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Sample records for evaluate saltstone properties

  1. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples

  2. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-03-19

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples.

  3. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  4. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.; Harbour, J.; Phifer, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  5. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  6. IMPACT OF INCREASED ALUMINATE CONCENTRATIONS ON PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE MIXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Erich Hansen, E; Vickie Williams, V

    2007-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. The protocols developed in this variability study are ideally suited as a tool to assess the impact of proposed changes to the processing flow sheet for Liquid Waste Operations (LWO). One such proposal that is currently under consideration is to introduce a leaching step in the treatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) sludge to remove aluminum prior to vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This leachate would significantly increase the soluble aluminate concentrations as well as the free hydroxide ion concentration in the salt feed that will be processed at the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF). Consequently, an initial study of the impact of increased aluminate concentration on the Saltstone grout properties was performed. The projected compositions and ranges of the aluminate rich salt stream (which includes the blending strategy) are not yet available and consequently, in this initial report, two separate salt stream compositions were investigated. The first stream starts with the previously projected baseline composition of the salt solution that will be fed to SPF from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The second stream is the solution that results from washing of the current Tank 51 sludge and subsequent transfer of the salt solution to Tank 11. The SWPF simulant has higher nitrate and lower free hydroxide than the Tank 11 simulant. In both of these cases, the aluminate was varied up to a maximum of 0.40 to 0.45M aluminate in order to evaluate the impact of increasing aluminate ion concentration on the grout properties. In general, the fresh grout properties of mixes made with SWPF and Tank 11 simulants were relatively insensitive to an increase in aluminate concentration in the salt solutions. However, the overall

  7. Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for Disposing Saltcake to Saltstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    This Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation is performed in accordance with Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This evaluation is performed in order to determine whether saltcake currently stored in the Tank Farms, when separated from supernate, meets WIR requirements and can therefore be managed as Low Level Waste and disposed in the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facility in Z-Area

  8. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM(reg s ign) code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM(reg s ign) code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  9. Performance Properties Of Saltstone Produced Using SWPF Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.

    2010-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of waste to be immobilized at the Saltstone Production Facility will come from the waste stream exiting the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). These SWPF batches are salt solutions that result from pretreatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) supernate by an Actinide Removal Process followed by Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. The concentration of aluminate within these streams will vary and be determined by (1) the concentration in the incoming salt waste stream, (2) the degree of aluminum leaching from the HLW, (3) the method for introducing the aluminate into the waste stream (continuous or batch) and (4) and any operational or regulatory limitations. The overall Performance Assessment outcome for the Saltstone Disposal Facility will depend significantly on the performance properties of the SWPF Saltstone grouts. This report identifies and quantifies, when possible, those factors that drive the performance properties of the projected SWPF grouts. Previous work has identified aluminate concentration in the salt waste stream as a key factor in determining performance. Consequently, significant variation in the aluminate concentration to a maximum level of 0.65 M was investigated in this report. The SWPF baseline grout is a mix with a 0.60 water to cementitious ratio and a premix composition of 45 wt % slag, 45 wt % fly ash and 10 wt % portland cement. The key factors that drive performance of the SWPF mixes were determined to be (1) the time/temperature profile for curing, (2) water to cementitious materials ratio, (3) aluminate concentration in the waste stream, and (4) wt % slag in the premix. An increase in the curing temperature for mixes with 45 wt % slag resulted in a 2.5 times decrease in Young's modulus. The reduction of Young's modulus measured at 60 C versus 22 C was mitigated by an increase in the aluminate concentration but was still significant. For mixes containing 60 wt % slag, the reduction in Young's modulus between

  10. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency 3 , KNO 3 , Na 3 PO 4 x12H 2 O, and K 3 PO 4 when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that

  11. Method Evaluation And Field Sample Measurements For The Rate Of Movement Of The Oxidation Front In Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Stefanko, D. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Spencer, W. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hatfield, A. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Arai, Y. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-08-23

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a series of methods and validate their capability to measure differences in oxidized versus reduced saltstone. Validated methods were then applied to samples cured under field conditions to simulate Performance Assessment (PA) needs for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Four analytical approaches were evaluated using laboratory-cured saltstone samples. These methods were X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), chemical redox indicators, and thin-section leaching methods. XAS and thin-section leaching methods were validated as viable methods for studying oxidation movement in saltstone. Each method used samples that were spiked with chromium (Cr) as a tracer for oxidation of the saltstone. The two methods were subsequently applied to field-cured samples containing chromium to characterize the oxidation state of chromium as a function of distance from the exposed air/cementitious material surface.

  12. Saltstone Matrix Characterization And Stadium Simulation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.

    2009-01-01

    SIMCO Technologies, Inc. was contracted to evaluate the durability of the saltstone matrix material and to measure saltstone transport properties. This information will be used to: (1) Parameterize the STADIUM(reg s ign) service life code, (2) Predict the leach rate (degradation rate) for the saltstone matrix over 10,000 years using the STADIUM(reg s ign) concrete service life code, and (3) Validate the modeled results by conducting leaching (water immersion) tests. Saltstone durability for this evaluation is limited to changes in the matrix itself and does not include changes in the chemical speciation of the contaminants in the saltstone. This report summarized results obtained to date which include: characterization data for saltstone cured up to 365 days and characterization of saltstone cured for 137 days and immersed in water for 31 days. Chemicals for preparing simulated non-radioactive salt solution were obtained from chemical suppliers. The saltstone slurry was mixed according to directions provided by SRNL. However SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel made a mistake in the premix proportions. The formulation SIMCO personnel used to prepare saltstone premix was not the reference mix proportions: 45 wt% slag, 45 wt% fly ash, and 10 wt% cement. SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel used the following proportions: 21 wt% slag, 65 wt% fly ash, and 14 wt% cement. The mistake was acknowledged and new mixes have been prepared and are curing. The results presented in this report are assumed to be conservative since the excessive fly ash was used in the SIMCO saltstone. The SIMCO mixes are low in slag which is very reactive in the caustic salt solution. The impact is that the results presented in this report are expected to be conservative since the samples prepared were deficient in slag and contained excess fly ash. The hydraulic reactivity of slag is about four times that of fly ash so the amount of hydrated binder formed per unit volume in the SIMCO saltstone samples

  13. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRN

    2013-09-23

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004.

  14. Key Factors That Influence The Performance Properties Of ARP/MCU Saltstone Mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-01-01

    At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), decontaminated salt solution (DSS) is combined with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) Saltstone. After transfer to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) the hydration reactions initiated during the contact of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period to produce the hardened waste form product. The amount of heat generated from hydration and the resultant temperature increase in the vaults depend on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned as well as the grout formulation (mix design). This report details the results from Task 3 of the Saltstone Variability Study for FY09 which was performed to identify, and quantify when possible, those factors that drive the performance properties of the projected ARP/MCU Batches. A baseline ARP/MCU mix (at 0.60 water to cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio) was established and consisted of the normal premix composition and a salt solution that was an average of the projected compositions of the last three ARP/MCU batches developed by T. A. Le. This task introduced significant variation in (1) wt % slag, w/cm ratio, and wt % portland cement about the baseline mix and (2) the temperature of curing in order to better assess the dependence of the performance properties on these factors. Two separate campaigns, designated Phase 10 and Phase 11, were carried out under Task 3. Experimental designs and statistical analyses were used to search for correlation among properties and to develop linear models to predict property values based on factors such as w/cm ratio, slag concentration, and portland cement concentration. It turns out that the projected salt compositions contained relatively high amounts of aluminate (0.22 M) even though no aluminate was introduced due to caustic aluminate removal from High Level Waste. Previous

  15. FOAM FORMATION IN THE SALTSTONE PRODUCTION FACILITY: EVALUATION OF SOURCES AND MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.

    2011-01-18

    The Saltstone Production Facility receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. Influents into Tank 50H include the Effluent Treatment Project waste concentrate, H-Canyon low activity waste and General Purpose Evaporator bottoms, Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit decontaminated salt solution, and salt solution from the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjust campaign. Using the Waste Characterization System (WCS), this study tracks the relative amounts of each influent into Tank 50H, as well as the total content of Tank 50H, in an attempt to identify the source of foaming observed in the Saltstone Production Facility hopper. Saltstone has been using antifoam as part of routine processing with the restart of the facility in December 2006. It was determined that the maximum admix usage in the Saltstone Production Facility, both antifoam and set retarder, corresponded with the maximum concentration of H-Canyon low activity waste in Tank 50H. This paper also evaluates archived salt solutions from Waste Acceptance Criteria analysis for propensity to foam and the antifoam dosage required to mitigate foaming. It was determined that Effluent Treatment Project contributed to the expansion factor (foam formation) and General Purpose Evaporator contributed to foaminess (persistence). It was also determined that undissolved solids contribute to foam persistence. It was shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced both the expansion factor and foaminess of salt solutions. The evaluation of foaming in the grout hopper during the transition from water to salt solution indicated that higher water-to-premix ratios tended to produce increased foaming. It was also shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced foam formation and persistence.

  16. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17

    will not impact decontamination or immobilization operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications have zero tolerance for dimensional changes such as the operation of valves while other applications a finite dimensional change improves the function of the application such as seals and gaskets. Additional considerations are required before using the conclusions from this work to judge outcomes in field applications. Decane, a component of Isopar L that is most likely to interact with the polymers, mildly interacted with the elastomers and the propylene based polymers but their degree of swelling is at most 10% and the confined geometry that they are typically placed in indicate this is not significant. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid may leach protein into the NGS solvent. Since Vellumoid is used at the mixer in Saltstone where it sees minimum quantities of solvent, this leaching has no effect on the extraction process at MCU or the immobilization process at saltstone. No significant interaction is expected between MaxCalix and the polymers and elastomers used at MCU, DWPF, and Saltstone. Overall, minimal and insignificant interactions are expected on extraction and immobilization operations when MCU switches from CSSX to NGS solvent. It is expected that contacting NGS will not accelerate the aging rate of polymers and elastomers under radiation and heat. This is due to the minimal interaction between NGS and the polymers and the confined geometries for these polymers. SRNL recommends the use of the HSP method (for screening) and some testing to evaluate the impact of other organic such as alcohols, glycolate, and their byproducts on the polymers used throughout the site.

  17. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

  18. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  19. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Williams, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  20. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  1. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  2. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  3. Results and analysis of saltstone cores taken from saltstone disposal unit cell 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    As part of an ongoing Performance Assessment (PA) Maintenance Plan, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has developed a sampling and analyses strategy to facilitate the comparison of field-emplaced samples (i.e., saltstone placed and cured in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU)) with samples prepared and cured in the laboratory. The primary objectives of the Sampling and Analyses Plan (SAP) are; (1) to demonstrate a correlation between the measured properties of laboratory-prepared, simulant samples (termed Sample Set 3), and the field-emplaced saltstone samples (termed Sample Set 9), and (2) to validate property values assumed for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) PA modeling. The analysis and property data for Sample Set 9 (i.e. six core samples extracted from SDU Cell 2A (SDU2A)) are documented in this report, and where applicable, the results are compared to the results for Sample Set 3. Relevant properties to demonstrate the aforementioned objectives include bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), and radionuclide leaching behavior.

  4. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D; Roberts, Kimberly; Serkiz, Steven; Siegfried, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    the same value as the one measured for 100% blast furnace slag. The cause for this approximately four-fold greater reduction capacity than anticipated is not known, but may be the result of the higher pH of Saltstone (pH ∼11) compared to blast furnace slag (pH ∼8), the presence of reducing minerals in the fly ash used to make the Saltstone, or to the Saltstone possibly having semi-conductor properties. These reduction capacity values will result in a near four-fold increase in the estimated duration that the Saltstone facility will remain in a reduced chemical state. The implication of this result is that oxidation-state-sensitive contaminants, such as Pu, Np, and Tc, will remain for a longer duration in a much less mobile form than previously believed. The reduction capacity of vault concrete, which consisted of 10 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 240 (micro)eq/g. Essentially all Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, Sr, and Y was (ad)sorbed within four hours, whereas 10 3 fold slower than (ad)sorption (under reducing conditions). An important implication of this finding is that if groundwater by-passes or short-circuits the reduction capacity of the Saltstone by flowing along a crack, the ability of the oxygenated water to promote Tc desorption is appreciably less than that predicted based on the K d value. Relatively low Tc K d values, 6 to 91 mL/g, were measured in these studies indicating that little if any of the Tc(VII) introduced into the Saltstone or Vault 2 concrete suspensions was reduced to Tc(IV). Such a reduction results in apparent K d values on the order of 10 4 mL/g. As such, these Tc sorption/desorption experiments need additional investigation to fully represent Saltstone environmental conditions. It is important to understand the limits of these data. They do not provide insight into how radionuclides cured and immobilized in Saltstone will leach from the Saltstone. However they do provide insight into how radionuclides once released into porewater will interact

  5. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

    2008-10-30

    gram ({micro}eq/g). This value was approximately the same value as the one measured for 100% blast furnace slag. The cause for this approximately four-fold greater reduction capacity than anticipated is not known, but may be the result of the higher pH of Saltstone (pH {approx}11) compared to blast furnace slag (pH {approx}8), the presence of reducing minerals in the fly ash used to make the Saltstone, or to the Saltstone possibly having semi-conductor properties. These reduction capacity values will result in a near four-fold increase in the estimated duration that the Saltstone facility will remain in a reduced chemical state. The implication of this result is that oxidation-state-sensitive contaminants, such as Pu, Np, and Tc, will remain for a longer duration in a much less mobile form than previously believed. The reduction capacity of vault concrete, which consisted of 10 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 240 {micro}eq/g. Essentially all Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, Sr, and Y was (ad)sorbed within four hours, whereas <3% of the adsorbed metals desorbed from these solids after 90 hours of continuous leaching. In particular, desorption of Tc (under oxidizing conditions) was >10{sup 3} fold slower than (ad)sorption (under reducing conditions). An important implication of this finding is that if groundwater by-passes or short-circuits the reduction capacity of the Saltstone by flowing along a crack, the ability of the oxygenated water to promote Tc desorption is appreciably less than that predicted based on the K{sub d} value. Relatively low Tc K{sub d} values, 6 to 91 mL/g, were measured in these studies indicating that little if any of the Tc(VII) introduced into the Saltstone or Vault 2 concrete suspensions was reduced to Tc(IV). Such a reduction results in apparent K{sub d} values on the order of 10{sup 4} mL/g. As such, these Tc sorption/desorption experiments need additional investigation to fully represent Saltstone environmental conditions. It is important to

  6. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Design of saltstone vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, G.S.; Hsiu, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive waste from processed spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, are stored in underground tanks. The wastes consist of sludge and supernate. Most of the radionuclides and some nonradioactive constituents are removed from the supernate. These along with the sludge are converted into a glass-crystallite matrix and cast into stainless steel cansisters for future disposal in a geological repository. The decontaminated salt solution is mixed with cement, fly ash, and a set-retarding agent, and the resulting grout is transferred to reinforced concrete vaults where it sets into a monolith termed saltstone. The vault is then capped with concrete. A total of 21 vaults measuring 600 x 100 x 27 ft are planned for disposal of the existing supernate plus any additional supernate generated up to the year 2000

  8. Saltstone studies using the scaled continuous processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Facility since its conception with bench-scale laboratory experiments, mid-scale testing at vendor facilities, and consultations and testing at the Saltstone Facility. There have been minimal opportunities for the measurement of rheological properties of the grout slurry at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF); thus, the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF), constructed to provide processing data related to mixing, transfer, and other operations conducted in the SPF, is the most representative process data for determining the expected rheological properties in the SPF. These results can be used to verify the laboratory scale experiments that support the SPF using conventional mixing processes that appropriately represent the shear imparted to the slurry in the SPF.

  9. Slag-based saltstone formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 400 x 10 6 liters of low-level alkaline salt solution will be treated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) prior to disposal in concrete vaults at SRP. Treatment involves removal of CS + and Sr +2 followed by solidification and stabilization of potential contaminants in saltstone, a hydrated ceramic waste form. Chromium, technetium, and nitrate releases from saltstone can be significantly reduced by substituting hydraulic blast furnace slag for portland cement in the formulation designs. Slag-based mixes are also compatible with Class F fly ash used in saltstone as a functional extender to control heat of hydration and reduce permeability. A monolithic waste form is produced by the hydration of the slag and fly ash. Soluble ion release (NO 3 - ) is controlled by the saltstone microstructure. Chromium and technetium are less leachable from slag mixes compared to cement-based waste forms because these species are chemically reduced to a lower valence state by ferrous iron in the slag and precipitated as relatively insoluble phases, such as CR(OH) 3 and TcO 2 . 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Slag-based saltstone formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    Approximately 400 x 10 6 L of low-level alkaline salt solution will be treated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) prior to disposal in concrete vaults at SRP. Treatment involves removal of Cs + and Sr +2 , followed by solidification and stabilization of potential contaminants in saltstone, a hydrated ceramic wasteform. Chromium, technetium, and nitrate releases from saltstone can be significantly reduced by substituting hydraulic blast furnace slag for portland cement in the formulation designs. Slag-based mixes are also compatible with the Class F flyash used in saltstone as a functional extender to control heat of hydration and reduce permeability. (Class F flyash is also locally available at SRP.) A monolithic wasteform is produced by the hydration of the slag and flyash. Soluble ion release (NO 3- ) is controlled by the saltstone microstructure. Chromium and technetium are less leachable from slag mixes because these species are chemically reduced to a lower valence state by ferrous iron in the slag and are precipitated as relatively insoluble phases, such as Cr(OH) 3 and TcO 2 . 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Si Y.; Hyun, Sinjae

    2013-01-01

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  12. SALTSTONE VARIABILITY STUDY - MEASUREMENT OF POROSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Tommy Edwards, T; Russell Eibling, R; Ray Schumacher, R

    2007-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone Variability Study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. One of the key performance properties is porosity which is a measure of the volume percent of a cured grout that is occupied by salt solution (for the saturated case). This report presents (1) the results of efforts to develop a method for the measurement of porosity of grout samples and (2) initial results of porosity values for samples that have been previously produced as part of the Saltstone Variability Study. A cost effective measurement method for porosity was developed that provides reproducible results, is relatively fast (30 to 60 minutes per sample) and uses a Mettler Toledo HR83 Moisture Analyzer that is already operational and routinely calibrated at Aiken County Technology Laboratory. The method involves the heating of the sample at 105 C until no further mass loss is observed. This mass loss value, which is due to water evaporation, is then used to calculate the volume percent porosity of the mix. The results of mass loss for mixes at 105 C were equivalent to the results obtained using thermal gravimetric analysis. The method was validated by comparing measurements of mass loss at 105 C for cured portland cement in water mixes to values presented in the literature for this system. A stereopycnometer from Quantachrome Instruments was selected to measure the cured grout bulk densities. Density is a property that is required to calculate the porosities. A stereopycnometer was already operational at Aiken County Technology Laboratory, has been calibrated using a solid stainless steel sphere of known volume, is cost effective and fast (∼15 minutes per sample). Cured grout densities are important in their own right because they can be used to project the volume of waste form produced from a given amount of salt feed of known composition. For mixes

  13. Saltstone processing startup at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.; Langton, C.A.; Sturm, H.F.; Hooker, R.L.; Occhipinti, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    High-level nuclear wastes are stored in large underground tanks at the Savannah River Plant. Processing of this waste in preparation for ultimate disposal will begin in 1988. The waste will be processed to separate the high-level radioactive fraction from the low-level radioactive fraction. The separation will be made in existing waste tanks by a process combining precipitation, adsorption, and filtration. The high-level fraction will be vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for permanent disposal in a federal repository. The low-level fraction (decontaminated salt solution) will be mixed with a cementitious slag-flyash blend. The resulting wasteform, saltstone, will be disposed of onsite by emplacement in an engineered facility. Waste properties, disposal facility details, and wasteform characteristics are discussed. In particular, details of saltstone processing, focusing on experience obtained from facility startup, are presented

  14. Lysimeter study of vegetative uptake from saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1990-06-08

    At the Savannah River Site, liquid, low-level nuclear waste will be disposed of by incorporating the waste in concrete, a wasteform called saltstone. Saltstone monoliths will then be buried in the earth. To study the potential uptake of radionuclides by trees and other plants growing in the soil in the area containing buried saltstone, a lysimeter study has been in progress since 1984. Thirty two lysimeters were designed, constructed, and filled with soil. Saltstone samples, containing the liquid, low-level supernate from the tank 50 in-tank precipitation demonstration, were buried in some of the lysimeters. Other lysimeters, not containing saltstone, were used as controls. Crops, grass, and trees were planted in the lysimeters and sampled periodically to determine radionuclide concentrations. Water samples were also collected from the lysimeter sumps and analyzed for radionuclide content. This report documents the results of vegetative and lysimeter sump water measurements from the beginning of the project in November of 1984 through September of 1989. 6 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Saltstone 3QCY12 TCLP Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R. E.

    2012-12-19

    A Saltstone waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the third quarter of calendar year 2012 (3QCY12). After a 34 day cure, samples of the saltstone were collected, and the waste form was shown to meet the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24 and R.61-79.268.48(a) requirements for a nonhazardous waste form with respect to RCRA metals and underlying hazardous constituents. These analyses met all quality assurance specifications of USEPA SW-846.

  16. 1QCY17 Saltstone waste characterization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-25

    In the first quarter of calendar year 2017, a salt solution sample was collected from Tank 50 on January 16, 2017 in order to meet South Carolina (SC) Regulation 61-107.19 Part I C, “Solid Waste Management: Solid Waste Landfills and Structural Fill – General Requirements” and the Saltstone Disposal Facility Class 3 Landfill Permit. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare and ship saltstone samples to a United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified laboratory to perform the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent characterization.

  17. Distribution Coeficients (Kd) Generated From A Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-01-01

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K d ), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford

  18. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  19. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  20. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  1. Saltstone 4QCY08 TCLP Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. In the fourth quarter of the 2008 calendar year (4QCY08), Tank 50 accepted transfers of approximately 15 kgal from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) waste, approximately 12 kgal from Tank 710-the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, approximately 5 kgal from the H-Canyon Super Kukla campaign, and approximately 34 kgal from the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). The Saltstone Grout Sampling plan provides the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with the chemical and physical characterization strategy for the salt solution which is to be disposed of in the Z-Area Solid Waste Landfill (ISWLF).1 During operation, samples were collected from Tank 50H and grout samples prepared to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout to meet the requirements of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24(b) and R.61-79.268.48(a). SRNL was asked to prepare saltstone from a sample of Tank 50H obtained October 29, 2008 during 4QCY08 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B and WTSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)2 and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals-arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver-analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge.3 B and WTSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the UHCs benzene, phenols and total and amenable cyanide. A Saltstone waste form was prepared in

  2. Leaching of saltstone: Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.W.; Langton, C.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Pepper, D.W.; Wallace, R.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1987-01-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a wasteform, saltstone, and disposed of in surface vaults. Laboratory and field leach testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet the design objective, which is to meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Diffusion is the predominant mechanism for release of contaminants to the environment. Leach testing in unsaturated soil, at soil moisture levels above 1 wt %, has shown no difference in leach rate compared to leaching in distilled water. Field leach testing of three thirty-ton blocks of saltstone in lysimeters has been underway since January 1984. Mathematical models were applied to assess design features for saltstone disposal. One dimensional infinite-composite and semi-infinite analytical models were developed for assessing diffusion of nitrate from saltstone through a cement barrier. Numerical models, both finite element and finite difference, were validated by comparison of model predictions with the saltstone lysimeter results. Validated models were used to assess the long-term performance of the saltstone stored in surface vaults. The maximum concentrations of all contaminants released from saltstone to shallow groundwater are predicted to be below drinking water standards at the disposal area boundary. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  3. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  4. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. In 1996 SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include requirements for groundwater monitoring. The major elements of those regulations and their application at Z-Area are discussed. These are a point of compliance, groundwater protection standards, the groundwater monitoring system, sampling and analysis, and data evaluation and reporting

  5. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure & Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  6. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  7. Concept development for saltstone and low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a cement wasteform, saltstone, and placed in surface vaults. Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Planning for new Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal could incorporate concepts developed for saltstone disposal

  8. Nitrate Diffusional Releases from the Saltstone Facility, Vault 2, with Respect to Different Concrete Wall Thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROBERT, HIERGESELL

    2005-01-01

    To assist the Saltstone Vault 2 Design Team, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative concrete wall thicknesses in limiting nitrate diffusion away from the planned facility. While the current design calls for 18-inch concrete walls, alternative thicknesses of 12-in, 8-in, and 6-in were evaluated using a simplified 1-D numerical model. To serve as a guide for Saltstone Vault 2 conceptual design, the results of this investigation were applied to Saltstone Vault 4 to determine what the hypothetical limits would be for concrete wall thicknesses thinner than the planned 18-inches. This was accomplished by adjusting the Vault 4 Limits, based on the increased nitrate diffusion rates through the thinner concrete walls, such that the 100-m well limit of 44 mg/L of nitrate as nitrate was not exceeded. The implication of these preliminary results is that as thinner vault walls are implemented there is a larger release of nitrate, thus necessitating optimal vault placement to minimize the number of vaults placed along a single groundwater flow path leading to the discharge zone

  9. Large-scale demonstration of waste solidification in saltstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.F.; Oblath, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1988-05-01

    The saltstone lysimeters are a large scale demonstration of a disposal concept for decontaminated salt solution resulting from in-tank processing of defense waste. The lysimeter experiment has provided data on the leaching behavior of large saltstone monoliths under realistic field conditions. The results also will be used to compare the effect of capping the wasteform on contaminant release. Biweekly monitoring of sump leachate from three lysimeters has continued on a routine basis for approximately 3 years. An uncapped lysimeter has shown the highest levels of nitrate and 99 Tc release. Gravel and clay capped lysimeters have shown levels equivalent to or slightly higher than background rainwater levels. Mathematical model predictions have been compared to lysimeter results. The models will be applied to predict the impact of saltstone disposal on groundwater quality. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Atmospheric Pathway Screening Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Facility Vault 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOK, JAMES

    2004-01-01

    A sequential screening process using a methodology developed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, professional judgment and process knowledge has been used to produce a list of radionuclides requiring detailed analysis to derive disposal limits for the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on the atmospheric pathway

  11. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  12. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  13. Degradation Of Cementitious Materials Associated With Saltstone Disposal Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G. P; Smith, F. G. III

    2013-01-01

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed ''saltstone''. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of an SDF disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions. The nominal value (NV) is an intermediate result that is more probable than the conservative estimate

  14. Degradation Of Cementitious Materials Associated With Saltstone Disposal Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P; Smith, F. G. III

    2013-03-19

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed “saltstone”. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of an SDF disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions. The nominal value (NV) is an intermediate result that is more probable than the conservative

  15. GAS MIXING ANALYSIS IN A LARGE-SCALED SALTSTONE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2008-05-28

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns mainly driven by temperature gradients inside vapor space in a large-scaled Saltstone vault facility at Savannah River site (SRS). The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations by taking a three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the potential operating conditions. The baseline model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference nominal case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Saltstone Vault 4 Vapor Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Si Young

    2005-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns for vapor space inside the Saltstone Vault No.4 under different operating scenarios. The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations. A CFD model took three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the boundary conditions as provided by the customer. The present model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference baseline case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information

  17. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT COLUMN DEGRADATION ANALYSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.

    2014-10-28

    PORFLOW related analyses supporting a Sensitivity Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) column degradation were performed. Previous analyses, Flach and Taylor 2014, used a model in which the SDU columns degraded in a piecewise manner from the top and bottom simultaneously. The current analyses employs a model in which all pieces of the column degrade at the same time. Information was extracted from the analyses which may be useful in determining the distribution of Tc-99 in the various SDUs throughout time and in determining flow balances for the SDUs.

  18. PORFLOW Simulations Supporting Saltstone Disposal Unit Design Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hang, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor, G. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-10

    SRNL was requested by SRR to perform PORFLOW simulations to support potential cost-saving design modifications to future Saltstone Disposal Units in Z-Area (SRR-CWDA-2015-00120). The design sensitivity cases are defined in a modeling input specification document SRR-CWDA-2015-00133 Rev. 1. A high-level description of PORFLOW modeling and interpretation of results are provided in SRR-CWDA-2015-00169. The present report focuses on underlying technical issues and details of PORFLOW modeling not addressed by the input specification and results interpretation documents. Design checking of PORFLOW modeling is documented in SRNL-L3200-2015-00146.

  19. Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNO 3 , NaOH, Na 2 SO 4 , and NaNO 2 . After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses. The disposal system for the DWPF salt waste includes reconstitution of the crystallized salt as a solution containing 32 wt % solids. This solution will be decontaminated to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr and then stabilized in a cement-based waste form. Laboratory and field tests indicate that this stabilization process greatly reduces the mobility of all of the waste constitutents in the surface and near-surface environment. Engineered trenches for subsurface burial of the saltstone have been designed to ensure compatibility between the waste form and the environment. The total disposal sytem, saltstone-trench-surrounding soil, has been designed to contain radionuclides, Cr, and Hg by both physical encapsulation and chemical fixation mechanisms. Physical encapsulation of the salts is the mechanism employed for controlling N and OH releases. In this way, final disposal of the SRP low-level waste can be achieved and the quality of the groundwater at the perimeter of the disposal site meets EPA drinking water standards

  20. Lessons Learned from an External Review of the Savannah River Site Saltstone Performance Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is actively working on a total revision of the Saltstone Performance Assessment. 'Lessons Learned' from the review are being applied to this effort. Examples of the areas in which significant new work is being done are development of a methodology to do probabilistic uncertainty analyses, employing quantitative analytical tools to represent long-term chemical degradation of both concrete and the Saltstone wasteform, and then using those tools to come to a better understanding of how changes in the vault and Saltstone will affect the performance of the overall disposal system over long periods of time. (authors)

  1. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  2. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

  3. Benzene Evolution Rates from Saltstone Prepared with 2X ITP Flowsheet Concentrations of Phenylborates and Heated to 85 Degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Saltstone Facility provides the final treatment and disposal of low level liquid wastes streams. At the Saltstone Facility, the waste is mixed with cement, flyash, and slag to form a grout, which is pumped into large concrete vaults where it cures. The facility started radioactive operations in June 1990. High Level Waste Engineering requested Savannah River Technology Center to determine the effect of TPB and its decomposition products (i.e., 3PB, 2PB, and 1PB) on the saltstone process. Previous testing performed by SRTC determined saltstone benzene evolution rates a function of ITP filtrate composition. Testing by the Thermal Fluids Laboratory has shown at design operation, the temperature in the Z-area vaults could reach 85 degrees Celsius. Saltstone asked SRTC to perform additional testing to determine whether curing at 85 degrees Celsius could change saltstone benzene evolution rates. This document describes the test performed to determine the effect of curing temperature on the benzene evolution rates

  4. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-12

    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  5. Development and Implementation of a Scaled Saltstone Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory - 13346

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigel, Marissa M.; Fowley, Mark D.; Hansen, Erich K.; Hera, Kevin R.; Marzolf, Athneal D.; Cozzi, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) since its conception. However, bench scaled tests have not always provided process or performance data related to the mixing, transfer, and other operations utilized in the SPF. A need was identified to better understand the SPF processes and to have the capabilities at SRNL to simulate the SPF unit operations to support an active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) processing facility. At the SPF, the dry premix is weighed, mixed and transferred to the Readco '10-inch' continuous mixer where it is mixed with the LLW salt solution from the Salt Feed Tank (SFT) to produce fresh Saltstone slurry. The slurry is discharged from the mixer into a hopper. The hopper feeds the grout pump that transfers the slurry through at least 457.2 meters of piping and discharges it into the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU) for permanent disposal. In conjunction with testing individual SPF processes over several years, SRNL has designed and fabricated a scaled Saltstone Facility. Scaling of the system is primarily based on the volume capacity of the mixer and maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. At present, SRNL is utilizing the modular capabilities of the scaled Saltstone Facility to investigate the erosion issues related to the augers and paddles inside the SPF mixer. Full implementation of the scaled Saltstone Facility is still ongoing, but it is proving to be a valuable resource for testing alternate Saltstone formulations, cleaning sequences, the effect of pumping Saltstone to farther SDU's, optimization of the SPF mixer, and other operational variables before they are implemented in the SPF. (authors)

  6. Statistical experimental design for saltstone mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.; Postles, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    We used a mixture experimental design for determining a window of operability for a process at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The high-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site is stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The waste consists of a supernate layer and a sludge layer. 137 Cs will be removed from the supernate by precipitation and filtration. After further processing, the supernate layer will be fixed as a grout for disposal in concrete vaults. The remaining precipitate will be processed at the DWPF with treated waste tank sludge and glass-making chemicals into borosilicate glass. The leach rate properties of the supernate grout, formed from various mixes of solidified salt waste, needed to be determined. The effective diffusion coefficients for NO 3 and Cr were used as a measure of leach rate. Various mixes of cement, Ca(OH) 2 , salt, slag and flyash were used. These constituents comprise the whole mix. Thus, a mixture experimental design was used

  7. Statistical experimental design for saltstone mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The authors used a mixture experimental design for determining a window of operability for a process at the U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The high-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site is stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The waste consists of a supernate layer and a sludge layer. Cesium-137 will be removed from the supernate by precipitation and filtration. After further processing, the supernate layer will be fixed as a grout for disposal in concrete vaults. The remaining precipitate will be processed at the DWPF with treated waste tank sludge and glass-making chemicals into borosilicate glass. The leach-rate properties of the supernate grout formed from various mixes of solidified coefficients for NO 3 and chromium were used as a measure of leach rate. Various mixes of cement, Ca(OH) 2 , salt, slag, and fly ash were used. These constituents comprise the whole mix. Thus, a mixture experimental design was used. The regression procedure (PROC REG) in SAS was used to produce analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics. In addition, detailed model diagnostics are readily available for identifying suspicious observations. For convenience, trillinear contour (TLC) plots, a standard graphics tool for examining mixture response surfaces, of the fitted model were produced using ECHIP

  8. Evaluation of stigmatized properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal István

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatized property is real estate burdened with an external negative effect. Individual cases are spread along a broad spectrum, along many dimensions that include the rational and the irrational, the acute and the chronic. Examples for the stigmatizing effect are a nearby airport, ground water contaminated by chemicals, presence of a high-voltage power line, and so on. Eval­uation of these properties needs special methodology. Stigma can reduce the property’s market value through a particular, multi-layered filter. The author systematically examines the professional literature’s cases of evaluation of stigmatized properties. The research aims to organize and compare the cases in order to calculate the market value of stigmatized properties. Based on the analysis, six significant dimensions are identified. A focus group of 19 experts examined and individually evaluated the stigma­tizing effects along these different dimensions. The author suggests that it is possible to estimate the stigma’s effect and compare different cases to one another effectively. The results allow the international methodology of valu­ation to be processed.

  9. Estimated release from the saltstone landfill effect of landfill caps and landfill-cap/monolith-liner combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of capping the entire saltstone landfill is dependent on the effectiveness of the clay cap in preventing infiltration. A cap that is 99% effective will reduce releases from the saltstone landfill by a factor of 7.7. Several combinations of landfill design alterations will result in meeting ground water standards

  10. Lysimeter study of vegetative uptake from saltstone. Part I. Design, installation, and data collection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.L.

    1986-02-01

    A field test facility has been designed and installed to obtain data on the vegetative uptake of radionuclides from buried low-level radioactive waste. The waste is a cement-like, solidified salt solution known as saltstone. The facility consists of 32 lysimeters (containers 6 feet in diameter and 6 to 10 feet in depth) holding buried saltstone at varying depths, and with varying types of vegetation grown at the surface. Vegetation, soil, and groundwater samples will be analyzed for Tc-99, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137, and other radionuclides. Groundwater will also be analyzed for other water quality parameters, including nitrates

  11. Savannah River Site - Salt-stone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Salt-stone Facility is currently in the midst of a Performance Assessment revision to estimate the effect on human health and the environment of adding new disposal units to the current Salt-stone Disposal Facility (SDF). These disposal units continue the ability to safely process the salt component of the radioactive liquid waste stored in the underground storage tanks at SRS, and is a crucial prerequisite for completion of the overall SRS waste disposition plan. Removal and disposal of low activity salt waste from the SRS liquid waste system is required in order to empty tanks for future tank waste processing and closure operations. The Salt-stone Production Facility (SPF) solidifies a low-activity salt stream into a grout matrix, known as salt-stone, suitable for disposal at the SDF. The ability to dispose of the low-activity salt stream in the SDF required a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of 2005 and was approved in January 2006. One of the requirements of Section 3116 of the NDAA is to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives set out in Subpart C of Part 61 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The PA is the document that is used to ensure ongoing compliance. (authors)

  12. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.L. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit number-sign 025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997

  13. Literature Review of the Effects of Tetraphenylborate on Saltstone Grout: Benzene Evolution and TCLP Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2004-01-01

    As part of the program to disposition the tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H and return the tank to service, Salt Processing Development requested a review of the literature to assess the state of knowledge pertaining to incorporation of tetraphenylborate slurries in saltstone grout with respect to benzene generation rates and leaching performance. Examination of past studies conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS) on the incorporation of TPB slurries in saltstone provides a basis for developing a more focused scope of experimental studies. Tank 48H currently contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate salts as a result of a demonstration of the In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process in 1983 and subsequent ITPradioactive start-up operations in 1995. The tank currently contains approximately 240,000 gallons of salt solution with approximately 19,000 kg of potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate salts. The presence of the TPB salts makes the waste incompatible with existing High Level Waste treatment facilities. The TPB salts in Tank 48H must be treated or removed to meet the scheduled return to service date of 2007. The two preferred options for disposition of the TBP slurries in Tank 48H include: (1) Aggregation of the material with the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) recycle stream and disposal in the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF), and (2) In-Situ Thermal Decomposition using heat in combination with pH reduction and catalyst addition. The current literature review along with the current experimental studies provide a basis for determining the feasibility of the option to incorporate the TPB slurries into saltstone grout

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELLS, DANIEL

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. At the time of the 1996 permit renewal, it was determined that a more robust monitoring program was needed. The draft permit required new monitoring wells within 25 feet of each active disposal cell. As an alternative, SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and was incorporated by reference into the Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, No.025500-1603. The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include specific requirements for groundwater monitoring. SRS's plan for complying with those regulations is discussed below. The plan calls for a return to traditional monitoring with permanent wells. It also proposes a more technically sound monitoring list based on the actual composition of saltstone

  15. Environmental indicators for evaluating properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Grosso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Property evaluation for tax purposes has traditionally relied on urban and building criteria, mostly resulting from concepts driven by the commercial attractiveness of the property under evaluation, its building and the site itself. Due to the world climate and ecological crisis, awareness has risen about the need for other indicators, which can evaluate the quality of a property, even referring to its potential environmental impact. Technical standards for the evaluation of buildings’ environmental sustainability, which have been developed since the first years of this century, both nationally and internationally, take into account the impact of the building and its relevance for the life-cycle of materials and elements, with reference to the three sectors of sustainability: environmental, economic and social. The social sector includes indicators referring to the user’s health and comfort, which also interact with the morphological and spatial characteristics of the building. However, there is a lack of methodological tools for the evaluation of said indicators and existing ones are mainly of a qualitative type. This paper suggests a methodological approach for the quantitative evaluation of sustainability indicators, relying on the accessibility of a site’s climate resources by the property, as a criterion to evaluate the potential for the reduction of negative environmental impact, as well as a criterion to improve users’ life quality.

  16. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  17. Alternate paddle configuration for improved wear resistance in the saltstone mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-23

    The Saltstone Production Facility has a 10-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer that mixes the premix dry feeds and low-level waste salt solution to make fresh (uncured) saltstone. Inspection of the mixer in January 2013 showed significant wear on the third, fourth and fifth paddle pairs after the conveying augers. A 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer was used to test alternate paddle configurations for use in the 10-inch mixer to decrease the wear rate on the paddles. Two wear tests were conducted to investigate a method of reducing wear on the mixer paddles. The first test (wear test 2a) had a paddle configuration similar to the currently installed 10-inch mixer in the SPF. This test established baseline wear. The second test (wear test 2b) had a reconfigured paddle arrangement that replaced the flat paddles with helical paddles for paddle pairs 2 - 6 and aligned paddle pair 1 with the augers. The intent of the reconfiguration was to more effectively convey the partially wetted dry feeds through the transition region and into the liquid feed where paddle wear is reduced due to dry feeds and salt solution being mixed at the intended water to premix ratio. The design of the helical paddles provides conveyance through the transition region to the liquid feed inlet. The alignment with the auger is aimed to provide a smoother transition (minimizing the discontinuity between the auger and paddle pair 1) into the downstream paddles. A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum) was used for the wear testing paddles to determine wear patterns while minimizing run time and maximizing wear rate. For the two paddle configurations tested using the scaled 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer, with the first six paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles and the remaining paddles were stainless steel. Since the 10-inch SPF mixer is designed with the liquid inlet centered over paddle pairs 5 and 6, the scaled 2-inch mixer was configured the

  18. UK-Nuclear decommissioning authority and US Salt-stone waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, William; Whitton, John

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: We update two case studies of stakeholder issues in the UK and US. Earlier versions were reported at Waste Management 2006 and 2007 and at ICEM 2005. UK: The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). This paper updates earlier results by the co-author with findings from a second questionnaire issued to the NSG in Phase 2 of the engagement process. An assessment is made regarding the development of stakeholder perceptions since Phase 1 towards the NDA process. US: The US case study reviews the resolution of issues on salt-stone by Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC. Recently, SRS-CAB encouraged DOE and South Carolina's regulatory Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to resolve a conflict preventing SC-DHEC from releasing a draft permit to allow SRS to restart salt-stone operations. It arose with a letter sent from DOE blaming the Governor of South Carolina for delay in restarting salt processing. In reply, the Governor blamed DOE for failing to assure that Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) would be built. SWPF is designed to remove most of the radioactivity from HLW prior to vitrification, the remaining fraction destined for salt-stone. (authors)

  19. Special Analysis: Revised 14C Disposal Limits for the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Saltstone Special Analysis calculated a limit for 14C based on the atmospheric pathway of 52 pCi/mL using some very conservative assumptions. This was compared to the estimated Low Curie Salt concentration of 0.45 pCi/mL and since the limit was two orders of magnitude greater than the estimated concentration, the decision was made that no further analysis was needed. The 14C concentration in Tank 41 has been found to be much greater than the estimated concentration and to exceed the limit derived in the Special Analysis. A rigorous analysis of the release of 14C via the air pathway that considers the chemical effects of the Saltstone system has shown that the flux of 14C is significantly less than that assumed in the Special Analysis. The net result is an inventory limit for 14C that is significantly higher than that derived in the Special Analysis that will also meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1

  20. Addendum to the Composite Analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Revision 1 of the Composite Analysis (CA) Addendum has been prepared to respond to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group review of the CA. This addendum to the composite analysis responds to the conditions of approval. The composite analysis was performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of the Savannah River Site and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, the chemical separation facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities, as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material

  1. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-12-18

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements.

  2. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements

  3. Large-scale demonstration of disposal of decontaminated salt as saltstone. Part I. Construction, loading, and capping of lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.C.

    1984-06-01

    The installation phase of a large-scale demonstration of the disposal concept for decontaminated, low-level radioactive salt waste at the Savannah River Plant was completed in December 1983 and January 1984. The installation entailed immobilizing 7500 gallons of decontaminated salt solution with a blended cement formulation and pouring the resulting grout, saltstone, into three specially designed lysimeters for extended in-field leaching tests under natural conditions. 4 references, 35 figures, 4 tables

  4. NUMERICAL FLOW AND TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS SUPPORTING THE SALTSTONE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.

    2009-02-28

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment (PA) is being revised to incorporate requirements of Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), and updated data and understanding of vault performance since the 1992 PA (Cook and Fowler 1992) and related Special Analyses. A hybrid approach was chosen for modeling contaminant transport from vaults and future disposal cells to exposure points. A higher resolution, largely deterministic, analysis is performed on a best-estimate Base Case scenario using the PORFLOW numerical analysis code. a few additional sensitivity cases are simulated to examine alternative scenarios and parameter settings. Stochastic analysis is performed on a simpler representation of the SDF system using the GoldSim code to estimate uncertainty and sensitivity about the Base Case. This report describes development of PORFLOW models supporting the SDF PA, and presents sample results to illustrate model behaviors and define impacts relative to key facility performance objectives. The SDF PA document, when issued, should be consulted for a comprehensive presentation of results.

  5. Evaluating sensitivity of unsaturated soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, R.O.; El-Kamash, A.M.; Nagy, M.E.; Khalill, M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of near surface disposal performance relay on numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These models use the unsaturated soil properties as input parameters, which are subject to uncertainty due to measurements errors and the spatial variability in the subsurface environment. To ascertain how much the output of the model will depend on the unsaturated soil properties the parametric sensitivity analysis is used. In this paper, a parametric sensitivity analysis of the Van Genuchten moisture retention characteristic (VGMRC) model will be presented and conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the unsaturated soil properties under different pressure head values that represent various dry and wet conditions. (author)

  6. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Filipa; Correia, Patrícia; Silva, Susana P; Almeida-Aguiar, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Cork presents a range of diverse and versatile properties making this material suitable for several and extremely diverse industrial applications. Despite the wide uses of cork, its antimicrobial properties and potential applications have deserved little attention from industry and the scientific community. Thus, the main purpose of this work was the evaluation of the antibacterial properties of cork, by comparison with commercially available antimicrobial materials (Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymer and a currently used antimicrobial commercial additive (ACA)), following the previous development and optimization of a method for such antimicrobial assay. The AATCC 100-2004 standard method, a quantitative procedure developed for the assessment of antimicrobial properties in textile materials, was used as reference and optimized to assess cork antibacterial activity. Cork displayed high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with a bacterial reduction of almost 100% (96.93%) after 90 minutes of incubation, similar to the one obtained with ACA. A more reduced but time-constant antibacterial action was observed against Escherichia coli (36% reduction of the initial number of bacterial colonies). To complement this study, antibacterial activity was further evaluated for a water extract of cork and an MIC of 6 mg mL(-1) was obtained against the reference strain S. aureus. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  9. Futures market observations help in property evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, E.

    1994-01-01

    A standard approach to the valuation of petroleum properties and to project economics requires the calculation of present value of future cash flows. The technique is well-known and widely used in property evaluations, which are crucial to the acquisition activity in which independent producers recently have been so heavily engaged. But shortcomings of the standard approach also are well-known. Two significant problems are the choice of discount rate and the need to forecast prices. The appropriate discount rate depends upon the risk involved, and the correct relationship between risk and expected return may be difficult to determine. Oil price forecasts, meanwhile, are notoriously unreliable. These problems have led to adaptation of the option-valuation technique now widely and successfully used in the financial markets to the problem of valuing real assets, such as an oil field. In this context an option is the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at some future time for a price (the exercise price) determined at the time the option is acquired. The important parameters are equilibrium price, volatility, and convenience yield, each of which can be projected on the basis of market data close at hand. Then the values can be combined with the production profile of an oil field to mathematically estimate present value. The valuation method is described

  10. Quick pace of property acquisitions requires two-stage evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, R.; Lockwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional method of evaluating oil and gas reserves may be too cumbersome for the quick pace of oil and gas property acquisition. An acquisition evaluator must decide quickly if a property meets basic purchase criteria. The current business climate requires a two-stage approach. First, the evaluator makes a quick assessment of the property and submits a bid. If the bid is accepted then the evaluator goes on with a detailed analysis, which represents the second stage. Acquisition of producing properties has become an important activity for many independent oil and gas producers, who must be able to evaluate reserves quickly enough to make effective business decisions yet accurately enough to avoid costly mistakes. Independent thus must be familiar with how transactions usually progress as well as with the basic methods of property evaluation. The paper discusses acquisition activity, the initial offer, the final offer, property evaluation, and fair market value

  11. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non-edible vegetable oils of Jatropha curcas, neem, castor, rubber and edible oils of soyabean and cotton were investigated for their use as biodiesel feedstock. The analysis of different oil properties, fuel properties of non-edible and edible vegetable oils were investigated in detail. A two-step and transesterification ...

  12. 12 CFR 614.4265 - Real property evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....4265 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4265 Real property evaluations. (a) Real estate shall be valued on... property and operation where the transaction value exceeds $250,000 and the real estate taken as collateral...

  13. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of municipal dumpsite compost in Kano metropolis and concentration of heavy metals were investigated. Analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry (Buck Scientific VPG 210). The results shows that the compost pH (6.63-8.19), electric conductivity of compost (638-933μs/cm), ...

  14. The Variability and Evaluation Method of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the same sources and regeneration techniques, given RA’s properties may display large variations. The same single property index of different sets maybe has a large difference of the whole property. How shall we accurately evaluate the whole property of RA? 8 groups of RAs from pavement and building were used to research the method of evaluating the holistic characteristics of RA. After testing and investigating, the parameters of aggregates were analyzed. The data of physical and mechanical properties show a distinct dispersion and instability; thus, it has been difficult to express the whole characteristics in any single property parameter. The Euclidean distance can express the similarity of samples. The closer the distance, the more similar the property. The standard variance of the whole property Euclidean distances for two types of RA is Sk=7.341 and Sk=2.208, respectively, which shows that the property of building RA has great fluctuation, while pavement RA is more stable. There are certain correlations among the apparent density, water absorption, and crushed value of RAs, and the Mahalanobis distance method can directly evaluate the whole property by using its parameters: mean, variance, and covariance, and it can provide a grade evaluation model for RAs.

  15. Asset evaluation methods for intellectual property

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. With the introduction of "International Financial Reporting Standards" (IFRS) through out Europe in April 2001, there is a requirement to accurately report the value of all company assets. This will include by implication all intangible assets and Intellectual Property, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and know-how. Items that have not been recorded before are much more visible under IFRS and will need to be carefully interpreted by investors and analysts. In order to meet t...

  16. Evaluation of mechanical properties of esthetic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Eisaku; Komazawa, Daigo; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suda, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Plastic brackets, as well as ceramic brackets, are used in various cases since they have excellent esthetics. However, their mechanical properties remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine how deformation and stress distribution in esthetic brackets differ among materials under the same wire load. Using the digital image correlation method, we discovered the following: (1) the strain of the wings of plastic brackets is within 0.2% and that of ceramic and metal brackets is n...

  17. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences. PMID:27185922

  18. Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of the different plant parts of Terminalia avicennioides was carried out using standard chemical evaluation methods. The antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of Terminalia avicennioides against E.coli and S.typhimurium clinical and ...

  19. Evaluation of mechanical properties of esthetic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Eisaku; Komazawa, Daigo; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suda, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Plastic brackets, as well as ceramic brackets, are used in various cases since they have excellent esthetics. However, their mechanical properties remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine how deformation and stress distribution in esthetic brackets differ among materials under the same wire load. Using the digital image correlation method, we discovered the following: (1) the strain of the wings of plastic brackets is within 0.2% and that of ceramic and metal brackets is negligible, (2) polycarbonate brackets having a stainless steel slot show significantly smaller displacement than other plastic brackets, and (3) there is a significant difference between plastic brackets and ceramic and stainless steel brackets in terms of the displacement of the bracket wing.

  20. Evaluation of the Properties of Lightweight Concrete Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    strength characteristics of each cube were evaluated using Compressive Testing machine at the curing .... properties of periwinkle shell ash burnt in a furnace at 300°C for 2 .... Exploratory. Study f Periwinkle Shells As Coarse Aggregate In.

  1. Physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation of jam made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing jam from black-plum and to evaluate the physico-chemical properties, nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of the product. Black-plum jam was produced using traditional openkettle method. The physico-chemical analyses of black-plum fruit ...

  2. Nicotinamides: Evaluation of thermochemical experimental properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhabina, Aleksandra A.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Solomonov, Boris N.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures measured by transpiration method. • Enthalpies of solution measured using high-precision solution calorimetry. • Enthalpies of fusion measured by DSC. • Sublimation enthalpies derived from transpiration and solution calorimetry in agreement. • Experimental results evaluated and compared with G4 calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the isomeric 2-, 3-, and 4-pyridinecarboxamides were measured by using the transpiration method. The enthalpies of sublimation/vaporization of these compounds at 298.15 K were derived from vapor pressure temperature dependences. The enthalpies of solution of the isomeric pyridinecarboxamides were measured with the high-precision solution calorimetry. The enthalpies of sublimation of 3- and 4-pyridinecarboxamides were independently derived with help of the solution calorimetry based procedure. The enthalpies of fusion of the pyridinecarboxamides were measured by the DSC. Thermochemical data isomeric pyridinecarboxamides were collected, evaluated, and tested for internal consistency. The high-level G4 quantum-chemical method was used for mutual validation of the experimental and theoretical gas phase enthalpies of formation successfully.

  3. Benzene TCLP results from saltstone prepared with 2X ITP flowsheet concentrations of phenylborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) teamed with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and ITT Flygt Corporation to conduct a test program evaluating shrouded axial propeller mixers (Flygt mixers) for heel removal in SRS Tank 19. SRS is identifying and investigating techniques to remove sludge heels from waste tanks such as Tank 19

  4. Supply Inventory Management: Property Accountability at Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... This report evaluates the Military Departments' improvement in maintaining property accountability over personal property at research, development, test, and evaluation installations, Personal...

  5. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve.

  6. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Lee, Jin Haeng

    2013-01-01

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve

  7. Evaluation of RF properties by orifice design for IFMIF RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, Sunao; Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    2005-03-01

    Orifices for the IFMIF RFQ have been designed and fabricated, and RF properties have been evaluated by a network analyzer. The designed orifices were installed into a vacuum port of the 1.1m-long RFQ mock-up module, and the resonant frequency and the phase difference between cavities were measured for a quadrupole operation mode of TE 210 . It was found that the RF properties are not affected on condition that slit direction with the same direction of current flow at the RFQ wall. Orifice conductance from 0.22 to 0.25 m 3 /sec by nitrogen conversion at room temperature was designed, and an ultimate pressure level of 5x10 -7 [Pa] was evaluated for the 4.1m-long central module for the IFMIF RFQ. It was concluded that the designed orifices are effective for RF properties and vacuum conductance in the IFMIF RFQ. (author)

  8. Air purification by cementitious materials: Evaluation of air purifying properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, H.; Mustapha, K.N.; Nuruddin, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of concrete containing titanium dioxide (TiO2). Here, the assessment of the air purifying abilities of the hardened concrete regarding the degradation of nitric oxide (NO) is of major interest. A setup for measuring the performance

  9. Evaluation of Anti-Fertility Property of Lawsonia Inermis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Anti-Fertility Property of Lawsonia Inermis L. (Lythraceae) Roots in Rats. ... relationship significantly (p£0.05) among the doses of extract and to standard drug (ethinyl estradiol). ... The plant extract exhibit anti-fertility effects.

  10. Air purification by cementitious materials : Evaluation of air purifying properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, H.; Mustapha, K.N.; Nuruddin, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of concrete containing titanium dioxide (TiO2). Here, the assessment of the air purifying abilities of the hardened concrete regarding the degradation of nitric oxide (NO) is of major interest. A setup for measuring the performance

  11. Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria For Sustainable Crop Production. ... Organic matter content values were high with mean of 12.59, 60.01, and 3.20 percent for Inland valley, Flood plain and mangrove soils respectively. Effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was below ...

  12. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version Perceived Stress Scale in Two Occupational Settings In Malaysia. ... Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version ...

  13. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMARA

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived from Xanthosoma sagittifolium in metronidazole tablets. Onyishi Ikechukwu V., Chime Salome A.* and Ugwu Jonathan C. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, ...

  14. Method for evaluation of radiative properties of glass samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohelnikova, Jitka [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Veveri 95, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: mohelnikova.j@fce.vutbr.cz

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a simple calculation method which serves for an evaluation of radiative properties of window glasses. The method is based on a computer simulation model of the energy balance of a thermally insulated box with selected glass samples. A temperature profile of the air inside of the box with a glass sample exposed to affecting radiation was determined for defined boundary conditions. The spectral range of the radiation was considered in the interval between 280 and 2500 nm. This interval is adequate to the spectral range of solar radiation affecting windows in building facades. The air temperature rise within the box was determined in a response to the affecting radiation in the time between the beginning of the radiation exposition and the time of steady-state thermal conditions. The steady state temperature inside of the insulated box serves for the evaluation of the box energy balance and determination of the glass sample radiative properties. These properties are represented by glass characteristics as mean values of transmittance, reflectance and absorptance calculated for a defined spectral range. The data of the computer simulations were compared to experimental measurements on a real model of the insulated box. Results of both the calculations and measurements are in a good compliance. The method is recommended for preliminary evaluation of window glass radiative properties which serve as data for energy evaluation of buildings.

  15. 12 CFR 614.4266 - Personal and intangible property evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 614.4266 Section 614.4266 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4266 Personal and intangible property... shall include provisions for periodic collateral inspections and verification by the institution's...

  16. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  17. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of a posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of a micro-hybrid resin composite used in adult posterior restorations A micro-hybrid, light curing resin composite Unolux BCS Composite Restorative, (UnoDent, England) was used to restore 74 carious classes I and II cavities on posterior teeth of 62 adult patients.

  18. Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Graves Property - Yakama Nation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul; Muse, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Graves property (140 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also documented the general ecological condition of the property. The Graves property was significantly damaged from past/present livestock grazing practices. Baseline HEP surveys generated 284.28 habitat units (HUs) or 2.03 HUs per acre. Of these, 275.50 HUs were associated with the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type while 8.78 HUs were tied to the riparian shrub cover type.

  19. Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Carl Property - Yakama Nation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul; Muse, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    A baseline habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Carl property (160 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also helped assess the general ecological condition of the property. The Carl property appeared damaged from livestock grazing and exhibited a high percentage of invasive forbs. Exotic grasses, while present, did not comprise a large percentage of the available cover in most areas. Cover types were primarily grassland/shrubsteppe with a limited emergent vegetation component. Baseline HEP surveys generated 356.11 HUs or 2.2 HUs per acre. Habitat units were associated with the following HEP models: California quail (47.69 HUs), western meadowlark (114.78 HUs), mallard (131.93 HUs), Canada goose (60.34 HUs), and mink (1.38 HUs).

  20. Evaluation of properties of low activation Mn-Cr steel (2). Physical properties and aging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sato, Ikuo; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Hatakeyama, Takeshi [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan). Muroran Plant; Takahashi, Heishichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-08-01

    The JT-60SU (Super Upgrade) program is under discussion at JAERI. Its design optimization activity requires the vacuum vessel material to be non-magnetic, very strong and with low induced activation. However, there is no suitable material available to fulfill all the requirements. JAERI started to develop a new material for the vacuum vessel together with the Japan Steel Works LTD. (JSW). Chemical composition and metallurgical processes were optimized and a new steel named VC9, which has the composition of Cr :16wt%, Mn :15.5wt%, C :0.2wt%, N :0.2wt% with nonmagnetic single {gamma} phase, was selected as a candidate material. Here, physical properties and aging properties of VC9 were studied and the results were compared with those of 316L stainless steel. (author)

  1. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal

  2. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  3. Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive modelling of

  4. Mechanical property evaluation of natural fiber coir composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, S.; Michael, D. Peter; Bensely, A.; Lal, D. Mohan; Rajadurai, A.

    2009-01-01

    The fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural. Past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber-reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber-reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, coir composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Scanning electron micrographs obtained from fractured surfaces were used for a qualitative evaluation of the interfacial properties of coir/epoxy and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that coir can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites

  5. Evaluation of binding properties of Plantago psyllium seed mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ansoroudi, Farshad; Fallah, Saeed; Amin, Gholamreza

    2010-09-01

    Mucilage extracted from Plantago psyllium seeds was evaluated for inertness and safety parameters. The suitability of psyllium mucilage for a pharmaceutical binder was assessed in paracetamol tablets. Properties of the granules prepared using different concentrations of psyllium mucilage was compared with PVP and tragacanth. Psyllium mucilage at 5 % (m/m) was found to be comparable with 3 % (m/m) of PVP. Investigated paracetamol tablets indicated that psyllium mucilage can retard the drug release.

  6. Evaluation of Taste Properties of Commercially Available Salts

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIKAWA, Kyoko; SUGIMOTO, Maho; KUMAGAI, Masanori; MATSUNAGA, Ryuji

    2006-01-01

    This study examined commercially available salts'taste properties. The salts were used in preparation of four dishes: asazuke of cucumber, asazuke of Chinese cabbage, clear soup, and green soybean rice. The respective tastes of the salts in those prepared foods differed from those of the salts alone. We evaluated the parameters: saltiness, mildness, unpleasantness, and palatability. Differences of the salt samples affected the perception of saltiness. Results of taste sensor analyses showed t...

  7. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization.

  8. Evaluation of the tribological properties of DLC for engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, S D A; Fitzpatrick, M E; Hainsworth, S V

    2007-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are used in automotive engines for decreasing friction and increasing durability. There are many variants of DLC films which provide a wide range of mechanical, physical and tribological properties. The films can be extremely hard (>90 GPa), give low coefficients of friction against a number of counterfaces and exhibit low wear coefficients. The films are often considered to be chemically inert. The properties of DLC films depend to a large degree on the relative proportions of graphitically- (sp 2 ) and diamond-like (sp 3 )-bonded carbon but the inclusion of elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, silicon, tungsten, titanium, fluorine and sulphur can dramatically change their tribological response. Two different types of DLC, a WC/C amorphous hydrogenated DLC (WC/C a-C : H) coating and an amorphous hydrogenated DLC (a-C : H) have been investigated. The mechanical and tribological properties have been evaluated by nanoindentation, scratch and wear testing and friction testing in an instrumented cam-tappet testing rig. The deformation mechanisms and wear processes have been evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The results show that the harder a-C : H film was more wear resistant than the softer WC/C a-C : H film and performed better in the cam-tappet testing rig

  9. Reliability evaluation of thermophysical properties from first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Mauro; Fries, Suzana G; Dal Corso, Andrea; Kürmann, Fritz; Hickel, Tilmann; Neugebauer, Jürg

    2014-08-20

    Thermophysical properties, such as heat capacity, bulk modulus and thermal expansion, are of great importance for many technological applications and are traditionally determined experimentally. With the rapid development of computational methods, however, first-principles computed temperature-dependent data are nowadays accessible. We evaluate various computational realizations of such data in comparison to the experimental scatter. The work is focussed on the impact of different first-principles codes (QUANTUM ESPRESSO and VASP), pseudopotentials (ultrasoft and projector augmented wave) as well as phonon determination methods (linear response and direct force constant method) on these properties. Based on the analysis of data for two pure elements, Cr and Ni, consequences for the reliability of temperature-dependent first-principles data in computational thermodynamics are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of radiation-shielding properties of the composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.I.; Chekashina, N.I.; Yastrebinskij, R.N.; Sokolenko, I.V.; Noskov, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of radiation-shielding properties of composite materials with respect to gamma-radiation. As a binder for the synthesis of radiation-shielding composites we used lead boronsilicate glass matrix. As filler we used nanotubular chrysotile filled with lead tungstate PbWO4. It is shown that all the developed composites have good physical-mechanical characteristics, such as compressive strength, thermal stability and can be used as structural materials. On the basis of theoretical calculation we described the graphs of the gamma-quanta linear attenuation coefficient depending on the emitted energy for all investigated composites. We founded high radiation-shielding properties of all the composites on the basis of theoretical and experimental data compared to materials conventionally used in the nuclear industry - iron, concrete, etc

  11. Evaluation of wound healing properties of Arrabidaea chica Verlot extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; Madjarof, Cristiana; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca; Fernandes, Alik Teixeira; Ferreira Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre; de Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2008-08-13

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot. (Bignoniaceae), popularly known as Crajiru, has been traditionally used as wound healing agent. Investigate in vitro and in vivo healing properties of Arrabidaea chica leaves extract (AC). AC was evaluated in vitro in fibroblast growth stimulation (0.25-250 microg/mL) and collagen production stimulation (250 microg/mL) assays. Allantoin (0.25-250 microg/mL) and vitamin C (25 microg/mL) were used as controls respectively. DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteau assays were used for antioxidant evaluation, using trolox (0.25-250 microg/mL) as reference antioxidant. To study wound healing properties in rats, AC (100mg/mL, 200 microL/wound/day) was topically administered during 10 days and wound area was evaluated every day. Allantoin (100mg/mL, 200 microL/wound/day) was used as standard drug. After treatment, wound sites were removed for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination. AC stimulated fibroblast growth in a concentration dependent way (EC50=30 microg/mL), increased in vitro collagen production and demonstrated moderate antioxidant capacity. In vivo, AC reduced wound size in 96%, whereas saline group showed only 36% wound healing. AC efficiency seems to involve fibroblast growing stimulus and collagen synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, beyond moderate scavenging activity, corroborating Crajiru folk use.

  12. Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Sigita Boca; Ruta Galoburda; Inta Krasnova; Dalija Seglina; Aivars Aboltins; Imants Skrupskis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added...

  13. 75 FR 17412 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator AGENCY: National Cancer Institute (NCI), National... Evaluation Program (CTEP) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OPTION. The proposed policy, if finalized, would establish... recommended Intellectual Property Option and Institution Notification if they wish to be considered for...

  14. Quantitative evaluation about property of thin-film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huawei [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan) and School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University (China)]. E-mail: chen_hua_wei@yahoo.com; Hagiwara, Ichiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Huang Tian [Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University (China); Zhang Dawei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University (China)

    2006-03-15

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is gradually emphasized as one promising method for nanomaterial formation. Such growth mechanism has been mainly investigated on basis of experiment. Due to large cost of the equipment of experiment and low level of current measurement, the comprehension about authentic effect of formation condition on properties of nanomaterial is limited in qualitative manner. Three quantitative items: flatness of primary deposition, adhesion between cluster and substrate, and degree of epitaxial growth were proposed to evaluate the property of thin film. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000, 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Within one velocity range, not only the speed of epitaxial growth and adhesion between thin film and substrate were enhanced, but also the degree of epitaxy increased and the shape of thin film became more flat with velocity increasing. Moreover, the epitaxial growth became well as the temperature of substrate was raised within a certain range, and the degree of epitaxy of small cluster was larger than larger cluster. The results indicated that the property of thin film could be controlled if the effect of situations of process was made clear.

  15. Quantitative evaluation about property of thin-film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huawei; Hagiwara, Ichiro; Huang Tian; Zhang Dawei

    2006-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is gradually emphasized as one promising method for nanomaterial formation. Such growth mechanism has been mainly investigated on basis of experiment. Due to large cost of the equipment of experiment and low level of current measurement, the comprehension about authentic effect of formation condition on properties of nanomaterial is limited in qualitative manner. Three quantitative items: flatness of primary deposition, adhesion between cluster and substrate, and degree of epitaxial growth were proposed to evaluate the property of thin film. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000, 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Within one velocity range, not only the speed of epitaxial growth and adhesion between thin film and substrate were enhanced, but also the degree of epitaxy increased and the shape of thin film became more flat with velocity increasing. Moreover, the epitaxial growth became well as the temperature of substrate was raised within a certain range, and the degree of epitaxy of small cluster was larger than larger cluster. The results indicated that the property of thin film could be controlled if the effect of situations of process was made clear

  16. 76 FR 13404 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Option to Collaborator AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National... Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program's Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator. [[Page 13405... Evaluation Program (CTEP)'s Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator. The proposed revision represents a...

  17. Evaluation of nutraceutical properties of selected small millets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B Raghavendra; Nagasampige, Manojkumar H; Ravikiran, M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutraceutical properties and nutritional value of grains of four selected small millets viz. finger millet, foxtail millet, prosomillet and khodomillet. The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals viz. phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins present in the four small millets was done. The water-soluble proteins, crude fiber content and the reducing power of the grains of these four millets were analyzed. The khodomillet showed maximum phenolic content (10.3%) and foxtail millet showed minimum phenolics (2.5%). As far as reducing capacity was concerned, finger millet was highest (5.7%). The prosomillet showed least reducing property (2.6%). The finger millet (391.3 mg/g each) showed maximum reducing sugar content. The prosomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (195 mg/g). The foxtail millet showed maximum protein content (305.76 mg/g) and prosomillet showed minimum protein content (144.23 mg/g). The khodomillet showed maximum crude fiber content (14.3%).The finger millet showed maximum reducing sugar content (391.3 mg/g) whereas, the khodomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (130.43 mg/g).

  18. Evaluation of nutraceutical properties of selected small millets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raghavendra Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutraceutical properties and nutritional value of grains of four selected small millets viz. finger millet, foxtail millet, prosomillet and khodomillet. Materials and Methods: The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals viz. phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins present in the four small millets was done. The water-soluble proteins, crude fiber content and the reducing power of the grains of these four millets were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: The khodomillet showed maximum phenolic content (10.3% and foxtail millet showed minimum phenolics (2.5%. As far as reducing capacity was concerned, finger millet was highest (5.7%. The prosomillet showed least reducing property (2.6%. The finger millet (391.3 mg/g each showed maximum reducing sugar content. The prosomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (195 mg/g. The foxtail millet showed maximum protein content (305.76 mg/g and prosomillet showed minimum protein content (144.23 mg/g. The khodomillet showed maximum crude fiber content (14.3%.The finger millet showed maximum reducing sugar content (391.3 mg/g whereas, the khodomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (130.43 mg/g.

  19. Forming properties and springback evaluation of copper beryllium sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, A.A.; Jen, K.P.; Chen, T.C.; Kondetimmamhalli, R.

    1995-01-01

    Copper beryllium (CuBe) alloys possess excellent strength and conductivity. They have become the most important materials used for producing high reliability connectors and interconnections for electrical and electronic applications. As demand for high connection density in electrical and electronic products grows, springback behaviors become increasingly critical in fabricating these miniaturized contact components from sheet base materials. In the present article, a study of the springback behavior of CuBe sheets under different heat treatments is presented, with the goal of providing reliable information needed for fabricating more intricate connection parts. Both experimental and analytical techniques were adopted. The tensile tester was first used to study the springback related tensile properties. The governing tensile parameters on springback were identified, and their variations for sheets with different heat treatments were studied. It was found that a bilinear constitutive relationship can be characterize the stress strain behavior of the CuBe alloy. A closed form solution based on this bilinear relationship was formulated to predict the springback for the CuBe sheets at bending conditions. A V-shaped bend tester having an interchangeable punch to accommodate multiple radii was designed and built to evaluate the springback properties of CuBe sheets. A good correlation was found between the analytical predictions and experimental data. A parametric study, as an example, was also performed to provide the springback information needed for designing complicated connectors

  20. Evaluation of spent fuel properties from a conceptual PEACER core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Yong; Kim, Myung Hyun; Kim, Chang Hyo; Hwang, Il Soon

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a new conceptual core design, PEACER was evaluated in aspect of core performance and spent fuel properties. The core shape is like a pancake to increase axial neutron leakage. Square lattice array was applied which was suitable to decrease the flow speed of Pb-Bi coolant. Although over 30% TRU produced by pyroprocessing was loaded in U-Zr metal fuel, the cycle length of 1 year was achieved and the relative assembly power peaking was less than 1.3. In order to confirm nuclear performance of PEACER core design, several performance indices were adopted and developed. Simple indices such as FIR and FG were used to evaluate fissile breeding. BCM, TG, SNS, and OR calculated by plutonium composition vectors were chosen to distinguish the competency of proliferation resistance. For the estimation of transmutation capability, D-value and extended effective fission half-life time(T EX ) were used. According to these indices, the PEACER core had the better performance compared with other conventional reactor cores although fissile breeding was not acquired

  1. Evaluation of Lactobacillus strains for selected probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turková, Kristýna; Mavrič, Anja; Narat, Mojca; Rittich, Bohuslav; Spanová, Alena; Rogelj, Irena; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič

    2013-07-01

    Eleven strains of Lactobacillus collected in the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms (CCDM) were evaluated for selected probiotic properties such as survival in gastrointestinal fluids, antimicrobial activity, and competition with non-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 for adhesion on Caco-2 cells. The viable count of lactobacilli was reduced during 3-h incubation in gastric fluid followed by 3-h incubation in intestinal fluid. All strains showed antimicrobial activity and the three most effective strains inhibited the growth of at least 16 indicator strains. Antimicrobial metabolites of seven strains active against Lactobacillus and Clostridium indicator strains were found to be sensitive to proteinase K and trypsin, which indicates their proteinaceous nature. The degree of competitive inhibition of non-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 adhesion on the surface of Caco-2 cells was strain-dependent. A significant decrease (P strains were selected for additional studies of antimicrobial activity, i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri CCDM 215, Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 149, and Lactobacillus helveticus CCDM 82.

  2. Noninvasive evaluation of the barrier properties of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin as an organ of protection covers the body and accomplishes multiple defensive functions. The intact skin represents a barrier to the uncontrolled loss of water, proteins, and plasma components from the organism. Due to its complex structure, the epidermal barrier with its major component, stratum corneum, is the rate-limiting unit for the penetration of exogenous substances through the skin. The epidermal barrier is not a static structure. The permeability barrier status can be modified by different external and internal factors such as climate, physical stressors, and a number of skin and systemic diseases. Today, different non-invasive approaches are used to monitor the skin barrier physical properties in vivo. The quantification of parameters such as transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface acidity is essential for the integral evaluation of the epidermal barrier status. This paper will allow the readership to get acquainted with the non-invasive, in vivo methods for the investigation of the skin barrier.

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives Containing Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiei F

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Secondary dental caries is a common clinical finding in composite restoration. The development of a bactericidal dental adhesive provides a promising method to reduce the risk of secondary caries. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of silver (Ag and titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles incorporated into an experimental dentin bonding agent formulation. Materials and Methods: Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 wt% concentrations were incorporated into the adhesives. The suspensions were sonicated to ensure homogenous dispersion of nanoparticles in the adhesive system. Formulation was composed of acetone, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxyphenyl]propane (Bis-GMA, 1,6-bis-[2-methacryloyloxyethyl carbonyl amino]-2,4,4-trimethylhexane (UDMA, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, and photoinitiator, with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as the stabilizer. We counted the colony-forming units (CFU% of two cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus, that were exposed to the powdered light cured adhesive specimens. The effects of various concentrations of each nanoparticle were compared by one-way ANOVA, followed by the post hoc Bonferroni test. Results: All samples exhibited definite antibacterial activity (P<0.05 compared to the control specimens. The Ag nanoparticle samples showed higher antibacterial properties compared to the TiO2 nanoparticle samples. Increasing the concentration of nanoparticles resulted in significant differences in bactericidal properties, with the exception of 0.2 to 0.5 wt% Ag nanoparticle specimens exposed to S. mutans and the 0.2 to 0.5 wt% TiO2 nanoparticle specimens exposed to L. acidophilus. Conclusions: These metal-based nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent bactericidal activities. The Ag nanoparticles had higher antibacterial activity compared to the

  4. Evaluation and Future Direction of Intellectual Property Strategy - Setting out a new intellectual property policy - (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KUGAI Takashi

    2010-01-01

    1. An intellectual property strategy is a policy aimed at improving the international competitiveness of industry and reinvigorating the economy through the creation, protection, and greater use of intellectual property. 2. The realization of IP policies conventionally considered difficult to implement and greater awareness of intellectual property at all levels of society, as demonstrated the establishment of Intellectual Property High Courts that exclusively and solely handle intellectual p...

  5. Quantitative clinical evaluation of esthetic properties of incisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Feilzer, A.J.; Devigus, A.; Krejci, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To match perfectly the optical properties of natural teeth, a scientific approach is needed by using digital technology that excludes bias to quantitatively characterize the optical properties of populations’ teeth. The aim of this article is to present a method for a detailed clinical

  6. Evaluation on mechanical properties of woven aloevera and sisal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    behaviour of this composite is observed to be more effec- tive.5 The fibre .... been made to study the mechanical properties of woven aloevera and ... In each case, minimum of ... tions in automotive components, structures and consumer goods.

  7. An Evaluation of Users' Satisfaction with Property Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customer or user satisfaction is an overall attitude regarding a good or service ... that influence users' satisfaction with management of commercial properties. ... attention and value to teh performance measurement of users' satisfaction so as ...

  8. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  9. Evaluation of powder and tableting properties of chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M.; Brink, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the process of tablet formation and the properties of the resulting tablets for 3 N-deacetylated chitosans, with a degree of deacetylation of 80%, 85%, or 90%. Material properties, such as water content, particle size and morphology, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight were studied. The process of tablet formation was analyzed by 3-D modeling, Heckel analysis, the pressure time function, and energy calculations in combination with elastic re...

  10. Evaluation of properties of low activation Mn-Cr steel. 3. Evaluation of corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Nihon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sato, Ikuo; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Hatakeyama, Takeshi [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan). Muroran Plant; Takahashi, Heishichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-05-01

    JAERI and the Japan Steel Works LTD. (JSW) have developed new Mn-Cr steels as low induced activation material. Until now, chemical composition and metallurgical processes were optimized and some steels named VC-series were selected. The properties of the steels have been evaluated and reported elsewhere. In this study, corrosion resistance of VC-series was studied. Corrosion tests for stainless steels were performed to investigate a relationship between corrosion rate and chemical composition or sensitization. Furthermore, corrosion tests under actual environment for the vacuum vessel of the reinforced JT-60 were done for non-magnetic steels. As a result, almost no weight change was observed for uniform and gap corrosion tests, No crack was shown for double U-bend corrosion tests. (author)

  11. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the results on the properties of cementitious waste forms obtained as part of the International Program. In particular, this report focuses on the results of Task 4 of the Program that was initially entitled ''Improved Retention of Key Contaminants of Concern in Low Temperature Immobilized Waste Forms''. Task 4 was a joint program between Khlopin Radium Institute and the Savannah River National Laboratory. The task evolved during this period into a study of cementitious waste forms with an expanded scope that included heat of hydration and fate and transport modeling. This report provides the results for Task 4 of the International Program as of the end of FY06 at which time funding for Task 4 was discontinued due to the needs of higher priority tasks within the International Program. Consequently, some of the subtasks were only partially completed, but it was considered important to capture the results up to this point in time. Therefore, this report serves as the closeout report for Task 4. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 within the Saltstone waste form was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.8 x 10 -12 (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol which is comparable with values obtained for tank closure grouts using a dilute salt solution. The leaching results show that, in the presence of concentrated salt solutions such as those that will be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. Leaching tests were also initiated to determine the degree of immobilization of selenium in the Saltstone waste form. Results were obtained for the upper bound of projected selenium concentration (∼5 x 10 -3 M) in the salt solution that will be treated at Saltstone. The ANSI/ANS 16.1 leaching tests provided a value for the effective diffusivity of ∼5 x 10

  12. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  13. Consistent creep and rupture properties for creep-fatigue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The currently accepted practice of using inconsistent representations of creep and rupture behaviors in the prediction of creep-fatigue life is shown to introduce a factor of safety beyond that specified in current ASME Code design rules for 304 stainless steel Class 1 nuclear components. Accurate predictions of creep-fatigue life for uniaxial tests on a given heat of material are obtained by using creep and rupture properties for that same heat of material. The use of a consistent representation of creep and rupture properties for a mininum strength heat is also shown to provide adequate predictions. The viability of using consistent properties (either actual or those of a minimum heat) to predict creep-fatigue life thus identifies significant design uses for the results of characterization tests and improved creep and rupture correlations

  14. Consistent creep and rupture properties for creep-fatigue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    The currently accepted practice of using inconsistent representations of creep and rupture behaviors in the prediction of creep-fatigue life is shown to introduce a factor of safety beyond that specified in current ASME Code design rules for 304 stainless steel Class 1 nuclear components. Accurate predictions of creep-fatigue life for uniaxial tests on a given heat of material are obtained by using creep and rupture properties for that same heat of material. The use of a consistent representation of creep and rupture properties for a minimum strength heat is also shown to provide reasonable predictions. The viability of using consistent properties (either actual or those of a minimum strength heat) to predict creep-fatigue life thus identifies significant design uses for the results of characterization tests and improved creep and rupture correlations. 12 refs

  15. Evaluation of bioadhesive properties of natural and modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    The bioadhesive property of the starches were not related to the viscosity as the pregelatinised starch ... controlled drug delivery system to improve buccal, nasal and oral ... ceramic tiles and dried in the oven for 24 h at. 100 °C. The dried ...

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Some Properties of Native and Oxidized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to produce native starches from cassava, yam and rice, and to modify a portion of the native starches by oxidation and compare their properties. The modification process was carried out by treating the native starches with food grade sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The proximate, swelling index and ...

  17. Experimental evaluation of mechanical properties of softwood using acoustic methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tippner, J.; Hrivnák, J.; Kloiber, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), s. 503-518 ISSN 1930-2126 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV001 Keywords : non destructive testing * Norway spruce * Scots pine * Silver fir * sound speed * strength * stress wave Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2016 http://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_11_1_503_Tippner_Mechanical_Properties_Acoustic_Methods/4018

  18. Evaluation of properties over phylogenetic trees using stochastic logics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

    2016-06-14

    Model checking has been recently introduced as an integrated framework for extracting information of the phylogenetic trees using temporal logics as a querying language, an extension of modal logics that imposes restrictions of a boolean formula along a path of events. The phylogenetic tree is considered a transition system modeling the evolution as a sequence of genomic mutations (we understand mutation as different ways that DNA can be changed), while this kind of logics are suitable for traversing it in a strict and exhaustive way. Given a biological property that we desire to inspect over the phylogeny, the verifier returns true if the specification is satisfied or a counterexample that falsifies it. However, this approach has been only considered over qualitative aspects of the phylogeny. In this paper, we repair the limitations of the previous framework for including and handling quantitative information such as explicit time or probability. To this end, we apply current probabilistic continuous-time extensions of model checking to phylogenetics. We reinterpret a catalog of qualitative properties in a numerical way, and we also present new properties that couldn't be analyzed before. For instance, we obtain the likelihood of a tree topology according to a mutation model. As case of study, we analyze several phylogenies in order to obtain the maximum likelihood with the model checking tool PRISM. In addition, we have adapted the software for optimizing the computation of maximum likelihoods. We have shown that probabilistic model checking is a competitive framework for describing and analyzing quantitative properties over phylogenetic trees. This formalism adds soundness and readability to the definition of models and specifications. Besides, the existence of model checking tools hides the underlying technology, omitting the extension, upgrade, debugging and maintenance of a software tool to the biologists. A set of benchmarks justify the feasibility of our

  19. Thermal degradation of ethanolic biodiesel: Physicochemical and thermal properties evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wellington Costa; Castro, Maria Priscila Pessanha; Perez, Victor Haber; Machado, Francisco A.; Mota, Leonardo; Sthel, Marcelo Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the thermal degradation of soybean biodiesel attained by ethanolic route. The soybean biodiesel samples were subjected to heating treatment at 150 °C for 24 h in a closed oven under controlled atmosphere. During the experiments, samples were withdrawn at intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 24 h for physicochemical and thermophysical properties analysis. The biodiesel degradation was validated by Thermogravimetric analysis since their profiles for control and treated biodiesel were different. Also, "1H NMR confirmed this result due to a significant reduction at the signals related to the "1H located near to the double bonds in the unsaturated ethyl esters in agreement with an iodine index reduction and viscosity increase observed during degradation. Nevertheless, degraded biodiesel, under study conditions, preserved its thermophysical properties. These results may be relevant to qualify the produced biodiesel quality and collect physicochemical and thermophysical data important for applications in combustion studies including project of fuel injection systems. - Highlights: • Soybean biodiesel from ethanolic route was subjected to thermal degradation to verify its stability. • Thermal degradation of biodiesel was correlated with physicochemical properties. • Thermal effusivity, diffusivity and conductivity were estimate by photothermal techniques.

  20. An Experimental Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kumar, A.; Ganesan, G.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanical properties of unidirectional hybrid reinforcements formed from continuous fibres impregnated with a fibre binding material which are used for reinforcing the concrete. Recently FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) manufacturers and suppliers have been increased all over the world because of the superior performance of FRP products in the construction industry. Its non-corrosive nature has turned the attention of many researchers to make several studies on different type of FRP products. Through a vast research, several standards also have been formulated. In this regard a new combination of FRP materials is tried in this paper and its properties have been derived. Carbon fibre and glass fibres fuse in this study to form a new hybrid rebar. The design properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, and compressive strength have been studied as per ASTM standards and it has been identified that the Hybrid rebar show a superior performance in comparison with GFRP (Glass FRP) and Steel rebars. This extraordinary performance of hybrid composite material increases the extensive engineering applications such as transport industry, aeronautics, naval, automotive industries.

  1. Using network properties to evaluate targeted immunization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Shams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunization of complex network with minimal or limited budget is a challenging issue for research community. In spite of much literature in network immunization, no comprehensive research has been conducted for evaluation and comparison of immunization algorithms. In this paper, we propose an evaluation framework for immunization algorithms regarding available amount of vaccination resources, goal of immunization program, and time complexity. The evaluation framework is designed based on network topological metrics which is extensible to all epidemic spreading model. Exploiting evaluation framework on well-known targeted immunization algorithms shows that in general, immunization based on PageRank centrality outperforms other targeting strategies in various types of networks, whereas, closeness and eigenvector centrality exhibit the worst case performance.

  2. Evaluation of the coal properties of Norte de Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Project Characterization of Coal of Norte de Santander, concluded in the second semester of 1986 with the presentation of the 4 final reports of the participant entities: Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Bogota, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Instituto de Investigaciones Technologicas (I.I.T.), and Instituto de Investigaciones geologico Mineras - INGEOMINAS. In each Institution some common aspects were worked - analytic part and other specific topics, that which believes the necessity to develop a study that unified the parts worked jointly with the elaboration of a new chart of data, and it allowed this way to assemble the analytic base with the studies of some technological properties and of benefit. Initially it is made a summary of the most excellent aspects in the Geology, mining and Commercialization of the Coal of the department and later on with reference to all the available analytic information, new data were obtained with base in averages among Institutions, checkups of differing results, correlate and discard of rusty samples. For the chemical and physicochemical analyses, the plastic properties, the petrographic results, the chemical analysis of the ashes, they were made statistical and correlative new treatment discriminating against the different sectors and formations inside the area (the Formation Catatumbo was excepted). For the analyses more used as range indicators and others of quality were carried out three-dimensional graphic that summarize in a visual form the variation of the parameter through the study area and the sectors inside this being obtained the iso-values curves equally. The study of some properties of the coal related with technological processes like coking, liquefaction and of benefit they supplement the analytic characterization being able to obtain several practical conclusions as for the use of these coal and remarking some concrete problems to solve with the objective of improving the quality of the

  3. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L.

    2015-01-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  4. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  5. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was initiated with the objective of investigating the use of improved sweet potato variety namely, Adu for bread production by combining with wheat flour. The experiment was carried out in a completely Randomized Design with three replications. The sweet potato variety was evaluated in five blending ratios of ...

  6. Good Evaluation Measures: More than Their Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Beth C.; Silver, Diana

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, we examine Braverman's insights into the trade-offs between feasibility and rigor in evaluation measures and reject his assessment of the trade-off as a zero-sum game. We, argue that feasibility and policy salience are, like reliability and validity, intrinsic to the definition of a good measure. To reduce the tension between…

  7. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  8. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calamine suspensions were formulated with CAG between the concentration range of 1 – 4 % w/v and compared with suspensions formulated with two standard suspending agents (tragacanth and acacia gums). Sedimentation volume, flow rate, rheology and redispersibility were used as evaluating parameters.

  9. Evaluating mechanical properties and degradation of YTZP dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, Pablo; Sandino, Clara; Arciniegas, Milena; Martinez-Gomis, Jordi; Peraire, Maria; Gil, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Lately new biomedical grade yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) dental implants have appeared in the implantology market. This material has better aesthetical properties than conventional titanium used for implants but long term behaviour of these new implants is not yet well known. The aim of this paper is to quantify the mechanical response of YTZP dental implants previously degraded under different time conditions and compare the toughness and fatigue strength with titanium implants. Mechanical response has been studied by means of mechanical testing following the ISO 14801 for Standards for dental implants and by finite element analysis. Accelerated hydrothermal degradation has been achieved by means of water vapour and studied by X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation tests. The results show that the degradation suffered by YTZP dental implants will not have a significant effect on the mechanical behaviour. Otherwise the fracture toughness of YTZP ceramics is still insufficient in certain implantation conditions.

  10. Alveoconsistograph evaluation of rheological properties of rye doughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejo, M. J.; Bujeda, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Chaya, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of rye flour on the rheological properties of doughs. Rye meals of two different extraction rate (65% and 85%) were blended in different proportions with wheat flours. The viscoelastic behaviour of the sample blends was determined by a Chopin alveograph. The effect of rye flour on dough rheology during mixing was determined by a Chopin consistograph. It was found that Chopin Consistograph methodology was not suitable for determining water absorption capacity in blends with rye. It has been confirmed that adjustment of dough hydration in baked products incorporating rye flour must be taken into account, depending not only on the wheat-to-rye ratio but also on the rye meals extraction rate. (Author) 35 refs.

  11. Evaluation of the Antiradical Properties of Phenolic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, Olga; Torkova, Anna; Nikolaev, Ilya; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Tatyana; Tsentalovich, Mikhail; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity (AOC) against peroxyl radical and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation was measured for a series of p-hydroxybenzoic (HB) and p-hydroxycinnamic (HC) acids at different pH. Quantum-chemical computation was performed using Gaussian 3.0 software package to calculate the geometry and energy parameters of the same compounds. Significant correlations were revealed between AOC and a number of calculated parameters. The most significant AOC descriptors for the studied compounds against peroxyl radical were found to be HOMO energy, rigidity (η) and Mulliken charge on the carbon atom in m-position to the phenolic hydroxyl. The most significant descriptor of the antioxidant properties against the ABTS radical cation at pH 7.40 is electron transfer enthalpy from the phenolate ion. The mechanism of AOC realization has been proposed for HB and HC acids against both radicals. PMID:25229820

  12. Evaluating mechanical properties of hybrid laser arc girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pussegoda, L. N.; Begg, D.; Holdstock, R.; Jodoin, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd Techonology, Kanata, ON, (Canada); Ligh, K.; Rondeau, D. [Appliead Thermal Sciences Inc., Sanford, ME, (United States); Hansen, E. [ESAB, Florence, SC, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) is a promising new process for making girth welds on steel pipelines. This study investigated the mechanical properties of overmatched X80 and X100 pipeline steel girth welds made using the HLAW process. The testing of this process was conducted on NPS36 pipes of 10.4 mm and 14.3 mm thickness, respectively. Various weld positions were produced on X80 and X100 pipes. Laser inspection data were collected during the whole welding process. Also standard tests for girth welds, Charpy V-notch impact tests, CTOD tests, all weld metal (AWM) tension tests, were carried out. The results showed that the fracture transition temperature is higher at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions than at the 9 and 12 o'clock positions. The effect of clock position on fracture toughness is currently being explored; a modified CTOD has been developed to reduce the possibility of crack deviation.

  13. Evaluating non-stick properties of different surface materials for contact frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate non-stick and cleaning properties of the coatings. In accordance with industry standards pancake was selected as the food model for the non-stick properties. The performance of different frying surfaces (stainless steel, aluminium, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and three ceramic coatings with two...... on their non-stick properties, so that the smoother surfaces gave a higher force of adhesion between pancake and surface....

  14. Non-destructive system to evaluate critical properties of asphalt compaction : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Wisconsin Highway Research Program sponsored a two-stage investigation to develop a non-destructive system to evaluate critical compaction properties and characteristics of asphalt pavements during the densification process. Stage One activities ...

  15. Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fructiosa extracts in Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Mulder, E.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis (as a reference) extracts were evaluated in Dutch style fermented sausages. Extracts were incorporated into sausages during preparation. The sausages were subsequently fermented, tested and compared to

  16. Evaluation Policy Alternatives for the Reengineering of the Department of Defense Personal Property Shipment and Storage Program - A Stakeholder Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lepson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...) to evaluate the personal property pilot programs as part of Management Reform Memorandum # 6. This thesis evaluates the policy alternatives for reengineering the DOD personal property program using a stakeholder approach...

  17. Tribological properties of ceramics evaluated at low sliding speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Kano, Shigeki

    1998-03-01

    Low speed tribological properties of stainless steel, ceramics and hard metals were investigated in air at room temperature and in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature for the consideration of sliding type support structure in intermediate heat exchanger of fast reactor. The following results are obtained. (1) In low speed friction measurements in air at room temperature, friction coefficients of ceramics and hard metals were smaller than that of stainless steel. Surface roughness of the specimens increased the friction force and silicon carbide showed the smallest friction coefficient among the specimens with mirror polished surface. (2) From the results of friction measurements at various sliding speeds in air at room temperature, friction coefficients of ceramics and hard metals were always stable and lower than that of stainless steel. Among ceramics, PSZ showed the smallest friction and silicon carbide showed the most stable friction at any sliding speeds. (3) Friction coefficients of silicon carbide and silicon nitride in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature showed low values as measured at room temperature. On the contrary, friction coefficient of stainless steel measured in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature were higher than that measured at room temperature, over 1. (4) In the reciprocal sliding tests in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature, friction coefficient of stainless steel were over 1. On the contrary, the friction coefficients of ceramics were less than 1 instead of chipping during the slidings. (author)

  18. A comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of nanofibrous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubun, German P.; Bessudnova, Nadezda O.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration or replacement of lost or damaged hard tooth tissues remain a reconstructive clinical dentistry challenge. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of novel concepts and methodologies of tissue engineering for the synthesis of three-dimensional graft constructs that are equivalent to original organs and tissues. This structural and functional compatibility can be reached by producing ultra-thin polymer filament scaffolds. This research aims through a series of studies to examine different methods of polymer filament material special preparation and test mechanical properties of the produced materials subjected to a tensile strain. Nanofibrous material preparation using chemically pure acetone and mixtures of ethanol/water has shown no significant changes in sample surface morphology. The high temperature impact on material morphology has resulted in the modification of fiber structure. In the course of mechanical tests it has been revealed the dependence of the material strength on the spinning solution compositions. The results achieved point to the possibility to develop nanofibrous materials with required parameters changing the methodology of spinning solution production.

  19. Evaluation of approaches for improving diesel cold flow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, Ilshat; Stratiev, Dicho; Dinkov, Rossen [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Bachvarov, Assen [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Petkov, Petko [Bourgas Univ. ' ' Assen Zlatarov' ' (Bulgaria)

    2012-06-15

    Four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 420 C), one lower boilingmiddle distillate fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 310 C) and kerosene fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 271 C) obtained from the Lukoil Neftochim Burgas (LNB) process units during the processing of Russian Export Crude Blend (REBCO) along with four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 370 C) obtained by fractionation of four crudes: Oil Blend, REBCO, Siberian Light Crude Oil (SLCO) and CPC (Caspian Consortium Pipeline) were investigated for their cold flow properties. It was found that undercutting diesel improves cloud point (CP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) by 4 C/10 C cut point. Blending of kerosene improves CP and CFPP by about 2 C/10% added kerosene. The treatment with CP depressants may improve CP by about 2 C if the proper combination diesel - depressant is selected and the improvement can reach up to 6 C for a definite diesel. The treatment with CFPP depressant is much more efficient achieving an improvement of 18 C. By assuming definite fuel prices (Platts) and by applying the LNB linear programming model using Honeywell's RPMS software it was found that catalytic dewaxing is the most efficient approach for producing diesel with improved cold flowproperties if the diesel yield from the dewaxing process is higher than 90%. (orig.)

  20. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J MUSA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

  2. Review of Micro/Nano Nondestructive Evaluation Technique (II): Measurement of Acoustic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Seok; Park, Ik Keun

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews the micro and nano nondestructive evaluation(NDE) technique that is possible to investigate the surface and measure the acoustic properties. The technical theory, features and applications of the ultrasonic atomic force microscopy(UAFM) and scanning acoustic microscopy(SAM) are illustrated. Especially, these technologies are possible to evaluate the mechanical properties in micro/nano structure and surface through the measurement of acoustic properties in addition to the observation of surface and subsurface. Consequently, it is thought that technique developments and applications of these micro/nano NDE in advanced industrial parts together with present nondestructive industry are widely possible hereafter.

  3. Models of evaluation of public joint-stock property management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupova, N. M.; Levachkova, S.; Absalyamova, S. G.; Kvon, G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with the models of evaluation of performance of both the management company and the individual subsidiaries on the basis of a combination of elements and multi-parameter and target approaches. The article shows that due to the power of multi-dimensional and multi-directional indicators of financial and economic activity it is necessary to assess the degree of achievement of the objectives with the use of multivariate ordinal model as a set of indicators, ordered by growth so that the maintenance of this order on a long interval of time will ensure the effective functioning of the enterprise in the long term. It is shown that these models can be regarded as the monitoring tools of implementation of strategies and guide the justification effectiveness of implementation of management decisions.

  4. EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXIC, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES FROM THE LATEX OF IPOMEA STAPHYLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanthi Narra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Ipomoea staphylina has been used in diverse traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and illness of human beings. The crude latex extract obtained from the stem of Ipomea staphylina was evaluated for cytotoxic, antimicrobial and wound healing properties. Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays such as Colony Formation method and Enzyme based methods that determined cell viability with a colorimetric method were performed to evaluate the medicinal properties of Ipomea staphylina. Similarly Microbiological Antibiotic Assay to determine the antimicrobial properties and wound healing properties were tested by determining the potent anti-inflammatory molecules that inhibited COX and LOX enzymes. Results showed that the latex crude extract of Ipomea staphylina showed potent Antimicrobial and Antiinflamatory properties, but the viability of the cells were unaffected.

  5. Evaluation of electric properties of cement mortars containing pozzolans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the evolution of the microstructure of Portland cement mortar is analyzed, by using electrical impedance measurements. Cement mortars are compared without and with two pozzolanic substitutions: spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC and metakaolin (MK. The measurement method is described and the model for analyzing the electrical impedance spectra is developed. Three electrical parameters are defined: electrical resistivity, capacitance exponent, and capacitive factor. The results show a significant increase in resistivity of the mortars with pozzolans after 7 days of curing, especially in mortars with MK. This increase is correlated with lime-fixing by the pozzolans. The capacitive properties evolve differently at early age, but reach the same values after 148 days. The electrical and mineralogical data show that the evolution of the microstructure in the mortar with MK starts before it does in the mortars with FCC and that the final microstructure becomes different.

    En este trabajo se analiza la microestructura de morteros de cemento Portland, mediante medidas de impedancia eléctrica. Se comparan morteros de cemento sin y con dos sustituciones puzolánicas: residuo de catalizador de craqueo catalítico (FCC y metacaolín (MK. Se describe el método de medida y se desarrolla el modelo de análisis de los espectros de impedancia eléctrica. Se definen tres parámetros eléctricos: resistividad eléctrica, exponente capacitivo, y factor capacitivo. Se observa un aumento importante de la resistividad de los morteros con puzolana a partir de los 7 días de curado, sobre todo en morteros con MK. Este aumento está correlacionado con la fijación de cal de las puzolanas. Las propiedades capacitivas son diferentes a edad temprana, pero se igualan a los 148 días. Los resultados eléctricos y mineralógicos muestran que la evolución microestructural comienza antes en los morteros con MK que con FCC y que la microestructura

  6. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  7. Evaluation of the imaging properties of Microwave Imaging Reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, I; Lee, W; Leem, J; Nam, Y; Kim, M; Yun, G S; Park, H K; Domier, C W; Jr, N C Luhmann

    2012-01-01

    Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) has been developed for unambiguous measurement of electron density fluctuations in fusion plasmas. The loss of phase information limiting the use of conventional reflectometry can be minimized by a large aperture imaging optics and an array of detectors in the MIR embodiment. The evaluation of the optical system is critical for precise reconstruction of the fluctuations. The optical systems of the prototype TEXTOR MIR [2] and newly-designed KSTAR MIR [5] systems have been tested with a corrugated target simulating density fluctuations at the cut-off surface. The reconstructed phase from the MIR system has been compared to the directly measured phase of corrugations taking into account the rotational speed of the target. The effects of optical aberrations and interference between lenses on the phase reconstruction have been investigated by the 2D amplitude measurement of the reflected waves and the diffraction-based optical simulations. (CODE V) A preliminary design of the KSTAR MIR optics has been suggested which can minimize the aberration and interference effects.

  8. Non-parametric probabilistic forecasts of wind power: required properties and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2007-01-01

    of a single or a set of quantile forecasts. The required and desirable properties of such probabilistic forecasts are defined and a framework for their evaluation is proposed. This framework is applied for evaluating the quality of two statistical methods producing full predictive distributions from point...

  9. Evaluation of properties of low activation Mn-Cr steel. 1. Mechanical properties and weldability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sato, Ikuo; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Hatakeyama, Takeshi; Takahashi, Heishichiro; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    1999-10-01

    In JAERI, JT-60SU (Super Upgrade) program is discussed. In the design optimization activity of JT-60SU, it is required for vacuum vessel material to be highly strong, low activated and nonmagnetic. However, there is no suitable material to fulfill all the requirements. Therefore, JAERI started to develop a new material for vacuum vessel together with The Japan Steel Works LTD. (JSW). Chemical composition and production processes were optimized and a new Mn-Cr steel named VC9 with a non-magnetic single {gamma} phase was selected as a candidate material for vacuum vessel of JT-60SU. In this study, characterization of mechanical properties and weldability of VC9 were studied and the results were compared with those of 316L stainless steel. (author)

  10. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at {sup 6}0{sup C}o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  11. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at 6 0 C o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  12. Nondestructive/in-situ evaluation of the tensile properties in industrial facilities using indentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jae Il; Choi, Yeol; Son, Dong Il; Kwon, Dong Il

    2001-01-01

    Exact reliability evaluation and lifetime prediction through the in-field diagnosis of materials properties is needed for safe usage of degraded industrial structures. But, conventional standard testing methods having destructive procedures are not applicable to in-field assessment of mechanical property. Therefore, an advanced indentation technique was proposed for simple and non-destructive testing of in-field structures and for selected testing of local range such as heat affected zone and weldment. This test measures indentation load-depth curve during indentation and analyzes the mechanical properties related to deformation and fracture. First of all, flow properties such as yield strength, tensile strength and work hardening index can be evaluated through the analysis of the deformation behavior beneath the spherical indenter. Additionally, case studies of advanced indentation techniques are introduced.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. ...

  14. Numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of a potential energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, E La; Sciortino, F; Tartaglia, P; Michele, C De; Mossa, S

    2003-01-01

    The techniques which allow the numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of the potential energy landscape for models of simple liquids are reviewed and critically discussed. Expressions for the liquid free energy and its vibrational and configurational components are reported. Finally, a possible model for the statistical properties of the landscape, which appears to describe correctly fragile liquids in the region where equilibrium simulations are feasible, is discussed

  15. Evaluation of the basic mechanical and thermal properties of deep crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Jeon, Seok Won

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the mechanical and thermal properties of granitic intact rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are the basic material properties of the core samples from the boreholes drilled up to 500 m depth at the Yusung and Kosung sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. In this study, the mechanical properties include density, porosity, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, and shear strength of fractures, and the thermal properties are heat conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and so on. Those properties were measured through laboratory tests and these data are compared with the existing test results of several domestic rocks

  16. Evaluation of the basic mechanical and thermal properties of deep crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Jeon, Seok Won

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the mechanical and thermal properties of granitic intact rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are the basic material properties of the core samples from the boreholes drilled up to 500 m depth at the Yusung and Kosung sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. In this study, the mechanical properties include density, porosity, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, and shear strength of fractures, and the thermal properties are heat conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and so on. Those properties were measured through laboratory tests and these data are compared with the existing test results of several domestic rocks.

  17. Evaluation of the 2039 keV level property in {sup 124}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakura, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    One of the purposes of the mass chain evaluation is to provide reliable level properties of isobars based on available experimental data. In the work of A=124 mass chain evaluation, we have faced some confusing data relating to confirming the level properties of the 2039 keV level in {sup 124}Te: (1) inconsistent intensity ratios of emitted gamma rays between reaction gamma ray and decay gamma ray data, (2) placement of 2039 keV gamma ray transition and (3) gamma ray angular correlation data relating to the level. In the evaluation work, we have to reconcile the confusing data and to provide the adopted ones derived from the available data. In this report, the problems relating to the level properties are described and the reanalyses of the measured data are presented for providing the adopted data. (author)

  18. Evaluation of statistical and geostatistical models of digital soil properties mapping in tropical mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir de Carvalho Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties have an enormous impact on economic and environmental aspects of agricultural production. Quantitative relationships between soil properties and the factors that influence their variability are the basis of digital soil mapping. The predictive models of soil properties evaluated in this work are statistical (multiple linear regression-MLR and geostatistical (ordinary kriging and co-kriging. The study was conducted in the municipality of Bom Jardim, RJ, using a soil database with 208 sampling points. Predictive models were evaluated for sand, silt and clay fractions, pH in water and organic carbon at six depths according to the specifications of the consortium of digital soil mapping at the global level (GlobalSoilMap. Continuous covariates and categorical predictors were used and their contributions to the model assessed. Only the environmental covariates elevation, aspect, stream power index (SPI, soil wetness index (SWI, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and b3/b2 band ratio were significantly correlated with soil properties. The predictive models had a mean coefficient of determination of 0.21. Best results were obtained with the geostatistical predictive models, where the highest coefficient of determination 0.43 was associated with sand properties between 60 to 100 cm deep. The use of a sparse data set of soil properties for digital mapping can explain only part of the spatial variation of these properties. The results may be related to the sampling density and the quantity and quality of the environmental covariates and predictive models used.

  19. Stability evaluation considering the scattering of the physical properties of rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Shin, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research is to establish the rational design method which could be evaluated the influence of the scattering of mechanical properties on the stability of the foundation ground of Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding slope. For this purpose, investigation on the actual scattering state of mechanical properties of rock and rock masses, and the stability estimations by the probabilistic method are conducted in this report, and following results are obtained. (1) The actual distribution of scattering of mechanical properties could describe in the probabilistic models of Weibull and Gamma distribution most accurately. The Normal distribution model could also do almostly. The coefficients of variation are so large in the range of 0.4 - 0.8, the remarkable tendency of them among the kinds of mechanical Properties and among the rock classification are not recognized. (2) It is found that the stability estimation considering the scattering of mechanical properties can be sufficiently conducted by using the conventional deterministic method, and the results of deterministic method using the average value of scattering need not be reduce in proportional to the degree of scattering of mechanical properties. (3) Based on these results, new rational design method and procedure, which could be evaluated the scattering of mechanical properties of ground material, is proposed. (author)

  20. Research on technology of evaluating thermal property data of nuclear power materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hidetaka; Baba, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Arai, Teruo

    1997-01-01

    For the materials of first wall and diverter of nuclear fusion reactor, in order to withstand steady and unsteady high heat flux load, excellent thermal characteristics are required. It is strongly demanded to measure such thermal property values as heat conductivity, heat diffusivity, specific heat capacity, emissivity and so using small test pieces up to higher than 2000degC. As the materials of nuclear reactors are subjected to neutron irradiation, in order to secure the long term reliability of the materials, it is very important to establish the techniques for forecasting the change of the thermal property values due to irradiation effect. Also the establishment of the techniques for estimating the thermal property values of new materials like low radioactivation material is important. In National Research Laboratory of Metrology, the research on the advancement of the measuring technology for high temperature thermal properties has resulted in the considerably successful development of such technologies. In this research, the rapid measurement of thermal property values up to superhigh temperature with highest accuracy, the making of thermal property data set of high level, the analysis and evaluation of the correlation of material characters and thermal property values, and the development of the basic techniques for estimating the thermal property values of solid materials are aimed at and advanced. These are explained. (K.I.)

  1. Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroška Ján

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes using statistical methods from the viewpoint of the quality of single wires as well as the internal construction of the wire ropes. The evaluation is based on the loading capacity calculated from the strength, number of folds and torsions. For the better ilustration, a box plot has been constructed.

  2. Tritium permeation evaluation through vertical target of divertor based on recent tritium transport properties

    OpenAIRE

    中村 博文; 西 正孝

    2003-01-01

    Re-evaluation of tritium permeation through vertical target of divertor under the ITER operation condition was carried out using tritium transport properties in the candidate materials such as the diffusion coefficient and the trapping factors in tungsten for armor, and the surface recombination coefficient on copper for the heat sink obtained by authors' recent investigation (authors' data), which simulated the plasma-facing conditions of ITER. Evaluation with the data set of previous evalua...

  3. A dual triangular pyramidal indentation technique based on FEA solutions for Material property evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsoo; Hyun, Hong Chul [Sogana Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng; Lee, Hyungyil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In this study, we suggest a method for material property evaluation by dual triangular pyramidal indenters using the reverse analysis. First, we demonstrated that load displacement curves of conical and triangular pyramidal indenters are different for the same material. For this reason, an independent research on the triangular pyramidal indenter is needed. From FE indentation analyses on various materials, we then investigated the relationships among material properties, indentation parameters and load displacement curves. From this, we established property evaluation formula using dual triangular pyramidal indenters having two different half included angles. The approach provides the values of elastic modulus, yield strength and strain hardening exponent within an average error of 3% for various materials.

  4. An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of an Advising Survey for Medical and Professional Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Gonzalez, Liara M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument intended to measure faculty competence as it pertains to their role as advisors, particularly in medical and professional programs. A total of 166 students completed the Faculty Advisor's Skills and Behaviors Inventory (FASBI). The psychometric…

  5. Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motlatle, Abesach M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 18: DOI: 10.1007/s11051-016-3614-8 Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles Motlatle AM Kesevan Pillai S Scriba MR Ray SS ABSTRACT: Cu...

  6. Methods for evaluating tensile and compressive properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl Romstad

    1964-01-01

    Methods of obtaining strength and elastic properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers were evaluated using the criteria of the strength values obtained and the failure characteristics observed. Variables investigated were specimen configuration and the manner of supporting and loading the specimens. Results of this investigation indicate that...

  7. Caregiving in severe mental illness: the psychometric properties of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves-Pereira, Manuel; van Wijngaarden, Bob; Xavier, Miguel; Papoila, Ana L.; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose M.; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite the achievements of previous research, caregiving assessments in severe mental illness should be crossculturally validated in order to define risk groups or to evaluate family work. This study reports on the psychometric properties of the European version of the Involvement

  8. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  9. Evaluation of the suspening property of Grewia gum in zinc oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in zinc oxide suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for zinc oxide. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  10. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İlker; Yayla, Zeliha

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose. The physical properties of clay samples were assessed after firing pressed clay samples separately at temperatures of 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C. A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument (Proceq Pundit Lab) was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples. The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples, the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Evaluation of Beneficial Properties of Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum ST8Sh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2017-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ST8Sh, isolated from Bulgarian salami "shpek" and previously characterized as bacteriocin producer, was evaluated for its beneficial properties. Based on the PCR analysis, Lb. plantarum ST8Sh was shown to host a gene related to the production of adhesion proteins such as Mab, Mub, EF, and PrgB. Genetic and physiological tests suggest Lb. plantarum ST8Sh to represent a potential probiotic candidate, including survival in the presence of low levels of pH and high levels of ox bile, production of β-galactosidase, bile salt deconjugation, high level of hydrophobicity, functional auto- and co-aggregation properties, and adhesion to cell lines. Application of semi-purified bacteriocin produced by Lb. plantarum ST8Sh in combination with ciprofloxacin presented synergistic effect on inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. Based on observed properties, Lb. plantarum ST8Sh can be considered as a potential probiotic candidate with additional bacteriocinogenic properties.

  12. Evaluation of thermal properties of sintered beryllium oxide produced from Indian beryl ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Sathi R.; Ghanwat, S.J.; Patro, P.K.; Syambabu, M.; Mawal, N.E.; Mahata, T.; Sinha, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Beryllium oxide (BeO) ceramics possess many interesting properties such as good thermal conductivity, high electrical resistivity, high chemical and thermal stability, low dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and low neutron absorption coefficient. These properties lead to its wide use in vacuum electronics technology, nuclear technology, microelectronics and photoelectron technology. The above properties depend on the purity of the material as well as density and microstructure of the sintered body. For high temperature application thermal conductivity and thermal expansion are two important parameters. In the present study, high purity fine BeO powder has been prepared by beryllate route starting with crude beryllium hydroxide. The powder has been sintered at 1550℃ and sintered samples have been evaluated for its thermal properties

  13. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working

  14. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching

  15. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiki, Josna Vinutha; Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103.

  16. Evaluation and Comparison of Qualitative Properties of Lavash Bread Types During Storage by Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kamaliroosta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The quality of flat breads depends in part on the textural and structural properties of breads during storage. These properties are largely affected by flour quality. This research aimed at evaluating textural and structural properties of Lavash bread types during storage by different techniques, comparing these methods and determination of correlation between their results. Materials and Methods: Three Lavash flours (named strong, medium and weak flours with different physical, chemical and rheological properties were performed. Determination of texture hardness of Lavash breads (Lavash A, Lavash B and Lavash C made of strong, medium and weak flours respectively during storage carried out by Texture analyzer, evaluation of breads porosity and their changes process during storage performed by ultrasonic nondestructive technique, assessment of breads microstructure made by SEM, evaluation of starch gelatinization and retro gradation performed by DSC and the sensory evaluation of breads made by trained panelist. Results: Lavash B made from medium flour had less hardness, lower transition of ultrasonic wave velocity and less values of elastic modulus, reduced values of enthalpy and lower average of temperatures, more pores diameter and area of images and higher points of sensory evaluation than Lavash A and Lavash C breads during storage time. The results of mentioned tests (devices and sensory tests had significant correlation to each other. Conclusion: Desirable quality characterization and higher shelf life of Lavash B was due to flour qualitative characteristics of this type of bread to obtain dough with appropriate elasticity and excellent sheeting capability. Ultrasonic non-destructive method is recommended to use instead of other methods for assessing texture, cell structure and elastic properties of bread after baking and during storage time. This method is fast, non-destructive and cheaper than other methods and

  17. Relationship between the properties of raw and cooked spaghetti - new indices for pasta quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacka, Beata; Dziki, Dariusz; Różyło, Renata; Wójcik, Monika; Miś, Antoni; Romankiewicz, Daria; Krzysiak, Zbigniew

    2018-04-01

    The quality of pasta can be evaluated by measuring the characteristics which encompass the most important quality parameters, such as colour, cooking properties and texture. The aim of the study was to suggest new indices which can be used to evaluate the quality of pasta. For the tests, 15 samples of spaghetti (produced from either semolina or common wheat flour) were used. The bending test was performed for the determination of the strength properties of raw pasta, while the pasta colour parameters were evaluated via the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage system. The pasta cooking test included the evaluation of optimum cooking time, weight increase index and cooking loss. The samples of cooked spaghetti were cut, and the parameters describing pasta texture were determined. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (α = 0.05) between colour parameters (lightness and redness) and pasta ash content (R = -0.90 and 0.84, respectively). The mechanical properties of raw pasta correlated positively with pasta density. The strongest correlation was found between pasta density and flexural strength. The destruction force for raw spaghetti during the bending test correlated significantly and positively with the cutting force of the cooked pasta. The obtained correlations can be helpful in pasta quality evaluation.

  18. Evaluation of the Esthetic Properties of Developmental Defects of Enamel: A Spectrophotometric Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Detailed clinical quantification of optical properties of developmental defect of enamel is possible with spectrophotometric evaluation. Developmental defects of enamel (DDE are daily encountered in clinical practice. DDE are an alteration in quality and quantity of the enamel, caused by disruption and/or damage to the enamel organ during amelogenesis. Methods. Several clinical indices have been developed to categorize enamel defects based on their nature, appearance, microscopic features, or cause. A sample of 39 permanent teeth presenting DDE on labial surface was examined using the DDE Modified Index and SpectroShade evaluation. The spectrophotometric approach quantifies L* (luminosity, a* (quantity of green-red, and b* (quantity of blue-yellow of different DDE. Conclusions. SpectroShade evaluation of the optical properties of the enamel defect enhances clinical understanding of severity and extent of the defect and characterizes the enamel alteration in terms of color discrepancy and surface characterization.

  19. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  20. Probabilistic evaluation method of stability of ground and slope considering spatial randomness of soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtori, Yasuki

    2004-01-01

    In the JEAG4601-1987 (Japan Electric Association Guide for earthquake resistance design), either the conventional deterministic method or probabilistic method is used for evaluating the stability of ground foundations and surrounding slopes in nuclear power plants. The deterministic method, in which the soil properties of 'mean ± coefficient x standard deviation' is adopted for the calculations, is generally used in the design stage to data. On the other hand, the probabilistic method, in which the soil properties assume to have probabilistic distributions, is stated as a future method. The deterministic method facilitates the evaluation, however, it is necessary to clarify the relation with the probabilistic method. In this paper, the relationship between the deterministic and the probabilistic methods are investigated. To do that, a simple model that can take into account the dynamic effect of structures and a simplified method for accounting the spatial randomness are proposed and used for the studies. As the results of studies, it is found that the strength of soil properties is most importation factor for the stability of ground structures and the probability below the safety factor evaluated with the soil properties of mean -1.0 x standard deviation' by the deterministic method is of much lower. (author)

  1. Validation of a laboratory method for evaluating dynamic properties of reconstructed equine racetrack surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Setterbo

    Full Text Available Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior.To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties.Track-testing device (TTD impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression.Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic. Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces.Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof impact (TTD.Dynamic impact properties of race surfaces

  2. At wavelength focusing properties evaluation of the Wolter type grazing incidence mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, A; Uesugi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-01-01

    Focusing properties of a Wolter mirror were evaluated in a hard X-ray region (approx 10 keV). Although the sagittal focal spot size was found to be 0.7 mu m, some spots are spread in meridional direction within a range of over 100 mu m. A Foucault-test method has been employed for closer investigation of the focusing properties. Wave-front of the sagittal focusing rays was almost ideal. On the contrary, it was found that slope error of about 100-300 mu rad existed for the meridional focusing.

  3. Evaluation of the cryogenic mechanical properties of the insulation material for ITER Feeder superconducting joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Rongjin; Huang, ChuanJun; Yang, Yanfang; Huang, Xiongyi; Li, Laifeng

    2017-12-01

    The Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) fabricated by the vacuum bag process was selected as the high voltage electrical insulation and mechanical support for the superconducting joints and the current leads for the ITER Feeder system. To evaluate the cryogenic mechanical properties of the GFRP, the mechanical properties such as the short beam strength (SBS), the tensile strength and the fatigue fracture strength after 30,000 cycles, were measured at 77K in this study. The results demonstrated that the GFRP met the design requirements of ITER.

  4. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING FATIGUE PROPERTIES APPLIED TO STAINLESS STEELS AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Mac Intyer Fonseca Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate seven estimation methods of fatigue properties applied to stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Experimental strain-life curves are compared to the estimations obtained by each method. After applying seven different estimation methods at 14 material conditions, it was found that fatigue life can be estimated with good accuracy only by the Bäumel-Seeger method for the martensitic stainless steel tempered between 300°C and 500°C. The differences between mechanical behavior during monotonic and cyclic loading are probably the reason for the absence of a reliable method for estimation of fatigue behavior from monotonic properties for a group of materials.

  5. Physical properties of root cementum: Part I. A new method for 3-dimensional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, S; Darendeliler, M A; Swain, M V

    2001-08-01

    Cementum is a nonuniform connective tissue that covers the roots of human teeth. Investigation of the physical properties of cementum may help in understanding or evaluating any possible connection to root resorption. A variety of engineering tests are available to investigate these properties. However, the thickness of the cementum layer varies, and this limits the applicability of these techniques in determining the physical properties of cementum. Hardness testing with Knoop and Vickers indentations overcame some of these limitations, but they prohibited the retrieval and retesting of the sample and therefore the testing was restricted to one area or section of the tooth. Another limiting factor with the existing techniques was the risk of artifacts related to the embedding material such as acrylic. A new method to investigate the physical properties of human premolar cementum was developed to obtain a 3-dimensional map of these properties with the Ultra Micro Indentation System (UMIS-2000; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Campbell, Australia). UMIS-2000 is a nano-indentation instrument for investigation of the properties of the near-surface region of materials. Premolars were harvested from orthodontic patients requiring extractions and then mounted on a newly designed surveyor that allowed sample retrieval and 3-dimensional rotation. This novel method enabled the quantitative testing of root surface cementum, on all 4 root surfaces, extending from the apex to the cementoenamel junction at 60 different sites.

  6. Evaluation of properties and thermal stress field for thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良; 齐红宇; 杨晓光; 李旭

    2008-01-01

    In order to get thermal stress field of the hot section with thermal barrier coating (TBCs), the thermal conductivity and elastic modulus of top-coat are the physical key properties. The porosity of top-coat was tested and evaluated under different high temperatures. The relationship between the microstructure (porosity of top-coat) and properties of TBCs were analyzed to predict the thermal properties of ceramic top-coat, such as thermal conductivity and elastic modulus. The temperature and stress field of the vane with TBCs were simulated using two sets of thermal conductivity data and elastic modulus, which are from literatures and this work, respectively. The results show that the temperature and stress distributions change with thermal conductivity and elastic modulus. The differences of maximum temperatures and stress are 6.5% and 8.0%, respectively.

  7. Cole-Cole Measurement of Dispersion Properties for Quality Evaluation of Red Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quality of red wine, measurement of the complex relative permittivity was conducted in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 40 GHz with a network analyzer. Results showed that the Cole-Cole plot of red wine consists of a semicircle at frequencies above 1 GHz and a straight line at frequencies below 1 GHz, which come from the dispersion properties for the water solution of alcohol and ingredients peculiar to red wine, respectively. Based on the Cole-Cole plots measured for seven kinds of red wines made from the same brand of Merlot in different production years, we estimated Debye dispersion parameters to reveal that the alcohol concentration and ingredient property can simultaneously be evaluated from the parameters for the semicircle and straight line, respectively.

  8. Montmorillonite clay/polypropylene (HMSPP) nanocomposites: evaluation of thermal and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, L.G.H.; Oliani, W.L.; Lugao, A.B.; Parra, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) properties in nanocomposites was done in composites of 0.1; 1; 3; 5; 10 wt% of Cloisite 20A clay. The PP-g-MA (polypropylene graft maleic anhydride) was the compatibilizer agent in the process of extrusion in twin-screw. Mechanical tests performed in the nanocomposites with higher clay content showed higher values of rupture in 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisite. The thermal properties were evaluate utilizing Calorimetry Differential Exploratory (DSC) and in the sample of 10 wt% of Cloisite were observed increase of the melting temperature and increase of crystallinity. The morphology was investigated by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR), in which the sample with lower clay amount, 1 wt% of Cloisite showed better dispersion of the clay. X-Ray Diffraction reported the clay intercalation in the sample with 5 wt% of clay. (author)

  9. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    2014-01-01

    %) to "poor" (43%), with only one study rated as "good". The reliability domain was most often investigated. Few of the assessment methods in the included studies that had "fair" or "good" measurement property ratings demonstrated acceptable results for both reliability and validity. We found a substantially...... larger number of clinical scapular assessment methods than previously reported. Using the COSMIN checklist the methodological quality of the included measurement properties in the reliability and validity domains were in general "fair" to "poor". None were examined for all three domains: (1) reliability...... excluded for evaluation due to no/few clinimetric results, leaving 35 studies for evaluation. Graded according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN checklist), the methodological quality in the reliability and validity domains was "fair" (57...

  10. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Posts Subjected to Laser Surface Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Siqueira, Carolina; Spadini de Faria, Natália; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Colucci, Vivian; Alves Gomes, Erica

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser irradiation on flexural strength, elastic modulus, and surface roughness and morphology of glass fiber posts (GFPs). Laser treatment of GFPs has been introduced to improve its adhesion properties. A total of 40 GFPs were divided into 4 groups according to the irradiation protocol: GC-no irradiation, GYAG-irradiation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG], GCR-irradiation with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG), and GDI-irradiation with diode laser. The GFP roughness and morphology were evaluated through laser confocal microscopy before and after surface treatment. Three-point bending flexural test measured flexural strength and elastic modulus. Data about elastic modulus and flexural strength were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p properties of GFPs.

  11. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    %), with only one study rated as ‘good’. The reliability domain was most often investigated. Fewof the assessment methods in the included studies that had ‘fair’ or ‘good’ measurement properties demonstrated acceptable results for both reliability and validity.ConclusionWe found a substantially larger number......ABSTRACT OARSI Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Lund H1,2, Søgaard K11University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics2Institute...... assessment methods have measured the degree of scapular dyskinesis, subjectively by visual evaluation and objectively by measurements of static and dynamic scapular positioning, by either a 3-dimensional electromagnetic device or 2-dimensional clinically applicable methods. Since advanced equipment (i.e. 3D...

  12. Sediment spatial distribution evaluated by three methods and its relation to some soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchi, O O.S. . [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-CENA/USP, Laboratorio de Fisica do Solo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Reichardt, K [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-CENA/USP, Laboratorio de Fisica do Solo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sparovek, G [Departamento de Solos e Nutricao de Plantas, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-02-15

    An investigation of rates and spatial distribution of sediments on an agricultural field cultivated with sugarcane was undertaken using the {sup 137}Cs technique, USLE and WEPP models. The study was carried out on the Ceveiro watershed of the Piracicaba river basin, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, experiencing severe soil degradation due to soil erosion. The objectives of the study were to compare the spatial distribution of sediments evaluated by the three methods and its relation to some soil properties. Erosion and sedimentation rates and their spatial distribution estimated by the three methods were completely different. Although not able to show sediment deposition, the spatial distribution of erosion rates evaluated by USLE presented the best correlation with other studied soil properties. (author)

  13. Evaluation of material property of austenitic stainless steel using nano-indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Takeshi [Institute of Nuclear Safety Systems Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In order to evaluate some material properties of very small area on small specimens which are sampled from components in service and to predict macroscopic material properties from the data of the small specimens, nano-indentation is considered to be quite effective. However, there are few reports formularize the dependence of load on hardness values evaluated from the results of indentation tests with loads from 10 mg to 100 g. In this study, systematic tests of indentation were conducted to specimens of austenitic stainless steel SUS304 using a Berkovich indenter and a Vickers indenter with loads varying from 10 mg to 100 g. From these results numerical formulae which relate the calculated hardness values to the loads were made. In addition, the relation between Vickers hardness and nano-indentation hardness was obtained. As a result, it became possible to predict Vickers hardness from nano-indentation with loads as low as about 100 mg. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the sensory properties of a cosmetic formulation containing green coffee oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais A. L. Wagemaker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Green coffee oil (GCO is a well-known ingredient with cosmetic properties such as: maintaining skin hydration, improving the sun protection factor and maintaining the skin barrier function. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the addition of a considerable amount of GCO (15% on the sensory properties of a cosmetic formulation. The sensory panel consisted of nineteen volunteers aged between 19 and 43 years old. Sensory attributes were assessed on a 25 cm2 defined region on the internal side of the forearm. The volunteers were instructed to evaluate the sensory properties that they felt each formulation demonstrated, immediately after application and then after a further 5 minutes. The formulations had almost the same perceived effect among the volunteers. The majority of volunteers noted their skin as soft and moisturized after application of the formulations. However, the perception of an oily residue on the skin was the main effect of the formulation containing GCO. Thus, we can conclude that the total amount of GCO used, revealed interesting properties for use in dry skin or night creams, since it was able to leave an oily film on skin.

  15. Use of tracer tests to evaluate hydraulic properties of constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachniew, P.; Czuprynski, P.; Maloszewski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of hydraulic properties is a perquisite for studies of constructed wetlands functioning. Bromide ions and tritium were used as a tracers to derive RTDs for two constructed wetlands: a reed bed with subsurface flow and a Lemna pond. Quantitative hydraulic characteristics (mean travel time of water, dispersion number) of the wetlands were evaluated from RTDs (Residence Time Distributions) by means of a mathematical model of waste water flow. (author)

  16. Time-Varying Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbines Evaluated by Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Andersen, J. K. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    resonance of the wind turbine structure. In this paper, free vibration tests and a numerical Winkler type approach are used to evaluate the dynamic properties of a total of 30 offshore wind turbines located in the North Sea. Analyses indicate time-varying eigenfrequencies and damping ratios of the lowest...... structural eigenmode. Isolating the oscillation oil damper performance, moveable seabed conditions may lead to the observed time dependency....

  17. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavon...

  18. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Matrix Type Transdermal Therapeutic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonoaea Paula

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTSs represent an intensely studied alternative to oral delivery of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in the treatment of rheumatic diseases due to its ability of avoiding the side effects of the oral route. This study aims to present the evaluation of the mechanical properties of three NSAIDs (meloxicam, tenoxicam and indomethacin individually included in four type of polymeric matrixes, as part of new formulations development process. Methods: 12 products in form of TTS matrixes were prepared by solvent casting evaporation technique, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 15000, HPMC E5 and/or ethylcellulose as matrix-forming polymers. Each of the resulted products was evaluated by determining the water vapor absorption, desorption or transmission in controlled atmosphere humidity (evaluation of porosity; the elongation capacity, tensile strength and bioadhesiveness (evaluation of mechanical properties. Results: The analysis of three groups of the experimental data expressed as averages on each group was necessary, in order to identify the parameters which statistically are critically influenced by the ingredients associated in the TTSs matrix compositions. Analysis by normality tests, variance and correlation tests (Anova, Pearson enabled evaluation of the effect of NSAID type vs. the effect of polymer matrix type on the parameters of the NSAID TTS matrix. Conclusions: Meloxicam incorporated in the structure of HPMC 15000 polymeric matrix favors its viscoelastic structure. Ethylcellulose functions as plasticizer and supports the matrix bioadhesiveness. HPMC E5 does not meet the requirements for TTS preparation in the used experimental conditions.

  19. Comparative Evaluations and Microstructure: Mechanical Property Relations of Sintered Silicon Carbide Consolidated by Various Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, Prasenjit; Chatterjee, Arya; Majumdar, Bhaskar; Saha, Bhaskar Prasad; Mitra, Rahul

    2018-04-01

    A comparative evaluation between pressureless or self-sintered silicon carbide (SSiC), hot-pressed silicon carbide (HP-SiC), and spark plasma-sintered silicon carbide (SPS-SiC) has been carried out with emphasis on examination of their microstructures and mechanical properties. The effect of sample dimensions on density and properties of SPS-SiC has been also examined. Elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness measured by indentation or testing of single-edge notched beam specimens have been found to follow the following trend, HP-SiC > SSiC > SPS-SiC. The SPS-SiC samples have shown size-dependent densification and mechanical properties, with the smaller sample exhibiting superior properties. The mechanical properties of sintered SiC samples appear to be influenced by relative density, grain size, and morphology, as well as the existence of intergranular glassy phase. Studies of fracture surface morphologies have revealed the mechanism of failure to be transgranular in SSiC or HP-SiC, and intergranular in case of SPS-SiC, indicating the dominating influence of grain size and α-SiC formation with high aspect ratio.

  20. Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Barabash, V.R.; Matera, R.; Roedig, M.; Smith, J.J.; Janev, R.K.

    1991-03-01

    This Report contains the proceedings, results and conclusions of the work done and the analysis performed during the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on ''Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials'', convened on December 17-21, 1990, at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Although the prime objective of the meeting was to critically assess the available thermo-mechanical properties data for certain types of carbon-based fusion relevant materials, the work of the meeting went well beyond this task. The meeting participants discussed in depth the scope and structure of the IAEA material properties database, the format of data presentation, the most appropriate computerized system for data storage, retrieval, exchange and management. The existing IAEA ALADDIN system was adopted as a convenient tool for this purpose and specific ALADDIN labelling schemes and dictionaries were established for the material properties data. An ALADDIN formatted test-file for the thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties of pyrolytic graphite is appended to this Report for illustrative purposes. (author)

  1. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  2. Psychometric properties evaluation of a new ergonomics-related job factors questionnaire developed for nursing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluci, Marina Zambon Orpinelli; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a questionnaire that evaluates the perception of nursing workers to job factors that may contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Internationally recommended methodology was followed: construction of domains, items and the instrument as a whole, content validity, and pre-test. Psychometric properties were evaluated among 370 nursing workers. Construct validity was analyzed by the factorial analysis, known-groups technique, and convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Results indicated satisfactory fit indices during confirmatory factor analysis, significant difference (p office workers, and moderate correlations between the new questionnaire and Numeric Pain Scale, SF-36 and WRFQ. Cronbach's alpha was close to 0.90 and ICC values ranged from 0.64 to 0.76. Therefore, results indicated that the new questionnaire had good psychometric properties for use in studies involving nursing workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemoinformetrical evaluation of dissolution property of indomethacin tablets by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tanabe, Hideaki; Osaki, Kazuo; Otsuka, Kuniko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of dissolution properties in indomethacin (IMC) tablets during the manufacturing process. A comparative evaluation of the dissolution properties of the tablets was performed by the diffused reflectance (DRNIR) and transmittance (TNIR) NIR spectroscopic methods. Various kinds of IMC tablets (200 mg) were obtained from a powder (20 mg of IMC, 18 mg of microcrystalline cellulose, 160 mg of lactose, and 2 mg of magnesium stearate) under various compression pressures (60-398 MPa). Dissolution tests were performed in phosphate buffer, and the time required for 75% dissolution (T75) and mean dissolution time (MDT) were calculated. DRNIR and TNIR spectra were recorded, and the both NIR spectra used to establish a calibration model for predicting the dissolution properties by principal component regression analysis (PCR). The T75 and MDT increased as the compression pressure increased, since tablet porosity decreased with increasing pressure. Intensity of the DRNIR spectra of the compressed tablets decreased as the compression pressure increased. However, the intensity of TNIR spectra increased along with the pressure. The calibration models used to evaluate the dissolution properties of tablets were established by using PCR based on both DRNIR and TNIR spectra of the tablets. The multiple correlation coefficients of the relationship between the actual and predictive T75 by the DRNIR and TNIR methods were 0.831 and 0.962, respectively. It is possible to predict the dissolution properties of pharmaceutical preparations using both DRNIR and TNIR chemoinformetric methods. The TNIR method was more accurate for predictions of the dissolution behavior of tablets than the DRNIR method. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A Psychometric Properties Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Galeoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS is an evaluation tool to diagnose older adult’s depression. This questionnaire was defined by Yesavage and Brink in 1982; it was designed expressly for the older person and defines his/her degree of satisfaction, quality of life, and feelings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-IT. Methods. The Italian version of the Geriatric Depression Scale was administered to 119 people (79 people with a depression diagnosis and 40 healthy ones. We examined the following psychometric characteristics: internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and construct validity (factor structure. Results. Cronbach’s Alpha for the GDS-IT administered to the depressed sample was 0.84. Test-retest reliability was 0.91 and the concurrent validity was 0.83. The factorial analysis showed a structure of 5 factors, and the scale cut-off is between 10 and 11. Conclusion. The GDS-IT proved to be a reliable and valid questionnaire for the evaluation of depression in an Italian population. In the present study, the GDS-IT showed good psychometric properties. Health professionals now have an assessment tool for the evaluation of depression symptoms in the Italian population.

  5. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Evaluation of hot hardness, creep, fatigue and fracture properties of zirconia ceramics by an indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Ganguly, C.; Upadhyaya, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Zirconia ceramics have wide range engineering applications at room and elevated temperatures. For understanding the mechanical behaviour, the indentation technique was adapted for quick evaluation of hot hardness, creep, fatigue and fracture properties. A Vicker's diamond indentor with 10 N load was employed for hot hardness and creep measurement up to 1300 deg. The fatigue data were evaluated at room temperature by repeated indentation with a constant load (10-2500N) at the same location for a dwell time of 5s until it resulted in the formation of a lateral chip on the sample surface. Thus, the number of cycles for chip formation at a specific indentation load was obtained. The fracture toughness was evaluated at room temperature with a load of 300N using a Vicker's diamond indentor. The results of hot hardness, creep, fatigue, and fracture data ol 3Y-TZP and Mg-PSZ are discussed along with their microstructural features. (authors)

  7. An Evaluation of Automotive Interior Packages Based on Human Ocular and Joint Motor Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Rakumatsu, Takeshi; Horiue, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Tooru; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Nouzawa, Takahide; Tsuji, Toshio

    This paper proposes a new evaluation method of an automotive interior package based on human oculomotor and joint-motor properties. Assuming the long-term driving situation in the express high way, the three evaluation indices were designed on i) the ratio of head motion at gazing the driving items; ii) the load torque for maintaining the standard driving posture; and iii) the human force manipulability at the end-point of human extremities. Experiments were carried out for two different interior packages with four subjects who have the special knowledge on the automobile development. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method can quantitatively analyze the driving interior in good agreement with the generally accepted subjective opinion in the automobile industry.

  8. Evaluation of dynamic properties, local site effects and design ground motions: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitharam, T.G.; Vipin, K.S.; James, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Evidences from past earthquakes clearly shows that the damages due to an earthquake and its severity at a site are controlled mainly by three factors i.e., earthquake source and path characteristics, local geological and geotechnical characteristics, structural design and quality of the construction. Seismic ground response at a site is strongly influenced by local geological and soil conditions. The exact information of the geological, geomorphological and geotechnical data along with seismotectonic details are necessary to evaluate the ground response. The geometry of the subsoil structure, the soil type, the lateral discontinuities and the surface topography will also influence the site response at a particular location. In the case of a nuclear power plant, the details obtained from the site investigation will have multiple objectives: (i) for the effective design of the foundation (ii) assessment of site amplification (iii) for liquefaction potential evaluation. Since the seismic effects on the structure depend fully on the site conditions and assessment of site amplification. The first input required in evaluation of geotechnical aspect of seismic hazard is the rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) values. The surface level acceleration values need to be calculated based on the site conditions and site amplification values. This paper discusses various methods for evaluating the site amplification values, dynamic soil properties, different field and laboratory tests required and various site classification schemes. In addition to these aspects, the evaluation of liquefaction potential of the site is also presented. The paper highlights on the latest testing methods to evaluate dynamic properties (shear modulus and damping ratio) of soils and techniques for estimating local site effects. (author)

  9. Microstructural evolution and thermophysical property evaluation of Th-U alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Santanu; Kaity, Santu; Bannerjee, Joydipto; Kumar, Raj; Roy, S.B.; Chaudhari, G.P.; Daniel, B.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thorium-uranium alloy fuel has not received much research attention mainly because of easy availability of uranium and military incentive offered by U-Pu cycle. Moreover, (i) lack of a consistent systematic effort to develop the alloys and define the limitations of these fuels, (ii) dearth of initiatives to define its microstructures that can result from composition and fabrication variables are prime reasons for this system not having witnessed much developmental research endeavour. Hence, it seems prudent to explore few compositions selected from thorium-uranium phase diagram keeping two primary objectives in view viz. (i) establishing its microstructural features and to study the variations in those, if any, brought about by processing variables etc. and (ii) to assess few thermal properties relevant to fuel applications. This experimental work aims at addressing gap in research on thorium-uranium alloys. Selected compositions of thorium-uranium alloy have been taken for microstructural study and evaluation of thermophysical properties. Based on the microstructural features and thermophysical property evaluation it is seen that high thorium Th-U alloys have appreciable thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion coefficient. It can reasonably be concluded that high thorium Th-U alloy can be used for possible nuclear fuel application in reactors provided other factors (e.g. reactor physics, post irradiation examinations etc.) are also seen to be favourable. (author)

  10. Evaluation of property tax bonus to promote solar thermal systems in Andalusia (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Braza, Antonio; Pablo-Romero, María del P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of a property tax bonus to promote the installation of solar–thermal energy systems in buildings in Andalusia (southern Spain). The propensity score matching methodology is used. The treatment group consists of municipalities of Andalusia that established property tax bonuses in their municipalities in 2010. The control group consists of municipalities that did not. The response variable measures the number of new square meters of solar thermal systems installed in 2010. The analysis leads to the conclusion that municipalities that established a property tax bonus had installed, on average, 102.245 to 122.389 square meters more. These results indicate that the percentage increase in squares meters installed in municipalities which adopted the tax bonus promotion ranged from 70.74% to 98.38%. These percentages were lower for rural municipalities (49.00% to 77.06%). - Highlights: • This paper evaluates the effects of a tax bonus to promote solar–thermal energy. • We analyse the effect of this measure for 585 Andalusia municipalities. • The propensity score-matching methodology is used. • The percentage increase of square meters installed ranged from 70.74% to 98.38%. • Tax bonus was an effective tool to promote solar thermal in Andalusia

  11. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration.

  12. Property evaluation of Ni base alloy for superconducting generators and its application to seal welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhisa Suzuki; Toshiaki Murakami; Kenichi Suzuki; Satoru Asai; Minorou Tanaka; Yoshio Kobayashi

    1992-01-01

    Property requirements demanded on structural materials for rotors of superconducting generators are quite strict while there are many themes in the technical development of such materials. Components used in the cryogenic temperature are of course required to be nonmagnetic material. Additional requirements demanded on cryogenic structural materials for high response excitation superconducting generators can be summarized as follows: (1) 0.2% yield strength > 800 MPa (RT) (2) Charpy absorbed energy > 25 J (4K) (3) Electrical resistivity > 90 μΩ·cm (4K). As a candidate material which satisfy the above property requirements, we can cite precipitation-hardened Ni base alloys, for example, Inconel 718. However, production of Inconel718 is limited to about 2 tons due to problems related to segregation etc., and therefore fabrication of large-sized ingots for manufacturing generator components may be difficult. Also, there may be problems regarding weldability, especially from the viewpoint of microcracking in the heat affected zone, among strength-supporting parts or the parts requiring functional capability such as seal welded joints. Under such background circumstances, we conducted studies on chemical composition by considering producibility of large-sized ingots and weldability of the alloy as well as property evaluations of materials incorporating such requirements. Further, included in this paper are the application of the alloy to seal welded joints and its unified fatigue strength evaluation method

  13. Evaluation of nutritional value, characteristics, functional properties of Cymodocea nodosa and its benefits on health diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolsi, Rihab Ben Abdallah; Salah, Hichem Ben; Saidi, Saber Abdelkader; Allouche, Noureddine; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima

    2017-12-08

    Nutritional fact study has prime importance to make the species edible and commercially viable to the food consumers. This is the first report that indicates the chemical characterization, functional, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Cymodocea nodosa to evaluate its nutritional status. Physico-chemical determination was determined by colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis. The functional and texture properties were evaluated since a desirable texture should be retained. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 analysis. Health benefit of this plant was highlighting by the antioxidant and antihypertensive potentials. Results showed that the seagrass powder was characterized by a high content of fibers (56.4%), the fatty acids profile was dominated by the oleic acid, which represents about 62.0% of the total fatty acids and the functional properties proved important values of swelling capacity (6.71 ± 0.2) and water holding capacity (12.26 ± 0.25), that were comparable to those of some foodstuffs. Finally, the physico-chemical analysis shows the wealth in phenolic compounds, that could be explained by the high antioxidant and antihypertensive ability which was concentration dependent. The results from this study suggested that this marine plant could be utilized as a healthy food item for human consumption.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties on low activation ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.Y.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal has become a primary concern for the selection of materials for the structural components for fusion reactors. One way to minimize this potential environmental problem is to use structural materials in which the induced radioactivity decays quickly to levels that allow for near-surface disposal under 10CFR61 rules. The primary objective of this work is to develop low activation ferritic steels that exhibit mechanical and physical properties approximately equivalent to the HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo steels, but which only contain elements that would permit near-surface disposal under 10CFR61 after exposure to fusion neutrons. A preliminary evaluation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 9Cr-2.5W-0.3V-0.15C (GA3X) low activation ferritic steel has been performed. An optimum heat treatment condition has been defined for GA3X steel. The properties and microstructure of the quenched and tempered specimens were characterized via hardness measurement and optical metallographic observation. The hot-microhardness and ductility parameter measurements were used to estimate the tensile properties at elevated temperatures. The estimated tensile strengths of GA3X steel at elevated temperatures are comparable to both 9Cr-1Mo and the modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. These preliminary results are encouraging in that they suggest that suitable low activation alloys can be successfully produced in this ferritic alloy class

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%. All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products.

  16. Evaluation of mechanical properties of weldments for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineeering, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Komazaki, S.; Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are the first candidate material for fusion reactor, and will be used as the structural materials of ITER test blanket modules (TBM). TBM will be assembled by welding various parts, it is important to be clearly mechanical properties of weldments to qualify TBM structure. In this paper, unirradiated mechanical properties of weldments, which is consisted of weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal region, obtained from TIG and EB welded F82H IEA-heat were evaluated by tensile, Charpy impact and creep test. Charpy impact test revealed that impact properties of weld metal does not deteriorate compared with that of base metal. The creep tests were carried out at temperatures of 773-873 K and at stress levels of 130-280 MPa, with the specimens which include weld metal and HAZ region in the gage section. In these conditions, rupture time of weldments yield to about 100-1000 hours. In the high-stress range, creep lives of welded joint decreased about 40% of base metal. However, in the low-stress range, creep lives of welded joint decrease about 60 to 70% of base metal. The failure at fine grain HAZ region (Type IV failure) does not occur in these conditions. The mechanism of these properties deterioration will be discussed based on the detailed analyses on microstructure changes. (authors)

  17. Characterization and evaluation of ceramic properties of clay used in structural ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.S.; Oliveira, J.N.; Della-Sagrillo, V.P.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    The clay used in the manufacture of structural ceramic products must meet quality requirements that are influenced by their chemical, physical, mineralogical and microstructural characteristics, which control the ceramic properties of the final products. This paper aims to characterize the clay used in the manufacture of ceramic roof tiles and bricks. The clay was characterized through XRF, XRD, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Atterberg limits and particle size distribution. Specimens were shaped, dried at 110°C, and burned at 900 deg C in an industrial kiln. After that, they were submitted to tests of water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density and flexural strength. The results show that the chemical composition of clay has significant amount of silica and alumina and adequate levels of kaolinite for use in structural ceramic. The ceramic properties evaluated in the specimens partially meet the requirements of the Brazilian standard-clays for structural ceramics. (author)

  18. PRIVATIZATION OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICE ENTERPRISES: PRIVATIZATION MECHANISM AND PROPERTY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kuznetsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing and communal services in Russia are provided by state or municipality owned so-called unitary enterprises. At present, most of these enterprises are at the brink of bankruptcy. Privatization in the field of housing and communal economy (HCE sector is one of most efficient instruments of improvement thereof. Particular feature of the author’s approach to evaluation of the total or partial cost of such enterprises is summing up the values of the element-to-element property assessment on the basis of the enterprise’s net assets. Described in the article is a system and succession of steps to be followed by private entities formed on the basis of HCE enterprises’ whole or partial property or acquiring rights thereupon.

  19. Evaluation of technological properties of alumina refractory systems-zirconia and zirconia-silica-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, A.R.O.; Carvalho, T.U.S.; Fagury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Alumina-zirconia refractories are noted for being products of excellent cost-effective, however, zirconia may limit its use due to decreasing resistance to thermal shock. This study aims to evaluate these refractories with the addition of microsilica, which can greatly improve their properties. Were used the following starting materials: calcined alumina, zirconia (stabilized and monoclinic) in amounts of 2%, 4% and 6% by weight, plus microsilica (5%w.). The powders were milled together with binder and lubricant for conformation bodies by uniaxial pressing. The samples were dried, calcined and sintered at 1400 °C/2h were characterized using the methods of Archimedes, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis using energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), and mechanical flexural strength tests at room temperature. Formulations with the presence of microsilica showed satisfactory results and optimized properties. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of carbon fiber after electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Diva Brocardo Machado, Luci; Augusto, Marcos; Segura Pino, Eddy; Radino, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fibers are used as reinforcement material in epoxy matrix in advanced composites. An important aspect of the mechanical properties of composites is associated to the adhesion between the surface of the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. This paper aimed to the evaluation of the effects of EB irradiation on the tensile properties of two different carbon fibers prepared as resin-impregnated specimens. The fibers were EB irradiated before the preparation of the resin-impregnated specimens for mechanical tests. Observations of the specimens after breakage have shown that EB irradiation promoted significant changes in the failure mode. Furthermore, the tensile strength data obtained for resin-impregnated specimens prepared with carbons fibers previously irradiated presented a slight tendency to be higher than those obtained from non-irradiated carbon fibers

  1. Evaluation of physical properties and adsorption capacity of regenerated granular activated carbons (GACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Seon-Ha; Kim, Seong-Su; Park, No-Suk; Jeong, Woochang

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variation in physical properties and investigate the adsorption capacity after regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC). A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the iodide number and loss rate. The experimental results showed that the loss rate of regenerated carbon should be related to the usage time of GAC. Physical properties including the effective size and uniformity coefficient were similar to those of virgin GAC. This result indicates that the function of GAC as an adsorption medium may be recovered completely. Although the iodine number and specific surface area of the regenerated GAC were smaller than those of virgin GAC, the cumulative pore volume of the former was larger. The removal efficiency of organic matter from the regenerated GAC column was equal to or slightly higher than that from the virgin GAC column. Consequently, regeneration may increase the number of mesopores which are responsible for the removal of organic matter

  2. Evaluation of physical properties and adsorption capacity of regenerated granular activated carbons (GACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Seon-Ha; Kim, Seong-Su; Park, No-Suk [Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woochang [Kyungnam University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variation in physical properties and investigate the adsorption capacity after regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC). A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the iodide number and loss rate. The experimental results showed that the loss rate of regenerated carbon should be related to the usage time of GAC. Physical properties including the effective size and uniformity coefficient were similar to those of virgin GAC. This result indicates that the function of GAC as an adsorption medium may be recovered completely. Although the iodine number and specific surface area of the regenerated GAC were smaller than those of virgin GAC, the cumulative pore volume of the former was larger. The removal efficiency of organic matter from the regenerated GAC column was equal to or slightly higher than that from the virgin GAC column. Consequently, regeneration may increase the number of mesopores which are responsible for the removal of organic matter.

  3. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials.

  4. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung

    1998-06-01

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials

  5. Evaluating morphology and mechanical properties of glass-reinforced natural hydroxyapatite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Z; Bahrololoom, M E; Hashemi, B

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite has been used in a wide variety of biomedical applications and it can be produced from natural resources such as bovine bone. This material does not have acceptable mechanical properties by itself. In the present work, hydroxyapatite composites with different weight percentages of sodalime glass were made and sintered at different temperatures (800-1200°C). Eventually the properties such as density, micro hardness, compressive strength and wear of specimens were evaluated. Specific percentages of glass additive increased the density and hardness of specimens due to increasing the sintering temperature. The hardness and density of specimens were decreased with higher percentage of glass additive. Moreover, the results of compressive test showed that increasing the glass addition increases the compressive performance. Furthermore, the SEM micrographs on worn specimens showed that the mechanism of wear was abrasive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of Niobium modified cast AISI H 13 hot work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorian, A.; Kheirandish, Sh.; Saghafian, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the effects of partially replacing of vanadium and molybdenum with niobium on the mechanical properties of AISIH 13 hot-work tool steel have been studied. Cast samples made of the modified new steel were homogenized and austenitized at different conditions, followed by tempering at the specified temperature ranges. Hardness, red hardness, three point bending test and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties together with characterizing the microstructure of the modified steel using scanning electron microscope. The results show that niobium addition modifies the cast structure of Nb-alloyed steel, and increases its maximum hardness. It was found that bending strength; bending strain, impact strength, and red hardness of the modified cast steel are also higher than those of the cast H13 steel, and lower than those of the wrought H13 steel.

  7. Pure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Ian H.; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    property correlations described here have been implemented into CoolProp, an open-source thermophysical property library. This library is written in C++, with wrappers available for the majority of programming languages and platforms of technical interest. As of publication, 110 pure and pseudo-pure fluids...... are included in the library, as well as properties of 40 incompressible fluids and humid air. The source code for the CoolProp library is included as an electronic annex....

  8. Evaluation of the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hardening High-Calcium Fly Ash Blended Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Park, Ki-Bong

    2015-09-07

    High-calcium fly ash (FH) is the combustion residue from electric power plants burning lignite or sub-bituminous coal. As a mineral admixture, FH can be used to produce high-strength concrete and high-performance concrete. The development of chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial factor for appropriately using FH in the concrete industry. To achieve sustainable development in the concrete industry, this paper presents a theoretical model to systematically evaluate the property developments of FH blended concrete. The proposed model analyzes the cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of phases in FH other than free CaO. The mutual interactions among cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of other phases in FH are also considered through the calcium hydroxide contents and the capillary water contents. Using the hydration degree of cement, the reaction degree of free CaO in FH, and the reaction degree of other phases in FH, the proposed model evaluates the calcium hydroxide contents, the reaction degree of FH, chemically bound water, porosity, and the compressive strength of hardening concrete with different water to binder ratios and FH replacement ratios. The evaluated results are compared to experimental results, and good consistencies are found.

  9. EVALUATION OF ELASTICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DOUGH MADE WITH REPLACED FLOUR POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.

  10. Evaluation of seed chemical quality traits and sensory properties of natto soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yoko; Chen, Pengyin; Zhang, Bo; Scaboo, Andrew; Orazaly, Moldir

    2014-06-15

    Natto is a popular soyfood in Japan, and the U.S. is the largest supplier of natto soybeans. However, information on natto seed chemical and sensory properties is very limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of seed chemical and sensory properties among natto types and determine heritability and correlation. A total of 15 small-seeded natto genotypes (three superior, nine moderate and three inferior) were evaluated for protein, oil, calcium, manganese, boron and sugar content and processed into a natto product to evaluate appearance, stickiness, flavor, texture and shelf-life. The superior natto group had a higher sugar content but lower protein plus oil, calcium, manganese and boron content than other two groups. Most seed quality traits exhibited high heritability. The natto sensory preference was positively correlated with sucrose and oil content, but negatively correlated with seed hardness, protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron contents. Selecting soybean lines with low protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron content while with high sucrose will be an effective approach for soybean breeding for natto production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and their in vitro effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P

    2015-07-01

    Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments.

  12. Decellularization of Human Internal Mammary Artery: Biomechanical Properties and Histopathological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khorramirouz, Reza; Kameli, Seyede Maryam; Hashemi, Javad; Bagheri, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This study undertook to create small-diameter vascular grafts and assess their structure and mechanical properties to withstand arterial implantation. Twenty samples of intact human internal mammary arteries (IMAs) were collected and decellularized using detergent-based methods. To evaluate residual cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) components, histological analysis was performed. Moreover, collagen typing and ECM structure were analyzed by Picrosirius red and Movat's pentachrome staining. Scanning electron microscopy was also applied to assess microarchitecture of both endothelial and adventitial surfaces of native and decellularized arterial samples. Furthermore, mechanical tests were performed to evaluate the rigidity and suture strength of the arteries. Human IMAs were completely decellularized in all three segments (proximal, middle, and distal). ECM proteins such as collagen and elastic fibers were efficiently preserved and no structural distortion in intima, media, and adventitial surfaces was observed. The parameters of the mechanical tests revealed no significant differences in the mechanical properties of decellularized arteries in comparison to native arteries with considerable strength, suture retention, and stress relaxation (Young's modulus [MPa] = 0.22 ± 0.023 [native] and 0.22 ± 0.015 [acellular]; and suture strength 0.56 ± 0.19 [native] vs. 0.56 ± 0.12 [acellular], respectively). Decellularized IMA represents a potential arterial scaffold as an alternative to autologous grafts for future arterial bypass surgeries. By this technique, microarchitecture and mechanical integrity of decellularized arteries were considerably similar to native arteries. The goal of this study was to introduce an efficient method for complete decellularization of human IMA and evaluate the ECM and biomechanical properties.

  13. Non-destructive evaluation on mechanical properties of nuclear graphite with porous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Hanawa, Satoshi; Sumita, Junya; Tada, Tatsuya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    As a research subjects of 'Research and development for advanced high temperature gas cooled reactor fuels and graphite components,' we started the study of development of non-destructive evaluation methods for mechanical properties of graphite components. The micro-indentation and ultrasonic wave methods are focused to evaluate the degradation of graphite components in VHTR core. For the micro-indentation method, the test apparatus was designed for the indentation test on graphite specimens with some stress levels. It is expected the stress condition is evaluated by the indentation load-depth characteristics and hardness. For the ultrasonic wave method, ultrasonic wave testing machine and probes were prepared for experiments. It is expected that the stress and inner porous conditions are evaluated by the wave propagation characteristics with wave-pore interaction model. R and D plan to develop the non-destructive evaluation method for graphite is presented in this paper. (This study is the result of contract research in the fiscal year of 2004, Research and development for advanced high temperature gas cooled reactor fuels and graphite components,' which is entrusted to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.) (author)

  14. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  15. Evaluation of the magnetic properties of cosmetic contact lenses with a superconducting quantum interference device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kagayaki; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Tawara, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the magnetization of 21 cosmetic contact lens samples that included various coloring materials with a superconducting quantum interference device with regard to magnetic resonance (MR) safety. We found 7 samples were ferromagnetic; two had both ferromagnetic and diamagnetic properties; and the rest were diamagnetic. The saturated magnetization of the most ferromagnetic sample was 15.0 µJ/T, which yielded a magnetically induced displacement force of 90.0 µN when the spatial gradient of the static magnetic field was 6.0 T/m. The force was less than one-third of the gravitational force.

  16. Evaluation of aortic elastic properties in patients with exaggerated systolic blood pressure response to exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicaslan, Baris; Eren, Nihan Kahya; Nazlı, Cem

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the aortic elastic properties in subjects with hypertensive response to exercise stress test (HRE). Sixty-six patients were divided into two groups (33 patients in HRE group and 33 patients in normotensive group). Baseline demographic characteristics were similar. The mean aortic stiffness index (ASI) was significantly higher (p=0.001) whereas aortic distensibility (AD) was significantly lower (p=0.029) in patients suggesting HRE. The C-reactive protein levels of patients with HRE was higher in the HRE group (p=0.03). AD was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.406, pHRE.

  17. Evaluation of the properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatti, Eleonora; Merlini, Claudia; Barra, Guilherme Mariz de Oliveira; Güths, Saulo; Oliveira, Antonio Pedro Novaes de; Siligardi, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3). The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5%) were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were ana...

  18. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  19. Measurement properties of exsisting clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, B; Lund, H

    (COSMIN checklist), the methodological quality in the reliability and validity domains was ‘fair’ (57%) to ‘poor’ (43%), with only one study rated as ‘good’. The reliability domain was most often investigated. Fewof the assessment methods in the included studies that had ‘fair’ or ‘good’ measurement......MEASUREMENT PROPERTIES OF EXISTING CLINICAL ASSESSMENT METHODS EVALUATING SCAPULAR POSITIONING AND FUNCTION. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW1,2Camilla Marie Larsen, 1,3Birgit Juul-Kristensen, 1,3Hans Lund, 1Karen Søgaard1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark2......,2]. Rehabilitation exercises are aiming at altering abnormal/asymmetric scapular positioning and/or function. Numerous assessment methods have measured the degree of scapular dyskinesis, subjectively by visual evaluation and objectively by measurements of static and dynamic scapular positioning, by either a 3...

  20. Evaluation of disintegration properties of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets using a novel disintegration tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new disintegration tester that can determine not only the disintegration time of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets (ODT), but also the disintegration behavior and mechanism. Using the tester, the disintegration properties of the tablets prepared in a previous study were examined. The purpose of this study is to confirm the utility of the tester as an instrument for evaluating the disintegration properties of ODT and determine relations among time, behavior and mechanism of the disintegration. Results demonstrated that in vitro disintegration time in the tester is similar to that in the commercial disintegration tester for ODT and is highly correlated with oral disintegration time. Observations of disintegration process revealed that a difference in disintegration behavior between tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa; the disintegration behavior of the tablets were designated immediate disintegrating type and gradual disintegrating type, respectively. The dynamic swelling profile and water absorption profile indicated that the disintegration mechanism of the tablets involved wicking action induced by swelling of the disintegrant; the disintegration time was closely related to the initial rates of swelling and water absorption. Furthermore, the mechanism of water absorption of tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa shows anomalous diffusion and case-II transport, respectively. The shift in this mechanism is consistent with differences in disintegration time and behavior between the tablets. These findings suggest that information on disintegration properties obtained by our tester is useful for understanding of disintegration phenomena of ODT.

  1. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.

  2. Evaluation of mechanical properties and durability performance of HDPE-wood composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazi, M.; Erchiqui, F.; Kaddami, H.; Bouazara, M.; Poaty, B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties and durability performance of bio-composite materials made from sawdust and thermoplastic polymer (HDPE). For the preparation of the composites, sawdust in different proportions with Maleic Anhydride grafted Polyethylene (MAPE) as the coupling agent was used. The thermal and mechanical properties were successively characterized. The results indicate that adding wood fillers to a polymer matrix increases the degree of crystallinity and improves the tensile strength and ductility of composites. On the contrary, resistance to water absorption decreases as a function of the wood fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological structure alteration when exposed to intense weathering. The biodegradability of bio-composites up to 97 days was also investigated; the results indicate that, by increasing the filler content, the amount of weight loss increased as well. In other words, even though the addition of sawdust to thermoplastic polymer improves the mechanical performance of a composite material, it also accelerates the biodegradation rate of the composite. An optimum amount of filler content might compromise the effect of biodegradation and mechanical properties of composite materials

  3. Evaluation of mechanical properties and durability performance of HDPE-wood composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazi, M.; Erchiqui, F. [Engineering department, Université de Quebec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (Canada); Kaddami, H. [Université Caddi Ayad Marrakech, Laboratoire ’LCO2MC’, B.P. 549, Marrakech 40000, Maroc (Morocco); Bouazara, M. [Mechanical department, Université de Québec à Chicoutimi Canada (Canada); Poaty, B. [Technology Center of industrial residuals, QC Canada (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties and durability performance of bio-composite materials made from sawdust and thermoplastic polymer (HDPE). For the preparation of the composites, sawdust in different proportions with Maleic Anhydride grafted Polyethylene (MAPE) as the coupling agent was used. The thermal and mechanical properties were successively characterized. The results indicate that adding wood fillers to a polymer matrix increases the degree of crystallinity and improves the tensile strength and ductility of composites. On the contrary, resistance to water absorption decreases as a function of the wood fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological structure alteration when exposed to intense weathering. The biodegradability of bio-composites up to 97 days was also investigated; the results indicate that, by increasing the filler content, the amount of weight loss increased as well. In other words, even though the addition of sawdust to thermoplastic polymer improves the mechanical performance of a composite material, it also accelerates the biodegradation rate of the composite. An optimum amount of filler content might compromise the effect of biodegradation and mechanical properties of composite materials.

  4. Evaluating the effects of local floodplain management policies on property owner behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollens, Scott A.; Kaiser, Edward J.; Burby, Raymond J.

    1988-05-01

    Floodplain management programs have been adopted by more than 85% of local governments in the nation with designated flood hazard areas. Yet, there has been little evaluation of the influence of floodplain policies on private sector decisions. This article examines the degree to which riverine floodplain management affects purchase and mitigation decisions made by owners of developed floodplain property in ten selected cities in the United States. We find that the stringency of such policies does not lessen floodplain property buying because of the overriding importance of site amenity factors. Indeed, flood protection measures incorporated into development projects appear to add to the attractiveness of floodplain location by increasing the perceived safety from the hazard. Property owner responses to the flood hazard after occupancy involve political action more often than individual on-site mitigation. Floodplain programs only minimally encourage on-site mitigation by the owner because most owners have not experienced a flood and many are unaware of the flood threat. It is suggested that floodplain programs will be more effective in meeting their objectives if they are directed at intervention points earlier in the land conversion process.

  5. Microcomputed tomography and microfinite element modeling for evaluating polymer scaffolds architecture and their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Moratal, David; Ivirico, Jorge L Escobar; Rodríguez Hernández, José C; Vallés-Lluch, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Estellés, Jorge Más; Mano, Joao F; Pradas, Manuel Monleón; Ribelles, José L Gómez; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    Detailed knowledge of the porous architecture of synthetic scaffolds for tissue engineering, their mechanical properties, and their interrelationship was obtained in a nondestructive manner. Image analysis of microcomputed tomography (microCT) sections of different scaffolds was done. The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the scaffold allows one to quantify scaffold porosity, including pore size, pore distribution, and struts' thickness. The porous morphology and porosity as calculated from microCT by image analysis agrees with that obtained experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and physically measured porosity, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the scaffold were evaluated by making use of finite element modeling (FEM) in which the compression stress-strain test is simulated on the 3D structure reconstructed from the microCT sections. Elastic modulus as calculated from FEM is in agreement with those obtained from the stress-strain experimental test. The method was applied on qualitatively different porous structures (interconnected channels and spheres) with different chemical compositions (that lead to different elastic modulus of the base material) suitable for tissue regeneration. The elastic properties of the constructs are explained on the basis of the FEM model that supports the main mechanical conclusion of the experimental results: the elastic modulus does not depend on the geometric characteristics of the pore (pore size, interconnection throat size) but only on the total porosity of the scaffold. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. In vitro evaluation of immunological properties of extracellular polysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Mana; Nomoto, Ryohei; Osawa, Ro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in immunological properties of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by different Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains as well as that of their monosaccharide composition. The monosaccharide composition of each EPS produced by L. delbrueckii strains, as determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), showed an appreciable variation in a strain-dependent manner, which could be broadly assigned to 4 TLC groups. Meanwhile, the immunological properties of the EPSs produced by 10 L. delbrueckii strains were evaluated in a semi-intestinal model using a Transwell co-culture system, which employed human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells on the apical side and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells on the basolateral side. Each EPS was added to the apical side to allow direct contact with Caco-2 cells and incubated for 6 hr. After incubation, the amounts of TNF-α and several cytokines that had been released by either RAW264.7 or Caco-2 cells were then quantified by cytotoxic activity on L929 cells or the RT-PCR method. It was found that the EPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells express different profiles of cytokine production via Caco-2 cells but that the profile difference could not be related to the above TLC grouping. The evidence suggests that the EPSs of L. delbrueckii strains are diverse not only in their biochemical structure but also in their immunological properties.

  7. Experienced emotional burden in caregivers: psychometric properties of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire in caregivers of brain injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, Gert J.; Meijer, Ron; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Martina, Juan D.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the psychometric properties (internal consistency, discriminant validity, and responsiveness) of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire for Brain Injury measuring emotional burden in caregivers of patients with chronic acquired brain injury. Inception cohort study. Caregivers of chronic

  8. Experienced emotional burden in caregivers: psychometric properties of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire in caregivers of brain injured patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Meijer, R.; Heugten, C.M. van; Martina, J.D.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties (internal consistency, discriminant validity, and responsiveness) of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire for Brain Injury measuring emotional burden in caregivers of patients with chronic acquired brain injury. DESIGN: Inception cohort study.

  9. Investigation and development of a non-destructive system to evaluate critical properties of asphalt pavements during the compaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to present findings from a two-stage investigation to develop a non-destructive system to : evaluate critical properties and characteristics of asphalt pavements during the compaction process. The first stage aligned : c...

  10. Evaluation on Bending Properties of Biomaterial GUM Metal Meshed Plates for Bone Graft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; He, Jianmei

    2017-11-01

    There are three bone graft methods for bone defects caused by diseases such as cancer and accident injuries: Autogenous bone grafts, Allografts and Artificial bone grafts. In this study, meshed GUM Metal plates with lower elasticity, high strength and high biocompatibility are introduced to solve the over stiffness & weight problems of ready-used metal implants. Basic mesh shapes are designed and applied to GUM Metal plates using 3D CAD modeling tools. Bending properties of prototype meshed GUM Metal plates are evaluated experimentally and analytically. Meshed plate specimens with 180°, 120° and 60° axis-symmetrical types were fabricated for 3-point bending tests. The pseudo bending elastic moduli of meshed plate specimens obtained from 3-point bending test are ranged from 4.22 GPa to 16.07 GPa, within the elasticity range of natural cortical bones from 2.0 GPa to 30.0 GPa. Analytical approach method is validated by comparison with experimental and analytical results for evaluation on bending property of meshed plates.

  11. Evaluation of Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Aortic Media Based on the Lamellar Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Taghizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the mechanical properties of arterial wall components is necessary for establishing a precise mechanical model applicable in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as remodeling. In this contribution, a new approach for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of aortic media accounting for the lamellar structure is proposed. We assumed aortic media to be composed of two sets of concentric layers, namely sheets of elastin (Layer I and interstitial layers composed of mostly collagen bundles, fine elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells (Layer II. Biaxial mechanical tests were carried out on human thoracic aortic samples, and histological staining was performed to distinguish wall lamellae for determining the dimensions of the layers. A neo-Hookean strain energy function (SEF for Layer I and a four-parameter exponential SEF for Layer II were allocated. Nonlinear regression was used to find the material parameters of the proposed microstructural model based on experimental data. The non-linear behavior of media layers confirmed the higher contribution of elastic tissue in lower strains and the gradual engagement of collagen fibers. The resulting model determines the nonlinear anisotropic behavior of aortic media through the lamellar microstructure and can be assistive in the study of wall remodeling due to alterations in lamellar structure during pathological conditions and aging.

  12. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Second Version of the Taqwa (Piety) Questionnaire in Bahasa Melayu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain; Hatim, Ahmad; Ardakani, Abolfazl; Ishak, Khafidz; Rashid, Rusdi

    2017-02-10

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire, used for the measurement of behaviour of Drug Dependency Syndrome (DDS), in Malay patients. A sample of 98 males with a psychiatric diagnosis (DSM-IV-R) as the DDS was randomly selected from Kajang Khafidz Polyclinic Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. After receiving their agreement to attend the study, they completed the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire. The reliability was assessed by determining the Cronbach's [Formula: see text] to measure the consistency of related questions for all four dimensions (subscales), including individual, social, cognitional, and emotional Taqwa behaviour. In the next step to evaluate the composite reliability, convergent, and discrimination validity, a measurement model was determined via Conformity Factor Analysis (CFA) based on Partial List Square method (Smart- PLS Ver: 2M3). The reliability of four dimensions of the questionnaire was acceptable ([Formula: see text] correlated to each other. However, according to the CFA method, the items with low loading factor (discrimination validity were satisfied in all conformity factor loading that exceeded 0/05. The psychometric properties of the Taqwa questionnaire are acceptable, and the scale is a good instrument for assessing the Islamic attitude, beliefs, and behaviour of the Bahasa Melayu DDS patients.

  13. Viscoelastic properties of tablets from Osborne fractions, pentosans, flour and bread evaluated by creep tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Aburto, Anayansi; de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, Juan; Véles-Medina, José Juan; Ponce-García, Néstor; Hernández-Estrada, Zorba Josué; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Simsek, Senay

    2017-07-01

    Little attention has been given to the influence of non-gluten components on the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour dough, bread making process and their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate by creep tests the viscoelastic properties of tablets manufactured from Osborne solubility fractions (globulins, gliadins, glutenins, albumins and residue), pentosans, flour and bread. Hard and soft wheat cultivars were used to prepare the reconstituted tablets. Sintered tablets (except flour and bread) showed similar values to those obtained from the sum of the regression coefficients of the fractions. Gliadins and albumins accounted for about 54% of the total elasticity. Gliadins contributed with almost half of the total viscosity (45.7%), and showed the highest value for the viscosity coefficient of the viscous element. When the effect of dilution was evaluated, the residue showed the highest instantaneous elastic modulus (788.2 MPa). Retardation times of the first element (λ1 3.5 s) were about 10 times lower than the second element (λ2 39.3 s). The analysis of compliance of data corrected by protein content in flour showed that the residue fraction presented the highest values. An important contribution of non-gluten components (starch, albumins and globulins) on the viscoelastic performance of sintered tablets from Osborne fractions, flour and bread was found.

  14. Evaluation of creep rupture property of high strength ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehira, Akihiro; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ukai, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1999-04-01

    High Strength Ferritic/Martensitic Steel (PNC-FMS : 11Cr-0.5Mo-2W,Nb,V), developed by JNC, is one of the candidate materials for the long-life core of large-scale fast breeder reactor. The material design base standard (tentative) of PNC-FMS was established and the creep rupture strength reduction factor in the standard was determined in 1992. This factor was based on only evaluation of decarburization effect on tensile strength after sodium exposure. In this study, creep rupture properties of PNC-FMS under out of pile sodium exposure and in pile were evaluated, using recent test results as well as previous ones. The evaluation results are summarized as follows : a. Decarburization rate constant of pressurized tubes under sodium exposure is identical with stress free specimens. b. In case of the same decarburization content under out of pile sodium exposure, creep strength tends to decrease more significantly than tensile strength. c. Creep strength under out of pile sodium exposure showed significant decrease in high temperature and long exposure time, but in pile (MOTA) creep strength showed little decrease. A new creep rupture strength reduction factor, which is the ratio of creep rupture strength under sodium exposure or in pile to in air, was made by correlating the creep rupture strength. This new method directly using the ratio of creep rupture strength was evaluated and discussed from the viewpoint of design applicability, compared with the conventional method based on decarburization effect on tensile strength. (author)

  15. Evaluation of cloud properties in the NOAA/NCEP global forecast system using multiple satellite products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyelim [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Li, Zhanqing [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, GCESS, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    Knowledge of cloud properties and their vertical structure is important for meteorological studies due to their impact on both the Earth's radiation budget and adiabatic heating within the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to evaluate bulk cloud properties and vertical distribution simulated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) using three global satellite products. Cloud variables evaluated include the occurrence and fraction of clouds in up to three layers, cloud optical depth, liquid water path, and ice water path. Cloud vertical structure data are retrieved from both active (CloudSat/CALIPSO) and passive sensors and are subsequently compared with GFS model results. In general, the GFS model captures the spatial patterns of hydrometeors reasonably well and follows the general features seen in satellite measurements, but large discrepancies exist in low-level cloud properties. More boundary layer clouds over the interior continents were generated by the GFS model whereas satellite retrievals showed more low-level clouds over oceans. Although the frequencies of global multi-layer clouds from observations are similar to those from the model, latitudinal variations show discrepancies in terms of structure and pattern. The modeled cloud optical depth over storm track region and subtropical region is less than that from the passive sensor and is overestimated for deep convective clouds. The distributions of ice water path (IWP) agree better with satellite observations than do liquid water path (LWP) distributions. Discrepancies in LWP/IWP distributions between observations and the model are attributed to differences in cloud water mixing ratio and mean relative humidity fields, which are major control variables determining the formation of clouds. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of Changes in Index Properties of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapitus AMADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For soils to be suitable in civil engineering projects, they must meet existing local requirements for index properties in addition to certain strength criteria. Typically, specifications limit these properties to some threshold values which in most cases are project specific. Some lateritic soils in their natural state need some treatment/modification to meet these specification requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the index properties (i.e., particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of a residually derived lateritic soil following fly ash application. Lateritic soil – fly ash mixtures with up to 20% fly ash by dry weight of soil were tested and specimens for compaction characteristics were prepared at different compaction states (optimum, dry and wet of optimum moisture content and compacted using British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort. While soil – fly ash mixtures containing up to 15% fly ash classify as CL according to USCS classification system and plotted above A-line in the plasticity chart, it was observed that changes in the gradation characteristics of soil sample treated with 20% fly ash resulted in the alteration of its classification to ML as well as the crossing of the A- line to the silty region. The liquid limit (LL varied from 42.2 to 29.53% representing 70% reduction while the plasticity index (PI of specimen treated with 20% fly ash was 16% lower than that of natural soil. The optimum moisture content (OMC ranged from 17.36% for the natural soil to 18.34% for soil mixtures containing 20% fly ash which yielded dry unit weight of 17.2kN/m3 for the natural soil and 16.1kN/m3 for samples treated with 20% fly ash. From the study, useful data were obtained showing substantial and desirable changes in the properties of lateritic soil as a civil engineering material on application of fly ash.

  17. Development of resistance welding process. 6. Evaluation test of welding properties of martensitic ODS steel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shusaku; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    The welding condition and the heat-treatment condition were optimized to evaluate welding properties of the martensitic ODS steel cladding tube. The test pieces for evaluation of strength properties of the welded zone were produced by the optimized welding condition. In order to evaluate the strength of the welded zone, the internal creep rapture test, the single axis creep rapture test, the burst test and the tensile test were conducted. Following results were obtained in these tests. (1) Weld ability: An excellent welding characteristic was observed. The micro cracks, etc. were not served at the joint starting point. The joint starting points were connected uniformly with errors less than 0.05 mm. It is considered that an excellent welding characteristic was result of homogeneous micro structure of cladding material. (2) End plug material: In case of the material of end plug was martensitic ODS steel as same as that of cladding tube, the micro structure and the precipitation state carbide near the welded zone were found to be almost same as that of cladding tube. (3) Optimization of heat-treatment condition: The heat treatments of normalizing (1050degC) and tempering (780degC) were performed after welding and the micro structure near the welded zone was the isometric structure with low dislocation density, the precipitation state of carbide was uniform as same as that of cladding tube. These heat treatments can relax the residual stress accumulated when welding; it is considered that these heat treatments after welding are indispensable. (4) Strength of welded zone: The strength of the welded zone was found to be equal to that of cladding tube in all the strength tests. Therefore, it is concluded that the welding technology for the martensitic ODS steel is completed. (author)

  18. Tritium permeation evaluation through vertical target of divertor based on recent tritium transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nishi, Masataka

    2003-11-01

    Re-evaluation of tritium permeation through vertical target of divertor under the ITER operation condition was carried out using tritium properties in the candidate materials such as the diffusion coefficient and the trapping factors in tungsten for armor, and the surface recombination coefficient on copper for the heat sink obtained by authours' recent investigation (authors' data), which simulated the plasma-facing conditions of ITER. Evaluation with the data set of previous evaluation was also carried out for comparison (previous data). The permeation analysis was carried out individually by classifying into the armor region (Carbon Fiber Composites and tungsten) and the slit region without armor (3% of armor surface area) assuming the incident flux and temperature for each region. As the results of the permeation analysis, estimated permeation amount with the authors' data was one order less than that with the previous data at the end of lifetime of the divertor due to authors' small diffusion coefficient of tritium in tungsten. It also indicated the possibility that permeation through the slit region of the armor tiles could dominate total permeation through the vertical target, since tritium permeation amount through tungsten armor with the authors' data was estimated to be reduced drastically smaller than that with the previous evaluation data. The result of a little tritium permeation amount through the vertical target with the authors' data ensured the conservatism of the current evaluation of tritium concentration in the primary cooling water in ITER divertor, as it indicated the possibility of direct drainage of the divertor primary cooling water. (author)

  19. Properties of a color-changeable chewing gum used to evaluate masticatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Yohei; Kanazawa, Manabu; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Uchida, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    To clarify the basic properties of a color-changeable chewing gum to determine its applicability to evaluations of masticatory performance under different types of dental status. Ten participants with natural dentition aged 26-30 years chewed gum that changes color during several chewing strokes over five repetitions. Changes in color were assessed using a colorimeter, and then L*, a*, and b* values in the CIELAB color system were quantified. Relationships between chewing progression and color changes were assessed using regression analysis and the reliability of color changes was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. We then measured 42 dentate participants (age, 22-31 years) and 47 complete denture wearers (age, 44-90 years) to determine the detectability of masticatory performance under two types of dental status. Regression between the number of chewing strokes and the difference between two colors was non-linear. The intraclass correlation coefficients were highest between 60 and 160 chewing strokes. Dentate and edentulous groups significantly differed (Wilcoxon rank sum test) and values were widely distributed within each group. The color of the chewing gum changed over a wide range, which was sufficient to evaluate the masticatory performance of individuals with natural dentition and those with complete dentures. Changes in the color values of the gum reliably reflected masticatory performance. These findings indicate that the color-changeable chewing gum will be useful for evaluating masticatory performance under any dental status. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the Financial Stability of Banking System, Considering the Emergence Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesik Vitaliy O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with analyzing the existing approaches to evaluation of the financial stability of banking system, substantiating the expedience of accounting, and generalizing the characteristics of the emergence property to determine its level. The article considers the interrelation of concepts of «financial stability» and «financial sustainability», the necessity of their correlation, taking account of the time factor, has been substantiated. A critical analysis of the approaches to evaluating the financial stability of banking system has been carried out, their eligibility according to the criteria of accounting of the identification attributes of systemacity and the analytical data aggregation has been examined. To determine the status of banking system as a system phenomenon, the necessity of carrying out an evaluation of its financial stability on the basis of the emergence approach has been substantiated, including the following directions: intensity of credit and financial interaction in the interbank market; functional load of the banking system as to ensuring the macroeconomic development; structural changes and financial disparities in the banking system; scale effects that arise as a consequence of change in the main financial parameters of the system banks.

  1. Development of a miniaturized bulge test (small punch test) for post-irradiation mechanical property evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Suzuki, Masahide; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Misawa, Toshihei

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the small punch test for evaluating strength and toughness of irradiated ferritic steels, detailed procedures are described aiming at standardization of the test. The statistical approach to analysis of the SP energy as a function of temperature for evaluation of DBTT was also reviewed. The method was then applied to neutron-irradiated ferritic steels, which included F-82, F-82H, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel. Fluence and irradiation temperatures ranged from 2 to 12 x 10 23 n/m 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) and from 573 to 673 K, respectively. Comparison of parameters obtained from the small punch test with the properties measured by the conventional method indicated that: (a) the 0.2% offset stress and the ultimate tensile strength at room temperature can be correlated well with the parameters, P y /(t 0 ) 2 and P max /(t 0 ) 2 , respectively. Here, P y and P max are the loads corresponding to the yield and the maximum, and t 0 is the initial thickness of a specimen; (b) fracture toughness, J IC , can be evaluated using equivalent fracture strain, anti ε qf , and the previously established relationship between these values; and (c) DBTT measured by a Charpy test can be predicted from the results of temperature dependence of SP energy determined from the area under the load-deflection curve using a statistical analysis based on a Weibull distribution

  2. Evaluation of granular soil properties in seismic analysis of nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, A.; Riera, J.D.; Nanni, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures founded on soils, as well as related soil-structure interaction studies, are often made by means of 'equivalent' linear models of soil behavior, represented by effective values of damping and of Young's modulus. Such approach requires resorting to iteration on the material properties, thus leading to a 'multilinear' analysis which can be justified in practice on account of the scarce knowledge of constitutive equations applicable to soils under a general three-dimensional stress state. It is therefore important to establish bounds on the applicability of the multilinear solutions, and to develop reliable procedures for the evaluation of the soil properties to be used in seismic analyses. The paper focuses attention on the dynamic properties of sandy soils. To that effect, an extensive program was conducted using a triaxial dynamic testing apparatus developed at the UFRGS, and the results compared with existing experimental evidence, including data from resonant-column testing. Linear and nonlinear regression techniques applied to the experimental data led to new equations relating damping and soil stiffness to the dependent variables, and permitted as well the determination of the expected error of the estimated parameters. It was found that an increasing frequency, slightly increases both Young's modulus and the effective damping ratio. In addition, the influence of the content of fines was found to be significant. This variable does not appear in several available empirical equations, which only consider the confining pressure, the void ratio and the amplitude of the cyclic shear deformations as relevant variables. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation the Sensory and Probiotics Properties of the Yogurt Supplemented with Carrot Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new type of yogurt through addition of carrot juice. Yogurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of carrot juice at different levels (0%, 8%, 16%, 24% on sensory properties and the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days at refrigerated temperature (4°C was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 24 % carrot juice significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of 107 cfu/g probiotic bacteria at the end of 21-days shelf life. The yogurt with 24% carrot juice was the most appreciated (7.07 points, followed by the classic yogurt (6 points, yogurt with 8% (5.28 points and yogurt with16% carrot juice (5.5 points.

  4. Evaluation of glass transition temperature and dynamic mechanical properties of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kazuma; Watanabe, Ikuya; Kurogi, Tadafumi; Murata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed methods for evaluation of glass transition temperature (Tg) of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins using dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry in addition to the dynamic mechanical properties. The Tg values of 3 different reline resins were determined using a dynamic viscoelastometer and differential scanning calorimeter, and rheological parameters were also determined. Although all materials exhibited higher storage modulus and loss modulus values, and a lower loss tangent at 37˚C with a higher frequency, the frequency dependence was not large. Tg values obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis were higher than those by differential scanning calorimetry and higher frequency led to higher Tg, while more stable Tg values were also obtained by that method. These results suggest that dynamic mechanical analysis is more advantageous for characterization of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins than differential scanning calorimetry.

  5. Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilchandra, A R; Arnberg, Lars; Bonollo, Franco; Fiorese, Elena; Timelli, Giulio

    2017-08-30

    The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion.

  6. Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation of donkey bresaola and salami: comparison with conventional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R; Albenzio, M; Della Malva, A; Muscio, A; Sevi, A

    2015-03-01

    Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation were performed in bresaola and salami from donkey meat compared with respective conventional products. Donkey bresaola and salami showed higher content of protein and lower content of fat than beef bresaola and pork salami. Significant differences in the unsaturation level of fatty acids were found. Particularly, donkey meat products showed lower saturated fatty acids, higher polyunsatured fatty acid content and better nutritional indices than conventional beef bresaola and pork salami. Furthermore, donkey meat products, especially bresaola, showed the highest content of essential amino acids. Both donkey meat products resulted to be more tender than conventional products, in addition donkey bresaola showed also higher consumer acceptability. Our investigation demonstrates the possibility of processing donkey meat into products comparable to traditional ones with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of technological properties of samples burned from a clay tailings as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, M.; Garcia, G.C.R.; Ribeiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to start the study of technological properties of a clayey tailings from a mining of quartz sand - Mineracao Sao Joao Batista, Queluz - SP. For this study, clay samples were pressed (32 MPa) and fired at 1250 deg C, 1350 deg C and 1450 deg C for 180 minutes, with rates of heating and cooling of 5 deg C/min. We evaluated the bulk density, water absorption and apparent porosity. The results showed that increasing the firing temperature of 1250°C to 1450°C increased approximately 20% bulk density, while water absorption and apparent porosity decreased by 70% and 64% respectively. Thus, the increase in firing temperature increased the bulk density, decreasing the apparent porosity, resulting in increased mechanical strength of these samples, allowing the use of waste as raw material in the manufacture of ceramics. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Mechanical Property of Carbon Fiber/Polypropylene Composite According to Carbon Fiber Surface Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Song Hee; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Seong Su

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of a carbon fiber/polypropylene composite were evaluated according to the carbon fiber surface treatment. Carbon fiber surface treatments such as silane coupling agents and plasma treatment were performed to enhance the interfacial strength between carbon fibers and polypropylene. The treated carbon fiber surface was characterized by XP S, Sem, and single-filament tensile test. The interlaminar shear strength (Ilks) of the composite with respect to the surface treatment was determined by a short beam shear test. The test results showed that the Ilks of the plasma-treated specimen increased with the treatment time. The Ilks of the specimen treated with a silane coupling agent after plasma treatment increased by 48.7% compared to that of the untreated specimen

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, stress induced hyperthermia (SIH, elevated plus maze (EPM and open field experimental models were employed. Results: In SIH model, the extract caused a significant (P 0.05 effect. In open field model, 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg extract doses significantly (P < 0.05 increased locomotion of the mice more than the standard, while rearing and defecation were less in the extract groups. Conclusion: In different experimental models used significant anxiolytic effect was observed of the aqueous extract at different dose levels in comparison to reference standard and normal saline group. This clearly justified its folkloric application in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  10. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Wax Mixtures Obtained From Recycling of Patterns Used in Precision Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the properties of selected certified mixtures used to make wax patterns for the production of precision castings for the aerospace industry. In addition, an assessment of the recycled mixtures consisting of certified wax materials recovered during autoclaving was carried out. Hardness was tested via a proposed method based on penetration, creep related deformation, bending strength and linear contraction. The hardness was studied on laboratory specimens and patterns made with the use of injection molding equipment. For these patterns, linear contraction was estimated at variable pressure and for different temperature injection parameters. Deformations connected with creep and resistance were evaluated on cylindrical specimens. Differences in creep resistance in relation to the hardness were observed depending on the type of pattern mixtures. Recycled mixture has a greater resistance and smaller linear contraction than certified mixtures used for making sprue, raisers and other parts of filler system.

  11. Evaluation of ethanol aged PVDF: diffusion, crystallinity and dynamic mechanical thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Agmar J.J.; Costa, Marysilvia F.

    2015-01-01

    This work discuss firstly the effect of the ethanol fuel absorption by PVDF at 60°C through mass variation tests. A Fickian character was observed for the ethanol absorption kinetics of the aged PVDF at 60°C. In the second step, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (E’, E’, E” and tan δ) of the PVDF were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The chemical structure of the materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and significant changes in the degree of crystallinity were verified after the aging. However, DMTA results showed a reduction in the storage modulus (E') of the aged PVDF, which was associated to diffusion of ethanol and swelling of the PVDF, which generated a prevailing plasticizing effect and led to reduction of its structural stiffness. (author)

  12. Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilchandra, A.R.; Arnberg, Lars; Bonollo, Franco; Fiorese, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion. PMID:28867796

  13. Evaluation of magnetic properties of NI-ZN ferrites obtained by different synthesis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Simoes, V.N.; Gama, L.; Gomes Filho, A.C.; Oliveira, J.B.L.

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic oxides that exhibit ferromagnetic behavior represent important commercial products for the electronics industry and are commonly known as ferrites. The Ni-Zn ferrites are considered to be one of the most versatile and soft due to its high electrical resistivity and low eddy current losses. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite obtained by the Pechini and combustion reaction. After synthesis the powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and magnetic measurements. The results showed that for both methods of synthesis used was the formation of the spinel phase of Ni-Zn ferrite. The micrographs show that the powders obtained by both methods have regular shapes and spherical. Were determined by BET surface area is 26 m 2 /g by the Pechini and 13 m 2 /g by combustion. And the samples synthesized by Pechini method obtained the best magnetic characteristics (author)

  14. Evaluation of the binding effect of human serum albumin on the properties of granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Katalin; Bajdik, János; Eros, István; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of this study was the application of a solution of human serum albumin as a granulating fluid. The properties of the granules formed were evaluated and compared with those when a conventional binder was applied in the same concentration. The powder mixture contained a soluble (mannitol) and an insoluble component (different types of cellulose). The protein solution applied exerted an appropriate aggregating effect if the system contained microcrystalline celluloses. Powdered cellulose was not suitable for the granulation with human serum albumin solution. As compared with the same concentration of the conventionally applied cellulose ethers as binder, the prepared granules exhibited a larger particle size, a significantly better compressibility, a higher breaking hardness and a favourable deformation process. These findings mainly reflect the good adhesive properties of the protein. The best compressibility and mechanical behaviour were attained on the application of the microcrystalline cellulose Vivapur type 105. This favourable behaviour may be connected with the wettability of cellulose. These results suggest that the formulation of tablets may be easier from an active agent in the serum that binds to albumin (e.g. interferon) since the amount of additives (binder) can be reduced.

  15. Ground-state properties of rare-earth metals: an evaluation of density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Söderlind, Per; Turchi, P E A; Landa, A; Lordi, V

    2014-01-01

    The rare-earth metals have important technological applications due to their magnetic properties, but are scarce and expensive. Development of high-performance magnetic materials with less rare-earth content is desired, but theoretical modeling is hampered by complexities of the rare earths electronic structure. The existence of correlated (atomic-like) 4f electrons in the vicinity of the valence band makes any first-principles theory challenging. Here, we apply and evaluate the efficacy of density-functional theory for the series of lanthanides (rare earths), investigating the influence of the electron exchange and correlation functional, spin-orbit interaction, and orbital polarization. As a reference, the results are compared with those of the so-called ‘standard model’ of the lanthanides in which electrons are constrained to occupy 4f core states with no hybridization with the valence electrons. Some comparisons are also made with models designed for strong electron correlations. Our results suggest that spin–orbit coupling and orbital polarization are important, particularly for the magnitude of the magnetic moments, and that calculated equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and magnetic moments show correct trends overall. However, the precision of the calculated properties is not at the level of that found for simpler metals in the Periodic Table of Elements, and the electronic structures do not accurately reproduce x-ray photoemission spectra. (paper)

  16. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dilonardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol–gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties.

  17. Evaluation of diffusion barrier and electrical properties of tantalum oxynitride thin films for silver metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, E.; Wang, Y.; Theodore, N.D.; Alford, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    The thermal stability and the diffusion barrier properties of DC reactively sputtered tantalum oxynitride (Ta-O-N) thin films, between silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) p + n diodes were investigated. Both materials characterization (X-ray diffraction analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Auger depth profiling) and electrical measurements (reverse-biased junction leakage current-density) were used to evaluate diffusion barrier properties of the thin films. The leakage current density of p + n diodes with the barrier (Ta-O-N) was approximately four orders of magnitude lower than those without barriers after a 30 min, 400 deg. C back contact anneal. The Ta-O-N barriers were stable up to 500 deg. C, 30 min anneals. However, this was not the case for the 600 deg. C anneal. RBS spectra and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of as-deposited and vacuum annealed samples of Ag/barrier (Ta-O-N)/Si indicate the absence of any interfacial interaction between the barrier and substrate (silicon). The failure of the Ta-O-N barriers has been attributed to thermally induced stresses, which cause the thin film to crack at elevated temperatures

  18. Evaluation of transport properties of nanofiltration membranes exposed to radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Bastos, Edna T.R., E-mail: eemo@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeira, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Julio C., E-mail: Julio@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    The application of membrane separation processes (PSM) for treatment of radioactive waste requires the selection of a suitable membrane for the treatment of waste, as the membrane will be directly exposed to the radioactive liquid waste, and also exposed to ionizing radiation. The nanofiltration membrane is most suitable for treatment of radioactive waste, since it has high rejection of multivalent ions. Usually the membranes are made of polymers and depending on the composition of the waste, type and dose of radiation absorbed may be changes in the structure of the membrane, resulting in loss of its transport properties. We tested two commercial nanofiltration membranes: NF and SW Dow/Filmtec. The waste liquid used was obtained in the process of conversion of uranium hexafluoride gas to solid uranium dioxide, known as 'carbonated water'. The membranes were characterized as their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux and salt rejection) before and after their immersion in the waste for 24 hours. The surface of the membranes was also evaluated by SEM and FTIR. It was observed that in both the porosity of the membrane selective layer was altered, but not the membrane surface charge, which is responsible for the selectivity of the membrane. The NF membranes and SW showed uranium ion rejection of 64% and 55% respectively. (author)

  19. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Dy123 bulk superconductors by 3-point bending tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, K.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Sato, T.; Kasaba, K.; Shoji, Y.; Murakami, A.; Teshima, H.; Hirano, H.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus and strength, of Dy123 bulk superconductors and those with 10 wt.% Ag 2 O, we performed 3-point bending tests at room (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperatures (LNT) using specimens cut from the bulks. The Young's modulus and the bending strength increased with decrease in temperature. In the tests loading in the direction of c-axis and ones perpendicular to it, Young's moduli were almost comparable at both RT and LNT. Although the strengths for both orientations were also comparable at LNT, those at RT were different. Young's moduli loaded in the direction of c-axis for Ag 2 O added bulk specimens, 127 GPa in average at RT, were almost comparable to those without Ag 2 O, and 134 GPa at LNT, were slightly lower than those without Ag 2 O. On the other hand, the strengths at both RT and LNT were enhanced by 20% by the Ag addition. The mechanical properties of Dy123 bulks without Ag 2 O were compared with those of Y123 bulks obtained previously. The Young's modulus for loading in the direction of c-axis was slightly lower, and the strength was comparable to those in Y123 bulks, respectively

  20. Application of backpropagation neural networks to evaluate residual properties of thermally damaged concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, W.L.; Shigaki, Y.; Tolentino, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this work it was analyzed the residual performance of Portland cement concretes, when cold after heat-treated up to 600 deg C. Granite-gneiss was used in the three concrete mix proportions as the coarse aggregate, and river sand with finesses modulus of 2.7 as the fine aggregate. Ultrasonic pulse tests were performed on all the specimens and ultrasonic dynamic modulus were obtained. An artificial neural network of the backpropagation type was trained to evaluate and apply models in predicting residual properties of Portland cement concretes. The input layer for both models consists of an external layer input vector of the temperature. The hidden layer has two processing units with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer functions (tansig for short), and the output layer contains one processing unit that represents the network's output (ultrasonic pulse velocity or modulus of elasticity) for each input vector. The training phase of the network converged for reasonable results after 5.000 epochs approximately, resulting in mean squared errors less than 0.02 for the normalized data. The neural network developed for modeling residual properties of Portland cement concretes was shown to be efficient in both the training phase and the test. From the results reasonable predictions could be made for the ultrasonic pulse velocity or dynamic modulus of elasticity by using temperature. (author)

  1. Evaluation and improvement of sour property packages in UniSim design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Zhao, E.; Wang, L.; Saha, S. [Honeywell, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation described specialty fluid packages for modeling oil and gas process systems involving sour gases in contact with aqueous phase. UniSim Design is a popular process simulation tool in the oil and gas industry. The sour Peng-Robinson (PR) and sour Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) models are commonly used for handling sour system where hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) or ammonia (NH{sub 3}) are in contact with an aqueous phase. These sour options combine the PR/SRK equation of state and Wilson's API-sour model where the equation of state is used to determine the fugacities of the vapor and liquid hydrocarbon phases, plus the enthalpy for all 3 phases. The Wilson's API-sour method is used for the aqueous phase calculations, which accounts for the ionization of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the aqueous phase. The efficiency of these 2 thermodynamic property packages were evaluated in this study by comparing industrial and experimental data and the results from other similar models. The purpose of this study was to improve these property packages for more accurate and reliable modeling of sour systems. tabs., figs.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotha Anilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor isolated from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa, in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, and interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties.

  3. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-05

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Shelf life of anchovy products (Engraulis encrasicolus: evaluation of sensory, microbiological and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fishery products have always been an important food in Italy. In the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. Recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. In fact, in 2013, according to data from ISMEA, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%. This decline also concerns anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus. This species, partly because of its low price, is a mainstay of traditional Italian food. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensorial, chemical and microbiological properties of anchovy-based (Engraulis encrasicolus products during storage at 4 and -20°C. Fresh anchovies, obtained from the wholesale fish market of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy were cut into small pieces and hand-prepared using bread, eggs, cheese and lemon juice. Samples were analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage at 4°C. An aliquot was quickly frozen and analysed after 34 days at -20°C. Sensory assessment, microbiological (specific spoilage organisms, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. and chemical (histamine, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid, pH and aw analyses were performed. Results showed that the shelf life of anchovy products was less than 5 days for the samples stored at 4°C. At -20°C, all anchovies preparations showed good sensory, microbiological and chemical properties for 34 days.

  5. Evaluation of the attenuating properties of selected Greek clays for toxic inorganic elements in landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimides, T; Perraki, T

    2000-05-15

    Heavy metal attenuation properties of selected clay material collected from miscellaneous Greek sites is investigated and tested in the laboratory for their suitability, either as liners in hydrologically unsafe sites or as earth covers for sanitary landfill sites. Eleven potentially hazardous elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) generated by a co-disposal landfill leachate have been considered. Experimental column and static equilibrium methods for the determination of dispersion and adsorption are described. Molecular diffusion dominates the migration phenomena with a velocity range between 1.3 x 10(-5) and 3.5 x 10(-4) cm/s throughout the experiments. A simple way to evaluate dispersion coefficients from breakthrough curves gave values of between 3.90 x 10(-6) and 3.5 x 10(-4) cm2/s, with a mean value of 1.5 x 10(-5). Static adsorption equilibrium studies supported by column runs showed that Freundlich (F = kCn) isotherms express in a better way the assimilative capacities of the tested clays, with k and n values ranging from 0.06 to 1.99 and 0.55 to 1.48 correspondingly. Mathematical models involving non-linear parabolic equations are involved. The experimental data, together with finite difference techniques and some physical clay characteristics, produced trilinear textural diagrams and predictive flow transport convection-dispersion breakthrough curves for a quick estimation of the attenuating properties of clays for heavy metals.

  6. Statistical properties of material strength for reliability evaluation of components of fast reactors. Austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Shigeru; Sasaki, Naoto; Tomobe, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Many efforts have been made to implement the System Based Code concept of which objective is to optimize margins dispersed in several codes and standards. Failure probability is expected to be a promising quantitative index for optimization of margins, and statistical information for random variables is needed to evaluate failure probability. Material strength like tensile strength is an important random variable, but the statistical information has not been provided enough yet. In this report, statistical properties of material strength such as creep rupture time, steady creep strain rate, yield stress, tensile stress, flow stress, fatigue life and cyclic stress-strain curve, were estimated for SUS304 and 316FR steel, which are typical structural materials for fast reactors. Other austenitic stainless steels like SUS316 were also used for statistical estimation of some material properties such as fatigue life. These materials are registered in the JSME code of design and construction of fast reactors, so test data used for developing the code were used as much as possible in this report. (author)

  7. Evaluation of catalytic properties of tungsten carbide for the anode of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam; Zhao, Feng; Quaas, Marion; Wulff, Harm; Schroeder, Uwe; Scholz, Fritz [Universitaet Greifswald, Institut fuer Biochemie, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 4, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-07-31

    In this communication we discuss the properties of tungsten carbide, WC, as anodic electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cell application. The electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide is evaluated in the light of its preparation procedure, its structural properties as well as the pH and the composition of the anolyte solution and the catalyst load. The activity of the noble-metal-free electrocatalyst towards the oxidation of several common microbial fermentation products (hydrogen, formate, lactate, ethanol) is studied for microbial fuel cell conditions (e.g., pH 5, room temperature and ambient pressure). Current densities of up to 8.8 mA cm{sup -2} are achieved for hydrogen (hydrogen saturated electrolyte solution), and up to 2 mA cm{sup -2} for formate and lactate, respectively. No activity was observed for ethanol electrooxidation. The electrocatalytic activity and chemical stability of tungsten carbide is excellent in acidic to pH neutral potassium chloride electrolyte solutions, whereas higher phosphate concentrations at neutral pH support an oxidative degradation. (author)

  8. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties and evaluation of property-transfer models for deep sedimentary interbeds, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kimberlie; Johnson, Brittany D.; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    Operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have the potential to contaminate the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Methods to quantitatively characterize unsaturated flow and recharge to the ESRP aquifer are needed to inform water-resources management decisions at INL. In particular, hydraulic properties are needed to parameterize distributed hydrologic models of unsaturated flow and transport at INL, but these properties are often difficult and costly to obtain for large areas. The unsaturated zone overlying the ESRP aquifer consists of alternating sequences of thick fractured volcanic rocks that can rapidly transmit water flow and thinner sedimentary interbeds that transmit water much more slowly. Consequently, the sedimentary interbeds are of considerable interest because they primarily restrict the vertical movement of water through the unsaturated zone. Previous efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have included extensive laboratory characterization of the sedimentary interbeds and regression analyses to develop property-transfer models, which relate readily available physical properties of the sedimentary interbeds (bulk density, median particle diameter, and uniformity coefficient) to water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves.

  9. A Leishmania murine model to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of Pythium insidiosum proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maria Inêz-Ferreira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum immunomodulatory vaccine (PiV has been tested in clinical and experimental pythiosis. Previous data showed that P. insidiosum immunogens have the ability to switch the Th2 immune response, normally in place during pythiosis, to a curative Th1 response. Pythiosis cannot be reproduced in experimental rodents with the exception of rabbits, and thus thorough evaluation of PiV´s immunomodulatory properties has been limited by the lack of a compatible inbred mouse model. In this study, we took advantage of the murine BALB/c Leishmania infection model, where infected mice produce a Th2 response, to evaluate the PiV Th2 to Th1 immunomodulatory potential. Twenty-one days following challenge with L. major, large cutaneous granulomas developed in control mice, consistent with the expected Th2 response. In contrast, Leishmania-induced cutaneous lesions in PiV-immunized mice were minimal or absent. Flow cytometry analysis of spleen cells from mice immunized with PiV and subsequently challenged with L. major displayed more CD4+ and CD8+ cells than the control group. Moreover, spleen cells from mice that were immunized with PiV then challenged with L. major secreted high levels of IFN-γ, with a moderate IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 mixed cytokine profile upon in vitro re-stimulation with PiV. Anti-P. insidiosum IgG1 in immunized animals was present at low titers suggesting a minor immunological role for this Ig isotype in this model. Our preliminary data showed that BALB/c mice challenged with L. major represent an attractive model in which to study PiV´s immunomodulatory properties.

  10. The Monte Carlo evaluation of noise and resolution properties of granular phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaparinos, P F; Kandarakis, I S

    2009-01-01

    The imaging performance of phosphor screens, used as x-ray detectors in diagnostic medical imaging systems, is affected by their both noise and resolution properties. Amplification and blurring processes are due to a sequence of conversion stages within the screen which contribute to fluctuations in the number and spatial distribution of the optical quanta recorded by the optical detector (e.g. film, television camera, CCD, etc). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stochastic noise arising from granularity as well as the variation of spatial resolution of granular fluorescent screens in terms of the detector's structure. Using a custom-validated Monte Carlo model, the parameters of interest were evaluated for the widely used Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor material. We have studied the variations of (i) the modulation transfer function, (ii) the Swank factor and (iii) the zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency (DQE), under several conditions employed in conventional and digital mammography and radiology. Several evaluations are provided for the imaging metrics as a function of the x-ray energy (18 keV, 49 keV and 51 keV), phosphor coating weight (20 mg cm -2 , 34 mg cm -2 and 60 mg cm -2 ), grain size (from 4 μm up to 13 μm) and packing density (from 50% up to 85%). It was found that screens of high packing density can combine high zero-frequency DQE with improved resolution properties. For a digital mammographic imaging system (34 mg cm -2 , 18 keV), a packing density of 85% can improve the spatial resolution of the screen by 1.6 cycles mm -1 in comparison to that of 50% packing density. Similarly, for radiographic cases (60 mg cm -2 , 49 keV), the spatial resolution can be improved by 1.7 cycles mm -1 . The aforementioned findings provide the resolution benefits of using high packing density screens.

  11. Evaluation of the measurement properties of symptom measurement instruments for atopic eczema: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens, L A A; Prinsen, C A C; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; von Kobyletzki, L B; Limpens, J; Nankervis, H; Svensson, Å; Terwee, C B; Zhang, J; Apfelbacher, C J; Spuls, P I

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms have been identified as a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials. Various instruments exist to measure symptoms in AE, but they vary in quality and there is a lack of standardization between clinical trials. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the quality of the evidence on the measurement properties of AE symptom instruments, thereby informing consensus discussions within the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative regarding the most appropriate instruments for the core outcome domain symptoms. Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and predefined criteria for good measurement properties on identified development and validation studies of AE symptom instruments, a best evidence synthesis was performed to draw an overall conclusion on quality of the instruments and to provide recommendations. Eighteen instruments were identified and evaluated. When the quality and results of the studies were considered, only five of these instruments had sufficient validation data to consider them for the core outcome set for the core outcome domain symptoms. These were the paediatric Itch Severity Scale (ISS), Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index (SA-EASI) and adapted SA-EASI. ISS (paediatric version), POEM, PO-SCORAD, SA-EASI and adapted SA-EASI are currently the most appropriate instruments and therefore have the potential to be recommended as core symptom instrument in future clinical trials. These findings will be utilized for the development of a core outcome set for AE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Design and Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Narges; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vadadhir, AbouAli; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2016-07-25

    The present study aimed to design and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire (PAQ). The study was a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) sequential exploratory study. In the qualitative phase, a preliminary questionnaire with 210 items emerged from in-depth interviews with 17 fathers and 15 key informants. In the quantitative phase, psychometric properties of the PAQ were assessed. Considering cutoff points as 1.5 for item impact, 0.49 for content validity ratio (CVR), and 0.7 for content validity index (CVI), items of the questionnaire were reduced from 210 to 132. Assessment of the content validity of the questionnaire demonstrated S-CVR = 0.68 and S-CVI = 0.92. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in the development of a PAQ with 38 items classified under five factors (ability in performing the roles and responsibilities; perceiving the parental development; stabilization in paternal position; spiritual stability and internal satisfaction; and challenges and concerns), which explained 52.19% of cumulative variance. Measurement of internal consistency reported a Cronbach's α of .89 for PAQ (.61-.86 for subscales), and stability assessment of the PAQ through the test-retest demonstrated Spearman's correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficient of .96 (.81-.97 for subscales). It was identified that the PAQ is a valid and reliable instrument that could be used to assess fatherhood adaptation with the paternal roles and fathers' needs, as well as to design appropriate interventions and to evaluate their effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Evaluation of thermal physical properties for fast reactor fuels. Melting point and thermal conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masato; Morimoto, Kyoichi; Komeno, Akira; Nakamichi, Shinya; Kashimura, Motoaki; Abe, Tomoyuki; Uno, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Masahiro; Tamura, Tetsuya; Sugata, Hirotada; Sunaoshi, Takeo; Shibata, Kazuya

    2006-10-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a fast breeder reactor (FBR), and plutonium and uranium mixed oxide (MOX) having low density and 20-30%Pu content has used as a fuel of the FBR, Monju. In plutonium, Americium has been accumulated during long-term storage, and Am content will be increasing up to 2-3% in the MOX. It is essential to evaluate the influence of Am content on physical properties of MOX on the development of FBR in the future. In this study melting points and thermal conductivities which are important data on the fuel design were measured systematically in wide range of composition, and the effects of Am accumulated were evaluated. The solidus temperatures of MOX were measured as a function of Pu content, oxygen to metal ratio (O/M) and Am content using thermal arrest technique. The sample was sealed in a tungsten capsule in vacuum for measuring solidus temperature. In the measurements of MOX with Pu content of more than 30%, a rhenium inner capsule was used to prevent the reaction between MOX and tungsten. In the results, it was confirmed that the melting points of MOX decrease with as an increase of Pu content and increase slightly with a decrease of O/M ratio. The effect of Am content on the fuel design was negligible small in the range of Am content up to 3%. Thermal conductivities of MOX were evaluated from thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method and heat capacity calculated by Neumann- Kopp's law. The thermal conductivity of MOX decreased slightly in the temperature of less than 1173K with increasing Am content. The effect of Am accumulated in long-term storage fuel was evaluated from melting points and thermal conductivities measured in this study. It is concluded that the increase of Am in the fuel barely affect the fuel design in the range of less than 3%Am content. (author)

  14. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties evaluation for the LBB concept in VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Karnik, D.

    1997-04-01

    One of the conditions required for Leak Before Break application is the verification that the influence of corrosion environment on the material of the component can be neglected. Both the general corrosion and/or the initiation and, growth of corrosion-mechanical cracks must not cause the degradation. The primary piping in the VVER nuclear power plant is made from austenitic steels (VVER 440) and low alloy steels protected with the austenitic cladding (VVER 1000). Inspection of the base metal and heterogeneous weldments from the VVER 440 showed that the crack growth rates are below 10 m/s if a low oxygen level is kept in the primary environment. No intergranular cracking was observed in low and high oxygen water after any type of testing, with constant or periodic loading. In the framework of the LBB assessment of the VVER 1000, the corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties were also evaluated. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical testing was oriented predominantly to three types of tests: stress corrosion cracking tests corrosion fatigue tests evaluation of the resistance against corrosion damage. In this paper, the methods used for these tests are described and the materials are compared from the point of view of response on static and periodic mechanical stress on the low alloyed steel 10GN2WA and weld metal exposed in the primary circuit environment. The slow strain rate tests and static loading of both C-rings and CT specimens were performed in order to assess the stress corrosion cracking characteristics. Cyclic loading of CT specimens was done to evaluate the kinetics of the crack growth under periodical loading. Results are shown to illustrate the approaches used. The data obtained were evaluated also from the point of view of comparison of the influence of different structure on the stress corrosion cracking appearance. The results obtained for the base metal and weld metal of the piping are presented here.

  15. Evaluation of simulated tropical convective updraft hydrometeor properties using aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, McKenna W.

    The High Altitude Ice Crystals - High Ice Water Content (HAIC-HIWC) field campaign produced aircraft retrievals of total condensed water content (TWC), hydrometeor particle size distributions, and vertical velocity (w) in high ice water content regions of tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). These observations are used to evaluate deep convective updraft properties in high-resolution nested Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations of observed MCSs. Because simulated hydrometeor properties are highly sensitive to the parameterization of microphysics, three commonly used microphysical parameterizations are tested, including two bulk schemes (Thompson and Morrison) and one bin scheme (Fast Spectral Bin Microphysics). A commonly documented bias in cloud-resolving simulations is the exaggeration of simulated radar reflectivities aloft in tropical MCSs. This may result from overly strong convective updrafts that loft excessive condensate mass and from simplified approximations of hydrometeor size distributions, properties, species separation, and microphysical processes. The degree to which the reflectivity bias is a separate function of convective dynamics, condensate mass, and hydrometeor size has yet to be addressed. This research untangles these components by comparing simulated and observed relationships between w, TWC, and hydrometer size as a function of temperature. All microphysics schemes produce median mass diameters that are generally larger than observed for temperatures between -10 °C and -40 °C and TWC > 1 g m-3. Observations produce a prominent mode in the composite mass size distribution around 300 microm, but under most conditions, all schemes shift the distribution mode to larger sizes. Despite a much greater number of samples, all simulations fail to reproduce observed high TWC or high w conditions between -20 °C and -40 °C in which only a small fraction of condensate mass is found in relatively large particle sizes. Increasing

  16. Instruments evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environment in nursing education: A systematic review of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansutti, Irene; Saiani, Luisa; Grassetti, Luca; Palese, Alvisa

    2017-03-01

    The clinical learning environment is fundamental to nursing education paths, capable of affecting learning processes and outcomes. Several instruments have been developed in nursing education, aimed at evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environments; however, no systematic review of the psychometric properties and methodological quality of these studies has been performed to date. The aims of the study were: 1) to identify validated instruments evaluating the clinical learning environments in nursing education; 2) to evaluate critically the methodological quality of the psychometric property estimation used; and 3) to compare psychometric properties across the instruments available. A systematic review of the literature (using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines) and an evaluation of the methodological quality of psychometric properties (using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments guidelines). The Medline and CINAHL databases were searched. Eligible studies were those that satisfied the following criteria: a) validation studies of instruments evaluating the quality of clinical learning environments; b) in nursing education; c) published in English or Italian; d) before April 2016. The included studies were evaluated for the methodological quality of the psychometric properties measured and then compared in terms of both the psychometric properties and the methodological quality of the processes used. The search strategy yielded a total of 26 studies and eight clinical learning environment evaluation instruments. A variety of psychometric properties have been estimated for each instrument, with differing qualities in the methodology used. Concept and construct validity were poorly assessed in terms of their significance and rarely judged by the target population (nursing students). Some properties were rarely considered (e.g., reliability, measurement error

  17. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  18. A New Approach for Evaluating Charge Transport Properties of Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung O; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Soon Young; Ha, Jang Ho

    2009-01-01

    The semiconductor detectors (e.g., CdTe, CdZnTe, and HgI 2 ) have been widely used for radiation detection and medical imaging because of its various outstanding features such as excellent energy resolution, wide bandgap energy, room temperature operation, and so on. Unfortunately, the performance of these detectors is mainly limited by the charge transport properties of semiconductor, especially the mobility-lifetime products (i.e., (μτ) e and ((μτ) h ). Hence, the analysis on the mobility-lifetime products is very important for evaluating correct characteristics of semiconductor detectors. A commonly used method to analyze the mobilitylifetime products is based on their responses to α particle. However, the α particle method cannot evaluate the ((μτ)h product in many cases, because a semiconductor detector operating at positive bias voltages often yields the energy spectrum without the peaks. This method is also known to be very sensitive to the experimental conditions as well as surface conditions of the detector. In this study, a new approach with gamma-ray instead of α particle was carried out to solve the determination difficulty of the ((μτ) h product with common method. The special relation between the two mobility-lifetime products, which we call the 'Nural equation', was also developed to simply obtain each parameter based on Hecht equation

  19. Evaluation of mechanical properties of four different carbon/epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Four families of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC used in aeronautical industry were evaluated by flexural and interlaminar shear tests. It is also characterized three families of non-conditioned and conditioned CFRC by compression test. The composites were obtained by hand lay-up process in autoclave by using prepregs based on epoxy matrices (F155 and F584 and carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (PW-"Plain Weave" and 8HS-"Eight Harness Satin". The F155-epoxy matrix was cured at 121 °C and the F584-epoxy type at 177 °C. After molding, the laminates were cut in specimens attending the ASTM D790 for the flexural test, the ASTM D2344 for the interlaminar shear test (ILSS and the ASTM D3410 for the compressive test. The compressive tests were performed for testing the specimens before and after hygrothermal conditioning. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present higher mechanical properties when compared to the F155-epoxy ones. The shear-tested samples observed by scanning electron microscopy and that ones tested in flexural, analyzed by stereoscopy, revealed that the fractured surfaces present typical aspects. The compressive results show that the hygrothermal conditioning caused the decrease of the compressive strength in, approximately, 8-20% depending on the laminate type. The failure modes of the tested specimens were evaluated showing good agreement with the literature.

  20. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties following penetrating keratoplasty using ocular response analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanathi Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in eyes that has undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary care centre. Data recorded included ocular response analyzer (ORA values of normal and post-keratoplasty eyes [corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc], corneal topography, and central corneal thickness (CCT. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze the difference in ORA parameter between post-PK eyes and normal eyes. Correlation between parameters was evaluated with Spearman′s rho correlation. Results: The ORA study of 100 eyes of 50 normal subjects and 54 post-keratoplasty eyes of 51 patients showed CH of 8.340 ± 1.85 and 9.923 ± 1.558, CRF of 8.846 ± 2.39 and 9.577 ± 1.631 in post-PK eyes and normal eyes, respectively. CH and CRF did not correlate with post-keratoplasty astigmatism (P = 0.311 and 0.276, respectively while a significant correlation was observed with IOPg (P = 0.004 and IOPcc (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Biomechanical profiles were significantly decreased in post-keratoplasty eyes with significant correlation with higher IOP as compared with that in normal eyes.

  1. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarski, Michelle; Zaiser, Erica; Trundell, Dylan; Make, Barry J; Hareendran, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime symptoms can negatively impact the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument (NiSCI) was designed to measure the occurrence and severity of nighttime symptoms in patients with COPD, the impact of symptoms on nighttime awakenings, and rescue medication use. The objective of this study was to explore item reduction, inform scoring recommendations, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the NiSCI. COPD patients participating in a Phase III clinical trial completed the NiSCI daily. Item analyses were conducted using weekly mean and single day scores. Descriptive statistics (including percentage of respondents at floor/ceiling and inter-item correlations), factor analyses, and Rasch model analyses were conducted to examine item performance and scoring. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the final instrument using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Correlations with assessments conducted during study visits were used to evaluate convergent and known-groups validity. Data from 1,663 COPD patients aged 40-93 years were analyzed. Item analyses supported the generation of four scores. A one-factor structure was confirmed with factor analysis and Rasch analysis for the symptom severity score. Test-retest reliability was confirmed for the six-item symptom severity (ICC, 0.85), number of nighttime awakenings (ICC, 0.82), and rescue medication (ICC, 0.68) scores. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the NiSCI, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms scores. The results suggest that the NiSCI can be used to determine the severity of nighttime COPD symptoms, the number of nighttime awakenings due to COPD symptoms, and the nighttime use of rescue medication. The NiSCI is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate these concepts in COPD patients in clinical

  2. Caregiving in severe mental illness: the psychometric properties of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves-Pereira Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the achievements of previous research, caregiving assessments in severe mental illness should be crossculturally validated in order to define risk groups or to evaluate family work. This study reports on the psychometric properties of the European version of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ-EU in Portugal. Methods A Portuguese translation of the IEQ-EU was developed according to the 'European Psychiatric Services: Inputs Linked to Outcome Domains and Needs' (EPSILON group guidelines. We then studied 194 caregivers who were related to patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in psychiatric outpatient services. All relatives were assessed using the IEQ-EU. In order to describe the corresponding patients' sample, the majority (n = 162 was evaluated with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II; 108 patients were also assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. Results The factor structure of the Portuguese version of the questionnaire was similar to the original; internal consistency was good, with Cronbach's α ranging from 0.71 to 0.87 in the IEQ-EU scales (total score and domains: tension, supervision, worrying, urging; test-retest reliability yielded intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs from 0.80 to 0.94, concerning the same scores. Ecological validity was confirmed. Most caregiving consequences were reported on the worrying domain of the IEQ-EU. Conclusions Validity and reliability of the Portuguese IEQ-EU translation were established. Specifically the four IEQ-EU subscale domains seem to be valid in Portugal.

  3. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

  4. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of liposomes as potential carriers of anticancer drugs: spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentak, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Vesicle size and composition are a critical parameter for determining the circulation half-life of liposomes. Size influences the degree of drug encapsulation in liposomes. The geometry, size, and properties of liposomes in an aqueous environment have to be described to enable potential applications of liposome systems as drug carriers. The characteristics of multiple thermotropic phase transitions are also an important consideration in liposomes used for analytical and bioanalytical purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of liposomes which accommodate hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs used in cancer therapy. The studied liposomes were prepared with the involvement of the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV). The prepared liposomes had a diameter of 70–150 nm. The analyzed compounds were 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide. In literature, there is no information about simultaneous incorporation of cytarabine, ifosfamide, and cyclophosphamide, in spite of the fact that these drugs have been used for more than 30 years. A combination of the examined drugs is used in CODOX-M/IVAC therapy. CODOX-M/IVAC (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) is one of the currently preferred intensive-dose chemotherapy regimens for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). The present research demonstrates the pioneering studies of incorporation of ifosfamide into liposome vesicles, location of and competition between the analyzed drugs and liposome vesicles. The applied methods were nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).Graphical Abstract.

  5. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of liposomes as potential carriers of anticancer drugs: spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentak, Danuta, E-mail: danuta.pentak@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Materials Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemistry (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Vesicle size and composition are a critical parameter for determining the circulation half-life of liposomes. Size influences the degree of drug encapsulation in liposomes. The geometry, size, and properties of liposomes in an aqueous environment have to be described to enable potential applications of liposome systems as drug carriers. The characteristics of multiple thermotropic phase transitions are also an important consideration in liposomes used for analytical and bioanalytical purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of liposomes which accommodate hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs used in cancer therapy. The studied liposomes were prepared with the involvement of the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV). The prepared liposomes had a diameter of 70–150 nm. The analyzed compounds were 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide. In literature, there is no information about simultaneous incorporation of cytarabine, ifosfamide, and cyclophosphamide, in spite of the fact that these drugs have been used for more than 30 years. A combination of the examined drugs is used in CODOX-M/IVAC therapy. CODOX-M/IVAC (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) is one of the currently preferred intensive-dose chemotherapy regimens for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). The present research demonstrates the pioneering studies of incorporation of ifosfamide into liposome vesicles, location of and competition between the analyzed drugs and liposome vesicles. The applied methods were nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).Graphical Abstract.

  6. Evaluating the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Honey Commercialized in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was intended to evaluate the quality of 30 honey samples, in terms of physicochemical properties such as moisture content, electrical conductivity, ash content, reducing sugars and sucrose, free acidity, pH, diastase activity, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF content. Moreover, three methods recommended by the International Honey Commission for the determination of HMF, including 1 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, 2 White spectrophotometry and 3 Winkler spectrophotometry methods, were compared. The average moisture content ranged from 12.08±0.36 to 19.36±0.11%. The Electrical conductivity values (0.43±0.00 to 0.77±0.00 mS/cm, ash content (0.24±0.01 to 0.74±0.03%, pH values (3.37±0.01 to 5.21±0.16, free acidity (29.60±0.36 to 39.66±0.37 meq/kg of honey, total reducing sugar (52.28±0.09 to 88.01±0.63%, sucrose content (2.21±0.07 to 7.55±0.35%, diastase activity (2.07±0.28 to 29.01±0.50, and HMF content (17.33±0.18 to 834.46±0.30 mg/kg were observed. Thirteen out of 30 samples (43% showed HMF content higher than standard limits. Results obtained from the current study revealed that except for HMF and diastase activity, all physicochemical properties of samples met the national and international standard limits. Moreover, three methods applied for determination of HMF showed good recovery values and standard deviation. However, Winkler and White methods gave higher HMF value in honey sample than HPLC method.

  7. Evaluation of Two Passes Cold Pilgering Property for PLUS7TM Guide Thimble and Instrumentation Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Young; Park, Ki Bum; Kim, In Kyu; Lee, Young Hee; Kahng, Jong Yeol [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The thermo-mechanical property of zirconium alloy tube is well known to be influenced by pilgering pass schedule and its tooling; thus the control of its microstructure and mechanical property in the final tube production stage for nuclear fuel applications is a major concern of tube manufacture. To fabricate final tube, the 3 passes pilgering is applied in general by using TREX(Tube Reduced EXtrusion), 63.5mm outer diameter(OD), in KEPCO NF and most of Zr tube manufacturing companies. They are also taking big efforts to reduce pilgering step for the sake of increasing the efficiency of production in the forming stage of tube. The objective of this study is to develop two passes of pilgering schedule from the conventional three passes of pilgering schedule for manufacturing the Guide Thimble and Instrumentation tube conforming to specification, which are newly developing component for the advanced nuclear fuel assembly in KEPCO NF. CSR, hydride orientation, and structural integrity are well conformed to the desired targets so it is expected that both die and mandrel were newly designed for the PLUS7TM guide thimble and instrumentation tube with higher Q factor for two passes of pilgering at 50LC and 25LC pilger machine, instead of three passes of pilgering, are able to be applicable to this design of fuel component. If developed two passes pilgering is applied to current manufacturing process, it would improve not only productivity but also yield rate by reducing 3 steps(pilgering, heat-treatment, pickiling and cleaning) of manufacturing process. But additional tests(including in-pile test) should be performed in order to evaluate integrity in reactor.

  8. Evaluating interfacial adhesion properties of Pt/Ti thin-film by using acousto-optic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Sung [Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Didie, David; Yoshida, Sanichiro [Dept. of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond (United States); Park, Ik Keun [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We propose an acousto-optic technique for the nondestructive evaluation of adhesion properties of a Pt/Ti thin-film interface. Since there are some problems encountered when using prevailing techniques to nondestructively evaluate the interfacial properties of micro/nano-scale thin-films, we applied an interferometer that combined the acoustic and optical methods. This technique is based on the Michelson interferometer but the resultant surface of the thin film specimen makes interference instead of the mirror when the interface is excited from the acoustic transducer at the driving frequency. The thin film shows resonance-like behavior at a certain frequency range, resulting in a low-contrast fringe pattern. Therefore, we represented quantitatively the change in fringe pattern as a frequency spectrum and discovered the possibility that the interfacial adhesion properties of a thin film can be evaluated using the newly proposed technique.

  9. Evaluation of the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of fluoro-indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Michela M; Airaksinen, Anu J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A; Caramella, Carla M

    2013-01-01

    Drug nanocarriers have shown great potential in therapy and as diagnostic probes, e.g. in imaging of cancer and inflammation. Imaging can be applied to localize the carrier or the drug itself in the body and/or tissues. In this particular case it is important that drug molecules have the characteristics for possible detection, e.g. after modification with positron emission tomography compliant radioisotopes, without affecting their pharmacological behavior. In order to easily and efficiently follow the ADME profile of the drug after loaded into nanocarriers, the drug can be radiolabelled with, e.g. 18F-label, in order to assess its biodistribution after enteral and parenteral administration in rats. However, this is only possible if the derivative compound behaves similarly to the parent drug compound. In this study, indomethacin (a poorly water-soluble drug) was chosen as a model compound and aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of an analog of indomethacin (IMC), fluoro-indomethacin (F-IMC). Although some of the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of IMC are already known, in order to establish a feasible comparison between IMC and F-IMC, the behavior of the former was also investigated in the same conditions as for F-IMC. In this context, both IMC and F-IMC were thermally and morphologically studied. Furthermore, the following properties were also studied for both compounds: pKa and logP, solubility and dissolution profiles at physiological pH values, and toxicity at different concentrations in Caco-2 cells. Finally, the transport across Caco- 2 monolayers of the IMC and F-IMC at physiological pH range was also investigated. The results obtained showed similar values in pKalogP, solubility, dissolution, cytotoxicity, and permeability for both compounds. Thus, there might be strong evidence that both IMC and F-IMC should have a similar ADME behavior and profiles in vivo. The results provide fundamental tools and

  10. Mechanical property test of natural rubber bearing for the evaluation of uncertainty value of seismic isolation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    Seismic safety of NPP is one of the most important issues in a nuclear field after great east Japan earthquake in 2011. For the improvement of seismic safety of nuclear power plant, seismic isolation is the easiest solution for increasing the seismic safety. Otherwise, the application of seismic isolation devices for nuclear power plants doesn't make the seismic risk of NPP increases always. The rubber bearing have many uncertainties of material properties and large displacement should absorb according to the application of isolation devices. In this study, for the evaluation of uncertainty of the material properties of rubber bearing, material tests for rubber and mechanical properties test for natural rubber bearing were performed. For the evaluation of effect of hardness of rubber, 4 kinds of rubber hardness for material property tests and 2 kinds of rubber hardness for mechanical property test were considered. As a result, the variation of material properties is higher than that of mechanical properties of natural rubber bearings

  11. Psychometric Properties of Patient-Facing eHealth Evaluation Measures: Systematic Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Bonnie J; Turvey, Carolyn L; Nazi, Kim M; Holman, John E; Hogan, Timothy P; Shimada, Stephanie L; Kennedy, Diana R

    2017-10-11

    Significant resources are being invested into eHealth technology to improve health care. Few resources have focused on evaluating the impact of use on patient outcomes A standardized set of metrics used across health systems and research will enable aggregation of data to inform improved implementation, clinical practice, and ultimately health outcomes associated with use of patient-facing eHealth technologies. The objective of this project was to conduct a systematic review to (1) identify existing instruments for eHealth research and implementation evaluation from the patient's point of view, (2) characterize measurement components, and (3) assess psychometrics. Concepts from existing models and published studies of technology use and adoption were identified and used to inform a search strategy. Search terms were broadly categorized as platforms (eg, email), measurement (eg, survey), function/information use (eg, self-management), health care occupations (eg, nurse), and eHealth/telemedicine (eg, mHealth). A computerized database search was conducted through June 2014. Included articles (1) described development of an instrument, or (2) used an instrument that could be traced back to its original publication, or (3) modified an instrument, and (4) with full text in English language, and (5) focused on the patient perspective on technology, including patient preferences and satisfaction, engagement with technology, usability, competency and fluency with technology, computer literacy, and trust in and acceptance of technology. The review was limited to instruments that reported at least one psychometric property. Excluded were investigator-developed measures, disease-specific assessments delivered via technology or telephone (eg, a cancer-coping measure delivered via computer survey), and measures focused primarily on clinician use (eg, the electronic health record). The search strategy yielded 47,320 articles. Following elimination of duplicates and non

  12. The evaluation of properties of coal mass from the viewpoint of environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foniok, R.; Lukes, M. [Research Mining Inst., Ostrava-Radvanice (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of several various coal kinds from the Czech coalfields from the viewpoint of the development of thermal processes in coal mass due to their tendency towards self- ignition during storing. In such a case that no self-ignition during storing occurs, gaseous products are liberated into air, the quantity and composition of which depend upon fuel type and its temperature as well. From the environmental viewpoint, substances washed from stored coal are of a certain interest, too. In accordance with this fact, the importance of measures against self-heating of stored coal mass and the importance of a detailed observation of coal quality are concluded. The tables, which compare various coal kinds from the viewpoint of their behavior at self-ignition processes, are the integral part of this presented paper. Our greatest attention is paid to both the quantity and composition of gases being liberated in dependence upon the temperature of coal mass, and at its crushing with regard to selected methods and means of milling circuits before and explosion. Oxygen sorption by means of coal mass is also observed, being of a great importance for self-inertization of closed tanks. All the above-mentioned processes are demonstrated in form of graphic plots. Qualitative signs of coal mass are the basic means for its assessment from the viewpoint of emissions at burning/combustion, and the evaluation of explosive properties. A great attention is paid to explosion-proof means being produced in the Czech Republic. These means can be used for protection of milling circuits of power plants and heating plants or for safety systems of combustion chamber by means of insulation to secondary air main. Explosion-proof quci-acting valves, a special type of safety membrane and device for explosion suppression nip in the bud do represent the latest explosion-proof means.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of Agave fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, E; Tuohy, K M; Gibson, G R; Klinder, A; Costabile, A

    2010-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the fermentation properties and the potential prebiotic activity of Agave-fructans extracted from Agave tequilana (Predilife). Five different commercial prebiotics were compared using 24-h pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries. Measurement of prebiotic efficacy was obtained by comparing bacterial changes, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was also determined. Effects upon major groups of the microbiota were monitored over 24 h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridization. SCFA were measured by HPLC. Fermentation of the Agave fructans (Predilife) resulted in a large increase in numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Under the in vitro conditions used, this study has shown the differential impact of Predilife on the microbial ecology of the human gut. This is the first study reporting of a potential prebiotic mode of activity for Agave fructans investigated which significantly increased populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli compared to cellulose used as a control.

  14. Monte Carlo evaluation of accuracy and noise properties of two scatter correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Y.; Eberl, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    Two independent scatter correction techniques, transmission dependent convolution subtraction (TDCS) and triple-energy window (TEW) method, were evaluated in terms of quantitative accuracy and noise properties using Monte Carlo simulation (EGS4). Emission projections (primary, scatter and scatter plus primary) were simulated for 99m Tc and 201 Tl for numerical chest phantoms. Data were reconstructed with ordered-subset ML-EM algorithm including attenuation correction using the transmission data. In the chest phantom simulation, TDCS provided better S/N than TEW, and better accuracy, i.e., 1.0% vs -7.2% in myocardium, and -3.7% vs -30.1% in the ventricular chamber for 99m Tc with TDCS and TEW, respectively. For 201 Tl, TDCS provided good visual and quantitative agreement with simulated true primary image without noticeably increasing the noise after scatter correction. Overall TDCS proved to be more accurate and less noisy than TEW, facilitating quantitative assessment of physiological functions with SPECT

  15. Analysis and evaluation of atom level composition variation and property change due to materials irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuo; Takeguchi, Masaki; Mitsuishi, Kazuki; Song Menhi; Saito, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at general elucidation of atom level composition variation due to radiation damage and property change accompanied with this under intending to stressing application of the in-situ analysis and evaluation apparatus on material radiation damage. Then, by using the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) capable of showing a power in composition analysis at microscopic region, measurement of EELS on crystal structure change after heat treatment of Xe precipitation was carried out under parallel of its high resolution observation. As a result, a precipitation with less than 30 nm in diameter was observed on a specimen inserted at 473 K. Xe precipitates in crystalline state began to change at 623 K, to be perfectly gassy state at 773 K. In an energy filter image (EFI) using low loss of Xe, distribution of crystalline and non-crystalline Xe was observed. In EELS, peaks at 14.6 and 15.3 eV were observed in 300 and 773 K, respectively, which were thought to be plasmon. And, difference of peak position at the core loss was thought to reflex difference of Xe state at 300 and 773 K. (G.K.)

  16. Evaluating the Relation between Personality Properties with Job Satisfaction of the Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alvankar Golpayegan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In any organization, any individual’s organizational role should be coordinated with his individual personality in order for the individual behavior to be coordinated with organizational behavior and in order for the organization’s life not to be disturbed in the case of lack of authenticity between individual personality with organizational role so that the members of organization may get in to trouble influenced by such a conflict and be inevitable before the organization. The aim of this research is evaluating the relation between personality properties with job satisfaction of the staff. The current research method is descriptive correlation. Statistical society of the present research were all staff of a governmental organization in Tehran city. Research sample was 80 people who were chosen through random sampling. Finally, in order for analysis of the data, SPSS software was used. The results of this research showed that there was a significant relation and positive correlation between introversion personality type with the extent of job satisfaction and also there was a negative and significant relation between two variables of extroversion personality type with job satisfaction. On the other hand, considering personality dimensions of the individuals in the organization is among the categories that has an efficient role in progress and health improvement of workforce.

  17. Evaluation of immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium Linn. plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Roba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes at Entomology Laboratory, Maraki Campus, University of Gondar. Methods: The immature mosquitocidal activity of plant extracts was tested by following World Health Organization recommended protocol. Acetone, methanol and water extracts were prepared at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations and tested against third and fourth instar larvae and pupae of Culex mosquitoes. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period continuously. Results: Third instar larvae after 24 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 77.80% was recorded at 250 mg/L concentration of acetone extract. After 48 h and 72 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 88.90% was recorded in acetone extract in all the tested concentration. The maximum mortality of fourth instar larvae was 88.90% in acetone extract at 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations. Pupal mortality was also greater in acetone extract. The percentage of mortality in all the stage of mosquitoes was higher in acetone extract followed by methanol and water extract. Conclusions: The percentage of mortality is associated with concentration of the extracts tested and exposure period. This laboratory study confirmed immature mosquitocidal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaf extracts against Culex mosquitoes. The aqueous leaf extract can be used by applying on small man-made breeding places to prevent adult emergence.

  18. Evaluation of hypericin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: physicochemical properties, photostability and phototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Tareq; Fadel, Maha; Fahmy, Rania; Kassab, Kawser

    2012-01-01

    Hypericin (HYP), a natural photosensitizer, has powerful photo-oxidizing ability, tumor-seeking characteristics, and minimal dark toxicity; nevertheless, it has proven high lipid solubility compared to its sparingly water soluble nature. Therefore, its formulation into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) has attracted increasing attention as a potential drug-delivery carrier. Two HYP-loaded SLNs formulations were prepared utilizing microemulsion-based technique. Thereafter, the physicochemical properties of the formulations were investigated and evaluated. HYP-loaded SLNs showed spherical shape with mean particle size ranging from 200-300 nm for both formulations (FA and FB). The encapsulation efficiencies reached above 80% and FA showed significant higher encapsulation than FB (Phypericin and lipids forming the cores in both formulations. Spectroscopic measurements of the photostability study showed that hypericin encapsulation into SLNs improved its photostability, compared to free HYP in 0.1% ethanolic solution. However, photocytotoxicity studies on HepG2 cells revealed an evident inhibition of the photodynamic efficacy of HYP-loaded SLNs, compared to free HYP. In conclusion, although the elevated entrapment efficiency of HYP into SLNs increased its photostability, it decreased its phototoxicity which might be due to the quenching deactivation of HYP molecules resulting from SLN compactness and thickness structure. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  19. Associating Physical and Chemical Properties to Evaluate Buffer Materials by Th and U Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Yi-Lin; Chen, Tzu-Yun; Cheng, Hwai-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Tseng, Chia-Liang; Wei,Yuan-Yaw; Yang, Jen-Yan; Ke, Cheng-Hsiung; Chuang, Jui-Tang; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2003-02-27

    The physical and chemical properties of buffer materials to be used for a radwaste disposal repository should be evaluated prior to use. In a conventional approach, independent studies of physical and/or chemical characteristics are conducted. This study investigated the relationship between the plastic index (PI) and distribution ratio (Rd) of buffer materials composed of varying ratios of quartz sand and bentonite. Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U) were the nuclides of interest, and both synthetic groundwater and seawater were used as the liquid phases to simulate conditions representative of deep geological disposal within an island. Atterberg tests were used to determine PI values, and batch sorption experiments were employed to measure Rd values. The results show that Th reached maximum sorption behavior when the bentonite content exceeded 30 % of the mixture. Contrariwise, the sorption of U increased linearly with bentonite content, up to bentonite contents of 100%, and this correlation was present regardless of the liquid phase used. A further result is that U has a better additivity with respect to Rd than Th in both synthetic groundwater and synthetic seawater. These results will allow a determination of more effective buffer material composition, and improved estimates of the overall Rd of the buffer material mixture from the Rd of each mineral component.

  20. Evaluation of the properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Mussatti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3. The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were analyzed by FTIR, XRD and densities, tensile strength, Young's modulus, electrical and thermal conductivities measurements. By increasing the iron oxide content, the apparent density, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical conductivity values of the composites were also increased. The iron oxide additions did not change significantly the value of thermal conductivity (from 0.191 W.mK-1 for PU up to 0.340 W.mK-1 for PU enriched with 12.5% v/v of iron oxide. Thus, even at the higher iron oxide concentration, the compounds as well as the pure polyurethane can be classified as thermal insulators.

  1. An Evaluation of the Measurement Properties of the Five Cs Model of Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Ronan J; Heary, Caroline; Hogan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to develop acceptable measures of adolescent's positive attributes in diverse contexts. The current study evaluated the measurement properties of the Five Cs model of Positive Youth Development (PYD) scale (Lerner et al., 2005) using a sample of 672 Irish adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a five-factor model provided a good fit to the data. The internal reliability and construct validity of the Five Cs model were supported, with character the strongest predictor of contribution, while connection was the strongest predictor of risky-behaviors. Notably, confidence was significantly negatively related to contribution, and positively related to risky-behaviors. Multi-group hierarchical nested models supported measurement invariance across early- (11-14 years) and late- (15-19 years) adolescent age groups, with partial invariance found across gender. Younger adolescents evinced higher PYD, while PYD was associated with higher contribution and lower depression and risk-behaviors across all groups. The application of the PYD framework as a measure of positive functioning across adolescence is discussed.

  2. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gonçalves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05. The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05. White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05. The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  3. Evaluation of optical properties of the amorphous carbon film on fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydogan, Nilguen Dogan

    2004-01-01

    Deposition was done using a pulsed filtered cathodic arc with a graphite cathode. The carbon plasma is fully ionised and condenses on the substrate, forming diamond-like material but with amorphous structure. Optical properties of amorphous carbon films on fused-silica glass were investigated and the curves of optical density have a characteristic band at approximately 950 nm. Changes of the colourimetric quantities were evaluated and compared to uncoated fused silica glass. These changes were investigated as a function of the applied substrate bias voltage using the CIE and CIELAB colour systems. It is suggested that the mechanism of absorption is related to an allowed direct transition at the amorphous carbon films on fused silica glass. The optical energy gap of the amorphous carbon film depends on the bias voltage applied to the substrate holder. The optical colour parameters and optical band gap indicated that there is a relation between the dominant wavelength of the reflectance in the visible range and the wavelength of the optical band gap

  4. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of Pine cone fibers reinforced compatibilized polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrakhiz, F.Z.; El Achaby, M.; Benmoussa, K.; Bouhfid, R.; Essassi, E.M.; Qaiss, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pine cone fibers are used as reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix. ► Pine cone fiber was alkali treated to remove waxes and non cellulosic component. ► Fiber–matrix adhesion was assured by the use of a SEBS-g-MA as a compatibilizer. -- Abstract: Pine cone fibers are a cellulosic material readily available and can be used as reinforcement in a thermoplastic-based composite. A solid knowledge of their fibrillar morphology and structure is required to evaluate their usefulness as a substitute to other abundant natural fibers. Pine cone fibers were alkali treated prior usage to remove waxes and non cellulosic surface component. Fiber–matrix adhesion was assured by both a styrene–(ethylene–butene)–styrene triblock copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA) and a linear block copolymer based on styrene and butadiene compatibilizer. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile and torsional tests were employed for Pine cone polypropylene composite and compatibilized composite at different fiber content. Results show a clear improvement in mechanical properties from the use of both alkali treated Pine cone and Pine cone compatibilized with maleic anhydride, a gain of 43% and 49% respectively in the Young’s modulus, as a results of improved adhesion between fibers and matrix at the interface.

  5. Evaluation of physical and chemical properties and their interactions in fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin A; Jensen, Jeanette L; Gracz, Hanna S; Dancer, Jens; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-10-15

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) blockages in sewer systems are a substantial problem in the United States. It has been estimated that over 50% of sewer overflows are a result of FOG blockages. In this work, a thorough laboratory study was undertaken to examine key variables that contribute to FOG deposit formation under controlled conditions. Physical and chemical properties and their interactions were evaluated and conditions that generated deposits that mimicked field FOG deposits were identified. It was found that 96 of the of 128 reaction conditions tested in the laboratory formed FOG deposits with similar physical and chemical characteristics as field FOG deposits. It was also found that FOG deposits can be created through fatty acid crystallization and not just saponification. Furthermore FOG deposits were found to be more complex than previously documented and contain free fatty acids, fatty acid metal salts, triacylglycerol's, diacylglycerol's and, monoacylglycerol's. Lastly it was found that FOG deposits that only contained saturated fatty acids were on average 2.1 times higher yield strength than deposits that contained unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jorge Luis; Viapiana, Raqueli; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda da

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05). The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05). White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05). The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  7. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of SOGS-RA in the Polish Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jarczyńska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to adapt the American pathological gambling screening tool /SOGS-RA The South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescent/ by K. Winters, R. Stinchfield and J. Fulkerson (1993 and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Method: The adapted tool was used in research on a randomly selected sample of 2,617 adolescents aged 13-20 years in the 2012/2013 school year. Results: On the SOGS-RA scale, 2.6% of the trial participants achieved a score indicating past year problem gambling before the survey, 4.1% were classified as problem gamblers, whereas 17.3% of adolescents engaged in social gambling that did not pose a problem gambling risk at the time. The SOGS-RA demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78. Conclusions: The Polish adaptation of the SOGS-RA scale is reliable and accurate, which is why it is worth recommending it for use in further research on Polish adolescents.

  8. Evaluation of shear-compressive strength properties for laminated GFRP composites in electromagnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun Hee; Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Sam Yeon

    2014-07-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced composites can be applied to an insulating structure of a nuclear fusion device. It is necessary to investigate the interlaminar fracture characteristics of the laminated composites for the assurance of design and structural integrity. The three methods used to prepare the glass fiber reinforced plastic composites tested in this study were vacuum pressure impregnation, high pressure laminate (HPL), and prepreg laminate. We discuss the design criteria for safe application of composites and the shear-compressive test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of the material. Shear-compressive tests could be performed successfully using series-type test jigs that were inclined 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° to the normal axis. Shear strength depends strongly on the applied compressive stress. The design range of allowable shear stress was extended by use of the appropriate composite fabrication method. HPL had the largest design range, and the allowable interlaminar shear stress was 0.254 times the compressive stress.

  9. Evaluation of the Properties of Iron Oxide-Filled Castor Oil Polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Mussatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain and evaluate the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of iron oxide-filled castor oil polyurethane (PU/Fe2O3. The iron oxide used in this study was a residue derived from the steel pickling process of a Brazilian steel rolling industry. Polymeric composites with different iron oxide volume fractions (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% were prepared through the casting process followed by compression molding at room temperature. The composites were analyzed by FTIR, XRD and densities, tensile strength, Young's modulus, electrical and thermal conductivities measurements. By increasing the iron oxide content, the apparent density, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical conductivity values of the composites were also increased. The iron oxide additions did not change significantly the value of thermal conductivity (from 0.191 W.mK-1 for PU up to 0.340 W.mK-1 for PU enriched with 12.5% v/v of iron oxide. Thus, even at the higher iron oxide concentration, the compounds as well as the pure polyurethane can be classified as thermal insulators.

  10. Column study for the evaluation of the transport properties of polyphenol-coated nanoiron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystrioti, C; Papassiopi, N; Xenidis, A; Dermatas, D; Chrysochoou, M

    2015-01-08

    Injection of a nano zero valent iron (nZVI) suspension in the subsurface is a remedial option for obtaining the in situ reduction and immobilization of hexavalent chromium in contaminated aquifers. Prerequisite for the successful implementation of this technology is that the nanoparticles form a stable colloidal suspension with good transport properties when delivered in the subsurface. In this study we produced stable suspensions of polyphenol-coated nZVI (GT-nZVI) and we evaluated their transport behavior through representative porous media. Two types of porous materials were tested: (a) silica sand as a typical inert medium and (b) a mixture of calcareous soil and sand. The transport of GT-nZVI through the sand column was effectively described using a classic 1-D convection-dispersion flow equation (CDE) in combination with the colloid filtration theory (CFT). The calculations indicate that nZVI travel distance will be limited in the range 2.5-25cm for low Darcy velocities (0.1-1m/d) and in the order of 2.5m at higher velocities (10m/d). The mobility of GT-nZVI suspension in the soil-sand column is lower and is directly related to the progress of the neutralization reactions between the acidic GT-nZVI suspension and soil calcite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of properties and FEM Model of the Friction welded mild Steel-Al6061-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazman Seli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of mechanical and interfacial properties of friction welded alumina-mild steel rods with the use of Al6061 sheet are presented in this work. SEM, EDX analysis, hardness and bending strength tests were conducted. The bonds were attained through interfacial interlocking and intermetalllic phase formation with average bending strengths in the range of 40 to 200 MPa and insignificant hardness change in the parent alumina and mild steel. A preliminary simulation was made to predict the deformation, stress, strain and temperature distribution during the joining operation using a fully coupled thermo-mechanical FE model. The aluminum alloy metal being rubbed was simulated using a phenomenological Johnson-Cook viscoplasticity material model, which suited for materials subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. The highest stress, strain and deformation are found to be within the heat affected zone of the weld close to the periphery rubbing surface region and correspond to the highest temperature profiles observed.

  12. Evaluation of properties and FEM Model of the Friction welded mild Steel-Al6061-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazman Seli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of mechanical and interfacial properties of friction welded alumina-mild steel rods with the use of Al6061 sheet are presented in this work. SEM, EDX analysis, hardness and bending strength tests were conducted. The bonds were attained through interfacial interlocking and intermetalllic phase formation with average bending strengths in the range of 40 to 200 MPa and insignificant hardness change in the parent alumina and mild steel. A preliminary simulation was made to predict the deformation, stress, strain and temperature distribution during the joining operation using a fully coupled thermo-mechanical FE model. The aluminum alloy metal being rubbed was simulated using a phenomenological Johnson-Cook viscoplasticity material model, which suited for materials subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. The highest stress, strain and deformation are found to be within the heat affected zone of the weld close to the periphery rubbing surface region and correspond to the highest temperature profiles observed.

  13. Evaluation of mechanical properties for spherical magnetic regenerator materials fabricated by rapid solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Sori, N.; Saito, A.

    1997-01-01

    Various magnetic regenerator materials, such as Er 3 Ni, Er 3 Co and ErNi, are fabricated in the form of a spherical particle by a rapid solidification process. 4 K level refrigeration has been obtained by a GM refrigerator using these materials. However, the magnetic regenerator materials are considered brittle, as they are intermetallic compounds. It is important to evaluate the mechanical properties of these materials to confirm reliability as a regenerator material. In this paper, experimental results of compression and vibration tests for magnetic regenerator materials are described. The technical point of this study is to use spherical particles as test samples. The compressive stress of 20 MPa was applied to these spherical particles and no fractured spheres were observed. Similarly, no fractured spheres were found after the vibration test, in which the maximum acceleration was 30 X 9.8 m/s 2 and the number of vibration times was 1 X 10 6 , insofar as there was no room to stir spherical particles in a regenerator. In practice, the reliability of magnetic regenerator materials has been confirmed by a long-run test of 7,000 h in a usual GM refrigerator

  14. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus Species From Soil and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus species are the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant-endospore formation and production of essential antibiotics such as bacitracin. Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate Bacillus spp. from riverside soil and investigate their antimicrobial characteristics against some pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Fifty soil samples were collected from different sites of Bahmanshir riverside in Abadan city, Iran, and analyzed for the presence of Bacillus species. The media used in this research were nutrient broth and agar. Bacillus species were identified by their phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial effects of Bacillus extract against the target bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae were examined. Results The identified Bacillus species included B. cereus (86.6%, B. subtilis (6.6%, B. thuringiensis (3.3%, and B. pumilus (3.3%. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the extracted compounds was carried out against five different bacteria. Antibiotic production tests indicated that two Bacillus strains belong to B. cereus, which showed antimicrobial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these compounds ranged between 8.34-33.34 mg/mL for the target bacteria. Conclusions This study indicated that some Bacillus species have the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds which can be used to control microbial infections.

  15. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, proximate and nutritional composition of Gracilaria edulis collected from Palk Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-05-01

    Gracilaria edulis, a red alga present in southeast coast of India was evaluated for its nutritional composition. FT-IR analysis of soluble polysaccharides revealed the presence of galactans, 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose, sulphated galactose and the gelling agent agar, with the sulphate content estimated as 51.01 μg/mg of polysaccharide. Results of physicochemical properties and nutritional profile reveal the presence of dietary fibre (8.9 ± 0.62% DW), carbohydrate (101.61 ± 1.8 mg/g DW), crude protein (6.68 ± 0.94 mg/g DW) and lipid content (8.3 ± 1.03 mg/g DW). G. edulis contains biologically important fatty acids like palmitic acid (2.06%), linolenic acid (2.56%), and oleic acid (1.98%). The other nutritional components present in high amounts are proline, chlorophyll A and B, all the essential amino acids and vitamin A, E and C. These findings suggest that G. edulis has potent nutritional value which might be used as a source of nutrients for human and animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination and evaluation of the thermophysical properties of an alkali carbonate eutectic molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xuehui; Cheng, Jinhui; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Jianqiang

    2016-08-15

    The thermal physical properties of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic molten salt were comprehensively investigated. It was found that the liquid salt can remain stable up to 658 °C (the onset temperature of decomposition) by thermal analysis, and so the investigations on its thermal physical parameters were undertaken from room temperature to 658 °C. The density was determined using a self-developed device, with an uncertainty of ±0.00712 g cm(-3). A cooling curve was obtained from the instrument, giving the liquidus temperature. For the first time, we report the obtainment of the thermal diffusivity using a laser flash method based on a special crucible design and establishment of a specific sample preparation method. Furthermore, the specific heat capacity was also obtained by use of DSC, and combined with thermal diffusivity and density, was used to calculate the thermal conductivity. We additionally built a rotating viscometer with high precision in order to determine the molten salt viscosity. All of these parameters play an important part in the energy storage and transfer calculation and safety evaluation for a system.

  17. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control, the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, pineapple (for reducing power, blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition, blackberry “antioxidant” (for tocopherols and cherry (for sugars. The mention of “antioxidant” in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  18. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-06-18

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry "antioxidant" (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of "antioxidant" in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  19. Evaluation of genotoxic and anti-mutagenic properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthoside A tetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himakoun, Lakana; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Puchadapirom, Pranom; Tammasakchai, Ratigon; Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra

    2011-01-01

    Cleistanthin A (CleinA) and cleistanthoside A (CleisA) isolated from plant Phyllanthus taxodiifolius Beille have previously shown potent anticancer effects. To promote their medicinal benefits, CleisA was modified to cleistanthoside A tetraacetate (CleisTA) and evaluated for genotoxic and anti-mutagenic properties in comparison with CleinA. Both compounds showed no significant mutagenic activity to S. typhimulium bacteria and no cytotoxic effect to normal mammalian cells. The non genotoxic effect of CleinA was further confirmed by un-alteration of cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) and micronucleus (MN) frequency assays in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells, and of CleisTA was confirmed by un-changes of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) chromosomal structure assay. Moreover, the metabolic form of CleinA efficiently demonstrated cytostasis effect to V79 cell and prevented mutagen induced Salmonella TA98 and TA100 reversion, whereas both metabolic and non-metabolic forms of CleisTA reduced HPBL mitotic index (%M.I) in a concentration-dependent relationship. The results support CleinA and CleisTA as the new lead compounds for anti-cancer drug development.

  20. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  1. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocarski M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Mocarski,1 Erica Zaiser,2 Dylan Trundell,2 Barry J Make,3 Asha Hareendran21Forest Research Institute, Inc., an affiliate of Actavis, Inc., Jersey City, NJ, USA; 2Evidera, London, UK; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA Background: Nighttime symptoms can negatively impact the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument (NiSCI was designed to measure the occurrence and severity of nighttime symptoms in patients with COPD, the impact of symptoms on nighttime awakenings, and rescue medication use. The objective of this study was to explore item reduction, inform scoring recommendations, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the NiSCI.Methods: COPD patients participating in a Phase III clinical trial completed the NiSCI daily. Item analyses were conducted using weekly mean and single day scores. Descriptive statistics (including percentage of respondents at floor/ceiling and inter-item correlations, factor analyses, and Rasch model analyses were conducted to examine item performance and scoring. Test–retest reliability was assessed for the final instrument using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Correlations with assessments conducted during study visits were used to evaluate convergent and known-groups validity.Results: Data from 1,663 COPD patients aged 40–93 years were analyzed. Item analyses supported the generation of four scores. A one-factor structure was confirmed with factor analysis and Rasch analysis for the symptom severity score. Test–retest reliability was confirmed for the six-item symptom severity (ICC, 0.85, number of nighttime awakenings (ICC, 0.82, and rescue medication (ICC, 0.68 scores. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the NiSCI, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, and Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms scores.Conclusion: The

  2. Assessment set for evaluation of clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis: psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasova K

    2012-10-01

    .Results: A good internal consistency was confirmed for all tests in the proposed battery, and most of the tests also showed good test–retest reliability. While no significant changes occurred without treatment, significant posttreatment improvement was proved in all tests except for low-contrast letter acuity testing, where only a trend to improvement was proved.Conclusion: The proposed assessment set is a good tool for the evaluation of clinical features of MS treatable by physiotherapy. This battery of tests is applicable in both clinical practice and research.Keywords: outcome assessment, reproducibility of results, psychometric properties, test–retest reliability, internal consistency

  3. Plant composition, pharmacological properties and mutagenic evaluation of a commercial Zulu herbal mixture: Imbiza ephuzwato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, A R; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2011-01-27

    Imbiza ephuzwato is a traditional herbal tonic made from a mixture of extracts of roots, bulbs, rhizomes and leaves of 21 medicinal plants and is used in traditional medicine as a multipurpose remedy. To compile and investigate the bioactivity and mutagenic effects of extracts of the 21 plant species used in the preparation of Imbiza ephuzwato herbal tonic. The 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato herbal mixture were each investigated for their pharmacological properties. Petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), 80% ethanol (EtOH) and water extracts of the 21 plants were evaluated against two gram-positive, two gram-negative bacteria and a fungus Candida albicans. The extracts were also evaluated for their inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) and acetylcholinesterase AChE enzymes. Mutagenic effects of the water extracts were evaluated using the Ames test. Gunnera perpensa and Rubia cordifolia were the only plant species used to manufacture Imbiza ephuzwato that had water extracts which showed good antibacterial activity. The extracts of G. perpensa (EtOH), Hypericum aethiopicum (DCM) and Urginea physodes (EtOH) showed the best antifungal activity. The water extracts of H. aethiopicum, G. perpensa, Drimia robusta, Vitellariopsis marginata, Scadoxus puniceus and Momordica balsamina showed percentage inhibition of COX-1 that was over 70%. For COX-2 enzyme, the water extracts of G. perpensa, Cyrtanthus obliquus, M. balsamina and Tetradenia riparia exhibited inhibitory activity above 70%. Water extracts of G. perpensa, C. obliquus, V. marginata, Asclepias fruticosa and Watsonia densiflora showed good AChE inhibitory activity (>80%). The Ames test results revealed that all the water extracts of the 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato were non-mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. In contrast, Imbiza ephuzwato showed mutagenic effects after exposure to S

  4. Properties of altered soils by alkaline solution: contribution in the performance evaluation of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline Alves de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    evaluated samples (less than 20% after 10 days of equilibrium), being the best performance one, the nitosoil sample whose K_d values varied from 11.78 to 63.05 mL.g"-"1. In a subsequent step, the clay soil, was submitted to the alkaline solution interaction, in order to investigate possible alterations on the sorption properties and hydraulic conductivity of this soil. Using the sorption parameters, obtained from data fitted isotherms, the retardation factor, R, was estimated for the samples before and after the interaction. It was demonstrated that the alkaline alteration promotes damages to sorption properties of Cs, once the R became significantly smaller (about 1000 times) after the interaction. The hydraulic conductivity in turn increased slightly (3,91x10"-"8 cm.s"-"1 to 5,08 x 10"-"8 cm.s"-"1). It was concluded that these changes were due, mainly, to the dissolution of minerals present in the clay soil (kaolinite and quartz), associated with the incorporation of K and Ca from the alkaline solution, resulting, probably, in the formation of hydrated calcium silicate phases. Additionally, the effects of alkaline solution on the properties of a commercial bentonite were studied. Contrary to the clay soil, it was observed a gain in the sorption characteristics, with K_d (Cs) increasing from 760.05 mL.g"-"1to 1311.80 mL.g"-"1and Q_m_a_x from 36.32 mg.g"-"1to 52.13 mg.g"-"1, with the corresponding increase in the retardation coefficient, R. The dissolution of the clay minerals from the initial sample and the incorporation of Mg, K e Ca coming from the alkaline solution, generating smectite of different kinds, were considered as the main mineralogical changes responsible for the modifications in sorption parameters. The different behavior between the two evaluated samples, soil and bentonite, confirms that the nature and extension of changes observed, when mineral samples interact with alkaline solution, depend on the chemical/mineralogical composition of the solid material

  5. Evaluation of AVHRR Aerosol Properties Over Mainland China from Deepblue Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Che, Y.; She, L.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on-board NOAA series satellites is the only operational senor which keeps observing surface of the Earth and cloud over 30 years since 1979. Such long time coverage helps to expand the application of AVHRR to aerosol properties retrieval over both land and ocean successfully. Recently in 2017, the Deep Blue Project has published AVHRR `Deep Blue' dataset version 001 (V001) using `Deep Blue (DB)' algorithm(Sayer et al., 2017). This dataset includes not only aerosol properties over land but also oceanic aerosol product at three periods (NