smoking cessation treatments. In the best of the scenarios, it was seen that drug therapy and psychosocial interventions have indicated abstinence at 6 months for a few patients.

  3. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-01-01

    Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  5. Simulation-based smoking cessation intervention education for undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Min; Ahn, Youngmee; Park, Heami; Lee, Mijin

    2012-11-01

    Smoking is one of the most important preventable risk factors that contributes to premature death from many tobacco-related diseases. Clinicians should offer and provide effective smoking cessation interventions to their smoking patients. Yet, few clinicians receive training in smoking cessation intervention. This one-group, quasi-experimental study was conducted to describe a simulation-based training of smoking cessation intervention and to evaluate its effectiveness on nursing students' self-efficacy in performing smoking cessation intervention, based on 5-As recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, nursing students' experience, attitude and perceived barriers of smoking cessation intervention were also described. Among the 21 students (mean age: 21.6 ± 2.0 years), 86% were female, 62% were in their third year and 1% were current smokers. Most of students believed the health benefits of smoking cessation (100.0-66.7%) and were well educated about health risks of smoking (81.0-61.9%). However, few were taught (33.3-14.4%) and practiced (28.6-0.0%) smoking cessation intervention. Students reported that they should be actively involved in smoking cessation for patients (100.0-95.2%), but lack of knowledge and skills were the main barriers (90.5-85.7%). The simulation-based training of smoking cessation intervention improved nursing students' self-efficacy in seven out of nine skills of smoking cessation intervention (mean scores of pre- vs. post-intervention: 30.86 ± 3.80 vs. 34.05 ± 5.10; paired t=2.298, p=.027). These findings indicate that simulation could be effectively used in teaching smoking cessation intervention education delivered to nursing students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    interactive and individually tailored interventions to usual care or written self help detected a statistically significant effect in favour of the intervention (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.78). However all three trials were judged to be at high risk of bias in one domain and high statistical heterogeneity was detected (I² = 53%), with no obvious clinical explanation. Pooled results from two studies of an interactive, tailored intervention involving the Internet and automated phone contacts also detected a significant effect (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.97, I² = 42%). Results from a sixth study comparing an interactive but non-tailored intervention to control did not detect a significant effect, nor did the seventh study, which compared a non-interactive, non-tailored intervention to control. Three trials comparing Internet interventions to face-to-face or phone counselling also did not detect evidence of an effect, nor did two trials evaluating Internet interventions as adjuncts to other behavioural interventions. A trial in college students increased point prevalence abstinence after 30 weeks but had no effect on sustained abstinence. Two small trials in adolescents did not detect an effect on cessation compared to control.Fourteen trials, all in adult populations, compared different Internet sites or programmes. Pooled estimates from three trials that compared tailored and/or interactive Internet programmes with non-tailored, non-interactive Internet programmes did not detect evidence of an effect (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.32, I² = 0%). One trial detected evidence of a benefit from a tailored email compared to a non-tailored one, whereas a second trial comparing tailored messages to a non-tailored message did not detect evidence of an effect. Trials failed to detect a benefit of including a mood management component (three trials), or an asynchronous bulletin board. Results suggest that some Internet-based interventions can assist smoking cessation at six months or longer

  7. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline®, along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  8. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  9. Electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tool: are we there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sohini; Drummond, M Bradley

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing, with many users reporting trying e-cigarettes as a method to quit combustible cigarettes. This review highlights recently published studies assessing the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for cessation of combustible cigarettes. When evaluating data from four randomized controlled trials and multiple cohort studies, differential association between e-cigarette use and cessation rates was seen. Cessation rates are highest in UK cohort studies and in studies using a multifaceted approach, such as with the addition of varenicline. The largest evidence base is derived from observational cohort studies. Overall, the current evidence remains too small for conclusive results regarding efficacy of e-cigarettes for combustible cessation. There does appear to be a consistent reduction in daily combustible cigarette use in regular e-cigarette users. Currently, there are conflicting data which can be used to support or dismiss e-cigarettes as a tool for smoking cessation. As larger population-based studies become available, the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes will become clearer. In the short term, shared decision-making with combustible cigarette users will be imperative when considering e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool.

  10. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  11. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  12. Smoking cessation interventions and cessation rates in the oncology population: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Smriti; Gupta, Michael K; Strychowsky, Julie E; Sommer, Doron D

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate tobacco smoking cessation interventions and cessation rates in the oncology population through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature was searched using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (inception to October 2012) by 3 independent review authors. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort (PCs) studies evaluating tobacco smoking cessation interventions with patients assigned to a usual care or an intervention group. The primary outcome measure was smoking cessation rates. Two authors extracted data independently for each study. When applicable, disagreements were resolved by consensus. The systematic review identified 10 RCTs and 3 PCs. Statistical analysis was conducted using StatsDirect software (Cheshire, UK). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for smoking cessation interventions were calculated in 2 groups based on follow-up duration. The therapeutic interventions included counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion, and varenicline. Smoking cessation interventions had a pooled odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.909-2.64) for patients in the shorter follow-up group and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.931-1.84) in the longer follow-up group. Smoking cessation interventions in the perioperative period had a pooled odds ratio of 2.31 (95% CI, 1.32-4.07). Our systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that tobacco cessation interventions in the oncology population, in both the short-term and long-term follow-up groups, do not significantly affect cessation rates. The perioperative period, though, may represent an important teachable moment with regard to smoking cessation.

  13. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  15. Success of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Anick; Zhao, Jin-Ping; Sheehy, Odile

    2016-11-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a modifiable risk factor associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, low birthweight, congenital malformations, and sudden infant death syndrome. Despite the fact that it is well known that smoking can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, 13-25% of pregnant women overall continue to smoke during this critical period. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of gestational use of bupropion and nicotine patch replacement therapy on the risk of the following: (1) smoking cessation, (2) prematurity, and (3) small for gestational age. Women included in the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort who filled the annual autoadministered questionnaire between Jan. 1, 1998, and June 30, 2009, were studied. Smokers before gestation with a pregnancy resulting in a live birth comprised the study population. Three mutually exclusive study groups were formed among those who smoked at the beginning of pregnancy: gestational users of nicotine patch replacement therapy, bupropion, and smokers who did not use nicotine patch replacement therapy or bupropion. Rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy as well as the risk of prematurity and small for gestational age were studied. Of the 1288 women who met inclusion criteria, 900 were smokers, 72 were bupropion users, and 316 were nicotine patch replacement therapy users. Bupropion and nicotine patch replacement therapy use during pregnancy were associated with higher rates of smoking cessation: 81% in the bupropion group; 79% for nicotine patch replacement therapy; and 0% in those not using buproprion or nicotine patch replacement therapy. After discontinuing smoking cessation medications, 60% of bupropion users and 68% of nicotine patch replacement therapy users did not smoke again during and after pregnancy. Adjusting for potential confounders, nicotine patch replacement therapy use was associated with a lower

  16. Nicotine addiction and smoking cessation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kourakos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco was first reported in the 6th century BC, but the 20th century has been marked by the widespread use of tobacco and the establishment and expansion of large tobacco companies. The public health community did not address initially smoking as harmful and addictive, despite the fact that many other observers of human behavior (authors, psychologists, religious leaders had stressed out its addictive characteristics. In the late 1980s, the acceptance of the addictive nature of tobacco resulted in development of healthcare services aiming at supporting people quit smoking and legislation regarding sale, distribution and advertising of tobacco products. Nicotine dependence is a chronic condition for which effective therapeutic interventions are required. Smokers, unlike other substances addicts, do not recognize their addiction and the nicotine withdrawal syndrome that they experience. For establishing the degree of dependence various tools can be used, such as the method of the 4 Cs (compulsion, control, cutting down, consequences or validated questionnaires (CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine. The main smoking cessation strategies use replacement therapy with various products (patch, gum, etc, medications (bupropion, varenicline and/or counseling. These interventions are clinically efficient but also cost-effective, compared to prevention and treatment of diseases associated with smoking. Smoking cessation interventions should be offered to every smoker and provided by their health insurance.

  17. Corporate smoking cessation on Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco addiction is a treatable health care problem. Employers are experiencing major annual increases in the cost of providing health insurance benefits. The expenditures due to smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to the escalating cost of employer-sponsored health and life benefit plans. An initiative that employers have adopted to help control increases in health care costs as well as improve the lifestyle of employees is the establishment of corporate wellness programs. Programs that promote healthy lifestyles and wellness are connected to the principle that a happy and healthy worker will be more effective and productive. Another dividend of corporate wellness programs is higher employee retention and better employee morale. An earlier study investigated the impact of wellness programs for Long Island employers. One of the major findings of that research was the confirmation of the prevalence of smoking cessation initiatives as components of the successful wellness programs. This article, through analysis of a follow-up survey, confirms that corporate smoking cessation programs have a significant return on investment. Further, the analysis identifies the components of the cessation programs and measures the relative impact of each element.

  18. Smoking cessation and the cardiovascular patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-09-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Our review highlights research from 2013 to 2015 on the treatment of cigarette smoking, with a focus on heart patients and cardiovascular outcomes. Seeking to maximize the reach and effectiveness of existing cessation medications, current tobacco control research has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of combination treatment, extended use, reduce-to-quit strategies, and personalized approaches to treatment matching. Further, cytisine has gained interest as a lower-cost strategy for addressing the global tobacco epidemic. On the harm reduction front, snus and electronic nicotine delivery systems are being widely distributed and promoted with major gaps in knowledge of the safety of long-term and dual use. Quitlines, comparable in outcome to in-person treatment, make cessation counseling available on a national scale, though use rates remain relatively low. Employee reward programs are gaining attention given the high costs of tobacco use to employers; sustaining quit rates postpayment, however, has proven challenging. Evidence-based cessation treatments exist. Broader dissemination, adoption, and implementation are key to addressing the tobacco epidemic. The cardiology team has a professional obligation to advance tobacco control efforts and can play an important role in achieving a smoke-free future.

  19. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria; Kraemer Thomas; Rust Kristina; Schaub Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessa...

  20. Osteopathic Medical Student Administered Smoking Cessation Counseling is an Effective Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Barbara; Chez, Ariel; Carpenter, Taissia; Hubert, Laura; Hewan-Lowe, Lissa; Ozcan, Asli; Sahni, Sonu

    2016-04-01

    Physician counseling on the risks of tobacco smoking and the benefits of cessation has been shown to be an effective method of increasing the rate of smoking cessation. Using the "Help Your Patients Quit Smoking: A Coaching Guide" also referred to as the "7A's of Smoking Cessation" guideline from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is thought to be effective to convey the importance of smoking cessation. To study the efficacy of the "7A's of Smoking Cessation" guideline counseling conducted by osteopathic medical students. Osteopathic medical students were trained to counsel smokers for 3-10 min based on New York City Department of Health's "7A's of Smoking Cessation" guidelines by a licensed physician. Students then counseled health fair participants who were cigarette smokers for 3-10 min. Postcounseling, participants were administered an 4 question survey to evaluate the effect counseling had on their desire to quit smoking. Survey data were collected and analyzed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. A total of 13 anonymous health fair participants who were also smokers were administered both counseling sessions and surveys. 11/13 (84.6%) participants stated that the session motivated them to quit smoking. 9/13 (69.2%) participants responded that they were now motivated to discuss smoking cessation with their doctor after being counseled. Of these participants 12/13 (92.3%) had previously attempted to quit smoking without success. Participants reported an increased willingness to stop smoking after being counseled by osteopathic medical students. Participants also reported an increased motivation to discuss smoking cessation with their physician. These findings indicate that smoking cessation counseling administered by osteopathic medical students effectively in encouraging smokers to consider reduction or cessation of tobacco use.

  1. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP) trial: a randomised controlled trial of physical activity for smoking cessation in pregnancy with an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Lewis, Sarah; Aveyard, Paul; Manyonda, Isaac; West, Robert; Lewis, Beth; Marcus, Bess; Riaz, Muhammad; Taylor, Adrian H; Barton, Pelham; Daley, Amanda; Essex, Holly; Esliger, Dale; Coleman, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the main preventable cause of poor birth outcomes. Improved methods are needed to help women to stop smoking during pregnancy. Pregnancy provides a compelling rationale for physical activity (PA) interventions as cessation medication is contraindicated or ineffective, and an effective PA intervention could be highly cost-effective. To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a PA intervention plus standard behavioural support for smoking cessation relative to behavioural support alone for achieving smoking cessation at the end of pregnancy. Multicentre, two-group, pragmatic randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation with follow-up at the end of pregnancy and 6 months postnatally. Randomisation was stratified by centre and a computer-generated sequence was used to allocate participants using a 1 : 1 ratio. 13 hospitals offering antenatal care in the UK. Women between 10 and 24 weeks' gestation smoking five or more cigarettes a day before pregnancy and one or more during pregnancy. Participants were randomised to behavioural support for smoking cessation (control) or behavioural support plus a PA intervention consisting of supervised treadmill exercise plus PA consultations. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was self-reported, continuous smoking abstinence between a quit date and end of pregnancy, validated by expired carbon monoxide and/or salivary cotinine. Secondary outcomes were maternal weight, depression, birth outcomes, withdrawal symptoms and urges to smoke. The economic evaluation investigated the costs of the PA intervention compared with the control intervention. In total, 789 women were randomised (n = 394 PA, n = 395 control). Four were excluded post randomisation (two had been enrolled twice in sequential pregnancies and two were ineligible and randomised erroneously). The intention-to-treat analysis comprised 785 participants (n

  2. Smoking status and smoking cessation intervention among U.S. adults hospitalized for asthma exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Jane C; Hasegawa, Kohei; Probst, Beatrice D; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Silverman, Robert A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    In a previous multicenter study during 1999-2000, we found a high prevalence of smoking among patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbations (35%) and suboptimal smoking cessation efforts. There have been no recent multicenter efforts to examine the smoking status and implementation of smoking cessation efforts among patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and the proportion and characteristics of patients who received an inpatient smoking cessation intervention. We conducted a secondary analysis of a 25-center observational study, which included 597 U.S. adults hospitalized for asthma exacerbation during 2012-2013. Among the analytic cohort, 215 (36%) were current smokers. In the multivariable model, compared with patients with private health insurance, those with public health insurance (odds ratio [OR] 1.71 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.06-2.77]) or no health insurance (OR 1.75 [95% CI, 1.02-2.99]) were more likely to be current smokers. By contrast, patients with a previous evaluation by an asthma specialist in the past 12 months (OR 0.49 [95% CI, 0.28-0.86]) and use of inhaled corticosteroids (OR 0.63 [95% CI, 0.43-0.93]) were less likely to be current smokers. Among current smokers, only 55% received smoking cessation interventions during their hospitalization. In the multivariable model, current smokers who had public health insurance (OR 0.25 [95% CI, 0.07-0.82]) or no health insurance (OR 0.26 [95% CI, 0.07-0.94]) were less likely to receive inpatient smoking cessation interventions compared with those with private health insurance. Our findings showed a persistently high prevalence of smokers among U.S. patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbations and an underutilized opportunity to provide this at-risk population with smoking cessation interventions.

  3. Inpatient smoking cessation therapy: truth or dare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Gabriela; Schroeder, Yvonne; Schoberberger, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to answer the question to which extent even very heavy nicotine-dependent smokers can benefit from a 3-week inpatient smoking cessation program. A particular focus lies on analyzing the positive effects, which go above and beyond normally anticipated health benefits. This is a descriptive study observing 270 patients over a 1-year period consisting of recruitment, therapy, and two post-therapy follow-up visits at 6-month interval. Gender differences, changes in body weight, and factors relating to addiction and the nicotine withdrawal process are analyzed. In comparing successful participants-post-therapy nonsmokers-with less successful ones, our analysis identifies benefits and advantages an inpatient smoking cessation therapy can bring to even the heaviest smokers. At the 12-month post-therapy follow-up visit, 42.6% of participants were identified as nonsmokers. A total of 34.0% of participants took up smoking again. No data is available on the remaining participants. Nonsmokers experienced significant reduction in nicotine craving and withdrawal symptoms. In terms of body weight, increases were found in both, men and women, nonsmokers and smokers. Successful quitters fail to report of an unbearable strong desire to smoke. Such unfounded fear should be communicated. Weight gain remains an undesired side effect. Hence, it is crucial to diagnose individuals more prone to weight gain and offer coping strategies thus reducing the risk of developing obesity. Nevertheless, the outcome of the study should be an encouragement to also heavy smokers and empower them to undertake smoking cessation.

  4. Impact of Smoking Cessation Counseling Prior to Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Sina; Nguyen, Long-Co; Chan, Vanessa; Saleh, Jamal; Bozic, Kevin J

    2017-03-01

    Perioperative smoking has been linked to surgical complications including poor wound healing, infection, myocardial infarction, prolonged length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation, and death. This study evaluated the effectiveness of preoperative counseling on smoking cessation for patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty. Thirty smokers with hip or knee osteoarthritis seeking hip or knee replacement surgery were enrolled prospectively. Interventions included counseling, referrals to smoking cessation programs including the California Smokers' Helpline and the Fontana Tobacco Treatment Program, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or instructing patients quit through the "cold turkey" method of abstinence. Patients were scheduled for surgery if they demonstrated abstinence from smoking, confirmed via expired carbon monoxide (CO) breath testing. Short- and long-term smoking cessation rates were evaluated. Thirty patients were enrolled; 21 patients (70%) passed the CO test, whereas 9 patients (30%) failed or did not follow up with a CO test. Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) quit using the "cold turkey" method, 5 of 21 patients (24%) quit using NRT, and 3 of 21 patients (14%) quit using outpatient treatment programs. Eighteen of 21 patients (86%) who quit smoking underwent surgery, and 14 patients had surgery within 6 months of smoking abstinence. Nine of the 14 patients (64%) remained smoke-free 6 months postoperatively confirmed through telephone questionnaire. These results suggest that elective surgery offers a strong incentive for patients to quit smoking, and surgeons can play a role offering a teachable moment and motivating this potentially life-altering behavioral change. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e323-e328.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. A Proactive Smoking Cessation Intervention for Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers: The Role of Smoking-Related Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Patrick; Fu, Steven S; Nelson, David; Clothier, Barbara; Saul, Jessie E; Widome, Rachel; Danan, Elisheva R; Burgess, Diana J

    2017-04-08

    Smoking de-normalization has been paralleled by reduced smoking prevalence, but smoking rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations remain high. The social unacceptability of smoking has also led to increased perceptions of smoking-related stigma. By examining how smoking stigma influences cessation intervention effectiveness, we can better tailor interventions to socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Data are from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a proactive cessation intervention on abstinence. Current smokers enrolled in Minnesota Health Care Programs were randomized to proactive outreach (n=1200) or usual care (n=1206). The intervention included mailings, telephone outreach, counseling, and access to free cessation treatments. Using baseline measurements, groups with lower (n=1227) and higher (n=1093) perceived stigma were formed. Intervention, stigma, and their interaction term were added to a logistic regression modeling abstinence at 12-months. Lower perceived smoking-related stigma was associated with less support for quitting, lower rates of physician quitting advice, and less motivation for quitting. A logistic regression modeling abstinence found a significant intervention x stigma interaction. The proactive intervention was more effective among smokers with lower perceived smoking-related stigma (OR 1.94, 95% CI, 1.29-2.92) than those with higher perceived smoking-related stigma (OR 1.04, 95% CI, 0.70-1.55). Smokers with lower perceived smoking-related stigma had social environments that were conducive to smoking, received less physician advice to quit and were less motivated to quit than higher stigma smokers. Despite these barriers, the intervention was more effective for lower stigma smokers, suggesting that proactive outreach is an efficient treatment for these hard-to-reach smokers. Smoking de-normalization has led to increased perceptions of smoking-related stigma among many smokers; however, little is

  6. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  7. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... behaviour was evaluated from questionnaires at baseline and at follow up 10 years later. SETTING: County of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 2554 subjects from the original sample of 4581 were successfully followed. This study deals with the 1365 subjects who were smokers at the first examination. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption...

  8. The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and Mobile Data Collection to Evaluate Smoking Cessation for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squiers, Linda; Brown, Derick; Parvanta, Sarah; Dolina, Suzanne; Kelly, Bridget; Dever, Jill; Southwell, Brian G; Sanders, Amy; Augustson, Erik

    2016-06-27

    Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been shown to be effective in delivering interventions for various diseases and health conditions, including smoking cessation. While there are many published studies regarding smoking cessation text messaging interventions, most do not provide details about the study's operational methods. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how best to design studies of smoking cessation text messaging programs. The purpose of this paper is to detail the operational methods used to conduct a randomized trial comparing three different versions of the National Cancer Institute's SmokefreeText (SFTXT) program, designed for smokers 18 to 29 years of age. We detail our methods for recruiting participants from the Internet, reducing fraud, conducting online data collection, and retaining panel study participants. Participants were recruited through website advertisements and market research online panels. Screening questions established eligibility for the study (eg, 18 to 29 years of age, current smoker). Antifraud measures screened out participants who could not meet the study requirements. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to one of three study arms, which varied by type and timing of text message delivery. The study offered US $20 gift cards as incentives to complete each of four follow-up surveys. Automated email reminders were sent at designated intervals to increase response rates. Researchers also provided telephone reminders to those who had not completed the survey after multiple email reminders. We calculated participation rates across study arms and compared the final sample characteristics to the Current Population Survey to examine generalizability. Recruitment methods drove 153,936 unique visitors to the SFTXT Study landing page and 27,360 began the screener. Based on the screening questions, 15,462 out of 27,360 responders (56.51%) were eligible to participate. Of the 15

  9. Mining twitter to understand the smoking cessation barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-26

    Smoking cessation is challenging and lack of positive support is a known major barrier to quitting cigarettes. Previous studies have suggested that social influences might increase smokers' awareness of social norms for appropriate behavior, which might lead to smoking cessation. Although social media use is increasing among young adults in the United States, research on the relationship between social media use and smoking cessation is lacking. Twitter has provided a rich source of information for researchers, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in smoking cessation research. To the best of our knowledge, this study conducted a data mining analysis of Twitter to assess barriers to smoking cessation. In conclusion, Twitter is a cost-effective tool with the potential to disseminate information on the benefits of smoking cessation and updated research to the Twitter community on a global scale.

  10. Smoking cessation in smoke-free prisons: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djachenko, Ashleigh; St John, Winsome; Mitchell, Creina

    2016-12-19

    Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres. Grounded theory methodology was applied to construct a theory of the processes of smoking cessation. Findings The constructed theory was named Engaging with Quitting. In this model, prisoners proceed through a cycle of evaluations, adjustments and reflections on their reality as related to the smoke-free prison. The study gives first-hand accounts of the prisoners' use (and abuse) of nicotine replacement therapy. Three personality typologies emerged from the data: The Angry Smoker, the Shifting Opportunist and the Optimistic Quitter. Research limitations/implications This qualitative study makes no claim of generalisability and cannot be taken to represent all prisoners. Females, youths and culturally diverse prisoners were not represented in the sample. Practical implications Smoking cessation in prisons must be recognised as an ongoing process, rather than a discrete event. A coordinated approach between custodial and health authorities is required to minimise maladaptive coping strategies. Originality/value This study provides a descriptive account of the processes prisoners undertake during involuntary smoking cessation and has described the manner in which prisoners manufacture home-made tobacco from nicotine patches. The study has produced an original theory named Engaging with Quitting.

  11. Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F

    2017-03-31

    Individual counselling from a smoking cessation specialist may help smokers to make a successful attempt to stop smoking. The review addresses the following hypotheses:1. Individual counselling is more effective than no treatment or brief advice in promoting smoking cessation.2. Individual counselling is more effective than self-help materials in promoting smoking cessation.3. A more intensive counselling intervention is more effective than a less intensive intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for studies with counsel* in any field in May 2016. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials with at least one treatment arm consisting of face-to-face individual counselling from a healthcare worker not involved in routine clinical care. The outcome was smoking cessation at follow-up at least six months after the start of counselling. Both authors extracted data in duplicate. We recorded characteristics of the intervention and the target population, method of randomization and completeness of follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. In analysis, we assumed that participants lost to follow-up continued to smoke. We expressed effects as a risk ratio (RR) for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and the GRADE approach. We identified 49 trials with around 19,000 participants. Thirty-three trials compared individual counselling to a minimal behavioural intervention. There was high-quality evidence that individual counselling was more effective than a minimal contact control (brief advice, usual care, or provision of self-help materials) when pharmacotherapy was not offered to any participants (RR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 to 1.77; 27 studies, 11,100 participants; I 2 = 50%). There was

  12. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one

  13. Design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a culturally tailored versus standard community-based smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Li, Chien-Ching; Vargas, Maria C; King, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Smoking prevalence rates among the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are significantly higher than the general population. However, there is limited research on smoking cessation treatments in this group, particularly on culturally targeted interventions. Moreover, there are few interventions that address culturally specific psychosocial variables (e.g., minority stress) that may influence outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based smoking cessation program, Courage to Quit, against a culturally tailored version for LGBT smokers, and examines the role of culturally specific psychosocial variables on cessation outcomes. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally targeted versus standard smoking cessation intervention, the study utilizes a 2-arm block, randomized, control trial (RCT) design. Adult LGBT participants (n = 400) are randomized to one of the two programs each consisting of a six-session group program delivered in a community center and an eight week supply of the transdermal nicotine patch. Four individualized telephone counseling sessions occur at weeks 2, 5, 7, and 9, at times of greatest risk for relapse. Study outcome measures are collected at baseline, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post quit date. Primary outcomes are expired air carbon monoxide verified 7-day point-prevalence quit rates at each measurement period. Secondary outcomes assess changes in cravings, withdrawal symptoms, smoking cessation self-efficacy, and treatment adherence. Additionally, study staff examines the role of culturally specific psychosocial variables on cessation outcomes using path analysis. Determining the efficacy of culturally specific versus standard evidence based approaches to smoking cessation is a critical issue facing the field today. This study provides a model for the development and implementation of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for LGBT

  14. [Progression of coronary sclerosis after smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, P; Amende, I

    1994-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, but whether cessation of heavy smoking influences progression of coronary artery disease is unclear. In 390 patients (359 men, 31 women; 52.4 +/- 6.7 SD years) with coronary artery disease, two coronary angiograms were performed at an interval of 62.4 +/- 23.5 months. Smoking habits were obtained by questionnaires. Progression of coronary artery disease was defined as the sum of new stenoses, progression of existing stenoses and new coronary occlusions. Multivariate classification analyses of risk factor profile revealed cigarette smoking (amount per day and length of time) as the most relevant factor for progression of coronary artery disease. Non-smokers had a progression score of 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-1.28) over the observation period. Former smokers (20.2 +/- 11.8 cigarettes/day for 19.4 +/- 7.6 years) who quit about 10 years before the first angiogram showed a progression of 2.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.77-2.63; p < 0.01) compared to non-smokers. Those smokers (23.8 +/- 9.2 cigarettes/day for 31.3 +/- 7.0 years) who quit at the time of the first angiogram showed a progression of 2.47 (95% confidence interval: 1.97-2.97; p < 0.001). Current smokers (20.5 +/- 9.7 cigarettes/day for 34.8 +/- 8.5 years) had a progression of 3.17 (95% confidence interval: 2.35-3.99; p < 0.001). The data indicate that former heavy cigarette smoking continues to act as a significant risk factor for progression of coronary artery disease even after cessation. This does not mean that current cigarette smokers should not stop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. A review of smartphone apps for smoking cessation available in Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Ervilha, Rafaela Russi; Machado, Nathália Munck; Andrade, Bárbara Any Bianchi Bottaro de; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2017-03-09

    Smartphone apps are being developed as a complement to smoking cessation treatment. The current study aimed to analyze the content of available apps in Portuguese in two operational systems, Android and iOS. Fifty-one apps were found in iTunes and 600 in Google Play. Content evaluation included apps that focused on smoking cessation, with a total of 12 apps in iOS and 3 in Android. Each app was categorized according to its approach to smoking cessation and scored according to level of adherence to the Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence smoking cessation treatment guideline. Nine apps were classified as calendars, 8 as information tools, 6 as calculators, 3 as cigarette trackers, and 1 as hypnosis. The apps showed low level of adherence to the guideline, with a mean score of 12.8. We recommend that the available apps be revised and that future apps be developed using evidence-based practices for smoking cessation.

  16. MassBuilt: effectiveness of an apprenticeship site-based smoking cessation intervention for unionized building trades workers

    OpenAIRE

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Krieger, Nancy; Sorensen, Glorian; Li, Yi; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Blue-collar workers are difficult to reach and less likely to successfully quit smoking. The objective of this study was to test a training site-based smoking cessation intervention. Methods This study is a randomized-controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention that integrated occupational health concerns and was delivered in collaboration with unions to apprentices at 10 sites (n?=?1,213). We evaluated smoking cessation at 1 and 6?months post-intervention. Results The base...

  17. Medicaid Coverage of Smoking Cessation Counseling and Medication Is Underutilized for Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Jacobson, Lisette T; Shireman, Theresa I

    2017-05-01

    Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013. We analyzed the number of pregnant women who received physician-provided smoking cessation counseling indicated by procedure billing codes (ie, G0436 and G0437) and medication (ie, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline) located in outpatient managed care encounter and fee-for-service claims data. We estimated the number of Medicaid-insured pregnant smokers using the national smoking prevalence (14%) in this population and the number of live births reported in Kansas. Annually from 2010 to 2013, approximately 27.2%-31.6% of pregnant smokers had claims for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline. Excluding claims for bupropion, a medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, claims ranged from 9.3% to 11.1%. Following implementation of Medicaid coverage for smoking cessation counseling, less than 1% of estimated smokers had claims for counseling. This low claims rate suggests that simply changing policy is not sufficient to ensure use of newly implemented benefits, and that there probably remain critical gaps in smoking cessation treatment. This study evaluates the use of Medicaid reimbursement for smoking cessation counseling among low-income pregnant women in Kansas. We describe the Medicaid claims rates of physician-provided smoking cessation counseling for pregnant women, an evidence-based and

  18. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    .003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts......BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effect of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention regimen on a number of pregnant smokers. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was designed where participants were allocated to intervention or control based on their birth date. The study included 647...... pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...

  19. Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Lauren E; O'Dell, Katie A; Schepers, Jacqueline S

    2012-12-01

    Electronic cigarettes have gained popularity among patients as a smoking cessation aid despite not being approved or supported for this purpose by the United States Food and Drug Administration due to concerns with poor manufacturing practices and the presence of known carcinogens in the limited products that they tested. A few studies have evaluated the effects of electronic cigarettes on plasma nicotine levels and heart rate but found negligible effects. Safety data are mainly limited to surveys in which patients report only minor side effects, such as mouth and throat irritation, headache, vertigo, and nausea. The efficacy of electronic cigarettes has been evaluated in studies in which patients report great success with being able to cut back or stop tobacco cigarette consumption. However, many of these studies introduce bias due to recruiting on e-cigarette Web sites and having tobacco cigarette use self-reported by the participant rather than objectively tested. A few studies have formally evaluated nicotine craving when using electronic cigarettes with mixed results. Although patients support the use of electronic cigarettes in smoking cessation, more formal studies on safety and efficacy should be completed in order to determine whether these products have a role in smoking cessation.

  20. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking cessa...... cessation program, initiated during the acute hospitalization period and carried out for six weeks, could reduce the number of complications following emergency surgical treatment of fractures....

  1. Best Practices for Smoking Cessation Interventions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McIvor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than one-half offer adjunct support to patients.

  2. Associations of duration of smoking cessation and cumulative smoking exposure with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernando O; Cota, Luís O M; Lages, Eugênio J P; Cyrino, Renata M; Oliveira, Alcione M S D; Oliveira, Peterson A D; Cortelli, José R

    2013-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations of cumulative smoking exposure and duration of smoking cessation with periodontitis and evaluated the effects of biological, behavioral, and social risk variables on these associations. The sample comprised 705 adults of both sexes (age, 35-65 years) who underwent a full-mouth periodontal examination. Subjects were classified according to smoking status as nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers, and univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate associations between periodontitis prevalence and potential risk variables. The rates of periodontitis among nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers were 25.6%, 29.3%, and 45.1% respectively. After adjusting for other periodontal risk variables the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for periodontitis was 3.09 (1.98-4.92) for former smokers and 5.24 (2.61-8.97) for current smokers. A significant dose-response relationship between pack-years of smoking and periodontitis prevalence was observed, as was a significant decrease in the risk of periodontitis as years of smoking cessation increased. Cumulative smoking exposure and duration of smoking cessation were significantly associated with periodontitis.

  3. Factors Affecting Korean Registered Nurses' Intention to Implement Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Nurses have been identified as an instrumental partner in tobacco reduction. This study aimed to examine factors affecting Korean nurses' intention to implement smoking cessation intervention in Busan, Korea. Methods The participants were a total of 215 Korean registered nurses. A self-administered questionnaire evaluated predisposing factors, motivational factors (attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy) and intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. Data were analyzed by t tests, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 28.12 ± 5.72 years. The majority of the participants were staff nurses (85.6%), and 64.2% of the sample had smoking cessation intervention included perceived barrier of smoking cessation intervention (β = −0.128, p = 0.023), willingness to receive smoking cessation training (β = 0.123, p = 0.034), more positive attitude (β = 0.203, p = 0.002), higher social influence (β = 0.292, p smoking cessation intervention (β = 0.151, p = 0.021), which explained 45% of the total variance of intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. Conclusion Attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy towards smoking cessation intervention had a significant positive influence in determining the intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. These findings can be used to develop evidence-based smoking cessation training programs for nurses in Korea. The programs should aim for positive attitude, higher social influence, and higher self-efficacy in hospital settings. PMID:26981345

  4. Reversal of Smoking Effects on Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katie M; Hoehle, Lloyd; Bergmark, Regan W; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-10-01

    Objective To understand whether the impact of smoking on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is reversible after smoking cessation. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic tertiary care rhinology clinic. Subjects and Methods A total of 103 former-smoker CRS patients and 103 nonsmoker CRS patients were prospectively recruited. The primary outcome measure was sinonasal symptom severity measured with the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22), and secondary outcome measures were general health-related quality of life (QOL) measured with the 5-dimensional EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS) and patient-reported CRS-related antibiotic and oral corticosteroid usage in the past year. Outcome measures were compared between cohorts and checked for association with time since cessation of smoking for former smokers. Results Compared with nonsmokers, former smokers had worse SNOT-22 score ( P = .019) and EQ-5D VAS score ( P = .001) and reported using more CRS-related antibiotics ( P = .003) and oral corticosteroids in the past year ( P = .013). In former smokers, every year was associated with a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 score (β = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.05; P = .032), EQ-5D VAS score (β = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.02-0.91; P = .046), and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use (relative risk = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .001). Given the differences in our study outcome measures between former smokers and nonsmokers, we estimate that the reversible impacts of smoking on CRS may resolve after 10 to 20 years. Conclusions CRS patients who are former smokers have worse sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related medication usage than nonsmokers. Every year since cessation of smoking is associated improvements in sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use, potentially reaching nonsmoker levels after 10 to 20 years.

  5. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    rates during pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention group (14%) than in the group receiving usual care (5.0%) (p test). Cotinine-validated cessation rates during pregnancy were significantly higher among the former (7%) than the latter (2%) (p = 0...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation.......003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts...

  6. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  7. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  8. The role of employers in facilitating smoking cessation ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Many of the drivers felt that their employers had a role to play in encouraging smoking cessation among staff. The University authorities should build on this and take specific steps to institute a comprehensive workplace antitobacco policy which includes smoking cessation interventions to assist staff who

  9. Smoking Cessation 1 Year or More: Experiences of Successful Quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPiazza, Jennifer T; Naegle, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focused on the experience of maintaining cessation for a year or longer, and recidivism rates for smoking cessation are estimated at 50% to 97%. As cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a critical need for more knowledge about maintaining smoking cessation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the lived experience of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation for a year or more. Using Streubert's nurse-developed descriptive phenomenological method, seven adults who sustained cessation for 1.5 to 18 years, after repeated relapses, were interviewed about their experience of sustaining cessation. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and a reflexive journal. Phenomenological analysis involved dwelling intensely with the data, extracting parts of the transcript, and identifying codes and themes, defined by Streubert as essences, common to all participants' descriptions of the experience of sustained cessation. Through this inductive process, the investigator ascertained relationships among the essences, forming the basis for a formalized, exhaustive description of the experience. Six essences captured participants' experiences of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation: (a) breaking free, (b) developing an olfactory aversion, (c) reframing, (d) learning through relapse, (e) reclaiming acceptance, and (f) self-transformation. The findings suggest that maintaining cessation for a year or more is shaped by biological, psychological, and social conditions, as reflected in the essences. The essences coalesced to a tipping point of motivation and conditions leading to sustained behavior change, allowing participants to maintain cessation.

  10. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  11. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.

  12. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The

  13. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.

  14. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking...

  15. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  16. Study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating efficacy of a smoking cessation e-‘Tabac Info Service’: ee-TIS trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, L; Bergman, P; Le Faou, Al; Vincent, I; Le Maitre, B; Pasquereau, A; Arwidson, P; Thomas, D; Alla, F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A French national smoking cessation service, Tabac Info Service, has been developed to provide an adapted quitline and a web and mobile application involving personalised contacts (eg, questionnaires, advice, activities, messages) to support smoking cessation. This paper presents the study protocol of the evaluation of the application (e-intervention Tabac Info Service (e-TIS)). The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of e-TIS. The secondary objectives are to (1) describe efficacy variations with regard to users' characteristics, (2) analyse mechanisms and contextual conditions of e-TIS efficacy. Methods and analyses The study design is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial including a process evaluation with at least 3000 participants randomised to the intervention or to the control arm (current practices). Inclusion criteria are: aged 18 years or over, current smoker, having completed the online consent forms, possessing a mobile phone with android or apple systems and using mobile applications, wanting to stop smoking sooner or later. The primary outcome is the point prevalence abstinence of 7 days at 6 months later. Data will be analysed in intention to treat (primary) and per protocol analyses. A logistic regression will be carried out to estimate an OR (95% CI) for efficacy. A multivariate multilevel analysis will explore the influence on results of patients' characteristics (sex, age, education and socioprofessional levels, dependency, motivation, quit experiences) and contextual factors, conditions of use, behaviour change techniques. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was reviewed by the ethical and deontological institutional review board of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance on 18 April 2016. The findings of this study will allow us to characterise the efficacy of e-TIS and conditions of its efficacy. These findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed articles. Trial registration

  17. Two-Years Follow-up Results of a Smoking Cessation Clinic in a State Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Deniz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the data and success of a smoking cessation clinic in a secondary state hospital. Secondarily, the study aimed to compare the cessation rates of patients using varenicline and bupropion. Methods: A total of 251 patients, admitted to our smoking cessation clinic were retrospectively evaluated. The smoking cessation clinic was run one day every week and included a 35-min presentation on smoking cessation and face-to-face interviews with every patient who attended the clinic. Monthly control visits were conducted, and after 2 years all the patients were asked about their smoking status via a phone call. Results: A total of 152 out of the 251 patients, namely those who were successfully contacted, were included in the study. The average age of the study population was 46.2±11.2 (18–69, and 81 (53.3% were female. The average nicotine dependence level was 5.8±2.3. The nicotine dependence levels and the amount of current cigarette consumption in one day were higher in the varenicline group (p=0.003 and p=0.002, respectively, whereas the duration of treatment was lower (p=0.009. Among all the patients, the average smoking cessation rate was 61.2% in 6 months, 34.2% in 12 months, 18.4% in 18 months, and 5.3% in 24 months. There were no differences in smoking cessation rates between the varenicline and bupropion groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: An effective success in smoking cessation was observed with the combined use of behavioral and pharmacological modalities. Intensive behavioral interventions and treatment and follow up for longer durations, particularly for patients with risk factors for relapse, can increase the success of smoking cessation clinics.

  18. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... The study also provides knowledge about the intervention in the STOP-OP study and will help guide the design of future smoking and alcohol cessation studies aimed at cancer patients undergoing surgery....

  19. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Healing and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-14

    1~] conc;lucted a literature review on the effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal surgical interventions and found all but one study showed... interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012. 5: p. Cd001837. 18. Fini, M., et al. , Harmful...following fracture: a systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2014. 96(8): p. 674-81. Nasell, H., et al., Effect of smoking cessation intervention on

  20. Applying the performance partnership model to smoking cessation: lessons learned by the smoking cessation leadership center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Connie C; Meriwether, Margaret B

    2011-11-01

    A wide array of partners can be convened around a single measurable outcome, such as driving down smoking prevalence, through the use of an innovative approach called the performance partnership model. This approach has certain key characteristics that make it different from ordinary coalition building, such as following four steps leading to a baseline, a target, an action plan, and an impact measurement plan. It also employs great speed and focus to keep partners engaged, and it has led to demonstrable progress on smoking cessation nationwide.

  1. Effects of Smoking Cessation Media and Community Campaigns in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Sung, Hai-Yen; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Feng, Tzung-Yee; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of a smoking cessation campaign. Data from the 2010-2011 Taiwan Adult Tobacco Surveys were analyzed. The study was set among a nationally representative sample of adults in Taiwan. The surveys included 16,282 and 16,886 adults in 2010 and 2011, respectively, while our analyses focused on current smokers, 2518 and 2507 adults in 2010 and 2011, respectively. In 2010 the Taiwanese government launched a national smoking cessation campaign through mass media in conjunction with community-based smoking cessation programs throughout the nation. Outcome variables include awareness of cessation services, quit attempts, intention to quit, and use of quitting method. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze data. The implementation of the national smoking cessation campaign was associated with an increase in awareness of cessation services (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-1.53), in quit attempts (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.01-1.25), in use of unassisted quitting methods (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.13-1.72), and in intention to quit smoking (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30). The implementation of the national smoking cessation campaign through media and community programs was effective in increasing smokers' awareness of cessation services, quit attempts, and intention to quit.

  2. Effects of physical activity on teen smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kimberly; Dino, Geri; Branstetter, Steven A; Zhang, Jianjun; Noerachmanto, N; Jarrett, Traci; Taylor, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    To understand the influence of physical activity on teen smoking-cessation outcomes. Teens (N = 233; 14-19 years of age) from West Virginia high schools who smoked >1 cigarette in the previous 30 days were included. High schools with >300 students were selected randomly and assigned to brief intervention (BI), Not on Tobacco (N-O-T) (a proven teen cessation program), or N-O-T plus a physical activity module (N-O-T+FIT). Quit rates were determined 3 and 6 months after baseline by using self-classified and 7-day point prevalence quit rates, and carbon monoxide validation was obtained at the 3-month follow-up evaluation. Trends for observed and imputed self-classified and 7-day point prevalence rates indicated that teens in the N-O-T+FIT group had significantly higher cessation rates compared with those in the N-O-T and BI groups. Effect sizes were large. Overall, girls quit more successfully with N-O-T compared with BI (relative risk [RR]: >∞) 3 months after baseline, and boys responded better to N-O-T+FIT than to BI (RR: 2-3) or to N-O-T (RR: 1-2). Youths in the N-O-T+FIT group, compared with those in the N-O-T group, had greater likelihood of cessation (RR: 1.48) at 6 months. The control group included an unusually large proportion of participants in the precontemplation stage at enrollment, but there were no significant differences in outcomes between BI and N-O-T (z = 0.94; P = .17) or N-O-T+FIT (z = 1.12; P = .13) participants in the precontemplation stage. Adding physical activity to N-O-T may enhance cessation success, particularly among boys.

  3. The Smoke Study: Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Intensive versus a Minimal Smoking Cessation Program for COPD Outpatients. Book of Abstracts of the 12th World Conference on Tobacco or Health: Global Action for a Tobacco free Future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christenhusz, Lieke C.A.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van der Palen, J.; Seydel, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a growing problem due to ageing and changing smoking trends. To quit smoking is the most urgent intervention in COPD management and also the only evidence based treatment to improve COPD prognosis. Therefore, an intensive smoking cessation

  4. A combined smoking cessation intervention within a lung cancer screening trial: a pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Bravi, Francesca; Rossi, Marta; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffi, Roberto; Pastorino, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    The time of lung cancer screening may provide the ideal setting to discuss and initiate a smoking cessation plan that includes pharmacologic aids. No studies to date have fully investigated the potential effectiveness of such combined approach. We prospectively evaluated the biochemically verified 1-year continuous abstinence rate from smoking of 187 persistent smokers enrolled within the Multicentric Italian Lung Detection Trial (MILD), who received a pharmacologic aid to quit smoking with varenicline along with behavioral counseling. The propensity of study subjects to succeed in smoking cessation was also monitored. At 12 months, the continuous abstinence rate from smoking was achieved in 37 out of 187 patients (19.8%), with a propensity to succeed in smoking cessation for the assisted attempt equal to 1.43, as compared to an unassisted MILD patient. At the end of the third month of therapy, 48.7% of subjects showed a continuous abstinence rate, while only 33.7% of patients were abstinent from smoking at 6 months. At baseline, the subgroup of MILD participants who were originally allocated to lung tomography showed higher smoking intensity than those allocated to no screening. A combined smoking cessation intervention can be implemented with satisfactory results within a lung cancer screening program; this preliminary observation needs to be replicated in a prospective investigation. Clinicians should consider that lung cancer screening may be falsely reassuring for persistent smokers; therefore it should always be coupled with a smoking cessation program.

  5. [The efficacy of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2015-12-01

    One over two smokers who smokes all his lifetime will die from a disease related to tobacco use. Tobacco smoking is the primary cause of avoidable death in the world. Medications have an important role in smoking cessation, but physical activity, as well as improving health generally may also represent an important non-pharmacological therapy to help people to stop smoking. The aim of this review was to evaluate the use of physical activity as an aid for smoking cessation and maintaining abstinence. We included 17 randomized controlled trials where the main objective was stopping smoking, and which included at least a six-month follow-up of participants. At the end of this review, only 4 trials revealed a benefit of physical activity on smoking cessation; two of them did not show any persistent benefit after the end of the exercise program. On the basis of this, physical activity cannot itself be considered as a way to help stopping smoking. The heterogeneity among studies summarized in this review was an important methodological bias. However, there is strong evidence that physical activity reduces withdrawal symptoms, craving, negative affect and weight gain during smoking cessation. Advice to practice physical activity should therefore be incorporated into smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying a new theory to smoking cessation: case of multi-theory model (MTM) for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Smoking and tobacco use are associated with cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Programs for quitting smoking have played a significant role in reduction of smoking in the United States. The smoking cessation interventions include counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion therapy, and varenicline therapy. The success rates with each of these approaches vary with clear need for improvement. Moreover, there is a need for a robust theory that can guide smoking cessation counseling interventions and increase the success rates. A fourth generation approach using multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change is introduced in this article for smoking cessation. An approach for developing and evaluating an intervention for smoking cessation is presented along with a measurement tool. Methods: A literature review reifying the MTM of health behavior change for smoking cessation has been presented. An instrument designed to measure constructs of MTM and associated smoking cessation behavior has been developed. Results: The instrument developed is available for validation, reliability and prediction study pertaining to smoking cessation. The intervention is available for testing in a randomized control trial involving smokers. Conclusion: MTM is a robust theory that holds promise for testing and application to smoking cessation.

  7. Determination and support as successful factors for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echer, Isabel Cristina; Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha Menna

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze determination and support as successful factors for smoking cessation. Qualitative study in which 16 individuals from Porto Alegre, Brazil, who had ceased smoking for more than six months, with score > or = 5 according to Fagerström scale, were interviewed. Information was examined through Content Analysis according to the following steps: pre-analysis, material investigation and result treatment. Smoking cessation was a consequence of a group of factors, with determination (the will to cease smoking and the difficulty to cease smoking) and the received support (occupational; family; social, and spiritual, and through a specific course and support groups) as the focus of this article. The results suggest that the smoker's determination to cease smoking together with the support of society segments and the benefits from that are helpful factors in the smoking cessation process.

  8. Smoking Cessation in Adolescents: targeted approaches that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Susan; DiFranza, Joseph R; Jayasuriya, Geshani; Marshall, Tracey; Shah, Smita

    2017-03-01

    Smoking Cessation in adolescents can be considered in a developmental context to enable the clinician to individualise the appropriate assessment and management of the young person they are seeing whether it is in a primary or tertiary care setting. Adolescence is a time of rapid neurocognitive and hormonal change with these factors affected by personality and behavioural factors as well as family, cultural and psychosocial context. Adolescents are uniquely vulnerable to smoking initiation and nicotine addiction throughout these years. Increased awareness of the risks of smoking and using opportunities to assess and intervene regarding smoking cessation are integral to clinical practice for all clinicians seeing young people. This review will discuss the demographics of adolescent smoking, risk factors, assessing smoking and nicotine addiction, the importance of brief interventions, the evidence base for appropriate interventions, particularly in high risk groups and will emphasise innovative training for health professionals in adolescent smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation among Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Feldman, Robert H; Kanamori, Mariano; Rivera, Ivonne; Chen, Lu; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Nodora, Jesse; Noltenius, Jeannette

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have found that Latinos who smoke are less likely than non-Latino white smokers to use pharmaceutical aids such as nicotine replacement therapies or to receive physician advice to stop smoking. This qualitative study further explored barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation among Latino adults in Maryland. Five Spanish-language focus groups were conducted in September 2008 in Maryland with Latino current smoker and ex-smoker men and women (n = 55). Participants were recruited through flyers, information sheets, and site visits at community health clinics and Latino events, and were predominately of Central American origin. Personal health concerns were the main reason to quit smoking; impact on children and family health and role model pressure were frequently mentioned. Barriers to quit smoking included environmental temptation and social factors, emotional pressure, addiction, and habitual behavior. Respondents mostly relied on themselves for cessation, with little use of cessation products or other medications, or awareness of available services. Social influence serves both as a strong motivation for Latinos to quit smoking and as a source of temptation to continue smoking. Favored by both current smokers and ex-smokers, lay health promoters are effective agents to reach Latinos with smoking cessation interventions. In addition, the low use of cessation services could be improved by increasing awareness and availability of Spanish-language cessation services.

  10. Association between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecredy, Graham C; Diemert, Lori M; Callaghan, Russell C; Cohen, Joanna E

    2013-04-16

    High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43-1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04-1.34). Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level.

  11. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapeutic Options for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin V. Carson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and poses a significant threat across developing countries where tobacco use prevalence is increasing. Nicotine dependence is a chronic disease often requiring multiple attempts to quit; repeated interventions with pharmacotherapeutic aids have become more popular as part of cessation therapies. First-line medications of known efficacy in the general population include varenicline tartrate, bupropion hydrochloride, nicotine replacement therapy products, or a combination thereof. However, less is known about the use of these products in marginalized groups such as the indigenous, those with mental illnesses, youth, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Despite the efficacy and safety of these first line pharmacotherapies, many smokers continue to relapse and alternative pharmacotherapies and cessation options are required. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the existing and developing pharmacotherapeutic and other options for smoking cessation, to identify gaps in current clinical practice, and to provide recommendations for future evaluations and research.

  12. Smoking cessation after an acute coronary syndrome: immediate quitters are successful quitters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snaterse, M.; Scholte Op Reimer, W. J. M.; Dobber, J.; Minneboo, M.; ter Riet, G.; Jorstad, H. T.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Peters, R. J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines stress the importance of smoking cessation and recommend intensive follow-up. To guide the development of such cessation support strategies, we analysed the characteristics that are associated with successful smoking cessation after an

  13. Factors Affecting Korean Registered Nurses' Intention to Implement Smoking Cessation Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nurses have been identified as an instrumental partner in tobacco reduction. This study aimed to examine factors affecting Korean nurses' intention to implement smoking cessation intervention in Busan, Korea. Methods The participants were a total of 215 Korean registered nurses. A self-administered questionnaire evaluated predisposing factors, motivational factors (attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy) and intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. Data were an...

  14. Success of a smoking cessation programme in smoking behaviour of chronic periodontitis patients and identification of predictors of motivation for smoking cessation - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropff, B; Petersilka, G; Flemmig, T; Ehmke, B; Heuft, G; Schneider, G

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the success of a smoking cessation programme on smoking behaviour of patients with chronic periodontitis. Secondary goals were to identify the prevalence of smoking among them, predictors of motivation for smoking cessation and for successful nicotine abstinence. Smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis were offered cognitive behavioural group therapy of 10 once-weekly sessions. Smoking is reduced stepwise and complete cessation is to be achieved by the sixth session. Sociodemographic data, history of smoking and motivation for smoking cessation, subjective health status, and questionnaires on anxiety, depression, control beliefs and coping with stress were completed at study entry. Smoking behaviour was assessed at the end of the group programme and 3 months thereafter. Of 469 patients with periodontitis, 59 (12.6%) were smokers; 30 (50.6%) patients participated in the smoking cessation programme. Participants smoked more cigarettes/day (P = 0.03, 95% CI: -17.9/-0.89) and subjectively assessed their health as being worse than non-participants (P = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.16/2.15). In SPQ, non-participants showed more trivialization (P = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.59/4.94). Complete data were available for 15 group participants: six patients were smoke-free after 10 weeks and five after 18 weeks (33.3%); two patients had reduced their cigarette consumption by half. At the start of the programme, less successful participants showed a tendency to higher depression in HADS (P = 0.085, 95% CI: -5.25/5.76) and were more inclined to seek substitute satisfaction (P = 0.034, 95% CI: 3.24/11.23). The rate of success in this study was comparable with other studies. More research with larger samples is needed for confirming these observations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Value of Biosamples in Smoking Cessation Trials: A Review of Genetic, Metabolomic, and Epigenetic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Nancy L; Baurley, James W; Bergen, Andrew W; David, Sean P; Elliott, Hannah R; Foreman, Marilyn G; Kaprio, Jaakko; Piasecki, Thomas M; Relton, Caroline L; Zawertailo, Laurie; Bierut, Laura J; Tyndale, Rachel F; Chen, Li-Shiun

    2017-05-03

    Evidence is emerging that certain genotypes and biomarkers are associated with smoking cessation success and efficacy of smoking cessation treatments. We review key findings that open potential avenues for personalizing smoking cessation treatment according to an individual's genetic or metabolic profile. These results provide important incentive for smoking cessation researchers to collect biosamples and perform genotyping in research studies and clinical trials.

  16. Smoking cessation and the Internet: a qualitative method examining online consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Genevieve; Bessell, Tracey L; Borland, Ron; Anderson, Jeremy N

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and disability around the world. Smoking cessation support-including information, discussion groups, cognitive behavioral treatment, and self-help materials-can be delivered via the Internet. There is limited information about the reasons and methods consumers access smoking cessation information on the Internet. This study aims to determine the feasibility of a method to examine the online behavior of consumers seeking smoking cessation resources. In particular, we sought to identify the reasons and methods consumers use to access and assess the quality of these resources. Thirteen participants were recruited via the state-based Quit smoking cessation campaign, operated by the Victorian Cancer Council, in December 2001. Online behavior was evaluated using semi-structured interviews and Internet simulations where participants sought smoking cessation information and addressed set-case scenarios. Online interaction was tracked through pervasive logging with specialist software. Thirteen semi-structured interviews and 4 Internet simulations were conducted in January 2002. Participants sought online smoking cessation resources for reasons of convenience, timeliness, and anonymity-and because their current information needs were unmet. They employed simple search strategies and could not always find information in an efficient manner. Participants employed several different strategies to assess the quality of online health resources. Consumer online behavior can be studied using a combination of survey, observation, and online surveillance. However, further qualitative and observational research is required to harness the full potential of the Internet to deliver public health resources.

  17. Predictors of medication adherence and smoking cessation among smokers under community corrections supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Clark, C Brendan; Stevens, Erin N; Schiavon, Samantha; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S

    2017-02-01

    Individuals in the U.S. criminal justice system now represent over 12% of all current U.S. smokers. With smoking banned in most U.S. jails and prisons, the cessation focus for this population has shifted to individuals who are under community correction supervision (e.g., probation, parole). The aim of this study was to examine predictors of successful smoking cessation among criminal justice individuals supervised in the community. Five hundred participants under community corrections supervision were randomized to receive either four sessions of smoking cessation counseling or no counseling in conjunction with 12weeks of bupropion treatment plus brief physician advice to quit. Logistic regression analyses examined associations of smoking variables with medication adherence and successful abstinence. Mediation analysis evaluated the indirect effects of medication adherence on smoking abstinence. The strongest associate of medication adherence was previous use of bupropion, while the strongest associate of smoking abstinence was medication adherence. Mediation analysis indicated that previous use of bupropion indirectly increased cessation rates through the pathway of increased medication adherence. These results highlight the importance of medication adherence for smoking cessation among community corrections smokers. Providing exposure to medication may be a promising intervention to increase medication adherence and subsequent cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoking Cessation Counseling Beliefs and Behaviors of Outpatient Oncology Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Tooze, Janet A.; Blackstock, A. William; Spangler, John; Thomas, Leslie; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Many cancer patients continue to smoke after diagnosis, increasing their risk for treatment complications, reduced treatment efficacy, secondary cancers, and reduced survival. Outpatient oncology providers may not be using the “teachable moment” of cancer diagnosis to provide smoking cessation assistance. Providers and Methods. Physicians and midlevel providers (n = 74) who provide outpatient oncology services completed an online survey regarding smoking cessation counseling behaviors, beliefs, and perceived barriers. Outpatient medical records for 120 breast, lung, head and neck, colon, prostate, and acute leukemia cancer patients were reviewed to assess current smoking cessation assessment and intervention documentation practices. Results. Providers reported commonly assessing smoking in new patients (82.4% frequently or always), but rates declined at subsequent visits for both current smokers and recent quitters. Rates of advising patients to quit smoking were also high (86.5% frequently or always), but oncology setting. PMID:22334454

  19. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  20. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  1. Content Analysis of Smartphone Apps for Smoking Cessation in China: Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xu, Junfang; Su, Chunyan; Fu, Xiaoxing; Bricker, Jonathan

    2017-07-11

    With 360 million smokers, China consumes more cigarettes than any other country in the world. Given that 620 million Chinese own smartphones, smartphone apps for smoking cessation are increasingly used in China to help smokers quit. This study analyzed and evaluated the contents of all smoking cessation apps (iOS and Android) available in China, applying the China Clinical Smoking Cessation Guideline (CCSCG; identical to the US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence) as a framework for analysis. We conducted a content analysis of Chinese Android and iOS smoking cessation apps (N=64) designed to assist users in quitting smoking. Each app was independently coded by two raters for its approach to smoking cessation and adherence to the CCSCG. We also recorded the features of smoking cessation apps (eg, release date, size, frequency of downloads, user ratings, type, quality scores by raters, and designers). Linear regression was used to test predictors of popularity and user-rated quality. Chinese smoking cessation apps have low levels of adherence to guidelines, with an average score of 11.1 for Android and 14.6 for iOS apps on a scale of 0 to 46. There was no significant association between popularity, user rating, and the characteristics of apps. However, there was a positive relationship between popularity, user rating, and adherence score. Chinese apps for smoking cessation have low levels of adherence to standard clinical practice guidelines. New apps need be developed and existing apps be revised following evidence-based principles in China.

  2. Feasibility of using E-mail counseling as part of a smoking-cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Russo, Cristina; Di Maria, Annalisa; Arcidiacono, Giuseppe; Morjaria, Jaymin B; Piccillo, Giovita A

    2009-08-01

    The need for more effective smoking-cessation interventions is firmly established. However, access to these services can be problematic in real life. E-mail messages may be a convenient alternative to deliver smoking-cessation interventions. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effectiveness of incorporating tailored e-mail consultation messages in a smoking-cessation program for smokers willing to quit. This pilot study examined the feasibility of integrating e-mail consultation messages in a smoking-cessation program for smokers willing to quit and with Internet access. At baseline, demographic data, smoking history and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were collected at a clinic visit. The subjects were provided with the specialist's e-mail address and instructed to prepare e-mail messages containing simple and clear information about their quitting progress. The counselor offered e-mail counseling throughout the smoking-cessation program. A 6-month follow-up visit was arranged, at which abstinence was reviewed. Of the 30 participants initially enrolled in the study, 21 (70%) attended the follow-up 6-month visit. E-mail counseling was more frequently offered (4-8 times) to the participants who completed the study, compared to those lost to follow-up (1-4 times). Comparisons with baseline exhaled CO values showed a significant within-group reduction at 6 months after smoking-cessation (P e-mail consultation counseling in a smoking-cessation intervention is feasible and effective. E-mail counseling as part of a smoking-cessation program warrants further evaluation.

  3. Influence of having a psychiatric diagnosis on smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Ayesta

    2017-05-01

    Since the characteristics associated with smoking in these patients are not alone responsible for the cessation differences, this seems to suggest that the own psychiatric condition is also responsible for it.

  4. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. A 4-year Follow-up Evaluation Of A Pharmacist-managed Smoking Cessation Programme With Emphasis On Effectiveness Of Different Treatment Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaik Yuan Poh

    2016-10-01

    Patient participation in a pharmacist-managed SCC was associated with significantly improved abstinence rates at 6- and 12-months following programme completion. The use of pharmacotherapy was significantly associated with overall abstinence rates at 6-months’ follow-up with varenicline appearing as the most effective smoking cessation aid.

  6. Dissemination Strategies to Improve Implementation of the PHS Smoking Cessation Guideline in MCH Public Health Clinics: Experimental Evaluation Results and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-01-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve…

  7. Evaluación de un programa de deshabituación tabáquica en el medio laboral Evaluation of a worksite smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sala

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Se evalúa una intervención realizada en el lugar del trabajo para facilitar el abandono del hábito tabáquico y reducir la prevalencia de fumadores entre el personal del Ayuntamiento de Sabadell. Población y métodos: Estudio preintervención y postintervención. Se realizó una encuesta para conocer la prevalencia y las características de los fumadores e invitarles a participar en un programa de deshabituación. El programa constaba de una visita individual con historia clínica, medida de monóxido de carbono en aire espirado y prescripción de terapia con sustitutos de nicotina y 12 sesiones de terapia grupal para reforzar la abstinencia a lo largo de 1 año. A los 6, 12 y 24 meses se realizaron controles para conocer la abstinencia. Con una encuesta postintervención se valoró el impacto del programa. Resultados: Se enviaron 1.203 cuestionarios con una tasa de respuesta del 51%. Un 33% (n = 204 era fumador y 101 personas iniciaron el programa. La abstinencia a los 12 meses fue del 45% y a los 24 meses del 33%, sin que se observaran diferencias según el sexo. La dependencia moderada o baja a la nicotina se asoció con una mayor probabilidad de estar abstinente a los 6 meses (odds ratio [OR] = 6,7; p = 0,01 y a los 12 meses (OR = 5,4; p = 0,05 ajustando por sexo, edad y seguimiento del tratamiento con sustitutos de nicotina. La prevalencia de fumadores en el cuestionario postintervención fue del 19%. Un 26% (n = 10 de los que habían dejado de fumar en el último año sin participar en el programa declaró haberlo dejado gracias a él. Conclusiones: Los resultados indican que este tipo de programa en un entorno laboral puede contribuir de forma notable a reducir el tabaquismo.Aims: To evaluate the effects of a worksite smoking cessation program conducted to reduce the prevalence of smokers among staff of the town council of Sabadell (Spain. Population and methods: A pre-post intervention study was conducted. A survey was

  8. Perceptions of dental students in India about smoking cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasundaram, Prakash; Sequeira, Peter Simon; Jain, Jithesh

    2011-12-01

    Smoking kills 900,000 people every year in India. Many studies have shown that counseling from a health professional is an effective method of helping patients quit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of dental students in Karnataka, India, towards smoking cessation counseling. A questionnaire study was conducted among a convenience sample of 329 dental students comprised of III year and IV year students and interns in three dental colleges in Karnataka, India. Of the 329 students who completed the questionnaire, twenty-two (7 percent) were current smokers, and fifteen (5 percent) were ex-smokers. Although 94 percent responded they were giving antismoking advice to their patients, only 47 percent said they had been taught antismoking advice suitable for patients. While a majority (95 percent) planned to advise patients about tobacco use in their professional careers, significantly fewer (66 percent) indicated that such counseling would help patients to quit. This study of dental students and interns found that a majority intended to provide smoking cessation counseling in their professional career and agreed it is part of their professional role.

  9. Cell Phone-Based Expert Systems for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Veteran population so that we can do a gender comparison with statistical power (see Appendix). Progress this Period (See Gantt chart in Appendix...Help us test an online smoking cessation program designed for Veterans and get up to $75 in online gift cards. www. txtresearch . org J APPROVED...get up to $75 in online gift cards. www. txtresearch . org JUL 0 5 2011 Iraq/Afghanistan Veteran? Help us test an online smoking cessation

  10. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Risk of Tooth Loss: The EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, T; Walter, C; Oluwagbemigun, K; Bergmann, M; Pischon, T; Pischon, N; Boeing, H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and smoking cessation and the prevalence and incidence of tooth loss in a large cohort study in Germany. We analyzed data of 23,376 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population in Potsdam and other parts of Brandenburg, Germany, who had complete data on cigarette smoking, tooth loss, and covariates. Negative binomial regression and tooth-specific logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the association between smoking and the baseline prevalence and incidence of tooth loss during follow-up, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher prevalence of tooth loss at baseline as well as higher incidence of tooth loss during follow-up. The association between smoking and the incidence of tooth loss was stronger in men than women and stronger in younger versus older individuals. Heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes/d) was associated with >3 times higher risk of tooth loss in men (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0, 4.4) and more than twice the risk of tooth loss in women (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1, 2.9) younger than 50 y when compared with never smokers. Smoking cessation was consistently associated with a reduction in tooth loss risk, with the risk of tooth loss approaching that of never smokers after approximately 10 to 20 y of cessation. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  11. Smoking Cessation: Services and Applications for Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaliakos, Antonios; Pliakos, Ioannis; Chardalias, Kostis; Charalampidou, Martha; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present mobile health applications which help individuals to change their smoking habit. An online search on scientific databases and mobile application stores was conducted to collect information about m-Health and the smoking cessation. 12 papers found discussing about mobile applications and solutions for quit smoking referred to 4 different technological approaches. Based on the research results, mobile devices and their applications constitute an excellent mean that can help smokers by providing counseling and give them the necessary motivation to smoking cessation.

  12. Analysis of factors that determine weight gain during smoking cessation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Ura, Shuichi; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Shimatsu, Akira; Koyama, Hiroshi; Kono, Koichi; Takahashi, Yuko; Hasegawa, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smokers are generally known to gain weight after quitting smoking, and such weight gain is thought to contribute to the worsening of glucose tolerance. While smoking cessation therapy such as nicotine replacement is useful to minimize post-cessation weight gain, substantial gain occurs even during the therapy. The purpose of the present study was to identify factors associated with weight gain during smoking cessation therapy. We evaluated 186 patients(132 males and 54 females)who visited our outpatient clinic for smoking cessation, and successfully achieved smoking abstinence. We performed gender-adjusted regression analysis for the rate of BMI increase from the beginning of cessation to 3 months after initiation. Furthermore, we performed multivariate analysis to investigate factors that determine the BMI increase after smoking cessation. The mean BMI significantly (ptherapy. There was no significant difference in the extent of BMI increase between nicotine patch and varenicline therapy groups. Factors significantly correlated with the %BMI increase at 3 months after the start of therapy were triglyceride (p = 0.0006, βa = 0.260), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0386, βa = -0.168), daily cigarette consumption (p = 0.0385, βa = 0.154), and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score (p = 0.0060, βa = 0.203). Stepwise multivariate analysis demonstrated that triglyceride and the FTND score were the factors determining the post-cessation BMI increase and that the FTND score was the strongest one. The present study demonstrated that smokers with a high FTND score are more likely to gain weight during smoking cessation therapy. Thus, smokers with a high nicotine dependency may require intervention against weight gain in the cessation clinic.

  13. Women Smoking Cessation and Disadvantage:A Mixed Methods Investigation of the Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, F E

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundWomen are less likely than men to successfully quit smoking when using NHScessation services (The Information Centre, 2012, ICD, 2011).MethodsThe research used mixed methods and consisted of two studies. Study one was asecondary data analysis of service use data from cessation services in Glasgow, North Cumbria and Nottingham. The study examined whether women had lower cessation outcomes compared to men. Further analyses explored whether women using cessation support differed from m...

  14. Longitudinal Impact of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cecile C; Piper, Megan E; Gepner, Adam D; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Stein, James H

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate longitudinal changes in 6 inflammatory markers that predict cardiovascular disease events among smokers making a quit attempt and to characterize their cross-sectional associations between smoking and smoking heaviness. In a longitudinal cohort study of contemporary smokers (n=1652), we evaluated (1) independent associations of smoking heaviness markers (exhaled carbon monoxide, cigarettes/d, pack-years) with inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, urinary F2 isoprostane:creatinine [F2:Cr] ratio, white blood cell [WBC] count, myeloperoxidase) and (2) the effects of smoking cessation and continued smoking on these inflammatory markers after 1 year, among the 888 smokers who made an aided quit attempt as part of a randomized comparative effectiveness trial or standard care. There were strong, independent associations between smoking heaviness markers and the F2:Cr ratio, WBC, and myeloperoxidase (all Padjsmoked 16.8 cigarettes/d (8.5) for 27.3 pack-years (18.6). After 1 year, the 344 successful abstainers gained more weight (4.0 [6.0] versus 0.4 [5.7] pounds; PSmoking heaviness is associated with increased F2:Cr ratio, myeloperoxidase, and WBC counts. Cessation improves the F2:Cr ratio and WBC counts independent of weight change, suggesting reduced inflammation related to less oxidant stress. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. College Smoking Policies and Smoking Cessation Programs: Results of a Survey of College Health Center Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Henry; Kelley, Kathleen; Seibring, Mark; Kuo, Meichun; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college health center directors about policies addressing smoking and availability of smoking cessation programs. Though 85 percent considered students' smoking a problem, only 81 percent of colleges prohibited smoking in all public areas, and only 27 percent banned smoking in all indoor areas. Though over half of the schools offered…

  16. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  17. Contingency management for behavior change: Applications to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsgiver, Kathryn A.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among patients who are being treated for opioid-dependence, yet there have been limited scientific efforts to promote smoking cessation in this population. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioral treatment that provides monetary incentives (available in the form of vouchers) contingent upon biochemical evidence of drug abstinence. This paper discusses the results of two studies that utilized CM to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients. Participants in a pilot study were randomly assigned for a 2-week period to a Contingent group that earned monetary vouchers for providing biochemical samples that met criteria for smoking abstinence, or a Noncontingent group that earned monetary vouchers independent of smoking status (Dunn et al., 2008). Results showed Contingent participants provided significantly more smoking-negative samples than Noncontingent participants (55% vs. 5%, respectively). A second randomized trial that utilized the same 2-week intervention and provided access to the smoking cessation pharmacotherapy bupropion replicated the results of the pilot study (55% and 17% abstinence in Contingent and Noncontingent groups, respectively). A nonsignificant trend suggested bupropion may have contributed to smoking abstinence (Dunn et al, 2010). For both studies high rates of relapse to smoking were observed after the intervention ended; however, the results compare favorably to previous pharmacological and behavioral smoking cessation interventions and provide evidence that opioid-maintained patients can achieve a brief period of continuous smoking abstinence. Relapse to illicit drug use was also evaluated prospectively and no evidence that smoking abstinence was associated with a relapse to illicit drug use was observed (Dunn et al., 2009). It will be important for future studies to evaluate participant characteristics that might predict better treatment outcome, to assess the contribution that

  18. High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E

    2016-05-01

    Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  20. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Emily Y; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms.

  1. Evidence-based smoking cessation and the family doctor

    OpenAIRE

    Sammut, Mario R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Malta smoking is widespread and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Family doctors are well-placed to provide smoking cessation advice to their patients. Objective The aim of this review is to assist family doctors in helping their patients quit smoking by informing them of evidence-based therapies. Method The online Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews within the Cochrane Library was searched for metaanalyses and systematic reviews related to various smoking...

  2. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  3. Study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating efficacy of a smoking cessation e-'Tabac Info Service': ee-TIS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, L; Bergman, P; Le Faou, Al; Vincent, I; Le Maitre, B; Pasquereau, A; Arwidson, P; Thomas, D; Alla, F

    2017-02-24

    A French national smoking cessation service, Tabac Info Service, has been developed to provide an adapted quitline and a web and mobile application involving personalised contacts (eg, questionnaires, advice, activities, messages) to support smoking cessation. This paper presents the study protocol of the evaluation of the application (e-intervention Tabac Info Service (e-TIS)). The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of e-TIS. The secondary objectives are to (1) describe efficacy variations with regard to users' characteristics, (2) analyse mechanisms and contextual conditions of e-TIS efficacy. The study design is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial including a process evaluation with at least 3000 participants randomised to the intervention or to the control arm (current practices). Inclusion criteria are: aged 18 years or over, current smoker, having completed the online consent forms, possessing a mobile phone with android or apple systems and using mobile applications, wanting to stop smoking sooner or later. The primary outcome is the point prevalence abstinence of 7 days at 6 months later. Data will be analysed in intention to treat (primary) and per protocol analyses. A logistic regression will be carried out to estimate an OR (95% CI) for efficacy. A multivariate multilevel analysis will explore the influence on results of patients' characteristics (sex, age, education and socioprofessional levels, dependency, motivation, quit experiences) and contextual factors, conditions of use, behaviour change techniques. The study protocol was reviewed by the ethical and deontological institutional review board of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance on 18 April 2016. The findings of this study will allow us to characterise the efficacy of e-TIS and conditions of its efficacy. These findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed articles. NCT02841683; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  4. Effectiveness of smoking cessation therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoulas Popey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of premature deaths. Several pharmacological interventions now exist to aid smokers in cessation. These include Nicotine Replacement Therapy [NRT], bupropion, and varenicline. We aimed to assess their relative efficacy in smoking cessation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched 10 electronic medical databases (inception to Sept. 2006 and bibliographies of published reviews. We selected randomized controlled trials [RCTs] evaluating interventions for smoking cessation at 1 year, through chemical confirmation. Our primary endpoint was smoking cessation at 1 year. Secondary endpoints included short-term smoking cessation (~3 months and adverse events. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. We compared treatment effects across interventions using head-to-head trials and when these did not exist, we calculated indirect comparisons. Results We identified 70 trials of NRT versus control at 1 year, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.55–1.88, P = Varenicline was superior to placebo at 1 year (4 RCTs, OR 2.96, 95% CI, 2.12–4.12, P = Conclusion NRT, bupropion and varenicline all provide therapeutic effects in assisting with smoking cessation. Direct and indirect comparisons identify a hierarchy of effectiveness.

  5. Training Malaysian Pharmacy Undergraduates with Knowledge and Skills on Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simansalam, Saraswathi; Brewster, Joan M; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki

    2015-06-25

    To evaluate the feasibility of an online training module, Certified Smoking Cessation Service Provider (CSCSP), developed for practicing pharmacists to equip pharmacy students with knowledge necessary for smoking cessation counseling and to assess the changes in student knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation following training. Sixty third-year and 80 fourth-year pharmacy undergraduates (N=140) were given access to an online module, the main intervention in the study. Two linkable questionnaires were administered to assess students' preintervention and postintervention knowledge. For the third-year students, an additional role-play training component was incorporated, and student skills were assessed during week 14 with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Preintervention and postintervention knowledge assessments were completed by 130 (92.8%) students. Sixty-six students scored above 50% for the knowledge component postintervention, compared to 13 at preintervention, demonstrating significant improvement (x2(1, N=130)=32, p=0.003). All third-year students completed the intervention, and 66.7% were able to counsel excellently for smoking cessation, scoring more than 80%. The CSCSP online module developed for practicing professionals was found suitable for equipping pharmacy undergraduates with knowledge on smoking cessation topics. The module, along with role-play training, also equipped students with knowledge and skills to provide smoking cessation counseling.

  6. The Effect of Positive Group Psychotherapy and Motivational Interviewing on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process and evaluate the effect of positive group psychotherapy and motivational interviewing as an intervention for smoking cessation. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted at a university in South Korea. Positive group psychotherapy and motivational interviewing were attended by 36 smokers for 1 hour once a week, for 6 hours. A recorded exit interview was conducted after the intervention. The resulting transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and thematic analysis. Among the 36 study participants, the importance of stopping smoking was rated higher in the successful cessation (defined as those who ceased smoking for at least 3 months; hereafter, success group) group (8.6 ± 0.4, n = 10) than in the failed cessation (defined as those who did not cease smoking for at least 3 months; hereafter, failure group) group (7.75 ± 0.3, n = 26; p compliments about efforts for smoking cessation." The importance of and confidence in smoking cessation were predictors for successful cessation for 3-6 months. Motivational interviewing increased motivations, whereas positive group psychotherapy increased positive thoughts and confidence.

  7. Lung Cancer Screening and Smoking Cessation Clinical Trials: SCALE Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Anne M; Rothman, Alexander J; Almirall, Daniel; Begnaud, Abbie; Chiles, Caroline; Cinciripini, Paul M; Fu, Steven S; Graham, Amanda L; Lindgren, Bruce R; Melzer, Anne C; Ostroff, Jamie S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Taylor, Kathryn L; Toll, Benjamin A; Zeliadt, Steven B; Vock, David M

    2017-10-04

    National recommendations for lung cancer screening for former and current smokers aged 55-80 years with a 30-pack year smoking history create demand to implement efficient and effective systems to offer smoking cessation on a large scale. These older, high-risk smokers differ from participants in past clinical trials of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for tobacco dependence. There is a gap in knowledge about how to best design systems to extend reach and treatments to maximize smoking cessation in the context of lung cancer screening. Eight clinical trials, seven funded by the National Cancer Institute and one by the VHA, address this gap and form the Smoking Cessation within the Context of Lung Cancer Screening (SCALE) collaboration. This paper describes methodological issues related to the design of these clinical trials: clinical workflow, participant eligibility criteria, screening indication (baseline or annual repeat screen), assessment content, interest in stopping smoking, and treatment delivery method and dose, all of which will affect tobacco treatment outcomes. Tobacco interventions consider the "teachable moment" offered by lung cancer screening, how to incorporate positive and negative screening results, and coordination of smoking cessation treatment with clinical events associated with lung cancer screening. Unique data elements, such as perceived risk of lung cancer and costs of tobacco treatment are of interest. Lung cancer screening presents a new and promising opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality from lung cancer that can be amplified by effective smoking cessation treatment. SCALE teamwork and collaboration promises to maximize knowledge gained from the clinical trials.

  8. Changes in cardio-ankle vascular index in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noike, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Keijirou; Sugiyama, Yuukou; Iizuka, Takuo; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mao; Hirano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Masayo; Mikamo, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Takahiro; Shirai, Kohji

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). The subjects were 82 smokers (77 men, 64+/-10 years) and 20 non-smokers (18 men, 61+/-7 years). CAVI was measured every 3 months and CAVI severity was classified into 3 levels. Decreased, unchanged, and increased CAVI severity levels were coded as "improvement," "no change," and "exacerbation," respectively. Smoking status was coded as "success" for complete abstinence, "partial success" for a reduced number of cigarettes, and "failure" for an unchanging number of cigarettes. Compared with non-smokers, smokers showed a higher CAVI (p<0.05) prior to smoking cessation. Post-cessation, CAVI improved from 9.4 to 8.6 (p<0.01) in "success" cases (n=22), and the significant pre-cessation difference from non-smokers (n=20, CAVI=8.8) disappeared. With regard to the change in CAVI severity of each smoking status, "improvement" occurred in 17%, 24%, and 68% of "failure" (n=35), "partial success" (n=25), and "success" (n=22) groups, respectively, and the "success" group was significantly higher than the other two groups. The study showed that CAVI was increased by smoking, and complete smoking cessation improved CAVI.

  9. [Effectiveness of bupropion and counseling for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, B; He, Y; Zuo, F; Wu, L; Liu, Q H; Zhang, L; Zhou, C X; Cheng, J J; Chan Sc, Z S; Lam, D Q

    2016-07-06

    To evaluate the effectiveness of bupropion for smoking cessation among Chinese smokers at a smoking cessation clinic. A prospective observational study was conducted in a hospital located in Beijing during 2008 and from 28 to 31 October 2014. A total of 287 smokers (265 men and 22 women) were assessed using data from structured questionnaires at baseline and were followed up at 1 and 6 months. Trained physician counselors provided free brief education and individual counseling sessions for all participants at the first visit. A total 131 participants were prescribed bupropion in addition to counseling. The counseling plus bupropion group was compared with the group who underwent counseling without bupropion. Outcomes were self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 1- and 6-month follow-up and continuous abstinence rates at 6-month follow-up. Smoking reduction rates at 1 and 6 months were also measured. By intention-to-treat analysis, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate of the bupropion group at 1 and 6 months was higher than for the counseling-only group: at 1-month follow-up, 26.0% (34/131) vs. 15.4% (24/156), with OR (95% CI) 1.93(1.07-3.46); these rates at 6-month follow-up were 27.8% (35/131) vs. 15.4% (24/156), with OR (95% CI) 2.01(1.12-3.59). The 1-month continuous abstinence rate at 6 months was higher in the bupropion group: 26.0% (34/131) vs. 14.7% (23/156), with OR (95%CI) 2.03(1.12-3.66). Participants in the bupropion group also had a higher smoking reduction rate at 1 month than those in the counseling-only group: 55.0% (72/131) vs. 38.5% (60/156), with OR (95%CI) 1.95 (1.22-3.13). Prescription of bupropion at this smoking cessation clinic was effective in doubling the quitting rates and smoking reduction rates among Chinese smokers.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Smoking Cessation Interventions With Individuals in Substance Abuse Treatment or Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Delucchi, Kevin; Hall, Sharon M.

    2004-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined outcomes of smoking cessation interventions evaluated in 19 randomized controlled trials with individuals in current addictions treatment or recovery. Smoking and substance use outcomes at posttreatment and long-term follow-up (? 6 months) were summarized with random effects models. Intervention effects for smoking…

  11. The effects of a smoking cessation programme on health-promoting lifestyles and smoking cessation in smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ai Hee; Lee, Suk Jeong; Oh, Seung Jin

    2015-04-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for not only the occurrence of myocardial ischaemia but also recurrences of vascular stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate health-promoting lifestyles and abstinence rate after a smoking cessation programme. Sixty-two smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group (n = 30) received 10 phone counselling sessions and 21 short message service messages for abstinence and coronary disease prevention, whereas the control group (n = 32) received only the standard education. After the intervention, 14 members of the experimental group had switched to a non-smoking status, confirmed biochemically; moreover, their physical activity and stress management scores increased significantly. However, self-efficacy of smoking cessation was not reflected in the cotinine levels. Thus, it is necessary not only to increase self-efficacy but also to determine the factors that affect the success of smoking cessation so that they can be included in the intervention. Our results suggest that phone counselling and short message service messaging might be important tools for the realization of smoking cessation and lifestyle changes among patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

    2013-09-30

    Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining

  13. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention—an Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data. PMID:21730251

  14. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention--an Intervention Mapping approach to planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data.

  15. [Smoking cessation in older smokers. A retrospective study in 181 older smokers managed in a smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croizet, A; Perriot, J; Merson, F; Aublet-Cuvelier, B

    2016-03-01

    Smoking is a factor associated with premature death, including in older people. Stopping smoking reduces related mortality even after the age of 60. The aim of this study, conducted in a smoking cessation clinic, was to describe the characteristics of these older smokers and their quit attempts. A retrospective study was performed from the patient files of a smoking cessation clinic between 1999/01/01 and 2009/12/31; "older" smokers (≥60 years; n=181) were compared to "young" smokers (<60 years; n=1425). Compared to young smokers, older smokers had a higher frequency of cardio-pulmonary diseases (82.3 % vs. 46.7 %; P<0.0001) and current depressions (45.3% vs. 35.7%; P=0.012); their abstinence rate at 12 months was higher (44.2% vs. 32.9%; P=0.0025). An age over 60 years was associated with a higher success rate (OR=1.83; CI 95%: 1.29-2.59). Cessation smoking attempts are as likely to be successful in older smokers as in younger smokers. Physicians should advise and assist older smokers to quit and if necessary refer them to smoking cessation clinics. Smoking cessation guidelines therefore will apply without reserve in seniors. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with smoking cessation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent populations was also demonstrated in the USA,5 suggesting that this vulnerable population may require focused interventions for smoking cessation. Although alcohol abuse remains high in South Africa,6 limited data are available on the relationship between alcohol abuse and smoking in South. Africa.

  17. Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Development of a School Nurse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Greg; O'Connell, Meghan; Cross, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a range of strategies to engage and to enhance secondary school nurse involvement in teenage smoking prevention and cessation. School nurses were willing to assist students to quit smoking, but they felt unprepared. Information provided by nurses involved in a three-stage review,…

  18. February 2014 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Evins AE, Cather C, Pratt SA, et al. Maintenance treatment with varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(2:145-54. It is estimated that > 50% of people with mental illness smoke cigarettes. Pharmacotherapy with varenicline has been shown to reach an abstinence rate of 24% at 12 weeks when compared to placebo at 5%. Once off pharmacotherapy, the maintenance of smoking cessation decreases to 12% at 6 months. This study examined whether a prolonged maintenance course of varenicline over 40 weeks is associated with increased rates of smoking cessation. The study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial done in 10 community centers. 203 patients met inclusion criteria and entered a 12 week smoking cessation program with varenicline and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. 87 patients completed the initial smoking cessation to continue onto the maintenance phase. Patients were randomized to receive ...

  19. Varenicline for smoking cessation: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Chopra, Sarvesh C

    2009-02-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable risk to human health. Various agents have been used to promote smoking cessation, but none has had long-term efficacy. Varenicline, a new nicotinic ligand based on the structure of cytosine, was approved by the US Food amd Drug Administration for use as a smoking cessation aid. The aims of this review were to provide an overview on the mechanism of action and preclinical and clinical data of the new drug, varenicline, and to discuss the current and future impact of varenicline as a treatment for smoking cessation. MEDLINE, BIOSIS, and Google scholar databases were searched (March 1, 2007-July 1, 2008) using the terms varenicline, smoking cessation, and nicotinic receptors. Full-text articles in English were selected for reference, and articles presenting the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and data from preclinical and clinical trials were included. The initial literature search yielded 70 papers. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Varenicline, an α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, inhibits dopaminergic activation produced by smoking and decreases the craving and withdrawal syndrome that accompanies cessation attempts. In Phase III clinical trials, the carbon monoxide-confirmed 4-week continuous abstinence rates were significantly higher with varenicline than with buproprion sustained release or placebo for weeks 9 through 12. Varenicline has been found to be well tolerated, with nausea being the most commonly reported (28.1%) adverse event. Varenicline is the first drug for smoking cessation that has been found to have significant effectiveness in long-term relapse prevention (up to 52 weeks). Varenicline, with its unique profile of agonist and antagonist properties, increased cessation rates (both short- and long-term) compared with both placebo and bupropion sustained release.

  20. Positive affect and mood management in successful smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Penilla, Carlos; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-01-01

    To examine the influence of positive affect and mood-management in the completion and success of an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. Participants were recruited online (n = 1000) and randomized to 4 different interventions. Half of the participants received a mood-management tool. Retention was predicted by positive affect at 3 and 12 months. There was a higher 12-month abstinence rate among those who were assigned to the mood-management intervention and had initial low positive affect. The study supports the inclusion of mood-management tools in smoking cessation interventions and indicates that positive affect increases persistence to quit smoking.

  1. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  2. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were...... randomized to minimal smoking cessation intervention or intensive smoking cessation intervention. All patients attended a 30-min individual counseling by the study nurse. Patients randomized to intensive smoking cessation intervention also participated in a 5-session outpatient smoking cessation program...... by an authorized smoking cessation instructor, a 30-min outpatient visit after 6 weeks, and 5 telephone counseling sessions by the study nurse. Free samples of nicotine replacement therapy were offered as part of the intensive smoking cessation program. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were determined by self...

  3. Development of a Measure of Incremental Behavior Change Toward Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocke, Susan A; Step, Mary M; Lawson, Peter J; Smith, Samantha; Zyzanski, Stephen J

    2016-08-31

    A reliable measure capable of detecting progression towards smoking cessation would be valuable for evaluating and optimizing the effectiveness of low- to moderate-intensity cessation interventions, such as brief advice in the primary care setting. This article presents the development and evaluation of a brief self-report measure of Incremental Behavior Change toward Smoking cessation (IBC-S). Sequential samples of 411 and 399 adult smokers completed items representing a spectrum of behavioral and cognitive changes antecedent to smoking cessation. The dimensionality, fit, range of difficulty, and reliability of items were evaluated using factor analysis and Rasch modeling. The final 15-item IBC-S measure met fit criteria and demonstrated acceptable reliability. Participants with a significant change in IBC-S score were over four times more likely to report cessation at 6-week follow-up (OR 4.37, 95% CI 1.83-10.42). The IBC-S is brief, reliable and associated with self-report of smoking reduction and cessation. This article presents the psychometric evaluation of a measure to assess a spectrum of behaviors and cognitions antecedent to smoking cessation. The findings indicate that the items show good measurement properties and good potential as a sensitive measure to evaluate interventions. This measure provides an alternative outcome for interventions that are designed to move individuals towards cessation attempts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Structured Smoking Cessation Training for Medical Students: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Ronja; Schiekirka, Sarah; Brown, Jamie; Bobak, Alex; McEwen, Andy; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Physician adherence to guideline recommendations regarding the provision of counseling and support for smokers willing to quit is low. A lack of training during undergraduate medical education has been identified as a potential cause. This prospective intervention study evaluated a novel teaching module for medical students. As part of a 6-week cardiovascular course, 125 fourth-year undergraduate medical students received a multimodal and interactive teaching module on smoking cessation, including online learning material, lectures, seminars, and practical skills training. Short- and medium-term effects on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self-reported practice were measured using written examinations and an objective structured clinical examination at the end of the module and 6 months later. Results were compared to data obtained from a historical control cohort (n = 70) unexposed to the intervention. At the 6-month follow-up, scores in the knowledge test were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (61.1% vs. 51.7%; p students in the intervention than control group agreed that smoking was a chronic disease (83.1% vs. 68.1%; p = .045). The control group was more likely to report recording smoking status (p = .018), but no group difference was detected regarding the report of advising to quit (p = .154). A novel teaching module for undergraduate medical students produced a sustained learning outcome in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes but not self-reported practice. Studies across the world have identified considerable knowledge gaps and deficits in practical training with regard to smoking cessation counseling in undergraduate medical students. This paper describes a teaching intervention informed by current recommendations for the design of educational activities aimed at enabling medical students to deliver adequate behavior change counseling. The teaching module was tailored to the needs of a specific healthcare system. Given

  5. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  6. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Ghorai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape.

  7. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  8. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  9. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More randomised

  10. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aziz Rahman

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation.To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation.A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases.Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated.Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97. Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18% reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28. Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used.Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis.Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More

  11. National Survey of Smoking and Smoking Cessation Education Within UK Midwifery School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jane; Harris, James M; Lorencatto, Fabiana; McEwen, Andy; Duaso, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    Smoking in pregnancy in the United Kingdom remains prevalent (11%). To encourage and support pregnant smokers to quit, midwives must be adequately trained to do so. Substantial curricular gaps have been identified in the smoking cessation training of medical, nursing, and optometry schools. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation training and assessment in UK midwifery schools. All UK undergraduate midwifery schools (n = 53) were invited to complete a web-based survey of their curricular coverage and assessment related to smoking cessation, and perceived barriers to delivering smoking cessation training. Twenty-nine (55%) midwifery schools responded. Most teaching was completed in the initial year of study. All reported teaching the harmful effects of tobacco use. The majority of respondents (83%) reported training students in brief intervention delivery and ways to assist quit attempts. Only 24% of schools in this study included relapse prevention in their curriculum. The most frequently reported barriers to teaching smoking cessation were "lack of knowledge amongst staff" (17%), "no space in a crowded curriculum" (17%), and "administrative problems" (13%). Midwifery schools are teaching the harmful effects of smoking and providing training on brief interventions. However, in some schools student midwives are not being sufficiently trained on relapse prevention or assessed in the practical skills necessary for delivering evidence-based interventions. Midwifery schools should revise the content and delivery of smoking cessation training to ensure midwives are equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to contribute to the challenge of smoking cessation in pregnancy.

  12. The influence of smoking cessation on hemodynamics and arterial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Shmuel; Isakov, Irina; Golzman, Boris; Kogan, Jacob; Turkot, Svetlana; Peled, Ronit; Yosefy, Chaim

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with consistent changes in small arteries and arterioles. Recently, arterial compliance was determined in smokers; however, the effect of smoking cessation on arterial compliance has not yet been investigated. The objective of the study was to assess how smoking cessation, achieved with use of behavioral and pharmacologic therapy, influences vascular compliance and arterial stiffness in smokers. In an open-label study, 60 habitual smokers were treated for 2 months with buproprion 300 mg per day and personal and group conversations in order to facilitate smoking cessation. Hemodynamic variables, including vascular compliance and augmentation index (AI), were measured twice, at the beginning of the study and after 6 months. Of the 60 smokers, 35 stopped smoking and 25 failed at the end of the 2-month treatment period. Of the 35 who were initially successful, 12 went back to smoking, and thus only 23 remained nonsmokers at the end of 6 months. Smoking cessation was accompanied by significantly lower arterial pressure and heart rate but by weight gain. Among the 23 subjects who stopped smoking for 6 months capacitive compliance (C(1)) did not change but oscillatory compliance (C(2)) rose significantly (from 5.1 +/-2.3 to 6.3 +/-3.0 p<0.01), and AI decreased significantly (from 63.1 +/-22 to 50.6 +/-17 p<0.05), whereas in smokers who still smoked after this period, both C(1) and C(2) and augmentation index did not change significantly from their basal values. The authors conclude that smoking cessation improves arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index, owing mainly to increasing the small artery compliance, which is known to be an early index of endothelial damage.

  13. Occupational and worksite norms and attitudes about smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Pechacek, T; Pallonen, U

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of worksite and occupational norms about smoking to workers' attitudes toward smoking cessation was studied in a defined population. From smokers identified in a self-administered questionnaire circulated to all employees of 10 worksites in suburban Minneapolis, 447 smokers were randomly selected and interviewed. Attitudes and social norms about smoking cessation were compared by occupation and worksite using analysis of covariance, controlling for age, sex, and education. Similarly, the relationships of social norms to attitudes were examined using multiple regression analysis. Interest in quitting smoking, confidence in the ability to quit, and coworker support of prior quit attempts were equally pervasive among workers from blue collar and white collar occupations. Yet substantial differences between worksites in attitudes and norms about smoking cessation suggest the importance of the unique social milieu of individual worksites. Of particular importance is the impact of coworker discouragement of prior quit attempts, which varied across worksites and was directly related to confidence in the ability to quit and the desire to seek formal help in future quit attempts. These findings point to the relevance of intervention programs aimed at changing worksite norms about smoking and smoking cessation. PMID:3963283

  14. Evidence-based smoking cessation for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karen M; Fallin, Amanda; Ridner, S Lee

    2012-03-01

    Despite a strong stance by the American College Health Association and years of prevention and control efforts on US college campuses, smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke remain a problem among college students. This article provides an overview of what is known about cigarette smoking in this population as well as existing interventions for smoking prevention, cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoke on college campuses. Strategies to reduce tobacco use are presented, many of which have been demonstrated to be effective in the short-term. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Self-medication in smoking cessation among smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałucka, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization defines self-medication by using OTC (over-the-counter) to treatment diseases or symptoms recognized by yourself without pay a visit to the doctor's office. Increasing availability of OTC medicines cause that Poles are more and more willing to take self-medication, even when they want to smoking cessation. The aim of the study was to investigate what nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation without prescription were chosen by smokers, who wanted without help to smoking cessation. The study included 323 people (68.1% were men and 31.9% women). The average age of respondents was 49 +/-11 years. The average pack-years in the study group was 17. The research tool was the author's questionnaire, which was distributed among patients for self- fulfillment. Subjects were divided into three groups: group I up to 10 pack-years (average 7.5 pack-year), group II between-11-20 pack-years (average 15.5 pack-year), group III--between 21-35 pack-year (average 28.5 pack-year). All subjects, at least once in their lives, bought OTC for self-medication nicotine addiction. Among the respondents in I and II group the most often chose the nicotine replacement therapy in the form of chewing gum, and in III group Cytisine tablets and pills nicotine (pself-medication. A strong self-motivation to smoking cessation was declared by 78.3% of respondents. On the other hand, Schneider test was positive in only 5% of patients. Smokers want to own attempt to smoking cessation by using nicotine preparations without a prescription, should be aware that self-assessment of readiness to smoking cessation is not a real preparation to quit smoking addiction. All the more should consult a doctor if subsequent attempts fail.

  16. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Cessation, one comment was received from a retiree who was upset that he might be forced to pay more for..., except that the following are not excluded: (i) Services provided by a certified marriage and family...

  17. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-10-01

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  18. Effects of smoking cessation on hypoxia and its potential impact on radiation treatment effects in lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Medical Dept., Nordlandssykehuset HF, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Bremnes, R.M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway)

    2008-11-15

    Background and purpose: smoking cessation is often attempted in the context of a lung cancer diagnosis. If cessation causes slowly continuing changes of total lung capacity and vital capacity, this may have consequences for lung volume, results of dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis and targeting precision, in addition to changes in oxygenation, tumor biology (gene expression) and prognosis. Methods: to address the impact of smoking cessation on radiation treatment of lung cancer, a literature review was performed. Results: smoking cessation is associated with important benefits such as improved lung function and a better general health and performance status. In surgically and radiation treated patients, smoking cessation might lead to longer survival and reduced complications. Early data indicate that hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer should be considered a poor prognostic factor. Yet, specific human data on how hypoxia is influenced by smoking status are not available. The influence of smoking history on the pneumonitis risk is not entirely clear. However, it appears that other factors outweigh the influence of smoking. The short-term effects of smoking cessation on lung function do not appear to cause relevant errors in treatment planning or targeting precision. Yet, no prospective study formally addressing this question was identified. Conclusion: smoking cessation appears to be prognostically beneficial. The role of hypoxia in this context requires more detailed evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Implementation of workplace-based smoking cessation support activities and smoking cessation among employees: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between implementation of workplace smoking cessation support activities and employee smoking cessation. In 2 cohort studies, participants were 6179 Finnish public-sector employees who self-reported as smokers at baseline in 2004 (study 1) or 2008 (study 2) and responded to follow-up surveys in 2008 (study 1; n=3298; response rate = 71%) or 2010 (study 2; n=2881; response rate=83%). Supervisors' reports were used to assess workplace smoking cessation support activities. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses to examine changes in smoking status. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, number of cigarettes smoked per day, work unit size, shift work, type of job contract, health status, and health behaviors, baseline smokers whose supervisors reported that the employing agency had offered pharmacological treatments or financial incentives were more likely than those in workplaces that did not offer such support to have quit smoking. In general, associations were stronger among moderate or heavy smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes/day) than among light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day). Cessation activities offered by employers may encourage smokers, particularly moderate or heavy smokers, to quit smoking.

  20. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were followed up for three months. Primary outcome measures were a 7-day point-prevalence cessation rate confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide and relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS. Intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Forty-three adult smokers were randomly assigned to SSEAP (n=20 or NSEAP (n=23 groups. The dropout rate was high with 19 participants completing the treatments and 12 remaining at followup. One participant from the SSEAP group had confirmed cessation at week 8 and end of followup (5%, but there was no difference between groups for confirmed cessation or NWS. Adverse events were few and minor.

  1. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Methods Participants (N=116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Results Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and, 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI[0.66, 0

  2. Parents who quit smoking and their adult children's smoking cessation: a 20-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricker, J.B.; Otten, R.; Liu, J.L.; Peterson, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Extending our earlier findings from a longitudinal cohort study, this study examines parents' early and late smoking cessation as predictors of their young adult children's smoking cessation. Design - Parents' early smoking cessation status was assessed when their children were aged 8 years;

  3. Isolating the role of psychological dysfunction in smoking cessation: relations of personality and psychopathology to attaining cessation milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Japuntich, Sandra J; Piper, Megan E; Jorenby, Douglas E; Schlam, Tanya R; Baker, Timothy B

    2012-12-01

    Research exploring psychological dysfunction as a predictor of smoking cessation success may be limited by nonoptimal predictor variables (i.e., categorical psychodiagnostic measures vs. continuous personality-based manifestations of dysfunction) and imprecise outcomes (i.e., summative point-prevalence abstinence vs. constituent cessation milestone measures). Accordingly, this study evaluated the unique and overlapping relations of broad-spectrum personality traits (positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint) and past-year psychopathology (anxiety, mood, and substance use disorder) to point-prevalence abstinence and three smoking cessation milestones: (a) initiating abstinence, (b) first lapse, and (c) transition from lapse to relapse. Participants were daily smokers (N = 1365) enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment study. In single-predictor regression models, each manifestation of internalizing dysfunction (lower positive emotionality, higher negative emotionality, and anxiety and mood disorder) predicted failure at one or more cessation milestone(s). In simultaneous predictor models, lower positive and higher negative emotionality significantly predicted failure to achieve milestones after controlling for psychopathology. Psychopathology did not predict any outcome when controlling for personality. Negative emotionality showed the most robust and consistent effects, significantly predicting failure to initiate abstinence, earlier lapse, and lower point-prevalence abstinence rates. Substance use disorder and constraint did not predict cessation outcomes, and no single variable predicted lapse-to-relapse transition. These findings suggest that personality-related manifestations of internalizing dysfunction are more accurate markers of affective sources of relapse risk than mood and anxiety disorders. Further, individuals with high trait-negative emotionality may require intensive intervention to promote the initiation and early maintenance of

  4. Finnish Dentists Find Smoking Cessation Important but Seldom Offer Practical Support for Their Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönholm, A; Litkey, D; Jokelainen, J; Keto, J; Pöyry, M; Linden, K; Heikkinen, A M

    2017-12-01

    To investigate Finnish dentists' smoking cessation related attitudes, consultation practices and familiarity with the local treatment guideline on smoking cessation. An online questionnaire was sent to 1740 dentists, which corresponds to 39% of dentists in Finland. A total of 456 dentists responded (response rate 26%), of whom 435 (95%) were clinicians. The dentists' smoking cessation practices were also compared to ones reported in a previous study in Finnish physicians. Dentists found smoking cessation important and often discussed and recommended quitting to the patients, but concrete withdrawal actions were seldom provided. The local treatment guideline on smoking cessation was actively utilized by 36% of the dentists. Adherence to the guideline was associated with higher rates of smoking cessation activities and success in them. Smoking cessation activity among dentists was significantly lower than in Finnish physicians. In accordance with the literature, among dentists, the most common barriers for smoking cessation were lack of time (44%) and education (42%). Although smoking cessation is discussed with patients, dentists are less active in taking concrete actions to support the patient on withdrawal. Adherence to the local treatment guideline was associated with better capabilities in dealing with tobacco withdrawal and a more active role in smoking cessation. The results suggest that more education on the local smoking cessation treatment guideline and cessation intervention is needed in order to overcome the remaining barriers to promoting effective smoking cessation in dental practice. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. Dental patients' perceptions and motivation in smoking cessation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pia; Johannsen, Annsofi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate smokers' perceptions of and motivation for smoking cessation activities in dentistry. MATERIALS AND METHODS PATIENTS: who smoked were consecutively recruited from general as well as specialist dental care clinics in Sweden. After a dental visit the patients completed a questionnaire about self-perceived oral health, smoking habits, motivation, reasons to quit and not to quit smoking, support to quit, smoking cessation activities and questions about smoking asked by dentists and dental hygienists. The sample consisted of 167 adult patients (≥ 20 years) who smoked daily. During the last 6 months, 81% of the patients had experienced oral health problems. The most common complaints were discolourations of the teeth, periodontal problems and dry mouth (38%, 36% and 33%, respectively). Improved general health was a major reason to quit smoking (89%). It was also stated that it was important to avoid oral health problems. 71% of the patients preferred to quit by themselves and 16% wanted support from dentistry. High motivation to quit smoking was reported by 20%. Occurrence of periodontitis during the last 6 months was significantly associated with being highly motivated to stop smoking (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.03-8.55). This study revealed that, although it was important to quit smoking to avoid oral health problems, the patients were not aware that tobacco cessation activities can be performed in dentistry. Periodontal problems seem to be the most motivating factor among the patients who were highly motivated to stop smoking.

  6. Systematic review of social media interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Kim, Sunny Jung; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McCulloch, Laura J; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Popular social media could extend the reach of smoking cessation efforts. In this systematic review, our objectives were: 1) to determine whether social media interventions for smoking cessation are feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective; 2) to identify approaches for recruiting subjects; and 3) to examine the specific intervention design components and strategies employed to promote user engagement and retention. We searched Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science through July 2016 and reference lists of relevant articles. Included studies described social media interventions for smoking cessation and must have reported outcomes related to feasibility, acceptability, usability, or smoking-related outcomes. We identified 7 studies (all were published since 2014) that enrolled 9755 participants (median=136 [range 40 to 9042]). Studies mainly used Facebook (n=4) or Twitter (n=2), and emerged as feasible and acceptable. Five studies reported smoking-related outcomes such as greater abstinence, reduction in relapse, and an increase in quit attempts. Most studies (n=6) recruited participants using online or Facebook advertisements. Tailored content, targeted reminders, and moderated discussions were used to promote participant engagement. Three studies found that active participation through posting comments or liking content may be associated with improved outcomes. Retention ranged from 35% to 84% (median=70%) across the included studies. Our review highlights the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of social media interventions for smoking cessation. Future research should continue to explore approaches for promoting user engagement and retention, and whether sustained engagement translates to clinically meaningful smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    .... To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation...

  8. Effects of Nicotine Dependence and Depressive Symptoms on Smoking Cessation: A Longitudinal Study Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, C.S.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Harakeh, Z.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal

  9. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  10. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-03-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest.

  11. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155

  12. A pilot randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a 'lung age' intervention on smoking cessation: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Imran; Mok, Wenqi; Toh, Hai Moy; Sii, Daniel; Wang, Wenru

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the 'lung age' intervention on smoking cessation rates, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, nicotine dependence and behavioural change among the smoking population in Singapore. Tobacco use has been linked to several preventable chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, cancers and respiratory diseases. Despite numerous health education attempts to promote smoking cessation, there has been a sustained increase in smoking rates worldwide, including in Singapore. A pilot randomized controlled trial. A convenience sample of 108 smoking individuals will be recruited from population health screenings conducted by a tertiary public hospital in Singapore, with 54 participants in the experimental group and 54 in the control group. Participants in the experimental group will receive a lung age intervention, consisting of lung age determination and education as well as smoking cessation advice, while the researchers will provide those in the control group with the usual smoking education. Outcome measures include smoking cessation rates, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, nicotine dependence and assessment of the stages of behavioural change. Data will be collected at the baseline and again at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. This study offers an additional intervention to improve smoking cessation rates in Singapore. It aims to reduce or delay the onset of smoking-related chronic diseases such as coronary heart diseases and cancer, which would eventually reduce the healthcare burden in an increasingly ageing society. ISRCTN15839687. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  14. Comparative impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; de Vries, H.; Boudreau, C.; Allwright, S.; McNeill, A.; van den Putte, B.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the differential impact of comprehensive and partial smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation. This study aimed to examine the impact of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in Ireland and England, and partial hospitality industry legislation in the

  15. Adolescents' rationalizations to continue smoking: The role of disengagement beliefs and nicotine dependence in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult smokers were found to reduce cognitive dissonance regarding their smoking behaviour by adhering to rationalizations or justifications to continue smoking, also known as disengagement beliefs. These beliefs were found to be an important barrier with regard to smoking cessation practices.

  16. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and

  17. Exploring the views of healthcare professionals on increasing smoking cessation advice for patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho ShuYing; McGee Hannah; McElvaney Noel G; Doyle Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation advice provided by healthcare professionals can be effective in increasing smoking cessation among patients. Any successful intervention will require staff knowledge of local barriers to implementation. However, the views of Irish healthcare professionals on increasing the provision of smoking cessation advice and the associated barriers remain unexplored. Aims: To explore the views of Irish healthcare professionals on barriers to increasing smoking cessation ...

  18. Smoking cessation intervention after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine; Henriksen, Rikke Mitzi; Bak, Søren

    2012-04-01

    Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were randomized to minimal smoking cessation intervention or intensive smoking cessation intervention. All patients attended a 30-min individual counseling by the study nurse. Patients randomized to intensive smoking cessation intervention also participated in a 5-session outpatient smoking cessation program by an authorized smoking cessation instructor, a 30-min outpatient visit after 6 weeks, and 5 telephone counseling sessions by the study nurse. Free samples of nicotine replacement therapy were offered as part of the intensive smoking cessation program. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were determined by self-report and verified by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Fewer patients than expected were recruited, which renders this report a pilot study. The 6-month self-reported smoking cessation rate was 37.8% in the minimal intervention group and 42.9% in the intensive intervention group. Smoking cessation rates verified by exhaled CO levels in the minimal intervention group and the intensive intervention group were 28.9% and 32.7%, respectively. No difference was found between the two groups (χ(2) = 0.16, p = .69). Overall smoking cessation rates were moderate and comparable to the results from other studies. Intensive smoking cessation intervention was not superior to short smoking cessation intervention. Thus, other factors than intensity of smoking cessation intervention might influence the smoking cessation rates after stroke or TIA.

  19. The total lifetime health cost savings of smoking cessation to society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2005-01-01

    Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined.......Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined....

  20. Interventions to facilitate smoking cessation | Okuyemi | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore, pharmacotherapy is recommended for smokers who are willing to attempt cessation, unless medical contraindications exist. The pharmacologic agents approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of tobacco dependence include bupropion (a non-nicotine therapy) and nicotine replacement ...

  1. Assessing the impact of a respiratory diagnosis on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of respiratory diagnoses on smoking cessation. A total of 229 current and former smokers, with and without respiratory diagnoses completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing how their smoking habit changed when diagnosed with various respiratory conditions. Among all participants the most common reason for quitting smoking was to reduce the risk of health problems in general. In those with a chronic respiratory diagnosis, this was their most common reason for quitting. Motivation to quit smoking, scored by participants on a scale of 0-10, increased at the time of diagnosis then further increased after diagnosis of a chronic respiratory condition but declined after diagnosis of an acute respiratory condition. The research had a small sample size so further research is required. However, important themes are highlighted with the potential to influence clinical practice. All clinicians should receive training to promote cessation at the time of diagnosing respiratory conditions.

  2. How to address smoking cessation in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Sánchez, M; Martinez, E

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco consumption is the modifiable risk factor contributing most to the development of non-AIDS-defining events among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Clinicians' awareness of this problem is critical and not yet adequate. Practical information issued by public health authorities or contained in experts' clinical guidelines regarding how to address smoking cessation in PLWHA is scarce. The aim of this review is to provide physicians with comprehensive and practical information regarding how to identify HIV-positive patients willing to stop smoking and those more likely to succeed, how to choose the most suitable strategy for an individual patient, and how to help the patient during the process. In the light of current evidence on the efficacy and benefits of stopping smoking in PLWHA, physicians must actively pursue smoking cessation as a major objective in the clinical care of PLWHA. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  3. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  4. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Muhannad; van der Tempel, Jan; Schwartz, Robert; Minichiello, Alexa; Lightfoot, Clayton; Noormohamed, Aliya; Andrews, Jaklyn; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ferrence, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity among smokers, most of whom report using them to quit smoking. This study systematically reviews the current literature on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ROVER, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU) library catalogue, and various gray literature sources. We included all English-language, empirical quantitative and qualitative papers that investigated primary cessation outcomes (smoking abstinence or reduction) or secondary outcomes (abstinence-related withdrawal symptoms and craving reductions) and were published on or before February 1, 2016. Literature searches identified 2855 references. After removing duplicates and screening for eligibility, 62 relevant references were reviewed and appraised. In accordance with the GRADE system, the quality of the evidence in support of e-cigarettes' effectiveness in helping smokers quit was assessed as very low to low, and the evidence on smoking reduction was assessed as very low to moderate. The majority of included studies found that e-cigarettes, especially second-generation types, could alleviate smoking withdrawal symptoms and cravings in laboratory settings. While the majority of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, the evidence remains inconclusive due to the low quality of the research published to date. Well-designed randomized controlled trials and longitudinal, population studies are needed to further elucidate the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. This is the most comprehensive systematic evidence review to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation among smokers. This review offers balanced and rigorous qualitative and quantitative analyses of published evidence on the effectiveness of e-cigarette use for smoking

  5. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children's Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Xia; Liang, Gang; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-11-08

    Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children's SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%), did not smoke at home at all (37%), did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%), or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57%) were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49%) and in the car (22%) were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children's SHS exposure.

  6. Smoking cessation: significance and implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2008-04-01

    A number of people in the USA who are still current smokers remain a staggering figure. Although this number continues to decrease, there is still a considerable amount of second-hand smoke. More importantly and for the purpose of this review, the detrimental effects of passive smoke in children is significant. We will not review the specific health effects of passive smoke, but for pediatricians, in particular, it is important to place in perspective programs that are available to influence the parents of children to stop smoking. Indeed, approximately 25% of all children aged 3-11 live in a household with at least one smoker. Despite the increasing number of communities in the states that have instituted restrictions or complete bans on smoking in the workplace and in many public areas, the principal site of smoking remains the home.

  7. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Masefield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on “Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit”. A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%; age 40–55 years (39%; 11–20 cigarettes a day (39%; smokes within 30 min of waking (61%; and has made 1–5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%. 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Auricular Acupuncture in Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Peng Wu

    2007-08-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that auricular acupuncture did not have a better efficacy in smoking cessation compared to sham acupuncture. Combined acupuncture with behavior counseling or with nicotine replacement therapy should be used in further smoking cessation trials to enhance the success rate of smoking cessation.

  9. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefore...... to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation....

  10. Effect of tailoring in an internet-based intervention for smoking cessation: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangberg, Silje C; Nilsen, Olav; Antypas, Konstantinos; Gram, Inger Torhild

    2011-12-15

    Studies suggest that tailored materials are superior to nontailored materials in supporting health behavioral change. Several trials on tailored Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation have shown good effects. There have, however, been few attempts to isolate the effect of the tailoring component of an Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation and to compare it with the effectiveness of the other components. The study aim was to isolate the effect of tailored emails in an Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation by comparing two versions of the intervention, with and without tailored content. We conducted a two-arm, randomized controlled trial of the open and free Norwegian 12-month follow-up, fully automated Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation, slutta.no. We collected information online on demographics, smoking, self-efficacy, use of the website, and participant evaluation at enrollment and subsequently at 1, 3, and 12 months. Altogether, 2298 self-selected participants aged 16 years or older registered at the website between August 15, 2006 and December 7, 2007 and were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent, nontailored Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation (control) or a version of the same Internet-based intervention with tailored content delivered on the website and via email. Of the randomly assigned participants, 116 (of 419, response rate = 27.7%) in the intervention group and 128 (of 428, response rate = 29.9%) in the control group had participated over the 12 months and responded at the end of follow-up. The 7-day intention-to-treat abstinence rate at 1 month was 15.2% (149/982) among those receiving the tailored intervention, compared with 9.4% (94/999) among those who received the nontailored intervention (P Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation seems to increase the success rates in the short term, but not in the long term.

  11. Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available With growing recognition of stagnant rates of attempted cigarette smoking cessation, the current study examined demographic and psychometric characteristics associated with successful and attempted smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample. This additional understanding may help target tobacco cessation treatments toward sub-groups of smokers in order to increase attempts to quit smoking.Data were used from the 2011 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 50,000.Current smoking status and demographics, health characteristics, comorbidities, and health behaviors.In 2011, 18%, 29%, and 52% of U.S. adults were current, former, or never smokers, respectively. Over one quarter (27% of current smokers were attempting to quit. Current smokers (vs. others were significantly more likely to be poorer, non-Hispanic White, less educated, ages 45-64, and uninsured, and they had fewer health-conscious behaviors (e.g., influenza vaccination, exercise. Attempting quitters vs. current smokers were significantly less likely to be non-Hispanic White and more likely to be younger, educated, insured, non-obese, with family history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and they had more health-conscious behaviors.Smokers, attempting quitters, and successful quitters differ on characteristics that may be useful for targeting and personalizing interventions aiming to increase cessation attempts, likelihood, and sustainability.

  12. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Committee Opinion No. 721 Summary: Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is the one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States, and is associated with maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. The physical and psychologic addiction to cigarettes is powerful; however, the compassionate intervention of the obstetrician-gynecologist can be the critical element in prenatal smoking cessation. An office-based protocol that systematically identifies pregnant women who smoke and offers treatment or referral has been proved to increase quit rates. A short counseling session with pregnancy-specific educational materials and a referral to the smokers' quit line is an effective smoking cessation strategy. The 5A's is an office-based intervention developed to be used under the guidance of trained practitioners to help pregnant women quit smoking. Knowledge of the use of the 5A's, health care support systems, and pharmacotherapy add to the techniques providers can use to support perinatal smoking cessation. The use of alternative forms of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and vaping, have increased substantially in recent years, but there are little data regarding the health effects of these agents, either in the general population or in pregnant women specifically.

  14. Committee Opinion No. 721: Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is the one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States, and is associated with maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. The physical and psychologic addiction to cigarettes is powerful; however, the compassionate intervention of the obstetrician-gynecologist can be the critical element in prenatal smoking cessation. An office-based protocol that systematically identifies pregnant women who smoke and offers treatment or referral has been proved to increase quit rates. A short counseling session with pregnancy-specific educational materials and a referral to the smokers' quit line is an effective smoking cessation strategy. The 5A's is an office-based intervention developed to be used under the guidance of trained practitioners to help pregnant women quit smoking. Knowledge of the use of the 5A's, health care support systems, and pharmacotherapy add to the techniques providers can use to support perinatal smoking cessation. The use of alternative forms of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and vaping, have increased substantially in recent years, but there are little data regarding the health effects of these agents, either in the general population or in pregnant women specifically.

  15. Adolescent smoking cessation services of school-based health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Yingling, Faith; Dake, Joseph A; Telljohann, Susan K

    2003-04-01

    A national sample of 390 junior and senior high school-based centers were mailed an 18-item survey to assess their institutional stages of change regarding smoking cessation education, referral, and prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) services and their perceived barriers and benefits regarding the provision of these services. Nearly half were in the maintenance stage for cessation education programs, one-third were in maintenance stage for referral services, and 12% were in the maintenance stage for NRT. The most frequently cited perceived benefits included an increased awareness of short- and long-term effects of smoking (education programs and referral services) and increasing student access to cessation methods (NRT). The greatest barriers cited were a lack of financial resources (education programs), problems with student transportation (referral services), and staff not having the authority to provide prescription services (NRT). School-based centers can do more to help stop adolescents from using tobacco.

  16. [Smoking cessation--a central role for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuz, J

    2005-09-01

    Physicians are in a unique position to advice smokers to quit by the ability to integrate the various aspects of nicotine dependence. This review provides an overview of intervention with smokers presenting in a primary care setting. Strategies used for smoking cessation counseling differed according to patient's readiness to quit. For smokers who do not intend to quit smoking, physicians should inform and sensitize patients about tobacco use and cessation, especially by personalizing benefits to quit and challenging smokers 'beliefs. For smokers who are dissonant, physicians should use motivational strategies, such as discussing barriers to cessation and their solutions. For smokers ready to quit, the physician should show strong support, help set a quit date, prescribe pharmaceutical therapies for nicotine dependence, such as replacement therapy and/or bupropion, with instructions for use, and suggest behavioral strategies to prevent relapse.

  17. Lessons learned from the London Exercise and Pregnant (LEAP Smokers randomised controlled trial process evaluation: implications for the design of physical activity for smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoletta Giatras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges of delivering interventions for pregnant smokers have been poorly documented. Also, the process of promoting a physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers has not been previously recorded. This study describes the experiences of researchers conducting a randomised controlled trial of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy and explores how the effectiveness of future interventions could be improved. Methods Two focus groups, with independent facilitators, were conducted with six researchers who had enrolled pregnant smokers in the LEAP trial, provided the interventions, and administered the research measures. Topics included recruitment, retention and how the physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers was delivered and how it was adapted when necessary to suit the women. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. Results Five themes emerged related to barriers or enablers to intervention delivery: (1 nature of the intervention; (2 personal characteristics of trial participants; (3 practical issues; (4 researchers’ engagement with participants; (5 training and support needs. Researchers perceived that participants may have been deterred by the intensive and generic nature of the intervention and the need to simultaneously quit smoking and increase physical activity. Women also appeared hampered by pregnancy ailments, social deprivation, and poor mental health. Researchers observed that their status as health professionals was valued by participants but it was challenging to maintain contact with participants. Training and support needs were identified for dealing with pregnant teenagers, participants’ friends and family, and post-natal return to smoking. Conclusions Future exercise interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy may benefit by increased tailoring of the intervention to the characteristics of the

  18. Lessons learned from the London Exercise and Pregnant (LEAP) Smokers randomised controlled trial process evaluation: implications for the design of physical activity for smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatras, Nikoletta; Wanninkhof, Elisabeth; Leontowitsch, Miranda; Lewis, Beth; Taylor, Adrian; Cooper, Sue; Ussher, Michael

    2017-01-17

    The challenges of delivering interventions for pregnant smokers have been poorly documented. Also, the process of promoting a physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers has not been previously recorded. This study describes the experiences of researchers conducting a randomised controlled trial of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy and explores how the effectiveness of future interventions could be improved. Two focus groups, with independent facilitators, were conducted with six researchers who had enrolled pregnant smokers in the LEAP trial, provided the interventions, and administered the research measures. Topics included recruitment, retention and how the physical activity intervention for pregnant smokers was delivered and how it was adapted when necessary to suit the women. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes emerged related to barriers or enablers to intervention delivery: (1) nature of the intervention; (2) personal characteristics of trial participants; (3) practical issues; (4) researchers' engagement with participants; (5) training and support needs. Researchers perceived that participants may have been deterred by the intensive and generic nature of the intervention and the need to simultaneously quit smoking and increase physical activity. Women also appeared hampered by pregnancy ailments, social deprivation, and poor mental health. Researchers observed that their status as health professionals was valued by participants but it was challenging to maintain contact with participants. Training and support needs were identified for dealing with pregnant teenagers, participants' friends and family, and post-natal return to smoking. Future exercise interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy may benefit by increased tailoring of the intervention to the characteristics of the women, including their psychological profile, socio

  19. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice.

  20. Beliefs and experiences regarding smoking cessation among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana; Fu, Steven S; Joseph, Anne M; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Solomon, Jody; van Ryn, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    A dearth of information exists about American Indians' views about smoking and cessation. We present results from six focus groups conducted among current and former smokers from American Indian communities in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, as part of a larger qualitative study. Findings indicate that, although smoking is common and acceptable among this population, many would like to quit. The majority of focus group participants attempted cessation without the aid of counseling and pharmacotherapy. Many held negative attitudes toward pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including worries about side effects, skepticism about effectiveness, and dislike of medications in general. Negative attitudes were grounded partly in a lack of trust in conventional medicine and, for some, were related to historic and continuing racism. Participants also reported a lack of information about tobacco dependence treatment from health care providers, including information about the functional benefits of such treatment. Nonetheless, participants thought smokers might try pharmacotherapy if it was made more accessible in their community and if community members could offer word-of-mouth testimonials regarding its effectiveness. Results point to the need for community- and peer-based smoking cessation treatment in the American Indian community, including accurate information from trusted sources.

  1. Smoking Intervention: A Combination Therapy Approach to Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Penny Neathery

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Start SMART smoking cessation program which combines nicotine withdrawal therapy with behavior modification. The Start SMART program provides seven, intensive one-hour group sessions that are shown to be a most effective intervention with a specific population--motivated, yet highly dependent smokers. (GLR)

  2. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Identification of the predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation may help healthcare workers to improve the effectiveness of attempts at quitting. Objective. To identify the predictors of success in a randomised controlled trial comparing varenicline alone or in combination with nicotine replacement ...

  3. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  4. Smoking Cessation Quitlines in Europe: Matching Services to Callers' Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Marc C.; van der Meer, Regina M.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Telephone quitlines offer a wide range of services to callers, including advice and counsel, and information on pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. But, little is known about what specific quitline services are offered to smokers and whether these services are appropriately

  5. A content analysis of popular smartphone apps for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroms, Lorien C; Lee Westmaas, J; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-12-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012. A total of 252 smoking-cessation apps were identified for the iPhone and 148 for the Android. Across both operating systems, the most popular apps were identified (n=47 for the iPhone and n=51 for the Android) and analyzed for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to an index based on the U.S. Public Health Service's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Where available, apps were coded for frequency of downloads. The analysis took place in 2012. Overall, popular apps have low levels of adherence, with an average score of 12.9 of a possible 42 on the Adherence Index. No apps recommended calling a quitline, and only a handful of apps recommended using approved medications (4.1%). Android apps in the sample were downloaded worldwide between 310,800 and 1,248,000 times per month. For both the iPhone and Android, user ratings were positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. For the iPhone, display order was also positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. Apps could be improved by better integration with the Clinical Practice Guidelines and other evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, R.; van der Galien, O.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Hollinga, A.P.D.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  7. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, Rosan; van der Galiën, Onno P; Smeets, Hugo M; Hollinga, Anne P D; Bosmans, Judith E

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  8. A pilot randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation in an outpatient respirology clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, Smita; Baron, Justine; Armstrong, Michael A; Garde, Avanti; Reid, Robert D; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Aitken, Debbie; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Wells, George; Pipe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a modified version of the Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation in an outpatient respirology clinic. METHODS: Adult tobacco smokers attending the respirology clinic and willing to choose a quit date within one month of enrollment were randomly assigned to receive standard care or the intervention. Standard care participants received smoking cessation advice, a brochure and a prescription for smoking cessation medication if requested. Intervention participants received a $110 voucher to purchase smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and were registered to an automated calling system. Answers to automated calls determined which participants required nurse telephone counselling. Feasibility indicators included recruitment and retention rates, and intervention adherence. The effectiveness indicator was self-reported smoking status at 26 to 52 weeks. RESULTS: Forty-nine (54.4%) of 90 eligible smokers were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=23) or control (n=26) group. Self-reported smoking status at 26 to 52 weeks was available for 32 (65.3%) participants. The quit rate for intervention participants was 18.2% compared with 7.7% for controls (OR2.36 [95% CI 0.39 to 14.15]). CONCLUSION: It would be feasible to evaluate this intervention in a larger trial. Alternatives to face-to-face follow-up at the clinic are recommended. PMID:25647168

  9. Dynamics of smoking-induced genome-wide methylation changes with time since smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Florence; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Castagné, Raphaële; Campanella, Gianluca; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Severi, Gianluca; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Lund, Eiliv; Vineis, Paolo; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2015-04-15

    Several studies have recently identified strong epigenetic signals related to tobacco smoking. However, an aspect that did not receive much attention is the evolution of epigenetic changes with time since smoking cessation. We conducted a series of epigenome-wide association studies to capture the dynamics of smoking-induced epigenetic changes after smoking cessation, using genome-wide methylation profiles obtained from blood samples in 745 women from 2 European populations. Two distinct classes of CpG sites were identified: sites whose methylation reverts to levels typical of never smokers within decades after smoking cessation, and sites remaining differentially methylated, even more than 35 years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that the dynamics of methylation changes following smoking cessation are driven by a differential and site-specific magnitude of the smoking-induced alterations (with persistent sites being most affected) irrespective of the intensity and duration of smoking. Analyses of the link between methylation and expression levels revealed that methylation predominantly and remotely down-regulates gene expression. Among genes whose expression was associated with our candidate CpG sites, LRRN3 appeared to be particularly interesting as it was one of the few genes whose methylation and expression were directly associated, and the only gene in which both methylation and gene expression were found associated with smoking. Our study highlights persistent epigenetic markers of smoking, which can potentially be detected decades after cessation. Such historical signatures are promising biomarkers to refine individual risk profiling of smoking-induced chronic disease such as lung cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perret JL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Perret,1–3 Billie Bonevski,4 Christine F McDonald,2,3,5 Michael J Abramson6,7 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Institute for Breathing & Sleep, Melbourne, VIC, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, 4School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Newcastle, NSW, 5Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 6School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 7Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large

  11. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. PMID:27849293

  12. Measurement and definition for smoking cessation intervention research: the Smoke-Free Families experience

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, C.; Tucker, P.

    2000-01-01

    The measures, definitions, and processes used in the Smoke-Free Families clinical trials to assure consistent measurement and reporting of various aspects of the trials are described. Definitions of current smokers at different points in the pregnancy, levels of addiction, biological verification, cessation, stages of change, and intervention approaches are presented along with the rationale underlying their adoption and development.


Keywords: smoking cessation; pregnancy; clinical trials; ...

  13. The Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Adoption Scale: evaluating the diffusion of a tobacco treatment innovation to a statewide prenatal care program and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Cleary, Sean; Ramiah, Kalpana; Clark, Jeannie; Abroms, Lorien; Davis, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    When a new patient education program is being considered for adoption by a public health agency, it is essential to determine provider perceptions of its acceptability for routine use. In 2007, the West Virginia Bureau of Public Health Perinatal Program, Right From The Start (RFTS), decided to adopt the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program. RFTS is a statewide perinatal home visitation initiative delivered by designated care coordinators (DCCs). The authors developed the SCRIPT Adoption Scale (SAS) in the absence of a valid instrument to assess the perceived attributes of a tobacco treatment innovation among the RFTS DCC population. They evaluated the validity of the five constructs of the Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model in an organization (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialability) to predict SCRIPT use. After reviewing the literature and developing draft SAS forms, 2 expert panel reviews established the face and content validity of a 43-item SAS. It was administered to 90% (85/90) of the RFTS DCC population. Psychometric analyses confirmed the validity and reliability of a 28-item scale. All 28 items had factor loadings greater than 0.40 (range = 0.43-0.81). All SAS subscales were strongly correlated, r = 0.51 to 0.97, supporting the convergent validity of a 5-factor SAS. There was a significant association between the DCC SAS score and DCC SCRIPT Program Implementation Index supporting the SAS convergent (construct) validity (r = 0.38). The SAS internal consistencyr = 0.93 and stabilityr = 0.76. Although 2 specific subscales need to be improved, the SAS can be adapted by prenatal care programs to measure the attributes of adoption of new, evidence-based patient education and counseling methods.

  14. Impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation: systematic review and pooled-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viron, Sylviane; Van der Heyden, Johan; Ambrosino, Elena; Arbyn, Marc; Brand, Angela; Van Oyen, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetic notification of smoking-related disease risk on smoking cessation in the general population. Secondary objectives were to assess the impact of genetic notification on intention-to-quit smoking and on emotional outcomes as well as the understanding and the recall of this notification. A systematic review of articles from inception to August 2011 without language restriction was realized using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Toxnet. Other publications were identified using hand search. The pooled-analysis included only randomized trials. Comparison groups were (i) high and low genetic risk versus control, and (ii) high versus low genetic risk. For the pooled-analysis random effect models were applied and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Eight papers from seven different studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. High genetic risk notification was associated with short-term increased depression and anxiety. Four randomized studies were included in the pooled-analysis, which revealed a significant impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation in comparison to controls (clinical risk notification or no intervention) in short term follow-up less than 6 months (RR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.21). In short term follow-up, genetic notification increased smoking cessation in comparison to control interventions. However, there is no evidence of long term effect (up to 12 month) on smoking cessation. Further research is needed to assess more in depth how genetic notification of smoking-related disease could contribute to smoking cessation.

  15. Impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation: systematic review and pooled-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylviane de Viron

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetic notification of smoking-related disease risk on smoking cessation in the general population. Secondary objectives were to assess the impact of genetic notification on intention-to-quit smoking and on emotional outcomes as well as the understanding and the recall of this notification. METHODS: A systematic review of articles from inception to August 2011 without language restriction was realized using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Toxnet. Other publications were identified using hand search. The pooled-analysis included only randomized trials. Comparison groups were (i high and low genetic risk versus control, and (ii high versus low genetic risk. For the pooled-analysis random effect models were applied and sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Eight papers from seven different studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. High genetic risk notification was associated with short-term increased depression and anxiety. Four randomized studies were included in the pooled-analysis, which revealed a significant impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation in comparison to controls (clinical risk notification or no intervention in short term follow-up less than 6 months (RR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.21. CONCLUSIONS: In short term follow-up, genetic notification increased smoking cessation in comparison to control interventions. However, there is no evidence of long term effect (up to 12 month on smoking cessation. Further research is needed to assess more in depth how genetic notification of smoking-related disease could contribute to smoking cessation.

  16. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  17. Economic evaluation of a telephone- and face-to-face-delivered counseling intervention for smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian; Max, Wendy; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Evers, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of two smoking cessation counseling interventions differing in their modality for patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease from a societal perspective. In a randomized controlled trial conducted in Dutch hospital wards, cardiac patients who smoked prior to admission were allocated to usual care (n = 245), telephone counseling (n = 223) or face-to-face counseling (n = 157). The counseling interventions lasted for 3 months and were complemented by nicotine patches. Baseline histories were obtained, and interviews took place 6 months after hospitalization to assess self-reported smoking status and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per quitter and cost-utility ratios per QALY were calculated and presented in acceptability curves. Uncertainty was accounted for by sensitivity analysis. Using continued abstinence as the outcome measure showed that telephone counseling had the highest probability of being cost-effective. Face-to-to-face counseling was also more cost-effective than usual care. No significant improvements and differences in QALYs between the three conditions were found. Varying costs and effect estimations revealed that the results of the primary analyses were robust. Assuming a willingness-to-pay of €20,000 per abstinent patient, telephone counseling would be a highly cost-effective smoking cessation intervention assisting cardiac patients to quit. However, the lack of consensus concerning the willingness-to-pay per quitter impedes drawing firm conclusions. Moreover, studies with extended follow-up periods are needed to capture late relapses and possible differences in QALYs.

  18. [The motivational week: A new approach in smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssens, L; Lustygier, V; Ansseau, M; Thiebaut, I; Thimpont, J

    2017-03-01

    Smoking cessation is complex and challenging. The motivational week is a multidisciplinary approach that has been established in order to increase the chances of quitting smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the rates of abstinence achieved and the predictive factors for quitting. Clinical data, smoking status, levels of dependence and motivation as well as rates of continuous abstinence in the short and long-term of all patients who participated in the motivational week were analysed. Two hundred and thirteen patients were included. The mean age was 49.8 years (10.6). The rates of continuous abstinence were 40.4% at 6 months, 29.1% at 12 months and 21.6% at 2 years. Using logistic regression, having depression or a history of depression was associated with reduced likelihood of smoking cessation: OR: 0.32 [95%CI: 0.16-0.76; P=0.003] at 6 months, OR: 0.35 [95%CI: 0.16-0.77; P=0.009] at 12 months and OR: 0.27 [95%CI: 0.11-0.65; P=0.004] at 2 years. The motivational week seems to be an approach which is effective long-term and could be used in smoking cessation. This study confirms that depression is an unfavourable factor for quitting. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV Care Initiation: A Teachable Moment for Smoking Cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Frank, Summer G; Savin, Micah J; Waters, Andrew J; Li, Yisheng; Chen, Sixia; Fletcher, Faith E; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-09-25

    Tobacco use among persons living with HIV represents an important risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Thus, efforts designed to inform the development of appropriate smoking cessation programs for this population remains a public health priority. To address this need, a study was conducted to longitudinally assess the relationship between intention to quit smoking and cessation over the 12 month period following initiation of HIV care. Patients initiating HIV care at a large inner city safety net clinic were enrolled (n=378) in a 12-month prospective study. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post enrollment, and HIV-related clinical data were collected from participants' electronic medical records. Variables of interest included intention to quit smoking, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), and stage of HIV. Data were collected in Houston, Texas from 2009 to 2015. The sample was 75% male and 62% Black. Findings indicated that intention to quit smoking increased between baseline and 3 months, and subsequently trended downward from 3 to 12 months. Results from linear and generalized linear mixed models indicated that participants with advanced HIV disease (vs. not advanced) reported significantly (p<.05) higher intention to quit smoking at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post study enrollment. A similar though non-significant pattern was observed in the smoking abstinence outcome. HIV treatment initiation appears to be associated with increases in intention to quit smoking thus serves as a potential teachable moment for smoking cessation intervention. This study documents significant increases in intention to quit smoking in the 3-month period following HIV care initiation. Moreover, quit intention trended downward following the 3-month follow-up until the 12-month follow-up. In addition, a marked effect for HIV disease stage was observed, whereby

  20. Smoking habits of factory workers and their thoughts about cessation of smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Yılmazel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine smoking habits, levels of nicotine dependence, thoughts about smoking and smoking cessation of workers. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted by volunteer 200 workers from cement and sugar factories in 2014 Çorum. The data was collected through a 40-item questionnaire form questioning smoking habits, thoughts about smoking and cessation of workers. To determine nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test was used. Results: Among workers, smoking prevalence was 38.0%, the mean age to start smoking was 18.82 ± 4.01 years. The rate of smoking during the 11 and over years was 88.2% and smoking 11 cigarettes in a day was 60.5%. In addition, the rate of smokers regret for smoking was 93.4% while the rate of want to quit smoking was 63.2%, attempts to quit smoking was 68.4. A significant proportion of smokers were concerned about the deterioration of their health. Despite the high awareness among smokers, thoughts preventing to quit smoking were found to be commonly. The 29.0% of the workers were low, 3.9% of were moderate and 67.1% of were high level of addicted to nicotine. Workers dependency levels varied significantly depending on the number of cigarettes consumed in a day (p=0.004. The proportion of workers took recommendations from health care personnel about smoking cessation was low. Almost none of the workers had never been trained in smoking cessation. Conclusion: In this study, the rate of smoking and nicotine dependence levels in factory workers were found to be high.

  1. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous explanatory randomized trials support the efficacy of chronic disease interventions, including smoking cessation treatments. However, there is often inadequate adoption of these interventions for various reasons, one being the limitation of generalizability of the explanatory studies in real-world settings. Randomized controlled trials can be rated as more explanatory versus pragmatic along 10 dimensions. Pragmatic randomized clinical trials generate more realistic estimates of effectiveness with greater relevance to clinical practice and for health resource allocation decisions. However, there is no clear method to scale each dimension during the trial design phase to ensure that the design matches the intended purpose of the study. Methods We designed a pragmatic, randomized, controlled study to maximize external validity by addressing several barriers to smoking cessation therapy in ambulatory care. We analyzed our design and methods using the recently published ‘Pragmatic–Explanatory Continuum Indicatory Summary (PRECIS’ tool, a qualitative method to assess trial design across 10 domains. We added a 20-point numerical rating scale and a modified Delphi process to improve consensus in rating these domains. Results After two rounds of review, there was consensus on all 10 domains of study design. No single domain was scored as either fully pragmatic or fully explanatory; but overall, the study scored high on pragmatism. Conclusions This addition to the PRECIS tool may assist other trial designers working with interdisciplinary co-investigators to rate their study design while building consensus.

  2. Inflammatory changes in the airways of mice caused by cigarette smoke exposure are only partially reversed after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraneveld Aletta D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking irritates and damages the respiratory tract and contributes to a higher risk of developing lung emphysema. At present, smoking cessation is the only effective treatment for reducing the progression of lung emphysema, however, there is hardly anything known about the effects of smoking cessation on cytokine and chemokine levels in the airways. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported in vivo study in which cytokine profiles were determined after cessation of cigarette smoke exposure. Methods The severity of airway remodeling and inflammation was studied by analyzing alveolar enlargement, heart hypertrophy, inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissue and by determining the cytokine and chemokine profiles in the BALF of A/J mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 weeks and 8 weeks after smoking cessation. Results The alveolar enlargement and right ventricle heart hypertrophy found in smoke-exposed mice remained unchanged after smoking cessation. Although the neutrophilic inflammation in the BALF of cigarette smoke-exposed animals was reduced after smoking cessation, a sustained inflammation in the lung tissue was observed. The elevated cytokine (IL-1α and TNF-α and chemokine (CCL2 and CCL3 levels in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice returned to basal levels after smoking cessation, while the increased IL-12 levels did not return to its basal level. The cigarette smoke-enhanced VEGF levels did not significantly change after smoking cessation. Moreover, IL-10 levels were reduced in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice and these levels were still significantly decreased after smoking cessation compared to the control animals. Conclusion The inflammatory changes in the airways caused by cigarette smoke exposure were only partially reversed after smoking cessation. Although smoking cessation should be the first step in reducing the progression of lung emphysema, additional

  3. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmee; Cho, Won-Kyung

    2014-11-01

    Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking. A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success. The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  5. Smoking cessation affects the natural history of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiu-Wu Bai,1 Xiao-xin Chen,2 Shengsheng Liu,3 Li Yu,1 Jin-Fu Xu11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Peoples Hospital of Nantong, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 3Department of Tuberculosis, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered and readily identifiable risk factor for COPD. However, it is not clear which quantitative factors related to smoking influence the prognosis of COPD patients.Methods: A total of 204 patients with a long-term history of smoking were enrolled into this study and followed up for 5 years. Patients were divided into “death” or “survival” groups based on follow-up results and “quitting-smoking” or “continuing-smoking” groups based on whether they gave up smoking.Results: Patients in the death group had a longer smoking time, lower prevalence of quitting smoking, later onset of COPD symptoms, older age at quitting smoking, lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 % predicted, and lower ratio of FEV1/forced vital capacity. Age, age at quitting smoking, and FEV1% predicted were independently associated with mortality from COPD. Compared to the continuing-smoking group, the quitting-smoking group had a lower mortality rate, longer course of COPD, earlier onset of COPD symptoms, and lower residual volume percent predicted. During the 5-year follow-up, 113 deaths were recorded (quitting-smoking group: n=92; 40 deaths; continuing-smoking group: n=112; 73 deaths. The mortality risk remained significantly higher in the continuing-smoking group than the quitting-smoking group (log-rank test, 13.59; P=0.0002.Conclusion: Smoking time may be related to the mortality rate from COPD. Smoking cessation has the greatest capacity to influence the natural history of COPD.Keywords: chronic

  6. Association of smoking status, cumulative smoking, duration of smoking cessation, age of starting smoking, and depression in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Woo-Jun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many previous studies did not sufficiently control for several confounding factors that may affect the association between smoking and depression, such as socioeconomic status. We investigated the association between depression and smoking status, smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and age of starting smoking while controlling for socioeconomic factors. Methods This study was based on a community health survey performed in Jeollanam-do, South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 20,084 subjects (9,118 males and 10,966 females were included in the analysis. Information on smoking characteristics, such as smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and age of starting smoking, was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Depression was defined using the Korean CES-D score. Results The odds ratios (ORs of depression were 1.35 (0.92–1.98 for former smokers and 1.77 (1.27–2.48 for current-smokers among males, and 2.67 (1.38–5.16 for former smokers and 3.72 (2.11–6.54 for current-smokers among females, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Compared to light smoking, heavy smoking was significantly associated with depression in males [OR = 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.42–11.14], but not in females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.73–2.09. No significant associations between depression and age of starting smoking and duration of smoking cessation were observed among former smokers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that smoking is strongly associated with depression, particularly among females. These findings suggest that depression prevention may need to be combined with smoking prevention and that different strategies may be needed for males and females.

  7. National Survey of the Smoking Cessation Services in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Pizzi, Enrica; Carosi, Giordano; Mazzola, Monica; Mattioli, Donatella; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at providing information about structural and organizational characteristics of smoking cessation services (SCS) set up within the Italian National Health Service. Local health units and hospitals are the main institutions connected with SCS which are mainly located within the Department of Drug Addiction and the Department of Lung and Breath Care. SCS provide different tobacco-use cessation programs. Although pharmacotherapy is always used, a combination of therapeutic treatments is highly preferred. This study shows the importance of maintaining a national coordination among different SCS supporting their activity and encouraging the start up of additional services throughout the country. PMID:19440422

  8. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    primarily addressed the consultations that had been observed. The concept of “ frames ” described by Goffman was deployed as an analytic tool. Setting . Danish general practice. Subjects. Six GPs and 11 of their patients. Results . Both GPs and patients evaluated potential issues to be included during...... consultations by relevance criteria. Relevance criteria served the purpose of limiting the number of issues in individual consultations. Issues could be included if they connected to something already communicated in a consultation. Smoking cessation advice was subject to these relevance criteria....... Conclusions . Relevance criteria in the shape of communication of particular risks to particular patients and small-talk about well-being refl ect the concept of “ frames ” by Goffman. Criteria of relevance limit the number of issues in individual consultations. Relevance criteria may explain why smoking...

  9. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  10. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  11. Cessation of smoking after first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Alslev, Torben

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cessation of smoking is widely recommended in patients with stroke to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and recurrent stroke, but little is known regarding how patients modify their smoking habits after a stroke. We used data from a prospective follow-up study...... to assess modification of smoking habits and to identify predictors of persistent smoking after first-ever stroke. METHODS: All patients admitted to the only neurology department of Funen County (465 000 inhabitants) with first-ever stroke from August 1, 1999, to January 31, 2001, were prospectively...... identified. A comprehensive structured interview was completed both during hospitalization and at 6-month follow-up. The interview comprised questions on education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, concomitant diseases, and functional disability. We estimated the relative risk of persistent smoking...

  12. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Strzeszynski, Lukasz; Topor-Madry, Roman

    2017-11-21

    Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group search strategy was combined with additional searches for any studies that referred to tobacco/smoking cessation, mass media and adults. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a number of electronic databases. The last search was carried out in November 2016. Controlled trials allocating communities, regions or states to intervention or control conditions; interrupted time series.Adults, 25 years or older, who regularly smoke cigarettes. Studies which cover all adults as defined in studies were included.Mass media are defined here as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people, and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact. The purpose of the mass media campaign must be primarily to encourage smokers to quit. They could be carried out alone or in conjunction with tobacco control programmes.The primary outcome was change in smoking behaviour. This could be reported as changes in prevalence, changes in cigarette consumption, quit rates, or odds of being a smoker. Two authors independently assessed all studies for inclusion criteria and for study quality (MB, LS, RTM). One author (MB) extracted data, and a second author (LS) checked them.Results were not pooled due to heterogeneity of the included studies and are presented narratively and in table form. Eleven campaigns met the inclusion

  13. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 Cell Expression upon Smoking Cessation in Mice with Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm and destructive index (DI. The frequencies of CD8+IL-17+(Tc17 and CD4+IL-17+(Th17 cells, the mRNA levels of ROR gamma and IL-17, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice were assayed. Here we demonstrated that alveolar enlargement and destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure were irreversible and that cigarette smokeenhanced these T-cell subsets, and related cytokines were not significantly reduced after smoking cessation. In addition, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in lungs of smoke-exposed mice and cessation mice were positively correlated with emphysematous lesions. More important, the frequencies of Tc17 cells were much higher than Th17 cells, and there was a significantly positive correlation between Th17 and Tc17. These results suggested that Th17/Tc17 infiltration in lungs may play a critical role in sustaining lung inflammation in emphysema. Blocking the abnormally increased numbers of Tc17 and Th17 cells may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for emphysema.

  14. Methods for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is related to 30% of cancer deaths. It is a risk factor for respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney and bladder carcinomas. Nicotine induces tolerance and addiction by acting on the central dopaminergic pathways, thus leading to pleasure and reward sensations within the limbic system. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), enhances alertness and reduces the appetite. A 50% reduction of nicotine consumption may trigger withdrawal symptoms in addicted individuals: anxiety, anger, sleep disorders, hunger, cognitive dysfunction and cigarette craving. Medical advice is the cornerstone of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction comprises first-line (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy) and second-line (clonidine and nortriptyline) drugs. Bupropion is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that inhibits dopamine uptake, whose contraindications are: epilepsy, eating disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, recent alcohol abstinence and current therapy with MAO inhibitors. Nicotine replacement therapy can be done with patches or gums. Counseling groups and behavioral interventions are efficacious. The effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation are not fully elucidated. Prompt smoking cessation or gradual reduction strategies have similar success rates.

  15. Smoking cessation: which aids are worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F W; Bootsma, G P; Heijdra, Y F; van Spiegel, P I; Wollersheim, H

    2000-11-01

    Smoking is a major preventable health risk in western society. In the Netherlands, it is held responsible for 86 and 36% of annual mortality from lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Nevertheless about 33% of Dutch people smoke. Only 2% of smokers quit successfully after being advised to stop once by a physician. Although the medical profession should play a leading role in campaigns to stop smoking, general practitioners advise only 10% of their smokers to quit. An overview was made of the various aids that can be used to support attempts to quit smoking. Three aids: supportive schedules, nicotine replacement and bupropion chloride had proven long-term effectiveness in up to 5-10, 3-13 and 11-15% of the subjects, respectively. In conclusion, supportive counselling combined with nicotine substitutes or bupropion chloride is the most worthwhile intervention to support quitting attempts. Wider application of this strategy is expected to have major implications on morbidity (50% myocardial infarct risk reduction) and mortality in the Netherlands.

  16. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Harold G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19 in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh] via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA (χ2(3 = 8.068, p fpA (χ2(3 = 8.477, p h (χ2(3 = 37.599, p gpA and d(PfpA lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA, 64% of baseline for d(PfpA, vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh. Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis.

  17. [Bupropion: an effective new aid for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijdra, Y F; van Spiegel, P I; Bootsma, G P; van den Berkmortel, F P; Wollersheim, H

    2000-11-04

    Smoking is responsible for a substantial percentage of the total morbidity and mortality in western society. In the Netherlands 34% of the population smoke. A considerable part of the smokers tried to stop smoking, but did not succeed. Since December 1999 a new type of anti-smoke therapy is available; bupropion chloride (Zyban). With this treatment an improvement in success ratio in comparison with placebo is described of 11-15% after a year in a healthy population. Combined with nicotine patches this percentage was 20%. These percentages are higher than those of nicotine replacement therapy alone (3-13%). It is very important that effects of bupropion are tested in high-risk patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases as these groups may benefit most from cessation of smoking. Especially in the COPD group cessation of smoking makes a more substantial contribution to improvement of the disease process than the medication now available. Therefore, it might be considered to prescribe bupropion under strict control in this group even now, before definitive research results are obtained.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of smartphone-based mindfulness training for smoking cessation: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Pal, Prasanta; Rojiani, Rahil; Dallery, Jesse; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-04-14

    Tobacco use is responsible for the death of about 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. Mindfulness training has shown preliminary efficacy as a behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Recent advances in mobile health suggest advantages to smartphone-based smoking cessation treatment including smartphone-based mindfulness training. This study evaluates the efficacy of a smartphone app-based mindfulness training program for improving smoking cessation rates at 6-months follow-up. A two-group parallel-randomized clinical trial with allocation concealment will be conducted. Group assignment will be concealed from study researchers through to follow-up. The study will be conducted by smartphone and online. Daily smokers who are interested in quitting smoking and own a smartphone (n = 140) will be recruited through study advertisements posted online. After completion of a baseline survey, participants will be allocated randomly to the control or intervention group. Participants in both groups will receive a 22-day smartphone-based treatment program for smoking. Participants in the intervention group will receive mobile mindfulness training plus experience sampling. Participants in the control group will receive experience sampling-only. The primary outcome measure will be one-week point prevalence abstinence from smoking (at 6-months follow-up) assessed using carbon monoxide breath monitoring, which will be validated through smartphone-based video chat. This is the first intervention study to evaluate smartphone-based delivery of mindfulness training for smoking cessation. Such an intervention may provide treatment in-hand, in real-world contexts, to help individuals quit smoking. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02134509 . Registered 7 May 2014.

  19. Dynamics of smoking-induced genome-wide methylation changes with time since smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guida, Florence; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Castagné, Raphaële; Campanella, Gianluca; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Severi, Gianluca; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Lund, Eiliv; Vineis, Paolo; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have recently identified strong epigenetic signals related to tobacco smoking. However, an aspect that did not receive much attention is the evolution of epigenetic changes with time since smoking cessation. We conducted a series of epigenome-wide association studies to capture the

  20. Smoking cessation with teenagers: the relationship between impulsivity, emotional problems, program retention and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Lena; Bühler, Anneke; Strunk, Mareike; Lang, Peter; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-04-01

    This study examines whether individual differences in impulsivity and emotional problems in adolescent smokers are related to initial smoking characteristics of participants, acceptance, retention and outcome of a school-based smoking cessation program. The data was obtained from a feasibility study of a youth-specific, cognitive-behavioral and motivation enhancing program at 22 schools with 139 participating teenage smokers in Germany. A one-group-pre-posttest design was realized. Impulsivity levels were assessed by use of the impulsivity scale of the IVE ("Inventar zur Erfassung von Impulsivität, Risikoverhalten und Empathie", Stadler, Janke, & Schmeck, 2004). To evaluate the extent of emotional problems, the corresponding 5-items scale of the SDQ-Deu ("Strength and difficulties questionnaire", Klasen et al., 2000) was applied. Smoking behavior and acceptance of the program were assessed by students' self-reports. Acceptance and retention did not differ with regard to impulsivity and emotional problems, but initial smoking status did. Cessation rates varied with level of impulsivity: compared to non-impulsive participants, impulsive adolescents succeeded in quitting smoking less often. Emotional problems were not related to the rate of quitting. Impulsive adolescents were similarly compliant to the offered cessation intervention as less impulsive smokers. In spite of their general positive evaluation, impulsive adolescents seem to benefit less from a smoking cessation program than their non-impulsive counterparts. Specific elements supporting impulsive teenage smokers in their goal to quit should be incorporated into youth-specific cessation programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions. To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics. This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The

  2. Does deterioration in mental health after smoking cessation predict relapse to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; McNeill, Ann; Aveyard, Paul

    2015-11-20

    It is possible that some people who quit smoking experience improved mental health after cessation and therefore remain abstinent, whereas other people who quit may experience worse mental health after cessation and therefore be more likely to relapse to smoking. Thus, in this study we aimed to examine the association between an enduring change in mental health following the cessation period and future risk of relapse. A secondary analysis of prospective data pooled from five placebo-controlled randomised trials for smoking reduction conducted in Europe, USA and Australia. Change in mental health (SF-36, scored 0-100) was measured from baseline to four months for those who were biologically-validated as point-prevalence abstainers at four month follow-up. Thereafter we assessed whether relapse to smoking by 12 months was more likely in those whose mental health had worsened between baseline and four months compared with those who saw no change or an improvement. After adjustment for baseline mental health and other major covariates, there was no greater tendency to relapse at 12 months for those whose mental health worsened after cessation compared with those who had no change or an improvement. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval was 1.01 (0.97 to 1.05). People whose mental health worsens after smoking cessation are at no greater risk of subsequent relapse to smoking than those whose mental health stays the same or improves.

  3. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Toward precision smoking cessation treatment II: Proximal effects of smoking cessation intervention components on putative mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E; Cook, Jessica W; Schlam, Tanya R; Smith, Stevens S; Bolt, Daniel M; Collins, Linda M; Mermelstein, Robin; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how smoking cessation treatments exert their effects can inform treatment development and use. Factorial designs allow researchers to examine whether multiple intervention components affect hypothesized change mechanisms, and whether the affected mechanisms are related to cessation. This is a secondary data analysis of smokers recruited during primary care visits (N=637, 55% women, 87% white) who were motivated to quit. Participants in this fractional factorial experiment were randomized to one level of each of six intervention factors: Prequit Nicotine Patch vs None, Prequit Nicotine Gum vs None, Preparation Counseling vs None, Intensive In-Person Counseling vs Minimal, Intensive Phone Counseling vs Minimal, and 16 vs 8 Weeks of Combination Nicotine Replacement (nicotine patch+nicotine gum). Data on putative mechanisms (e.g., medication use, withdrawal, self-efficacy) and smoking status were gathered using daily assessments and during follow-up assessment calls. Some intervention components influenced hypothesized mechanisms. Prequit Gum and Patch each reduced prequit smoking and enhanced prequit coping and self-efficacy. In-Person Counseling increased prequit motivation to quit, postquit self-efficacy, and postquit perceived intratreatment support. Withdrawal reduction and reduced prequit smoking produced the strongest effects on cessation. The significant effect of combining Prequit Gum and In-Person Counseling on 26-week abstinence was mediated by increased prequit self-efficacy. This factorial experiment identified which putative treatment mechanisms were influenced by discrete intervention components and which mechanisms influenced cessation. Such information supports the combined use of prequit nicotine gum and intensive in-person counseling as cessation interventions that operate via increased prequit self-efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is there a positive effect of smoking cessation on periodontal health? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Tiago; Musskopf, Marta Liliana; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Susin, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of tobacco on the periodontal tissues have been reported extensively, little is known about the potential beneficial effect of smoking cessation on periodontal health. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on periodontitis progression and response to periodontal therapy. Two independent reviewers completed the review process through title (n = 118), abstract (n = 24), and whole-paper selection (n = 5). Sources include Medline and EMBASE databases (up to December 2012) and a reference list of selected studies. Prospective studies comparing progression rates of periodontitis between smokers and quitters and clinical trials evaluating the effect of smoking-cessation programs, alone or in combination with periodontal treatment, were included. At least 1 year of follow-up was required for inclusion. Of 331 potentially relevant publications, five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Because of heterogeneity of the studies, a meta-analysis could not be performed. One study reported that the progression of clinical attachment loss (AL) ≥3 mm during a 6-year period was approximately three times higher among smokers than quitters (P periodontal treatment, quitters were more likely to have periodontal probing depth reductions (P smoking cessation seems to have a positive influence on periodontitis occurrence and periodontal healing.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of using personal tailored risk information and taster sessions to increase the uptake of smoking cessation services: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Hazel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although government-funded specialist smoking cessation services in England offer advice and support to smokers motivated to quit, only a small proportion of smokers make use of this service. Evidence suggests that if smokers are proactively and personally invited to use services, use will be higher than with a standard referral made by health professionals. Computer-based systems generating personalised tailored communications also have the potential to engage with a larger proportion of the smoking population. In this study smokers are proactively invited to use the NHS Stop Smoking Service (SSS, with a personal computer-tailored letter and the offer of a no-commitment introductory session designed to give more information about the service. The primary objective is to assess the relative effectiveness on attendance at the NHS SSS, of proactive recruitment by a brief personal letter, tailored to individual characteristics, and invitation to a taster session, over a standard generic letter advertising the service. Method/design This randomised controlled trial will recruit smokers from general practice who are motivated to quit and have not recently attended the NHS SSS. Smokers aged 16 years and over, identified from medical records in participating practices, are sent a brief screening questionnaire and cover letter from their GP. Smokers giving consent are randomised to the Control group to receive a standard generic letter advertising the local service, or to the Intervention group to receive a brief personal, tailored letter with risk information and an invitation to attend a ‘Come and Try it’ taster session. The primary outcome, assessed 6 months after the date of randomisation, is the proportion of people attending the NHS SSS for at least one session. Planned recruitment is to secure 4,500 participants, from 18 regions in England served by an NHS SSS. Discussion Personal risk information generated by computer

  7. Use of electronic health records to support smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Raymond; Solberg, Leif; Fiore, Michael

    2014-12-30

    Health information systems such as electronic health records (EHR), computerized decision support systems, and electronic prescribing are potentially valuable components to improve the quality and efficiency of clinical interventions for tobacco use. To assess the effectiveness of electronic health record-facilitated interventions on smoking cessation support actions by clinicians, clinics, and healthcare delivery systems and on patient smoking cessation outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We searched for studies published between January 1990 and July 2014. We included both randomized studies and non-randomized studies that reported interventions targeting tobacco use through an EHR in healthcare settings. The intervention could include any use of an EHR to improve smoking status documentation or cessation assistance for patients who use tobacco, either by direct action or by feedback of clinical performance measures. Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of wide variation in measurement of outcomes, we were not able to conduct a meta-analysis. We included six group randomized trials, one patient randomized study, and nine non-randomized observational studies of fair to good quality that tested the use of an existing EHR to improve documentation and/or treatment of tobacco use. None of the studies included a direct assessment of patient quit rates. Overall, these studies found only modest improvements in some of the recommended clinician actions on tobacco use. Documentation of tobacco status and referral to cessation counselling appears to increase following EHR modifications designed to prompt the recording and treating of tobacco use at healthcare visits. There is a need for

  8. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  9. The awareness of patients with non - muscle invasive bladder cancer regarding the importance of smoking cessation and their access to smoking cessation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Emrah; Tuken, Murat; Colakerol, Aykut; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer and smoking cessation is associated with reduced risk of tumor recurrence and progression. The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients regarding the importance of smoking cessation, determine their access to smoking cessation programs and the effects of smoking cessation on recurrence rates of NMIBC. NMIBC patients who were followed with cystoscopy were included in the study. Their demographic properties were recorded, along with their smoking habits, awareness regarding the effects of smoking on bladder cancer and previous attempts for smoking cessation. Moreover, the patients were asked whether they applied for a smoking cessation program. Recurrence of bladder cancer during the follow-up period was also noted. A total of 187 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 64.68±12.05 (range: 15-90) and the male to female ratio was 167/20. At the time of diagnosis, 114 patients (61.0%) were active smokers, 35 patients (18.7%) were ex-smokers and 38 patients (20.3%) had never smoked before. After the diagnosis, 83.3% of the actively smoking patients were advised to quit smoking and 57.9% of them quit smoking. At the time of the study, 46.52% of the NMIBC patients were aware of the link between smoking and bladder cancer, whereas only 4.1% of the smoking patients were referred to smoking cessation programs. After a mean follow-up of 32.28±11.42 months, 84 patients (44.91%) had recurrence; however, current smoking status or awareness of the causative role of smoking on NMIBC did not affect the recurrence. In our study group, the majority of the NMIBC patients were not aware of the association between smoking and bladder cancer. Although most of the physicians advised patients to quit smoking, a significant amount of the patients were still active smokers during follow-up. Only a small proportion of patients were referred to smoking

  10. [Effect of smoking cessation on body mass index, blood pressure and serum lipids in middle-aged male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushima, K; Takamoto, N; Sato, H; Munaka, M

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking cessation on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and serum lipids in middle-aged male workers considering the effect of BMI which would increase by smoking cessation. The subjects were 1431 middle-aged men who worked in an enterprise in Hiroshima prefecture. Cross-sectional data measured in 1989 and longitudinal data measured from 1985 to 1989 were used in this analysis. The effect of smoking cessation on BMI, blood pressure and serum lipids were evaluated by two models of analysis of covariance (PC-SAS: GLM procedure) for the cross-sectional data and longitudinal data. In analysis of the cross-sectional data, model 1 was controlled for BMI and model 2 was not controlled for BMI. In analysis of the longitudinal data, model 3 was controlled for BMI change and model 4 was not controlled for BMI change. The main results are summarized as follows: 1. BMI was increased over the short period by smoking cessation, but over the long period BMI of ex-smokers remained at almost the same level as non-smokers'. 2. Blood pressure was increased over the short period by both the effect of smoking cessation and BMI increase from abstention from smoking. But over the long period blood pressure of ex-smokers remained at almost the same level as non-smokers. 3. Triglycerides (TG) and atherogenic index (AI) tended to decrease and HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) tended to increase over the short period by smoking cessation, but the concomitant BMI increase may have blunted any independent beneficial effect of smoking cessation on TG, AI and HDLC. But over the long period TG, AI and HDLC of ex-smokers recovered to almost the same level as non-smokers', and remained at that level. 4. These results suggest that smoking cessation have beneficial effects for health promotion in middle-aged men.

  11. A comparison of time-varying covariates in two smoking cessation interventions for cardiac patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Bolman, Catherine; Ruitenbeek-Wiggers, L.; de Vries, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the time-varying contribution of social cognitive determinants of smoking cessation following an intervention on cessation. Secondary analyses were performed on data from two comparable randomized controlled trials on brief smoking cessation interventions for

  12. Why are financial incentives not effective at influencing some smokers to quit? Results of a process evaluation of a worksite trial assessing the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Kamyab, Kian; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Process evaluation of a worksite intervention in which employees were offered $750 to complete a cessation program and to quit smoking. Awareness and attitudes about financial incentives were assessed following a randomized controlled trial of 878 smokers at a US-based company. Cessation program attendance was higher in incentive group versus control (20.2% vs 7.1%, P motivated to quit and reported that they would have quit for less money, said incentives were "not at all" or only "somewhat" important. Most nonquitters in the incentive group reported that even $1500 would not have motivated them to quit. Financial incentives are ineffective at motivating some smokers to quit. Internal motivation and readiness to quit need to be sufficiently high for relatively modest incentives to be effective.

  13. Supporting smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Peian; Zhu, Yanan; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Pan; YU, Jiaxi; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Na; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hongmin; Zhao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China. Methods In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to...

  14. Predictors of Successful Smoking Cessation after Inpatient Intervention for Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Eugene; Jo, Jun-Yong; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a well-known risk factor of cancer, chronic disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Hospital admission is a good time to quit smoking but patients have little opportunity to take part in an intensive smoking cessation intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors of successful smoking cessation among stroke patients who undergo an intensive cessation intervention during the hospitalization period. Methods Thirty-nine male smokers who were admitted wit...

  15. The Association Between Body Image and Smoking Cessation Among Individuals Living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Vidrine, Damon J.; Arduino, Roberto C.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    Lower smoking cessation rates are associated with body image concerns in the general population. This relationship is particularly important to study in individuals living with HIV/AIDS due to alarmingly high smoking rates and considerable bodily changes experienced with HIV disease progression and treatment. The association between body image and smoking cessation rates was examined among individuals living with HIV/AIDS participating in a smoking cessation intervention. Body image concerns ...

  16. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O

    2014-01-01

    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....

  17. Physician advice on avoiding secondhand smoke exposure and referrals for smoking cessation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Judy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure causes premature death and disease. Eliminating smoking in indoor spaces is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure, and also contributes to helping smokers quit smoking. Primary health care providers can play an important role in advising nonsmoking patients to avoid SHS exposure, cautioning current smokers against exposing others to SHS, and referring tobacco users to cessation programs. Methods The purpose of this paper is to examine primary care provider (obstetricians/gynecologists, pediatricians, and general practitioners advice regarding SHS exposure and referral to cessation programs. Using data from the 2008 DocStyles survey (n = 1,454, we calculated the prevalence and adjusted odds ratios for offering patients advice regarding SHS exposure and referring adults who smoked or used other tobacco products to a cessation program. Results The current study found that among a convenience sample of primary care providers, 94.9% encouraged parents to take steps to protect children from SHS exposure, 86.1% encouraged smokers to make their homes and cars smoke-free, and 77.4% encouraged nonsmokers to avoid SHS exposure. Approximately 44.0% of primary care providers usually or always referred patients who smoked or used tobacco products to cessation programs such as a quitline, a group cessation class, or one-on-one counseling. Conclusion Findings from a convenience sample of primary care providers who participated in a web-based survey, suggests that many primary care providers are advising parents to protect children from SHS exposure, encouraging patients who smoke to maintain smoke-free homes and cars, and advising smokers on ways to avoid exposing others to SHS. Healthcare providers are encouraged to advise patients to avoid SHS exposure and to refer patients who use tobacco products to cessation services.

  18. Development and application of culturally appropriate decision aids for smoking cessation in Korea: a pragmatic clustered randomization crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ji Eun Lee,1 Dong Wook Shin,1–3 Beomseok Suh,1 Sohyun Chun,4 You-Seon Nam,3 Belong Cho1,2 1Department of Family Medicine, Health Promotion Center, 2Laboratory of Health Promotion and Health Behavior, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 3JW Lee Center for Global Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 4International Health Services, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Introduction: In Asian countries, reluctance to seek pharmacological intervention is a major barrier for smoking cessation. Culturally appropriate decision aids are expected to help people in the decision making for the use of smoking cessation medication. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a culturally tailored decision aid for smoking cessation and evaluate its effect on the use of smoking cessation medication. Patients and methods: A 7-minute video on smoking cessation information and options was developed. Physicians were randomized into intervention and control groups. The decision aid was provided to patients in the intervention group, and they watched it, while those in the control group were provided usual medical care for smoking cessation. The primary outcome was the proportion of smokers who were prescribed smoking cessation medication within 1 month after consultation. The secondary outcomes were abstinence rate and use of smoking cessation medication within 6 months. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of the decision aid on the outcomes. Results: In total, 414 current smokers (intervention group: 195; control group: 219 were enrolled. The mean age of the participants was 48.2 years, and 381 subjects (92% were males. In total, 11.8% of the participants in the intervention group and 10.5% in the control group were prescribed smoking cessation medications within 1 month. The odds ratio was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.40–2.63 after

  19. Multicomponent smoking cessation treatment including mobile contingency management in homeless veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Vickie L; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S; Kirby, Angela C; Calhoun, Patrick S; Moore, Scott D; Dennis, Michelle F; Dennis, Paul A; Dedert, Eric A; Hair, Lauren P; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-07-01

    Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers. More information is needed regarding both quit rates and innovative methods to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic-based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This open pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smartphone-based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). The study was conducted from January 1, 2013-April 15, 2014. Following a 1-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes daily for 1 year or more and a CO baseline level ≥ 10 ppm) participated in a multicomponent smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement, and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence [ie, 6 ppm or less] at posttreatment and follow-up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Video transmission compliance was high during the 1-week training (97%) and the 4-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at 4 weeks. Follow-up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 55% at 3 months and 45% at 6 months. Results of this open pilot study suggest that mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless veterans. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01789710. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins, Brianna L.; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relatio...

  1. Change of government's subsidization policy improves smoking cessation services: a cross-sectional study from the perspectives of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Yin; Hung, Ling-Yu; Chie, Wei-Chu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Guo, Fei-Ran

    2016-05-17

    The Taiwanese government increased financial subsidies for smoking cessation services in 2012. We aimed to evaluate the effects of this new policy on smoking cessation services from the physician's perspective. This was a cross-sectional nationwide survey. Physicians who provided smoking cessation services for more than ten patient encounters in the preceding year of the new policy (February 2011 to March 2012) were recruited. The questionnaire was developed by two experts and was validated by a committee consisting of 11 delegates. We sent a total of 1,319 questionnaires. The response rate was 45.9 %. The majority of respondents were male (88.4 %), middle-aged (65.3 %), and worked as family physicians (56.1 %). Most physicians agreed that the new policy had increased the number of patients seeking smoking cessation, increased patients' willingness to adopt pharmacotherapy, helped physicians to prescribe medications, improved patients' adherence to medications, and improved quality of care. These changes were most prominent in medical centers. Changes in the practice of the 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) were moderate. Among different medical settings, the most significant change was an increase in the expenditure on smoking cessation medications. The new subsidization policy in Taiwan has improved smoking cessation services. Overall, physicians reported positive effects of the new policy. Further study is warranted to evaluate the long-term influence of the policy.

  2. Effectiveness of smoking cessation using motivational interviewing in patients consulting a pulmonologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gajin; Park, Inki; Park, Sungjae; Song, Sookhee; Kim, Hyeok; Kim, Suhyun

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of the physician in practice and the factors that influence the success rate of smoking cessation. This study retrospectively analyzed 126 adult smokers who had visited the outpatient department of pulmonology, and received motivational interviewing with or without supplement drugs. The findings include continuous smoking abstinence rate, which was evaluated at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and the factors associated with continuous abstinence for 6 months or longer. The patients with only motivational interviewing accounted for 57.9%, while the nicotine patch therapy was applied to 30.2%; and varenicline was prescribed to 11.9%. The smoking cessation success rates of at 6, 12, and 24 weeks were 55.6%, 47.6%, and 33.3%, respectively. However, even in the failure group at six months, tobacco consumption was decreased under 10 cigarettes per day in 42.1% (53/126). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, degree of Fagerstöm Test for Nicotine Dependence (p=0.034; odds ratio, 3.607; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.102-1.807), the absence of smoking-related lung disease (p=0.008; odds ratio, 4.693; 95% CI, 1.497-14.707), and education level (p=0.001; odds ratio, 181.420; 95% CI, 8.414-3,911.502) were the predictors of successful smoking cessation. An improved continuous smoking abstinence rate can be obtained by motivational interviewing, regardless of the association with pharmacotherapy.

  3. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    , in smokers, predictive of long-term lung cancer development. Whether smoking cessation impacts the suPAR level is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight smokers were randomized into three groups of 16: (i) continued to smoke 20 cigarettes per day, (ii) refrained from smoking and used transdermal...... nicotine patches and (iii) refrained from smoking and used placebo patches. Nonsmokers were included for comparison. suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: At baseline, the suPAR level was significantly higher in the 48 smokers (median 3·2 ng mL, IQR (2·5-3·9)) than...... in 46 never smokers (1·9 ng/mL (1·7-2·2)). In smokers randomized to smoking cessation, suPAR levels after 4 weeks of stopping were decreased and no longer significantly different from the never smokers values. SuPAR decreased in both those who received a placebo as well as nicotine patch. Interestingly...

  4. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation: pharmacological principles and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Luquiens, Amandine; Berlin, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Strategies for assisting smoking cessation include behavioural counselling to enhance motivation and to support attempts to quit and pharmacological intervention to reduce nicotine reinforcement and withdrawal from nicotine. Three drugs are currently used as first line pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Compared with placebo, the drug effect varies from 2.27 (95% CI 2.02, 2.55) for varenicline, 1.69 (95% CI 1.53, 1.85) for bupropion and 1.60 (95% CI 1.53, 1.68) for any form of nicotine replacement therapy. Despite some controversy regarding the safety of bupropion and varenicline, regulatory agencies consider these drugs as having a favourable benefit/risk profile. However, given the high rate of psychiatric comorbidity in dependent smokers, practitioners should closely monitor patients for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Second-line pharmacotherapies include nortriptyline and clonidine. This review also offers an overview of pipeline developments and issues related to smoking cessation in special populations such as persons with psychiatric comorbidity and pregnant and adolescent smokers. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Brianna L; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relation between published scientific literature and available commercial smartphone health apps for smoking cessation to identify the percentage of scientifically supported apps that were commercially available to consumers and to determine how many of the top commercially available apps for smoking cessation were supported by the published scientific literature. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, apps were reviewed in four phases: (1) identified apps from the scientific literature, (2) searched app stores for apps identified in the literature, (3) identified top apps available in leading app stores, and (4) determined which top apps available in stores had scientific support. Seven articles identified six apps with some level of scientific support, three (50%) were available in at least one app store. Conversely, among the top 50 apps suggested by each of the leading app stores, only two (4%) had any scientific support. While half of the scientifically vetted apps remain available to consumers, they are difficult to find among the many apps that are identified through app store searches.

  6. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  7. Randomized, controlled pilot trial of a smartphone app for smoking cessation using acceptance and commitment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Mull, Kristin E; Kientz, Julie A; Vilardaga, Roger; Mercer, Laina D; Akioka, Katrina J; Heffner, Jaimee L

    2014-10-01

    There is a dual need for (1) innovative theory-based smartphone applications for smoking cessation and (2) controlled trials to evaluate their efficacy. Accordingly, this study tested the feasibility, acceptability, preliminary efficacy, and mechanism of behavioral change of an innovative smartphone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) application for smoking cessation vs. an application following US Clinical Practice Guidelines. Adult participants were recruited nationally into the double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial (n=196) that compared smartphone-delivered ACT for smoking cessation application (SmartQuit) with the National Cancer Institute's application for smoking cessation (QuitGuide). We recruited 196 participants in two months. SmartQuit participants opened their application an average of 37.2 times, as compared to 15.2 times for QuitGuide participants (pacceptance of cravings at baseline (n=88), the quit rates were 15% in SmartQuit vs. 8% in QuitGuide (OR=2.9; 95% CI=0.6-20.7). ACT is feasible to deliver by smartphone application and shows higher engagement and promising quit rates compared to an application that follows US Clinical Practice Guidelines. As results were limited by the pilot design (e.g., small sample), a full-scale efficacy trial is now needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M E; Egan, B; Cawley, S; Kennedy, R; Sheehan, S R; Turner, M J

    2017-06-09

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  9. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  10. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A health sciences student-run smoking cessation clinic experience within a homeless population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kelsey; Tsu, Laura; Hormann, Sabrina; Giang, Kevin; Bills, April; Early, Nicole; Jackowski, Rebekah

    The primary objective is to describe a professional and graduate student-run approach to smoking cessation education combined with motivational interviewing and pharmacotherapy in regard to the frequency of follow-up with a smoking cessation quitline program in the homeless population. The secondary objective is to assess participants' self-reported level of confidence, knowledge, and willingness to quit before and after participation in the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Homeless shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. A previously established professional and graduate student-led clinic focused on providing a wide variety of free health services to homeless populations at a homeless shelter. One service not offered was smoking cessation support; thus, a student-run smoking cessation clinic was established. Patients were provided smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy by health sciences professional and graduate students. Patients were then given a 2-week supply of nicotine replacement therapy and referred to the state's smoking cessation quitline. The impact of multiple concomitant smoking cessation strategies provided by students within a homeless population has not been studied previously. A 10-day post-referral status update on the success of contact with patients was provided to study investigators from the smoking cessation quitline. Surveys were also used to assess the patient's self-reported level of perceived benefit with the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Of the 139 unique patients, 19 (13.7%) successfully contacted the smoking cessation quitline. Patients reported high baseline confidence, knowledge, and willingness related to quit attempts; they reported a small improvement in reported values after participation in the student-run clinics. In the homeless population, smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy had a low follow-up frequency with a smoking cessation quitline, but

  12. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López-Torrecillas

    Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  13. Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreras Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation. Methods We developed a dynamic model describing the evolution of current, former, and never smokers. We estimated probabilities of smoking cessation by fitting the model with observed smoking prevalence in Italy, 1986-2009. Results Annual cessation probabilities were higher than 5% only in elderly persons and in women aged Conclusions Over the last 20 years, cessation probabilities among Italian smokers, particularly for those aged 30-59 years, have been very low and stalled. Quitting in Italy is considered as a practicable strategy only by women in the age of pregnancy and by elderly persons, when it’s likely that symptoms of tobacco-related diseases have already appeared. In order to increase cessation probabilities, smoking cessation treatment policies (introducing total reimbursement of cessation treatments, with a further development of quitlines and smoking cessation services should be empowered and a country-wide mass media campaign targeting smokers aged 30-59 years and focusing on promotion of quitting should be implemented.

  14. Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation-present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death. Anew treatment in smoking cessation and relapse prevention is nicotine vaccination which is based on active immunization against the nicotine molecule. This article aimed to review the mechanism of action, current status of research and future aspects for the development of vaccines against nicotine. Materials & Method: The literature search of publications indexed was carried out in PubMed, Medline, Google scholar databases. Total 25 animal trials, human trials under various phases of clinical trials, unpublished document and cross-sectional survey were reviewed. Results: This immunization will act on immune system to produce nicotine-specific antibodies that sequester nicotine in the blood stream, after inhaling tobacco products. Nicotine vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections. Efficiency of the vaccines is directly related to the antibody levels which help to optimize the vaccine effect. Nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation trials. Conclusions: Though, nicotine vaccine has considerable therapeutic potential, they do not target the non pharmacological factors that maintain tobacco dependence. So combination of nicotine vaccine with behavioral interventions would be effective mode to motivate abstinence from tobacco use.

  15. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: case of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon; Pieters, Karen; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Reece, Robin; Reid, Robert D

    2011-09-14

    The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight into issues affecting program

  16. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...... in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk....

  17. The Heaviness of Smoking Index as a predictor of smoking cessation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; McDonald, Paul W; Bondy, Susan J

    2007-05-01

    Nicotine addiction is believed to be a major impediment for many people in quitting smoking, but measures of nicotine dependence such as the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) have had mixed success in predicting cessation. Using the National Population Health Survey, the relationship between HSI at baseline in cycle 2 (1996-1997) and successful smoking cessation at cycle 3 (1998-1999) and cycle 4 (2000-2001) was examined in 2938 Canadian adult smokers. A logistic regression model was developed for HSI as a predictor of smoking cessation, and then tested for interaction and confounding. The odds ratio of not smoking in cycle 3 was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.51, 2.86; p4) HSI scores (OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.11, 4.21; p=0.02) and low scores (OR 2.22; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.49) had higher odds of not smoking at both cycle 3 and cycle 4 than those with medium HSI scores. The likelihood of reporting cessation was higher than expected in the Canadian population among highly dependent smokers, particularly among older smokers, those with middle or greater income adequacy, and those with no intention to quit smoking. There were no substantial changes to the results when those lost-to-follow-up were treated as continuing smokers. These findings indicate that nicotine dependence is only one factor in succeeding at a quit attempt. Individual and population strategies for smoking cessation may need to consider other influences such as cognitive, affective and environmental factors.

  18. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  19. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L

    2008-04-01

    Nicotine sustains addictive tobacco use, which in turn causes much premature disability and death. The essence of drug addiction is loss of control of drug use. Molecular biology studies suggest that the alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype is the main receptor mediating nicotine dependence. Nicotine acts on these brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors to facilitate neurotransmitter release (dopamine and others), producing pleasure, stimulation, and mood modulation. Neuroadaptation develops with repeated exposure to nicotine, resulting in tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine. When a smoker stops smoking, a nicotine withdrawal syndrome ensues, characterized by irritability, anxiety, increased eating, dysphoria, and hedonic dysregulation, among other symptoms. Smoking is also reinforced by conditioning, such that specific stimuli that are psychologically associated with smoking become cues for an urge to smoke. These include the taste and smell of tobacco, as well as particular moods, situations, and environmental cues. Pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation should ideally reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms and block the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from smoking without causing excessive adverse effects. Further, given the important role of sensory effects of smoking and psychoactive effects of nicotine, counseling and behavioral therapies are important adjuncts to and substantially augment the benefits of pharmacotherapy.

  20. Mobile Phone Apps for Smoking Cessation: Quality and Usability Among Smokers With Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Joelle C; Brunette, Mary F; Geiger, Pamela; Marsch, Lisa A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-03-03

    Smoking is one of the top preventable causes of mortality in people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Cessation treatment improves abstinence outcomes, but access is a barrier. Mobile phone apps are one way to increase access to cessation treatment; however, whether they are usable by people with psychotic disorders, who often have special learning needs, is not known. Researchers reviewed 100 randomly selected apps for smoking cessation to rate them based on US guidelines for nicotine addiction treatment and to categorize them based on app functions. We aimed to test the usability and usefulness of the top-rated apps in 21 smokers with psychotic disorders. We identified 766 smoking cessation apps and randomly selected 100 for review. Two independent reviewers rated each app with the Adherence Index to US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Then, smokers with psychotic disorders evaluated the top 9 apps within a usability testing protocol. We analyzed quantitative results using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative data were open-coded and analyzed for themes. Regarding adherence to practice guidelines, most of the randomly sampled smoking cessation apps scored poorly-66% rated lower than 10 out of 100 on the Adherence Index (Mean 11.47, SD 11.8). Regarding usability, three common usability problems emerged: text-dense content, abstract symbols on the homepage, and subtle directions to edit features. In order for apps to be effective and usable for this population, developers should utilize a balance of text and simple design that facilitate ease of navigation and content comprehension that will help people learn quit smoking skills.

  1. Social Network Behavior and Engagement Within a Smoking Cessation Facebook Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Perotte, Adler; Galica, Kasia; Dreyer, Lindy; Griffith, Christopher; Schwarz, Mary; Yun, Christopher; Patrick, Heather; Coa, Kisha

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media platforms are increasingly being used to support individuals in behavior change attempts, including smoking cessation. Examining the interactions of participants in health-related social media groups can help inform our understanding of how these groups can best be leveraged to facilitate behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of participation, self-reported smoking cessation length, and interactions within the National Cancer Institutes’ Facebook community for smoking cessation support. Methods Our sample consisted of approximately 4243 individuals who interacted (eg, posted, commented) on the public Smokefree Women Facebook page during the time of data collection. In Phase 1, social network visualizations and centrality measures were used to evaluate network structure and engagement. In Phase 2, an inductive, thematic qualitative content analysis was conducted with a subsample of 500 individuals, and correlational analysis was used to determine how participant engagement was associated with self-reported session length. Results Between February 2013 and March 2014, there were 875 posts and 4088 comments from approximately 4243 participants. Social network visualizations revealed the moderator’s role in keeping the community together and distributing the most active participants. Correlation analyses suggest that engagement in the network was significantly inversely associated with cessation status (Spearman correlation coefficient = −0.14, P=.03, N=243). The content analysis of 1698 posts from 500 randomly selected participants identified the most frequent interactions in the community as providing support (43%, n=721) and announcing number of days smoke free (41%, n=689). Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of the moderator for network engagement and provide helpful insights into the patterns and types of interactions participants are engaging in. This study adds knowledge of how the

  2. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hilly, Abdulrahman Abdulla; Iqbal, Sheeraz Syed; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Muntasir, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Sarim; Al-Fagih, Zaid; Usmani, Omar; Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-10-24

    Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly against current behavioral support therapy

  3. Stage-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim; Green, Natasha

    2010-11-10

    The transtheoretical model is the most widely known of several stage-based theories of behaviour. It proposes that smokers move through a discrete series of motivational stages before they quit successfully. These are precontemplation (no thoughts of quitting), contemplation (thinking about quitting), preparation (planning to quit in the next 30 days), action (quitting successfully for up to six months), and maintenance (no smoking for more than six months). According to this influential model, interventions which help people to stop smoking should be tailored to their stage of readiness to quit, and are designed to move them forward through subsequent stages to eventual success. People in the preparation and action stages of quitting would require different types of support from those in precontemplation or contemplation. Our primary objective was to test the effectiveness of stage-based interventions in helping smokers to quit. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('stage* of change', 'transtheoretical model*', 'trans-theoretical model*, 'precaution adoption model*', 'health action model', 'processes of change questionnaire*', 'readiness to change', 'tailor*') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The latest search was in August 2010. We included randomized controlled trials, which compared stage-based interventions with non-stage-based controls, with 'usual care' or with assessment only. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment, and those which measured stage of change but did not modify their intervention in the light of it. We extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the dose and duration of intervention, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up.The main outcome was abstinence from smoking for at least six months. We used the most rigorous

  4. Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142. Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]; after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2; and at the end of the six-month study period (E3. Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status, as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded.

  5. Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding smoking and smoking cessation among African-American physicians and dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H A; Braithwaite, R L

    1997-11-01

    African-American physicians and dentists in metropolitan Atlanta were surveyed to assess smoking cessation practices and perceptions. Questionnaires were mailed to 373 physicians and 90 dentists. A total of 154 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 33.3%. More physicians than dentists considered smoking a "very serious" threat to patients' health, and physicians were more likely to document smoking status in charts and to counsel smokers to quit. Physicians also were approached more frequently by patients seeking cessation advice. Both types of practitioners considered the nicotine patch, formal cessation programs, and behavior modification/psychotherapy to be among the most effective cessation methods, and nicotine gum and acupuncture to be among the least effective. These results indicate African-American physicians are much more involved than dentists in promoting smoking cessation among patients. Advice of health professionals generally is viewed as a powerful influence for African-American patients. Further work is needed to utilize fully the power of health care providers, especially dentists, in the fight against tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  6. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  8. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81% expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. Results At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75% was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p Conclusions Swedish snus could promote smoking cessation among smokers in Serbia, that is, in a cultural setting without traditional use of oral, smokeless tobacco. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00601042

  9. Impact of self-initiated pre-quit smoking reduction on cessation rates: results of a clinical trial of smoking cessation among female prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Jackson, Dorothy O; Hale, Galen J; Carpenter, Matthew J; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in cessation success based on smokers' self-initiated pre-quit reductions in cigarettes per day (cpd). The study utilized data from a nicotine replacement+behavioral therapy smoking cessation intervention conducted in a female prison facility with 179 participants who were wait-listed for 6 months prior to intervention. We compared two groups of smokers based on whether they self-selected to reduce smoking prior to their cessation attempt (n=77) or whether they increased smoking or did not reduce (n=102). General Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to model smoking cessation through 12-month follow-up. Examination of pre-cessation cpd showed that those who reduced were heavier smokers at baseline, relative to those who did not reduce (p<0.001). By the week prior to the quit attempt (week 3) heavier smokers at baseline smoked significantly fewer cigarettes (p<0.001) and had lower CO levels (p<0.05) compared to baseline lighter smokers. GEE analyses showed that individuals who reduced prior to their quit attempt had significantly higher quit rates during early treatment but these gains were not sustained by follow-up points. Participant-initiated pre-cessation smoking reduction may be initially helpful in preparing to quit smoking, or may serve as a marker for participant motivation to quit smoking, but these differences do not sustain over time. More intensive interventions are still needed for successful cessation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engagement and abstinence among users of a smoking cessation text message program for veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Dana E.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Dennis, Paul A.; Hamlett-Berry, Kim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND SmokefreeVET is a text messaging smoking cessation program available to veterans enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration. SmokefreeVET was developed in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute as part of the SmokefreeTXT initiative. PURPOSE To evaluate the real world use of and effectiveness of the SmokefreeVET program for SmokefreeVET users who enrolled between 2013 and 2014. METHODS Demographics and smoking behavior of 1,470 SmokefreeVET users who enrolled between 2013 and 2014 were analyzed. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to identify discrete classes of SmokefreeVET users based on engagement patterns. Multi-level modeling determined class differences in abstinence. RESULTS The average age of the SmokefreeVET user was 48, 75% of users were male, and 84% were daily smokers. After five weeks, 13% of all users reported abstinence from smoking. Five statistically distinct engagement classes of SmokefreeVET users were identified. Highly engaged classes were significantly less likely to opt-out and more likely to report abstinence. Over 60% of users who were classified as high engagers throughout the program reported abstinence 5 weeks after their quit date. Users were more likely to report abstinence after two weeks if they used smoking cessation medication than those that did not use medication (OR=9.01, ptext messaging smoking cessation intervention. PMID:27318948

  11. Maintenance of Smoking Cessation: Effect of Follow-Up Letters, Smoking Motivation, Muscle Tension, and Health Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Following smoking-cessation treatment, half of 44 subjects were sent supportive maintenance letters. Letters produced no main effect but reduced smoking in subjects who smoked from habit or received little pleasure from smoking. Letters increased smoking among opposite subject groups and those believing powerful others could not influence their…

  12. Smoking cessation in male prisoners: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djachenko, Ashleigh; St John, Winsome; Mitchell, Creina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature relating to smoking cessation (SC) for the male prisoner population. Databases PubMed, CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched for English language studies from 1990 to 2012. The authors identified 12 papers examining SC in male prisoners. Full-text articles were analysed for inclusion. A total of 12 studies were identified for inclusion. Four studies focused on forced abstinence (a smoking ban) while the remainder looked at various combinations of nicotine replacement, pharmacology and behavioural techniques. No robust studies were found that examined nursing approaches to SC for the prisoner population. The evidence shows a strong "pro-smoking" culture in prison and that many prisoners continue to smoke irrespective of an enforced ban. However, SC strategies can be successful if implemented systematically and supported by consistent policies. Female-only prisoner studies were excluded as females comprise just 7 per cent of the Australian prisoner population. The analysis does not differentiate between maximum- or minimum-security prisons, or length of prison sentence. Results cannot be generalised to other forms of detention such as police custody or immigration detention centres. Studies were not appraised for quality, as exclusion on that basis would render further exploration untenable. The analysis was presented in a narrative rather than meta-analytical format and may be subject to interpretation. This paper provides a foundation on which to build further research evidence into the smoking behaviour of prisoners. This information can be used to advocate for healthier public policy for a vulnerable and marginalised population. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first literature review into SC interventions in prisons. The authors apply the findings of this literature review to the five strategies for health promotion to propose a population approach to smoking cessation in male prisoners

  13. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  14. Smoking cessation in smokers who smoke menthol and non-menthol cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-12-01

    To assess the relations of menthol cigarette use with measures of cessation success in a large comparative effectiveness trial (CET). Participants were randomized to one of six medication treatment conditions in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All participants received six individual counseling sessions. Community-based smokers in two communities in Wisconsin, USA. A total of 1504 adult smokers who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day during the past 6 months and reported being motivated to quit smoking. The analysis sample comprised 1439 participants: 814 white non-menthol smokers, 439 white menthol smokers and 186 African American (AA) menthol smokers. There were too few AA non-menthol smokers (n = 16) to be included in the analyses. Nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge, bupropion + nicotine lozenge and placebo. Biochemically confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence assessed at 4, 8 and 26 weeks post-quit. In longitudinal abstinence analyses (generalized estimating equations) controlling for cessation treatment, menthol smoking was associated with reduced likelihood of smoking cessation success relative to non-menthol smoking [model-based estimates of abstinence = 31 versus 38%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59, 0.86]. In addition, among menthol smokers, AA women were at especially high risk of cessation failure relative to white women (estimated abstinence = 17 versus 35%, respectively; OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.75, 3.96; estimated abstinence rates for AA males and white males were both 30%, OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.60, 1.66). In the United States, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced cessation success compared with non-menthol smoking, especially in African American females. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. What is the quality of smoking cessation advice in guidelines of tobacco-related diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Agrawal, Sanjay; Gregory, Benjamin; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2015-12-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a range of diseases, and quitting smoking provides considerable benefits to health. It therefore follows that clinical guidelines on disease management, particularly for diseases caused by smoking, should include smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which this is the case. We conducted a systematic review investigating clinical guidelines and recommendations issued by UK national or European transnational medical speciality associations and societies issued between 2000 and 2012 on a range of diseases caused by smoking. We then investigated whether selected guidelines contained reference to smoking cessation and smoking cessation advice. Although the extent to which smoking and smoking cessation was mentioned in the guidelines varied between diseases, only 60% of guidelines identified recognised that smoking is a risk factor for the development of the disease and 40% recommended smoking cessation. Only 19% of guidelines provided detailed information on how to deliver smoking cessation support. Smoking cessation is not comprehensively addressed in current UK and transnational European clinical practice guidelines and recommendations. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of placebo tailoring on smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Rodríguez de Ybarra, Denise; Baker, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has found that smoking cessation messages can be designed to appear as tailored (placebo tailored) and result in superior outcomes compared to standard messages. In the current study, we aimed (a) to test the efficacy of placebo tailoring for smoking cessation and (b) to examine the influence of cognitive processing style. In a 2-arm randomized controlled trial, 424 smokers (M = 19.66 cigarettes per day) from the community (57% female, 30% Caucasian, 40% African American, 29% Hispanic; mean age = 42 years) were randomly assigned to receive 4 placebo-tailored booklets or 4 standard booklets over 3 months. Participants completed a measure of systematic versus heuristic cognitive processing style at baseline. The primary outcome was 7-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa). Twenty-eight-day continuous abstinence, content evaluations, and readiness to quit were secondary outcomes. We hypothesized that placebo tailoring would be superior to standard materials and that the effect would be moderated by cognitive processing style (systematic and heuristic). As expected, placebo tailoring led to greater 7-day ppa at 3 months and greater 28-day continuous abstinence at 6 months. Cognitive processing style moderated the effect on 7-day ppa, such that the placebo-tailored booklets produced greater cessation among participants with heuristic information processing tendencies. Findings support a causal role of placebo tailoring for short-term smoking cessation, particularly for individuals who process information using heuristic strategies. Implications for tailored interventions are discussed.

  17. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David; Bauld, Linda; Purves, David; Boyd, Kathleen; Sinclair, Lesley; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Friel, Brenda; McConnachie, Alex; de Caestecker, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; Radley, Andrew; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-27

    To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 612 self reported pregnant smokers in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde who were English speaking, at least 16 years of age, less than 24 weeks pregnant, and had an exhaled carbon monoxide breath test result of 7 ppm or more. 306 women were randomised to incentives and 306 to control. The control group received routine care, which was the offer of a face to face appointment to discuss smoking and cessation and, for those who attended and set a quit date, the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy for 10 weeks provided by pharmacy services, and four, weekly support phone calls. The intervention group received routine care plus the offer of up to £400 of shopping vouchers: £50 for attending a face to face appointment and setting a quit date; then another £50 if at four weeks' post-quit date exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed quitting; a further £100 was provided for continued validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide after 12 weeks; a final £200 voucher was provided for validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide at 34-38 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was cotinine verified cessation at 34-38 weeks' gestation through saliva (incentives were documented. Significantly more smokers in the incentives group than control group stopped smoking: 69 (22.5%) versus 26 (8.6%). The relative risk of not smoking at the end of pregnancy was 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.73 to 4.01) Pincentives need to be offered to achieve one extra quitter in late pregnancy) was 7.2 (95% confidence interval 5.1 to 12.2). The mean birth weight was 3140 g (SD 600 g) in the incentives group

  18. Smoking Cessation without Educational Instruction could Promote the Development of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Takase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation is particularly important for maintaining health; however, the subsequent risk of an increased body weight is of major concern. The present study investigated the influence of smoking cessation on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese general population. This study enrolled individuals without metabolic syndrome or a history of smoking via our annual health checkup program (n=5,702, 55.2±11.5 years). Participants were divided into three groups mentioned below and followed up with the endpoint being the development of metabolic syndrome: (1) subjects who had never smoked and did not smoke during the observation period (non-smoker); (2) those who continued smoking during the observation period (continuous smoker); and (3) those who ceased smoking during the observation period (smoking cessation). During the observation period (median 1,089 days), 520 subjects developed metabolic syndrome, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in the smoking cessation group than in the other groups. Smoking cessation was confirmed as an independent predictor of the new onset of metabolic syndrome by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjustment. Subjects only from the smoking cessation group showed a significant deterioration in metabolic factors during the study in correlation with an increased waist circumference after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation without instruction could be followed by the development of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of metabolic syndrome might reduce the benefit obtained from smoking cessation. Therefore, further educational outreach is needed to prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome during the course of smoking cessation.

  19. Smoking behaviours and cessation services among male physicians in China: evidence from a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Guo, Chaoran; Yu, Shaohua; Feng, Yan; Song, Julia; Eriksen, Michael; Redmon, Pam; Koplan, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence and cessation services provided by male physicians in hospitals in three Chinese cities. Data were collected from a survey of male physicians employed at 33 hospitals in Changsha, Qingdao and Wuxi City (n=720). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent variables, and confirmatory structural equation modelling analysis was performed to test the relationships between predictor variables and smoking in male physicians, and their provision of cessation services. Of the sampled male physicians, 25.7% were current smokers, and 54.0% provided cessation services by counselling (18.8%), distributing self-help materials (17.1%), and providing traditional remedies or medication (18.2%). Factors that predicted smoking included peer smoking (OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and uncommon knowledge (OR 0.94 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), a variable measuring awareness of the association of smoking with stroke, heart attack, premature ageing and impotence in male adults as well as the role of passive smoking in heart attack. Factors that predicted whether physicians provided smoking cessation services included peer smoking (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.76 to 0.89), physicians' own smoking (OR 0.87 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93), training in cessation (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45) and access to smoking cessation resources (OR 1.69 95% CI 1.58 to 1.82). The smoke-free policy is not strictly implemented at healthcare facilities, and smoking remains a public health problem among male physicians. A holistic approach, including a stricter implementation of the smoke-free policy, comprehensive education on the hazards of smoking, training in standard smoking-cessation techniques and provision of cessation resources, is needed to curb the smoking epidemic among male physicians and to promote smoking cessation services in China.

  20. Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Tim; Chamberlain, Catherine; Davey, Mary-Ann; Cooper, Sue E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2015-12-22

    Smoking in pregnancy is a public health problem. When used by non-pregnant smokers, pharmacotherapies (nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and varenicline) are effective for smoking cessation, however, their efficacy and safety in pregnancy remains unknown. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are becoming widely used but their efficacy and safety when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy are also unknown. To determine the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (including NRT, varenicline and bupropion), other medications, or ENDS when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy. We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 July 2015), checked references of retrieved studies, and contacted authors. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in pregnant women with designs that permit the independent effects of any type of pharmacotherapy or ENDS on smoking cessation to be ascertained were eligible for inclusion.The following RCT designs are included.Placebo-RCTs: any form of NRT, other pharmacotherapy, or ENDS, with or without behavioural support/cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), or brief advice, compared with an identical placebo and behavioural support of similar intensity.RCTs providing a comparison between i) any form of NRT, other pharmacotherapy, or ENDS added to behavioural support/CBT, or brief advice and ii) behavioural support of similar (ideally identical) intensity.Parallel- or cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion. Quasi-randomised, cross-over and within-participant designs were not, due to the potential biases associated with these designs. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and also independently extracted data and cross checked individual outcomes of this process to ensure accuracy. The primary efficacy outcome was smoking cessation in later pregnancy (in all but one trial, at or around delivery); safety was

  1. CHRNA4 rs1044396 is associated with smoking cessation in varenicline therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rocha Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large individual variability in response to drugs for smoking cessation suggests that specific treatments can be more effective in particular subgroups of smokers. In the context of personalized medicine, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the CHRNA4 and CHRNB2 polymorphisms are associated with response to smoking cessation therapies in patients from a smoker assistance program. This cohort study enrolled 483 smoking patients who received behavioral counseling and drug treatment (varenicline, bupropion and/or nicotine replacement therapy. Smoking cessation success was considered for patients who completed 6 months of continuous abstinence. Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND and Issa situational smoking scores were analyzed for nicotine dependence. The CHRNA4 (rs1044396 and rs2236196 and CHRNB2 (rs2072660 and rs2072661 polymorphisms were genotyped by high resolution melting analysis.Patients with rs1044396 CC genotype had lower success rate in treatment with varenicline (29.5% compared with carriers of CT or TT genotypes (50.9% (p=0.007, n=167. The CT or TT genotypes were associated with higher odds ratio for success (OR=1.67, 95%CI=1.10-2.53, p=0.02, in a multivariate model. We did not observe significant differences in the FTND and Issa scores according to the studied polymorphisms. In conclusion, the CHRNA4 rs1044396 is associated with smoking cessation in individuals on varenicline therapy. We suggest that this polymorphism influences the varenicline response, but replications of this finding are needed.

  2. Engagement and abstinence among users of a smoking cessation text message program for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S; Beckham, Jean C; Dennis, Paul A; Hamlett-Berry, Kim

    2016-11-01

    SmokefreeVET is a text messaging smoking cessation program available to veterans enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration. SmokefreeVET was developed in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute as part of the SmokefreeTXT initiative. To evaluate the real world use of and effectiveness of the SmokefreeVET program for SmokefreeVET users who enrolled between 2013 and 2014. Demographics and smoking behavior of 1470 SmokefreeVET users who enrolled between 2013 and 2014 were analyzed. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to identify discrete classes of SmokefreeVET users based on engagement patterns. Multi-level modeling determined class differences in abstinence. The average age of the SmokefreeVET user was 48, 75% of users were male, and 84% were daily smokers. After five weeks, 13% of all users reported abstinence from smoking. Five statistically distinct engagement classes of SmokefreeVET users were identified. Highly engaged classes were significantly less likely to opt-out and more likely to report abstinence. Over 60% of users who were classified as high engagers throughout the program reported abstinence 5weeks after their quit date. Users were more likely to report abstinence after two weeks if they used smoking cessation medication than those that did not use medication (OR=9.01, pusers. Smoking cessation medication use was also associated with abstinence in SmokefreeVET users. Engagement appears to be a critical component when assessing the efficacy of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A randomized trial for hazardous drinking and smoking cessation for callers to a quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Martino, Steve; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M; McKee, Sherry A; Kahler, Christopher W; Rojewski, Alana M; Mahoney, Martin C; Wu, Ran; Celestino, Paula; Seshadri, Srinivasa; Koutsky, James; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated whether tobacco quitline telephone coaches can be trained to counsel hazardous-drinking smokers to improve smoking cessation success and to limit or abstain from alcohol use. Smokers (N = 1,948) who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline and reported hazardous drinking (exceeding sex-specific weekly limits [14 drinks for men, 7 drinks for women] or meeting/exceeding daily drinking limits [5 drinks for men, 4 drinks for women] at least once in the past year) were randomized to receive either brief motivational counseling to limit or abstain from alcohol plus an alcohol reduction booklet added to standard care (Alcohol + Tobacco Counseling; ATC), or only smoking cessation counseling plus a smoking cessation booklet added to standard care (Tobacco-Only Counseling; TOC). Acceptable coach adherence was achieved. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that ATC was associated with a significantly higher rate of smoking abstinence at 7-month follow-up (13.5%) compared with TOC (10.3%; p = .03). The respondent analysis (ATC= 26.2%; TOC = 20.4%) paralleled the ITT findings. When controlling for treatment condition, participants who did not report any heavy drinking were significantly more likely to quit smoking than those who reported any heavy drinking (OR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.29, 2.71]; p = .001). A brief alcohol intervention plus standard care via a telephone quitline resulted in significantly higher smoking cessation rates for hazardous-drinking callers. Given that quitline coaches were trained to provide the intervention with acceptable adherence, the potential to extend this intervention for wide-scale implementation and impact is promising. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Mediators of a smoking cessation intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Kypriotakis, George; Li, Liang; Arduino, Roberto C; Fletcher, Faith E; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-02-01

    Cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is a pressing public health concern, and efforts to evaluate cessation treatments are needed. The purpose of the present study was to assess potential mechanisms of a cell phone-delivered intervention for HIV-positive smokers. Data from 350 PLWH enrolled in a randomized smoking cessation treatment trial were utilized. Participants were randomized to either usual care (UC) or a cell phone intervention (CPI) group. The independent variable of interest was treatment group membership, while the dependent variable of interest was smoking abstinence at a 3-month follow-up. The hypothesized treatment mechanisms were depression, anxiety, social support, quit motivation and self-efficacy change scores. Abstinence rates in the UC and CPI groups were 4.7% (8 of 172) and 15.7% (28 of 178), respectively. The CPI group (vs. UC) experienced a larger decline in depression between baseline and the 3-month follow-up, and a decline in anxiety. Self-efficacy increased for the CPI group and declined for the UC group. Quit motivation and social support change scores did not differ by treatment group. Only self-efficacy met the predefined criteria for mediation. The effect of the cell phone intervention on smoking abstinence through change in self-efficacy was statistically significant (pintervention on abstinence. The findings further emphasize the important mechanistic function of self-efficacy in promoting smoking cessation for PLWH. Additional efforts are required to disentangle the relationships between emotional, distress motivation, and efficacious smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, David J; de Vlas, Sake J; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study, longitudinal data of 4623 adults participating in the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social sciences (LISS) panel were collected in March 2013 with a follow-up in 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of smokers in social networks, and (1) smoking cessation (n=762) and (2) smoking relapse (n=1905). Analyses were adjusted for the size of the network, age, sex, and education. Respondents with the largest proportion of smokers in their social network were less likely to quit smoking (OR=0.25; 95% CI=0.11-0.66) and more likely to experience a relapse (6.08; 3.01-12.00). Smoking cessation and relapse were most strongly associated with the proportion of smokers among household members and friends. The proportion of smokers in family outside the household was not related to smoking cessation and smoking relapse. In conclusion, smoking behavior in social networks, especially among household members and friends, is strongly associated with smoking cessation and relapse. These findings further support the spread of smoking within social networks, and provide evidence for network-based interventions, particularly including household members and friends. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lack of association between DRD2 Taq1A gene polymorphism and smoking cessation therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Duck; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that genetic factors are significantly associated with smoking behavior, but the influence of the smoking behavior-related genes on smoking cessation treatment is still not clear. We analyzed the smoking cessation outcomes among previously reported studies involving participants who underwent smoking cessation therapy by comparing the following DRD2 Taq1A gene polymorphism using meta-analysis. In total, nine studies including 2,851 participants were assessed and the A1 allele carriers and A2 homozygotes were compared with respect to smoking cessation outcomes by meta-analysis. No significant association was observed for the main analysis (OR = 0.900; 95% CI, 0.751 - 1.078). In subgroup analysis, three studies were assessed by comparing participants with the A1/A1, A1/A2, and A2/A2 genotypes. A significant association between the DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism andsmoking cessation therapy was observed between the A1/A1 and A1/A2 genotypes (OR = 2.967; 95% CI 1.737 - 5.068) and between the A1/A2 and A2/A2 genotypes (OR = 0.547; 95% CI 0.392 - 0.762), but not between the A1/A1 and A2/A2 genotypes (OR = 1.269; 95% CI 0.746 - 2.157). This study is the first meta-analysis to evaluate and quantitatively integrate the association between the DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism and smoking cessation therapy. A significant relationship between DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism and smoking cessation therapy was not observed.

  7. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1......, and decreased continuously with time since smoking cessation in former smokers. Relative risk estimates for acute coronary events and for stroke events were somewhat lower than for cardiovascular mortality, but patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates and expands evidence from previous studies...

  8. Clinical trial on the efficacy of exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in smoking cessation in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Joana; Girauta, Helena; Ramos, Maria; Medina-Bombardó, David; Pastor, Agnès; Alvarez-Ossorio, Cristina; Gorreto, Lucía; Esteva, Maria; García, Elena; Uréndez, Ana; Buades, Ana; Torres, Elena

    2012-07-04

    Smoking cessation is beneficial for our health at any point in life, both in healthy people and in people already suffering from a smoking-related disease. Any help to quit smoking can produce considerable benefits for Public Health. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CO-oximetry technique together with brief advice in smoking cessation, in terms of reduction of the number of cigarettes or in the variation of the motivation to quit smoking at month 12 compared with brief advice alone. Randomised, parallel, single-blind clinical trial in a primary health care setting in Majorca (Spain). Smokers in contemplation or pre-contemplation phase will be included in the study. Smokers in preparation phase, subjects with a terminal illness or whose health status does not allow them to understand the study or complete the informed consent, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the control group (CG) or the intervention group (IG). The CG will receive brief advice, and the IG will receive brief advice together with a measurement of exhaled CO. There will be follow-up evaluations at 6 and 12 months after inclusion. 471 subjects will be needed per group in order to detect a difference between groups ≥ 5%. sustained smoking cessation (at 6 and 12 months) confirmed by urine cotinine test. point smoking cessation at 6 and 12 months both confirmed by urine cotinine analysis and self-reported, reduction in cigarette consumption, and variation in phase of smoking cessation. CO-oximetry is an inexpensive, non-invasive, fast technique that requires little technical training; making it a technique for risk assessment in smokers that can be easily applied in primary care and, if proven effective, could serve as a reinforcement aid in smoking cessation intervention activities. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN67499921.

  9. Smoking cessation in New Zealand: education and resources for use by midwives for women who smoke during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullon, Susan; McLeod, Deborah; Benn, Cheryl; Viccars, Anne; White, Sonya; Cookson, Timothy; Dowell, Anthony; Green, Robyn

    2003-12-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of education programmes and associated resource materials to support smoking cessation and reduction, and breastfeeding promotion strategies for pregnant women who smoke, during usual primary maternity care by midwives. Education programmes and resource materials were developed by midwives and researchers as part of a cluster randomized trial of Midwifery Education for Women who Smoke (the MEWS study). Development included a cohort study, advice from lactation consultants and smoking cessation counsellors (including Ma-ori professionals), and early consultation with midwives who would be delivering the programmes. Resources developed included videotapes, charts and laminated information cards. Resources were pre-tested with pregnant women and opinion leaders. Consultation with the midwives allocated to each of the intervention groups in the trial raised a number of issues. These were addressed, and solutions incorporated into each of the programmes, to enable effective delivery within usual care. Following delivery of the programmes, women and their midwives were surveyed and a sample interviewed to ascertain attitudes to the programmes and resources. Women and their midwives responded positively to the smoking cessation education programme, the breastfeeding promotion programme and the resources used. Those women who did not stop smoking completely often succeeded in significantly reducing their tobacco consumption. Women identified their midwife as a valuable resource and appreciated her ongoing encouragement. Involvement of health professionals who are to deliver health promotion interventions is essential for successful integration of programmes into usual care. Midwives were able to effectively deliver programmes that were developed and targeted to their needs as health educators. The pregnancy-specific resources developed for women who smoke played an important part in helping midwives deliver their health

  10. Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in Indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Esterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.

  11. Using the internet to assist smoking prevention and cessation in schools: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Cameron D; Maley, Oonagh; Li, Xiaoqiang; Skinner, Harvey A

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of a classroom-based, Web-assisted tobacco intervention addressing smoking prevention and cessation with adolescents. A two-group randomized control trial with 1,402 male and female students in grades 9 through 11 from 14 secondary schools in Toronto, Canada. Participants were randomly assigned to a tailored Web-assisted tobacco intervention or an interactive control condition task conducted during a single classroom session with e-mail follow-up. The cornerstone of the intervention was a five-stage interactive Web site called the Smoking Zine (http://www.smokingzine.org) integrated into a program that included a paper-based journal, a small group form of motivational interviewing, and tailored e-mails. Resistance to smoking, behavioral intentions to smoke, and cigarette use were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and three- and six-month follow-up. Multilevel logistic growth modeling was used to assess the effect of the intervention on change over time. The integrated Smoking Zine program helped smokers significantly reduce the likelihood of having high intentions to smoke and increased their likelihood of high resistance to continued cigarette use at 6 months. The intervention also significantly reduced the likelihood of heavy cigarette use adoption by nonsmokers during the study period. The Smoking Zine intervention provided cessation motivation for smokers most resistant to quitting at baseline and prevented nonsmoking adolescents from becoming heavy smokers at 6 months. By providing an accessible and attractive method of engaging young people in smoking prevention and cessation, this interactive and integrated program provides a novel vehicle for school- and population-level health promotion.

  12. Feasibility, Efficacy and Cost Analysis of Promoting Smoking Cessation at Outdoor Smoking "hotspots": a Pre-post Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Lam, Tai Hing; Li, William Ho Cheung; Wang, Man Ping; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2017-06-24

    To motivate smokers to quit, there is a need for enhanced smoking cessation (SC) recruitment and for innovative and proactive approaches to SC. This study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy and cost of promoting SC in public outdoor areas where smokers gather to smoke (smoking hotspots). We selected 14 smoking hotspots in Hong Kong for SC promotion in 2015. University students were trained as SC ambassadors to deliver brief SC intervention, and to recruit smokers for telephone follow-up. The proportion of smokers accepting the intervention components was recorded. Self-reported abstinence in the past 7 days and knowledge of smoking and health were assessed at the 6-month follow-up. The average costs of each smoker receiving our intervention and quitting were also compared. Of 3,080 smokers approached, 1,278 (41.5%) accepted the souvenir and 920 (29.9%) received brief advice. Of the 210 (6.8%) who consented to the follow-up, 24.5% were aged 15-29 and 46.4% were aged 30-49. Of the 151 smokers successfully contacted within 1 month after recruitment, 16 (10.6%; 1.3% of the 1,278 who received any form of intervention) reported abstinence, and their overall knowledge improved. The average costs for a smoker to receive brief advice, consent to follow-up by telephone, attempt to quit and quit successfully at the 6-month follow-up were US$30, US$132, US$601 and US$1,626, respectively. Promoting SC at smoking hotspots could be a feasible way to achieve satisfactory quitting outcomes at low cost and is useful in the absence of the strengthening of tobacco policies. Our study indicates that outdoor smoking hotspots are feasible platforms for promoting smoking cessation and recruiting smokers for cessation services; satisfactory outcomes can be achieved at a reasonable cost. Our promotion was particularly useful for recruiting young smokers and those who want to quit. It is feasible and efficacious to raise smokers' awareness of smoking cessation when other tobacco control

  13. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Fernández Del Río, Elena; Martínez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-04-08

    The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation.

  14. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  15. Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Alayna P; Lechner, William V; Meier, Ellen; Grant, DeMond M; Driskill, Leslie M; Tahirkheli, Noor N; Wagener, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate biochemically verified smoking status and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use behaviors and beliefs among a sample of customers from vapor stores (stores specializing in ENDS). A cross-sectional survey of 215 adult vapor store customers at four retail locations in the Midwestern United States; a subset of participants (n = 181) also completed exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) testing to verify smoking status. Outcomes evaluated included ENDS preferences, harm beliefs, use behaviors, smoking history and current biochemically verified smoking status. Most customers reported starting ENDS as a means of smoking cessation (86%), using newer-generation devices (89%), vaping non-tobacco/non-menthol flavors (72%) and using e-liquid with nicotine strengths of ≤20 mg/ml (72%). There was a high rate of switching (91.4%) to newer-generation ENDS among those who started with a first-generation product. Exhaled CO readings confirmed that 66% of the tested sample had quit smoking. Among those who continued to smoke, mean cigarettes per day decreased from 22.1 to 7.5 (P vaping longer [odds ratio (OR) = 4.659, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.001-10.846], using newer-generation devices (OR = 2.950, 95% CI = 1.037-8.395) and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavors (OR = 2.626, 95% CI = 1.133-6.085) were more likely to have quit smoking. Among vapor store customers in the United States who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer-generation devices and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavored e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Bupropion for Smoking Cessation in African American Light Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Choi, Won S.; Faseru, Babalola; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research demonstrated the efficacy of sustained release bupropion (bupropion SR) for smoking cessation in whites as well as moderate to heavy (≥10 cigarettes per day [CPD]) African American smokers. We evaluated whether bupropion SR was effective for smoking cessation among African American light smokers (≤10 CPD). Methods A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from December 27, 2007, to May 13, 2010. All participants were African American light smokers (≤10 CPD), aged 18 years or older. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg bupropion SR (150 mg once daily for 3 days and then 150 mg twice daily) (n = 270 participants) or placebo (n = 270 participants) for 7 weeks, and up to six sessions of health education counseling. Serum cotinine was measured at baseline (week 0). The primary outcome was salivary cotinine–verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at week 26; a cut point of 15 ng/mL differentiated smokers from nonsmokers. Salivary cotinine–verified smoking abstinence at end of medication treatment at week 7 was also examined. Odds ratios (OR) for smoking abstinence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Participants at baseline visit (week 0) smoked an average of 8.0 CPD and had a mean serum cotinine level of 275.8 ng/mL (SD = 155.8 ng/mL); most used menthol cigarettes (83.7%) and smoked within 30 minutes of waking (72.2%). After imputing those lost to follow-up as smokers, no statistically significant difference in long-term smoking abstinence rates at week 26 was observed between bupropion SR and placebo groups (13.3% vs 10.0%, OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.82 to 2.35, P = .23). Cotinine-verified smoking abstinence rate at end of medication week 7 was higher in the bupropion SR vs placebo group (23.7% vs 9.6%, OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.78 to 4.77, P Bupropion SR was effective in promoting smoking

  17. The effect of Varenicline on smoking cessation in a group of young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian G; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco use causes long-term morbidity and mortality. In patients with asthma, the frequency of smokers is high; however, asthmatic smokers experience more pronounced symptoms, accelerated loss of lung function and treatment resistance. Varenicline is an effective drug in smoking...... cessation, when investigated in COPD patients and general populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Varenicline on tobacco cessation in young asthmatics. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial, 52 asthmatic current smokers (age 19-40) ≥ 10 cigarettes...... daily and ≥10 packyears (mean 15.6) were recruited to a 12 week treatment period with Varenicline or placebo (1:1) in parallel design. Evaluation of smoking status, asthma symptom score, general health quality score and methacholine challenge were performed at week 0, week 6, week 12 and week 24...

  18. Factor structure of the Smoking Cessation Self-Efficacy Questionnaire among smokers with and without a psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Matthew; Pipe, Andrew; Els, Charl; Reid, Robert; Tulloch, Heather

    2017-03-01

    Cessation self-efficacy has been shown to be a consistent predictor of smoking cessation outcomes. To date, no scale assessing cessation self-efficacy has been validated across smokers with and without a psychiatric diagnosis (current or past). Smokers with a psychiatric diagnosis are typically heavy smokers, have a more difficult time quitting, and are more prone to experience lower self-efficacy. Determining whether smoking cessation self-efficacy scores are invariant across these populations is crucial for future research and intervention strategies. Data from the Flexible and Extended Dosing of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and Varenicline in Comparison to Fixed Dose NRT for Smoking Cessation: The FLEX Trial, a randomized control trial for smoking cessation, was used to assess the factor structure of the Smoking Cessation Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ-12), a 12-item scale assessing an individual's confidence to refrain from smoking. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare the model's fit between the original factor structure and the present data, and to test for measurement invariance across with a current, past, or no psychiatric diagnosis. Initial support was found for both a 2- and 3-factor structure. Using CFA, only the 3-factor model displayed adequate fit indices (Global Fit Index [GFI] = 0.924). Results from the model comparisons showed no differences between those with a current, past, or no psychiatric diagnosis (cmin (30) = 38.64, p = .134). The 3 factors were highly correlated, indicative of an underlying global factor. The SEQ-12 was found to be measurement invariant across treatment-seeking smokers, with preliminary evidence suggesting it is a valid measurement scale for evaluating overall cessation self-efficacy, regardless of psychiatric status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  20. Smoking Cessation Apps for Smartphones: Content Analysis With the Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ghee-Young; Park, Dong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphones are increasingly receiving attention from public health scholars and practitioners as a means to assist individuals’ health management. A number of smartphone apps for smoking cessation are also available; however, little effort has been made to evaluate the content and functions of these apps employing a theoretical framework. Objective The present study aims to analyze and evaluate the contents of smoking cessation apps available in South Korea employing the self-determination theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework for analysis. This study analyzes the extent to which smoking cessation apps have features that satisfy the basic needs identified in the SDT, which stimulate autonomous motivation. The type of motivational goal content manifested in the apps and how the goal content was framed are also explored. By assessing the features of smoking cessation apps based on the SDT, this study aims to offer direction for improvement for these apps. Methods Out of 309 apps identified from the iTunes store and Google Play (excluding 27 duplications), 175 apps were randomly drawn and analyzed. The coding scheme was drafted by the authors based on the SDT and gain/loss framing theory and was further finely tuned through the process of coder training and by establishing intercoder reliability. Once the intercoder reliability was established, the coders divided up the rest of the sample and coded them independently. Results The analysis revealed that most apps (94.3%, 165/175) had at least one feature that tapped at least 1 of the 3 basic needs. Only 18 of 175 apps (10.3%) addressed all 3 basic needs. For goal content, money (53.7%, 94/175) showed the highest frequency, followed by health (32.0%, 56/175), time (7.4%, 13/175), and appearance (1.1%, 2/175), suggesting that extrinsic goals are more dominantly presented in smoking cessation apps. For the framing of goal content, gain framing appeared more frequently (41.7%, 73/175). Conclusions The

  1. Smoking cessation apps for smartphones: content analysis with the self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jounghwa; Noh, Ghee-Young; Park, Dong-Jin

    2014-02-12

    Smartphones are increasingly receiving attention from public health scholars and practitioners as a means to assist individuals' health management. A number of smartphone apps for smoking cessation are also available; however, little effort has been made to evaluate the content and functions of these apps employing a theoretical framework. The present study aims to analyze and evaluate the contents of smoking cessation apps available in South Korea employing the self-determination theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework for analysis. This study analyzes the extent to which smoking cessation apps have features that satisfy the basic needs identified in the SDT, which stimulate autonomous motivation. The type of motivational goal content manifested in the apps and how the goal content was framed are also explored. By assessing the features of smoking cessation apps based on the SDT, this study aims to offer direction for improvement for these apps. Out of 309 apps identified from the iTunes store and Google Play (excluding 27 duplications), 175 apps were randomly drawn and analyzed. The coding scheme was drafted by the authors based on the SDT and gain/loss framing theory and was further finely tuned through the process of coder training and by establishing intercoder reliability. Once the intercoder reliability was established, the coders divided up the rest of the sample and coded them independently. The analysis revealed that most apps (94.3%, 165/175) had at least one feature that tapped at least 1 of the 3 basic needs. Only 18 of 175 apps (10.3%) addressed all 3 basic needs. For goal content, money (53.7%, 94/175) showed the highest frequency, followed by health (32.0%, 56/175), time (7.4%, 13/175), and appearance (1.1%, 2/175), suggesting that extrinsic goals are more dominantly presented in smoking cessation apps. For the framing of goal content, gain framing appeared more frequently (41.7%, 73/175). The results suggest that these smoking cessation apps may

  2. Online smoking cessation program for Korean Americans: Randomized trial to test effects of incentives for program completion and interim surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M; McDonnell, Diana D; Kazinets, Gene; Lee, Hyun-Ju

    2016-05-01

    Smoking is prevalent among Korean American men. Quitting is Winning, an Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program, was developed using community-based participatory research principles. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether participants were more likely to complete the program and quit smoking at 6-months of follow-up with additional reinforcement. The main outcomes were the proportion of participants who completed the online program and the proportion who quit smoking for at least 30days, 26weeks after enrollment, among those randomized into the high-reinforcement (HR) condition compared with those in the low-reinforcement (LR) condition. The study achieved a final enrollment of 403 participants including 56 women. Program completion was greater for the HR as compared to the LR condition (17% vs. 10%, p=.035). There was no significant difference in 30-day smoking cessation (intent-to-treat [ITT]) between the HR and LR conditions (9% vs. 8%, ns). Smoking cessation was greater among program completers as compared to those who did not complete the program (28% vs. 5%, psurveys and financial incentives for interim survey completion and program completion significantly increased the likelihood of program completion. Moreover, program completers were significantly more likely to quit smoking. Although smoking cessation rates did not significantly differ between the HR and LR conditions, the results suggest that future studies should explore the efficacy of larger financial incentives for program completion (Clinical Trial #NCT02584127). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Profile and motivation for smoking cessation in surgical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida Corrêa

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the profile of smokers hospitalized for surgery, and investigate their motivation to quit. The sample consisted of 100 patients recruited from a university hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected between February and May 2013, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample was predominantly male (n=58; 58% and had a mean age of 54.5±13.8 years. Seventy-nine (79% of the participants were white, 38(38% were married and 67(67% had primary education only. Patients started smoking at a mean age of 17±6.6 years, smoked approximately 20(10 to 28.7 cigarettes/day and had been smoking for a mean of 37.4±14.4 years. Ninety-one (91% patients wanted to stop smoking, 57(57% were in the preparation phase, 36(36% had low nicotine dependence and 35(35% had been encouraged to quit. We concluded that, although hospitalization is a good moment to address smoking cessation, health care professionals do not enact effective and systematic interventions in this regard.

  4. A randomized controlled trial of directive and nondirective smoking cessation coaching through an employee quitline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Sumner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone quitlines can help employees quit smoking. Quitlines typically use directive coaching, but nondirective, flexible coaching is an alternative. Call-2-Quit used a worksite-sponsored quitline to compare directive and nondirective coaching modes, and evaluated employee race and income as potential moderators. Methods An unblinded randomized controlled trial compared directive and nondirective telephone coaching by trained laypersons. Participants were smoking employees and spouses recruited through workplace smoking cessation campaigns in a hospital system and affiliated medical school. Coaches were four non-medical women trained to use both coaching modes. Participants were randomized by family to coaching mode. Participants received up to 7 calls from coaches who used computer assisted telephone interview software to track topics and time. Outcomes were reported smoking abstinence for 7 days at last contact, 6 or 12 months after coaching began. Both worksites implemented new tobacco control policies during the study. Results Most participants responded to an insurance incentive introduced at the hospital. Call-2-Quit coached 518 participants: 22 % were African-American; 45 % had incomes below $30,000. Income, race, and intervention did not affect coaching completion rates. Cessation rates were comparable with directive and nondirective coaching (26 % versus 30 % quit, NS. A full factorial logistic regression model identified above median income (odds ratio = 1.8, p = 0.02, especially among African Americans (p = 0.04, and recent quit attempts (OR = 1.6, p = 0.03 as predictors of cessation. Nondirective coaching was associated with high cessation rates among subgroups of smokers reporting income above the median, recent quit attempts, or use of alternative therapies. Waiting up to 4 weeks to start coaching did not affect cessation. Of 41 highly addicted or depressed smokers who had never quit

  5. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. Methods/design: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who...... meetings and at follow-up. Discussion: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been......Background: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...

  6. Dutch practice nurses' adherence to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, D.; Smit, E.S.; de Vries, H.; Hoving, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Practice nurses in general practice sub-optimally adhere to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment guidelines, but factors explaining their adherence have not yet been investigated. Understanding such factors is important to develop interventions improving practice nurses' smoking

  7. Social Cognitive Mediators of Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Results from a Large Randomized Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B.; Liu, Jingmin; Comstock, Bryan A.; Peterson, Arthur V.; Kealey, Kathleen A.; Marek, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Only one prior study has examined why adolescent smoking cessation interventions are effective. To address this understudied and important issue, this study examined whether a large adolescent smoking cessation intervention trial’s outcomes were mediated by Social Cognitive Theory processes. In a randomized trial (N = 2,151), counselors proactively delivered a telephone intervention to senior year high school smokers. Mediators and smoking status were self-reported at 12 months post-intervention-eligibility (88.8% retention). At-least-6-months abstinence was the outcome. Among all enrolled smokers, increased self-efficacy to resist smoking in (a) social & (b) stressful situations together statistically mediated 55.6% of the intervention’s effect on smoking cessation (p smoking in stressful situations statistically mediated 56.9% of the intervention’s effect (p smoking is a possible mediator of the intervention’s effect on smoking cessation. PMID:20853929

  8. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of

  9. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome

  10. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Kraemer, Thomas; Rust, Kristina; Schaub, Michael

    2012-04-04

    A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic

  11. RCT of a client-centred, caseworker-delivered smoking cessation intervention for a socially disadvantaged population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Afaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disadvantaged groups are an important target for smoking cessation intervention. Smoking rates are markedly higher among severely socially disadvantaged groups such as indigenous people, the homeless, people with a mental illness or drug and alcohol addiction, and the unemployed than in the general population. This proposal aims to evaluate the efficacy of a client-centred, caseworker delivered cessation support intervention at increasing validated self reported smoking cessation rates in a socially disadvantaged population. Methods/Design A block randomised controlled trial will be conducted. The setting will be a non-government organisation, Community Care Centre located in New South Wales, Australia which provides emergency relief and counselling services to predominantly government income assistance recipients. Eligible clients identified as smokers during a baseline touch screen computer survey will be recruited and randomised by a trained research assistant located in the waiting area. Allocation to intervention or control groups will be determined by time periods with clients randomised in one-week blocks. Intervention group clients will receive an intensive client-centred smoking cessation intervention offered by the caseworker over two face-to-face and two telephone contacts. There will be two primary outcome measures obtained at one, six, and 12 month follow-up: 1 24-hour expired air CO validated self-reported smoking cessation and 2 7-day self-reported smoking cessation. Continuous abstinence will also be measured at six and 12 months follow up. Discussion This study will generate new knowledge in an area where the current information regarding the most effective smoking cessation approaches with disadvantaged groups is limited. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN85202510

  12. Smoking cessation treatment for COPD smokers: the role of counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, C A; Fagerström, K O

    2013-03-01

    Smoking cessation is the only therapeutic intervention that can prevent COPD smokers from the chronic progression of their disorder. The most important intervention for helping these smokers to quit is a combination of counseling plus pharmacological treatment. The characteristics of the counseling should be different depending if this intervention is offered to smokers with a previous diagnosis of COPD or if the intervention is offered to smokers who have been recently diagnoses with COPD. The counseling of patients who have been recently diagnosed should include: a) explanation of the direct relationship between smoking and COPD, b) encouraging these patients to quit and c) using of spirometry and measurements of CO as a motivational tools. The counseling of patients who have been previously diagnosed should include: a) encouragement to make a serious quit attempt, b) an intervention that increases motivation, self-efficacy and self-esteem, c) and the intervention should also control depression and be directed to weight gain control.

  13. Smoking cessation and mortality trends among two United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1999-09-01

    The long-term impact of smoking cessation on mortality is assessed among two U.S. populations: a large cohort of U.S. veterans aged 55-64 at entry and followed from 1954 through 1979 and the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort of a national sample of U.S. adults aged 55-74 at entry and followed from 1971 through 1992. Direct and indirect survey data indicate that 50-70% of those who were current cigarette smokers at entry had quit smoking during the 19- to 26-year follow-up periods. The impact of smoking cessation on mortality among the cigarette smokers as a whole has been assessed by determining the time trend of the relative risk (RR) of death and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the cigarette smokers compared with never-smokers over the entire follow-up period in both cohorts. The total death rates for the 1954/57 U.S. veteran smokers as a whole (63,159 males) have converged only slightly toward those of never-smokers, from RR = 1.65 (1.58-1.72) during 1954-1959 to RR = 1.61 (1.58-1.63) during 1954-1979. The lung cancer death rates for 1954/57 smokers as a whole have not converged toward those of never-smokers, with RR = 10.89 (7.70-15.41) during 1954-1959 and RR = 11.10 (9.78-12.61) during 1954-1979. The total death rates for the 1971-1975 NHEFS smokers as a whole (694 males and 1116 females) have not converged toward those of never-smokers. For males, RR = 1.92 (1.46-2.52) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.96 (1.63-2.36) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 1.79 (1.31-2.46) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.79 (1.47-2.17) during 1971-1992. The lung cancer death rates have diverged, based on small numbers of deaths. For males, RR = 15.76 (2.06-120.61) during 1971-1982 and RR = 22.20 (5.31-92.92) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 2.92 (0.57-15.06) during 1971-1982 and RR = 4.74 (1.94-11.59) during 1971-1992. These trends are contrary to the substantial convergence predicted by the death rate trends among U.S. veterans who were former smokers at the

  14. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Borland, Ron; Bullen, Chris; Lin, Ruey B; McRobbie, Hayden; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-10-07

    Innovative effective smoking cessation interventions are required to appeal to those who are not accessing traditional cessation services. Mobile phones are widely used and are now well integrated into the daily lives of many, particularly young adults. Mobile phones are a potential medium for the delivery of health programmes such as smoking cessation. To determine whether mobile phone-based interventions are effective at helping people who smoke, to quit. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, the National Research Register and the ClinicalTrials register, with no restrictions placed on language or publication date. We included randomized or quasi-randomized trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Information on the specified quality criteria and methodological details was extracted using a standardised form. Participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. Meta-analysis of the included studies was undertaken using the Mantel-Haenszel Risk Ratio fixed-effect method provided that there was no evidence of substantial statistical heterogeneity as assessed by the I(2) statistic. Where meta-analysis was not possible, summary and descriptive statistics are presented. Four studies were excluded as they were small non-randomized feasibility studies, and two studies were excluded because follow up was less than six months. Four trials (reported in five papers) are included: a text message programme in New Zealand; a text message programme in the UK; and an Internet and mobile phone programme involving two different groups in Norway. The different types of interventions are analysed separately. When combined by

  15. Online consumer search strategies for smoking-cessation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K

    2010-03-01

    For many Americans, the Internet has become a primary mechanism for locating information on healthcare and treatment options, including tobacco addiction. Detailed information on this behavior could inform design decisions for next-generation cessation interventions, but very little is known about how consumers search or what resources they locate. A subset of a publicly available, anonymized record of the search behavior of 650,000 individuals over 3 months in 2006 was analyzed. Smoking cessation-related queries were extracted and coded via manual identification of terms and by back-identifying terms by matching them to the websites ultimately visited. Destination sites were coded as to whether or not they originated from a professional source based on the literature and known healthcare organizations. A total of 628 individuals (0.10%) made 1106 cessation-related searches during the observation period. Of these, 76% resulted in the individual reaching a website; professional sites were reached by only 34% of searchers. Complementary or alternative therapies were popular, with 10% of individuals searching for "laser" therapy. A concerning disconnect exists between consumer demand (as demonstrated by search behavior) and the sites produced by researchers and health professionals. This "demand gap" may contribute to low overall participation rates and hamper the potential impact of such systems. Further research is needed to link online consumer preferences to intervention design decisions. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using a Mobile App to Promote Smoking Cessation in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eun Me

    2016-05-06

    The potential of interactive health education for preventive health applications has been widely demonstrated. However, use of mobile apps to promote smoking cessation in hospitalized patients has not been systematically assessed. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a mobile app for the hazards of smoking education delivered via touch screen tablets to hospitalized smokers. Fifty-five consecutive hospitalized smokers were recruited. Patient sociodemographics and smoking history was collected at baseline. The impact of the mobile app was assessed by measuring cognitive and behavioral factors shown to promote smoking cessation before and after the mobile app use including hazards of smoking knowledge score (KS), smoking attitudes, and stages of change. After the mobile app use, mean KS increased from 27(3) to 31(3) ( Pmobile app acceptance did not depend on age, gender, race, computer skills, income, or education level. The main factors affecting knowledge gain were initial knowledge level ( Papp acceptance ( Pmobile app (odds ratio (OR)=4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 20.0)). Attitudinal surveys and qualitative interviews identified high acceptance of the mobile app by hospitalized smokers. Over 92% (51/55) of the study participants recommended the app for use by other hospitalized smokers and 98% (54/55) of the patients were willing to use such an app in the future. Our results suggest that a mobile app promoting smoking cessation is well accepted by hospitalized smokers. The app can be used for interactive patient education and counseling during hospital stays. Development and evaluation of mobile apps engaging patients in their care during hospital stays is warranted.

  17. What is the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine compared with varenicline for smoking cessation? A systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaviss, Joanna; Sullivan, William; Ren, Shijie; Everson-Hock, Emma; Stevenson, Matt; Stevens, John W; Strong, Mark; Cantrell, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Nearly one-fifth of adults in the UK regularly smoke cigarettes. The ill-health associated with smoking costs the NHS over £3B every year. A number of pharmacological interventions are available that can help people to quit smoking. These include nicotinic receptor partial agonists such as varenicline or cytisine. Varenicline is a synthetic product licensed for use in the UK, while cytisine is derived naturally from the seeds of the plant Cytisus laborinum L. (golden rain acacia). To review the evidence on the clinical effectiveness and safety of cytisine from smoking cessation compared with varenicline; to develop an economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of cytisine and varenicline; and to provide recommendations based on value of information analyses as to whether or not a head-to-head trial of cytisine and varenicline would represent effective use of resources. Efficacy and adverse events data were sourced from a recent Cochrane review. These data were supplemented with an updated search of twelve electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and The Cochrane Library, for the period from December 2011 to January 2013. The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adult smokers attempting to quit using varenicline or cytisine. Further interventions were considered (placebo, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion) to allow an indirect comparison between varenicline and cytisine. The primary outcome was abstinence at a minimum of 6 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes were common adverse events such as abnormal dreams, headache, nausea, insomnia and serious adverse events. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of the clinical evidence was undertaken. A random-effects model was used to allow for heterogeneity between studies. The economic model structure was based on a published model. Probabilistic

  18. Hospital doctors' smoking behavior and attitude towards smoking cessation interventions for patients: a survey in an Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Micaela; Mazza, Roberto; Borreani, Claudia; Brunelli, Cinzia; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Munarini, Elena; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2016-06-02

    Tobacco control guidelines recommend all healthcare professionals to ask patients about their smoking status and to offer them at least minimal cessation advice. However, few data are available about the daily practice of hospital clinicians who work with smoking cancer patients. This study assesses, in a comprehensive cancer center, the physicians' smoking habit, their clinical practice in offering a smoking cessation intervention to patients who smoke, and the training they received in this field. A Web-based survey was sent to 285 physicians. The survey response rate was 75%. Sixty-two percent, 24%, and 14% of responders were never, former, and current smokers, respectively. Six percent of all responding physicians have already participated in smoking cessation training and 43% of them declared their willingness to be trained. Eighty-six percent of all responding physicians asked about the patients' smoking status, 50% routinely advised patients to quit smoking, and 32% assessed their motivation to do so. Smoking cessation guidelines were not followed mostly for lack of time, fear to increase patients' stress, and lack of smoking cessation training. Ninety-four percent of responding physicians knew the smoking cessation service for outpatients and 65% referred at least one patient, 66% of responding physicians knew the service for inpatients, and 36% of them asked for at least one intervention in the ward. This study pointed out partial adherence of the physicians working in a leading cancer center to the smoking cessation guidelines. The clinicians' smoking habits did not influence the training and the clinical practice in offering patients smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Attitudes to smoking cessation and triggers to relapse among Chinese male smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher K John; Yang Tingzhong; Li Fuzhong; Danaher Brian G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking is related to many diseases, and the relapse to smoking after cessation in China is noticeable. We examined the attitudes of Chinese male smokers regarding smoking cessation and reasons for relapse. Methods We interviewed 201 male smokers in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang province, China who had tried to quit smoking at least once in order to identify reasons for quitting and situations triggering relapse. Results The most significant reported reasons for quitting include...

  20. The Role of Smoking-Cessation-Specific Parenting in Adolescent Smoking-Specific Cognitions and Readiness to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; Van De Ven, Monique O. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An instrument assessing smoking-cessation-specific parenting was developed and tested in relation to a) the pros of smoking and quitting and self-efficacy to resist smoking, and b) adolescent readiness to quit. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 998 Dutch adolescents who smoked regularly were used to perform structural equation…

  1. School-based promotion of cessation support: reach of proactive mailings and acceptability of treatment in smoking parents recruited into cessation support through primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several forms of cessation support have been shown effective in increasing the chance of successful smoking cessation, but cessation support is still underutilized among smokers. Proactive outreach to target audiences may increase use of cessation support. Methods: The present study

  2. General practitioners' views on and referral to NHS smoking cessation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A; West, R; Owen, L; Raw, M

    2005-04-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation remains a major public health goal. To help achieve this in the UK, National Health Service (NHS) smoking cessation services have been established to provide treatment for smokers wanting help with stopping. Referrals from general practitioners (GPs) are crucial to the success of these clinics. This study aimed to assess English GPs' self-reported interactions with, and attitudes towards, their local smoking cessation services. Postal survey assessing the attitudes of GPs in England towards, and formal interactions with, NHS smoking cessation services. A questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 544 GPs in England (response rate 63%). GPs' self-reported interactions with smoking cessation services and their attitudes towards these clinics were assessed. GPs were also asked what factors determined whether they prescribed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) and Buproprion (Zyban), and what was the extent and nature of their smoking cessation interventions with their patients. Most GPs (94%) reported that they were aware of the specialist smoking cessation service in their area. Seventy percent of GPs supported the continuation of current funding for specialist smoking cessation services. Seventy percent reported that they referred patients to these services, and 55% had staff within their practices trained as community smoking cessation advisors. Most GPs (79%) reported 'clinical need' as a determinant of whether they prescribed NRT/Zyban, and a few GPs cited 'budgetary constraints' as a factor (15%). Ninety-eight percent of GPs reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise smokers to stop 'at least every now and then'. GPs support the existence and continuation of specialist smoking cessation services, and most reported that they refer patients to them. Virtually every GP reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise

  3. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on healing after mechanical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, S G; Zambon, J; Machtei, E E; Schifferle, R; Andreana, S; Genco, R J; Cummins, D; Harrap, G

    1997-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on 143 patients' clinical and microbiological responses to mechanical therapy. Treatment included four to six sessions of subgingival scaling and root planing and instruction in oral hygiene. Results indicate that current smokers have less healing and reduction in subgingival Bacteroides forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis after treatment compared to former and nonsmokers, suggesting that smoking impairs periodontal healing. As the healing and microbial response of former smokers is comparable to that of nonsmokers, smoking cessation may restore the normal periodontal healing response.

  4. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Uutela, A; Korhonen, H J; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes an impact evaluation of the North Karelia Project (Finnish CINDI program) on smoking cessation attempts. During the period 1989-1996, data were collected by annual surveys, with response rates varying from 66% to 76%. This study included 1,694 adult current smokers or persons who had quit smoking during the past year, out of a total of 6,011 respondents. Smoking cessation attempts during the past 12 months were examined as a dependent variable. Reported exposures to mass media and interpersonal health communication were examined as possible determinants of smoking cessation. Weekly exposure to mass media health messages was significantly associated with cessation attempts among men only. In contrast, interpersonal health communication, or social influence, was a significant determinant of cessation attempts among both sexes. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal health communication had an even stronger impact on cessation attempts. Thus, interpersonal communication appears to be an important catalyst of community programs, and its inclusion should be emphasized to obtain a higher impact with community programs.

  5. Survey of Australian oral health practitioners and their smoking cessation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, P; Tran, P; Keen, B; Gartner, C

    2015-03-01

    Smoking is a significant health and economic burden in Australia. Studies of smoking cessation practices in dental settings have primarily concentrated on dentists rather than other oral health practitioner (OHP) groups (dental hygienists, dental therapists and oral health therapists). The aim of this study was to measure Australian OHPs' attitudes, behaviours, interest and barriers to delivering smoking cessation interventions. Members of the two peak professional bodies representing Australian OHPs were invited to participate in an anonymous online questionnaire. There were discrepancies between practitioner attitudes and current smoking cessation practices. While the majority of practitioners (90.1%) frequently screened for smoking behaviour, fewer (51.1%) assisted patients to quit smoking. The principal form of assistance was referral to Quitline (45.7%) or to a general medical practitioner (44.4%). The most prevalent barriers identified were lack of knowledge of pharmacological treatments (45.8%) and lack of access to smoking cessation resources (44.2%). Contrary to international studies, time and financial incentive were not commonly cited barriers to delivering smoking cessation interventions. This survey identifies a need for continuing education in smoking cessation practice. Dissemination of policies, guidelines and resources may assist OHPs to become more engaged and confident in delivering smoking cessation interventions as part of their routine practice. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. A Process Evaluation of the WV Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Dissemination Initiative: Assessing the Fidelity and Impact of Delivery for State-Wide, Home-Based Healthy Start Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Clark, Jeannie; Davis, Amanda; Wedeles, John; Abroms, Lorien

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Process evaluation data are essential to document the fidelity of program implementation by clinical staff and confirm patient behavior change. This report presents a process evaluation model applied to the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment Dissemination Initiative for the statewide, home-based West Virginia Right From The Start Project. Methods Trained RFTS Designated Care Coordinators, nurses and social workers, of 50+ primary care agencies in all 55 counties, delivered SCRIPT to Medicaid patients who smoked. Results The process evaluation defined the level of DCC delivery of seven core SCRIPT procedures to produce a Program Implementation Index: a summary performance metric. A SCRIPT PII > 0.80 was established as the RFTS adoption standard. The PII increased from 0.53 in 2004 to 0.65 in 2006-2007 to 0.77 in 2009-2010. Although the PII > 0.80 was not achieved, exposure rates were increased for all seven SCRIPT procedures. Agency and DCC turnover, a transient patient population, and recession of 2008-2010 were barriers to achieving the adoption metric and implementation of an experimental design. A quasi-experimental Stratified, Matched Comparison (C) Group Design was selected to evaluate behavioral impact differences between a RFTS-Comparison (C) Group from 2006 to 2007 and the RFTS-SCRIPT E Group from 2009 to 2010. Impact analyses of the DCC delivery of the SCRIPT Program with higher fidelity documented a statistically significant increase in the cessation rate from 4.6 % and significant reduction rate from 6.9 % for the (C) Group in 2006-2007 to 13.9 % and 11.22 % respectively for the E Group in 2009-2010. Conclusion The PEM can assist statewide, home-based prenatal care programs to improve the quality of delivery and evaluate counseling programs.

  7. Pilot clinic study of Project EX for smoking cessation with Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Soto, Daniel; Sussman, Steve

    2015-06-01

    Despite efforts to prevent smoking, the prevalence of smoking in Spanish adolescents remains high. So far, there are no evidence-based smoking cessation programs for adolescents in Spain. This study describes the evaluation of Project EX, an eight-session school-based clinic smoking cessation program, with Spanish cigarette smokers 13-19 years of age, from 9 schools (four program condition schools and five control condition schools). A group-randomized controlled trial was used. There were 211 smokers at baseline (112 program group, and 99 control group). Evaluation involved an immediate pretest and posttest survey (administered five-weeks later) and six-month follow-up (after the immediate posttest). At immediate posttest, Project EX significantly reduced future nicotine dependence scores (mFTQ; psmoking (psmoking in the control group (psmoking expectation (p=.006) and overall level of 30-day smoking. Results for the Project EX school-based clinic are promising for adolescent smokers in Spain, although difficulties in recruitment and high attrition are of concern. Findings and limitations are discussed and suggestions for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of a technology-based, integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention for smoking cessation in adolescents: Results of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Paz Castro, Raquel; Kowatsch, Tobias; Filler, Andreas; Schaub, Michael P

    2017-11-01

    To test the efficacy of a technology-based integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention versus a smoking cessation only intervention in adolescents. This was a two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial with assessments at baseline and six months follow-up. Subjects in both groups received tailored mobile phone text messages to support smoking cessation for 3months, and the option of registering for a program incorporating strategies for smoking cessation centred around a self-defined quit date. Subjects in the integrated intervention group also received tailored feedback regarding their consumption of alcohol and, for binge drinkers, tailored mobile phone text messages encouraging them to maintain their drinking within low-risk limits over a 3-month period. Primary outcome measures were the 7-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence and change in cigarette consumption. In 360 Swiss vocational and upper secondary school classes, 2127 students who smoked tobacco regularly and owned a mobile phone were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 1471 (69.2%) participated and 6-month follow-up data were obtained for 1116 (75.9%). No significant group differences were observed for any of the primary or secondary outcomes. Moderator analyses revealed beneficial intervention effects concerning 7-day smoking abstinence in participants with higher versus lower alcohol consumption. Overall, the integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention exhibited no advantages over a smoking cessation only intervention, but it might be more effective for the subgroup of adolescent smokers with higher alcohol consumption. Providing a combined smoking cessation and alcohol intervention might be recommended for adolescent smokers with higher-level alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CHRNA5 Risk Variant Predicts Delayed Smoking Cessation and Earlier Lung Cancer Diagnosis—A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rayjean J.; Baker, Timothy; Horton, Amy; Culverhouse, Rob; Saccone, Nancy; Cheng, Iona; Deng, Bo; Han, Younghun; Hansen, Helen M.; Horsman, Janet; Kim, Claire; Lutz, Sharon; Rosenberger, Albert; Aben, Katja K.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Breslau, Naomi; Chang, Shen-Chih; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Dienemann, Hendrik; Frederiksen, Brittni; Han, Jiali; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Johnson, Eric O.; Pande, Mala; Wrensch, Margaret R.; McLaughlin, John; Skaug, Vidar; van der Heijden, Henricus F.; Wampfler, Jason; Wenzlaff, Angela; Woll, Penella; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Bickeböller, Heike; Brenner, Hermann; Duell, Eric J.; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Hokanson, John E.; Hunter, David J.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Geoffrey; Mayordomo, Jose; Risch, Angela; Schwartz, Ann G.; Teare, Dawn; Wu, Xifeng; Wiencke, John K.; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Spitz, Margaret R.; Kraft, Peter; Amos, Christopher I.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis. Methods: Meta-analyses examined associations between rs16969968, age of quitting smoking, and age of lung cancer diagnosis in 24 studies of European ancestry (n = 29 072). In each dataset, we used Cox regression models to evaluate the association between rs16969968 and the two primary phenotypes (age of smoking cessation among ever smokers and age of lung cancer diagnosis among lung cancer case patients) and the secondary phenotype of smoking duration. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The rs16969968 allele (A) was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91 to 0.98, P = .0042), and the AA genotype was associated with a four-year delay in median age of quitting compared with the GG genotype. Among smokers with lung cancer diagnoses, the rs16969968 genotype (AA) was associated with a four-year earlier median age of diagnosis compared with the low-risk genotype (GG) (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.12, P = 1.1*10–5). Conclusion: These data support the clinical significance of the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968. It predicts delayed smoking cessation and an earlier age of lung cancer diagnosis in this meta-analysis. Given the existing evidence that this CHRNA5 variant predicts favorable response to cessation pharmacotherapy, these findings underscore the potential clinical and public health importance of rs16969968 in CHRNA5 in relation to smoking cessation success and lung cancer risk. PMID:25873736

  10. Smoking quit rates among patients receiving pharmacist-provided pharmacotherapy and telephonic smoking cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill M; Taylor, Ann M; Pelger, Martin; Schiefer, Danielle; Warholak, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is the nation's leading cause of preventable illness and death, causing a significant burden on the health care system. Many cessation pharmacotherapy treatment options are available to help smokers quit, including nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) and prescription medications. Research indicates that pharmacists are able to provide a positive benefit to smokers who want to quit through pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. The aim of the present work was to examine the quit rates among participants who received smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and pharmacist-provided telephone-based quit counseling services. Retrospective database review of enrolled participants. Telephone-based pharmacotherapy and medication counseling services offered from a medication management center. State employees who voluntarily contacted a medication management center for smoking cessation services after receiving promotional flyers. Long-term quit rates at 7 and 13 months were determined by means of patient self-report in response to questioning. Smoking cessation was considered to be a success if the patient reported not smoking for the past 30 days. A total of 238 participants were included in the review. Thirty-nine participants completed the program after the first treatment, 12 participants after the second treatment, and 4 participants after the third treatment. Two patients completed the program more than once. Eighty-five participants (36%) reported results at 7-month follow-up; of these, 43 (51%) were smoking free. A total of 44 participants (18%) reported results at 13-month follow-up; of these, 24 participants (55%) reported being smoking free. There were no significant differences in the percentages of smoking-free participants at 7 or 13 months, regardless of their first treatment (P = 0.06 and 0.345, respectively). Successful quit rates were higher than previously demonstrated with other telephone-based smoking cessation programs. Therefore

  11. Weekly enrollment and usage patterns in an Internet smoking cessation intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Welding

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior research, the beginning of the week appears to be a time when individuals are more likely to enroll in an Internet smoking cessation intervention and engage with its core features. Emphasizing marketing and promotional efforts during the beginning of the week could result in greater reach of Internet smoking cessation interventions.

  12. Optimal locations of establishing smoking cessation services for cancer patients in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla

    2017-05-01

    The proposed optimum locations for establishing smoking cessation services are expected to contribute to the enhancement of cancer control in Crete. Furthermore, this study will guide a smoking cessation program in the region of Crete aiming to minimize the burden of tobacco-induced cancers.

  13. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  14. Treating Tobacco Dependence: Development of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for Outpatient Mental Health Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Wolfsdorf, Barbara A.; Morissette, Sandra Baker

    2004-01-01

    Response to smoking cessation treatment programs sharply decreases when applied to smokers with psychiatric comorbidities. Consequently, the development of smoking cessation treatments that address the needs of psychiatric patients is greatly needed. The primary purpose of this article is to detail the process of development of an empirically…

  15. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, David; Sadr Azodi, Omid; Wladis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications.......To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications....

  16. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  17. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Gislene; Rosa, Ecinele F.; Fueta Gomes, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smokin...

  18. Benefits of smoking cessation with focus on cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Prescott, Eva

    2011-10-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial in preventing premature morbidity, disability and mortality worldwide. The effectiveness of quitting tobacco use surpasses any other intervention to minimise the risk for chronic cardiac and respiratory conditions. The overall health benefits of smoking cessation have been recognised for decades but as tobacco legislation has been changing in recent years, new evidence particularly concerning the effect of less smoke exposure on the vascular system has emerged. Recently, much research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has concerned the ongoing inflammation - also in former smokers - and disease heterogeneity, which provides new knowledge regarding current and ex-smokers with COPD. Many other cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are associated with smoking, and the course of these diseases is not always studied in the context of smoking cessation versus continued smoking. This review summarises the latest available data on health benefits of smoking cessation with focus on both common and infrequent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential confounders. Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in December 2013. Great Britain. National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759 (43%) followed-up. Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day (CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year (analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use. Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not. Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or reduced smoking. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. The influence of perceived neighborhood disorder on smoking cessation among urban safety net hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Businelle, Michael S; Balis, David S; Kendzor, Darla E

    2015-11-01

    Although research has shown that objective neighborhood characteristics are associated with health behaviors including smoking, little is known about the influence of perceived neighborhood characteristics on a smoking cessation attempt. Participants (N=139) enrolled in a Dallas safety-net hospital smoking cessation program were followed from 1 week pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of perceived neighborhood order and disorder on the likelihood of achieving biochemically verified point prevalence and continuous smoking abstinence 4 weeks following a scheduled quit attempt. Analyses were adjusted for demographic characteristics, cigarettes per day, intervention group, and pharmacological treatment. Participants were primarily non-White (72.7%) and female (56.8%) with a mean age of 52.5 (SD=3.7) years. Most reported an annual household income of ≤$25,000 (86.3%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that greater neighborhood physical (p=.048) and social order (p=.039) were associated with a greater likelihood of achieving point prevalence smoking abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit. Greater perceived physical (p=.035) and social disorder (p=.039) and total neighborhood disorder (p=.014), were associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving point prevalence abstinence. Social disorder (p=.040) was associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving continuous abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit, while social order (p=.020) was associated with an increased likelihood of continuous abstinence. Perceptions of neighborhood order and disorder were associated with the likelihood of smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers making a quit attempt. Findings highlight the need to address perceptions of the neighborhood environment among disadvantaged smokers seeking treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  2. Supporting smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China. Methods In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to intervention group received behavioral intervention and control group received the usual care for two years. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete and continuous abstinence from smoking from the beginning of month 24 to the end of month 30. Participants were followed up at month 48. Results Continuous smoking abstinence rates from month 24 to 30 were significantly higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those receiving usual care (46.4% vs 3.4%, p intervention than in those control group. Family members or family physicians/nurses smoking were first identified to influence smoking cessation. Conclusions Behavioral intervention doubled the smoking cessation rate in patients with COPD and was complied well by the general practitioners. The family members and family physicians/nurses smoking were the main risk factors for smoking cessation. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registration (ChiCTR-TRC-12001958). PMID:23802809

  3. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda G; Al-Bashaireh, Ahmad M; Ferrell, Anastasiya V; Ghadban, Roula

    2017-04-13

    To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA) men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack-a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1) per day (98.7%). All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5%) and post-intervention phases (47.7%) wanted to quit smoking "very much". For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = -6.915, p study indicate that: (a) Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b) culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  4. Supporting smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Peian; Zhu, Yanan; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Na; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hongmin; Zhao, Jing

    2013-06-27

    Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China. In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to intervention group received behavioral intervention and control group received the usual care for two years. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete and continuous abstinence from smoking from the beginning of month 24 to the end of month 30. Participants were followed up at month 48. Continuous smoking abstinence rates from month 24 to 30 were significantly higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those receiving usual care (46.4% vs 3.4%, p intervention than in those control group. Family members or family physicians/nurses smoking were first identified to influence smoking cessation. Behavioral intervention doubled the smoking cessation rate in patients with COPD and was complied well by the general practitioners. The family members and family physicians/nurses smoking were the main risk factors for smoking cessation. Chinese Clinical Trials Registration (ChiCTR-TRC-12001958).

  5. MassBuilt: effectiveness of an apprenticeship site-based smoking cessation intervention for unionized building trades workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Krieger, Nancy; Sorensen, Glorian; Li, Yi; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2009-08-01

    Blue-collar workers are difficult to reach and less likely to successfully quit smoking. The objective of this study was to test a training site-based smoking cessation intervention. This study is a randomized-controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention that integrated occupational health concerns and was delivered in collaboration with unions to apprentices at 10 sites (n = 1,213). We evaluated smoking cessation at 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The baseline prevalence of smoking was 41%. We observed significantly higher quit rates in the intervention versus control group (26% vs. 16.8%; p = 0.014) 1 month after the intervention. However, the effects diminished over time so that the difference in quit rate was not significant at 6 month post-intervention (9% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.48). Intervention group members nevertheless reported a significant decrease in smoking intensity (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.55-6.31) at 6 months post-intervention, compared to controls. The study demonstrates the feasibility of delivering an intervention through union apprentice programs. Furthermore, the notably better 1-month quit rate results among intervention members and the greater decrease in smoking intensity among intervention members who continued to smoke underscore the need to develop strategies to help reduce relapse among blue-collar workers who quit smoking.

  6. Smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators: does it apply to black women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Azure B; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Messeri, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Smokers who initiate as adults are more likely to quit than those who initiate as adolescents. Black women are more likely than White women to initiate smoking in adulthood and are less likely to quit. There is a paucity of research examining whether the smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators applies to Black women. The study objective is to examine race differences in the effect of developmental stage of smoking initiation on number of years until cessation among Black and White women. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a national cohort of women between the ages of 49 and 61 years in 2003. The analytic sample comprised 1,008 White women and 271 Black women with a history of smoking. Survival analysis procedures were utilized to address the study objective. Racial disparities in smoking cessation were most evident among women who initiated smoking as adults. White young adult initiators had a 31% increased hazard of smoking cessation advantage (adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.65) over adolescent initiators, whereas Black young adult initiators had no smoking cessation advantage (adjusted HR: 0.85, CI: 95% 0.55-1.30) over adolescent initiators. Prior observations that smoking initiation in adulthood is associated with high rates of cessation do not apply to black women. To contribute to the reduction of disparities in women's cessation efforts to prevent initiation should target young adult women, particularly Black young adult women.

  7. Two years of smoking cessation does not reduce arterial wall thickness and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F W P J; Wollersheim, H; van Langen, H; Smilde, T J; den Arend, J; Thien, Th

    2004-01-01

    Smoking cessation rapidly reduces cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved are still being debated. We measured structural and functional arterial wall properties of the femoral and carotid arteries after smoking cessation to investigate their possible role in cardiovascular risk reduction. Out of 127 smokers, 33 proved to stop smoking for two years. They were compared with 50 nonsmokers and 55 persistent smokers in a prospective study. Cross-sectional compliance and distensibility coefficients as well as intima-media thickness of both carotid arteries and of the right common femoral artery were measured ultrasonographically at baseline and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after smoking cessation. The nonsmoking and persistent smokers group were measured twice at an interval of 24 months. Persistent smoking and two years of smoking cessation did not affect cross-sectional compliance and distensibility coefficients. Although at baseline intimal-medial layers were thicker in smokers, the change over time in intima-media thickness did not differ significantly between all three groups. Two years of smoking cessation was not accompanied by a slower progression or a regression in intima-media thickness nor by an improved cross-sectional compliance or distensiblity coefficient. Nevertheless, smoking cessation should be recommended as it reduces cardiovascular risk rapidly after smoking cessation.

  8. The Goetz Plan: A Practical Smoking Cessation Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Franklin B.; Goetz, Kristin M.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is responsible for approximately 434,000 deaths per year in the United States (Fact Sheet, 1993). College students represent a large portion of the smoking public. Roughly 70% of college students have tried smoking (Everett & Husten, 1999). There are various methods available to assist in smoking cessation, some being, nicotine…

  9. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Z; Manzari, Z S; Pouresmail, Z

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the role of nurses in planning and implementation of nursing interventions related to smoking cessation. Nearly half of all smokers die from smoking-related illnesses. Quitting smoking can reduce these problems. Smoking cessation interventions include various types helping smokers successfully quit. Studies suggest that hospitalization can be a golden opportunity for nurses helping patients to quit smoking because of No Smoking regulations. A systematic review of the literature was carried through Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, Medscape, MedlinePlus, Ovid SID, Magiran, PubMed, and Science Direct databases between 1990-2015 on the subject of interest by keywords: role of nursing in smoking cessation, nursing intervention in smoking cessation, smoking cessation, smoking quitting and interventions planned by nurse. Nineteen papers were systematic examined, dealing with smoking cessation interventions by nurses. Totally, 17 studies used counselling for quitting smoking. Most studies involved other methods such as manuals, pamphlets, brochures training or printed educational materials, audio and video file. Some studies used nicotine replacement methods for patients such as nicotine skin tags, chewing nicotine or bupropion. Moreover, 17 studies were conducted by telephone at patients' follow-up after hospital discharge. Nurses' interventions for smoking cessation play an important role in helping patients quit smoking successfully. There are a variety of interventions that nurses can employ according to the patient's condition and diagnosis of different diseases. Quitting smoking can reduce lung cancers and other health problems. Nurses play an important role in helping patients to quit smoking. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  10. Efficacy of mindfulness meditation for smoking cessation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Margaret A; Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Ewing, Brett; Colaiaco, Benjamin; Newberry, Sydne; Kandrack, Ryan; Shanman, Roberta M; Sorbero, Melony E; Hempel, Susanne

    2017-06-01

    Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention. This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation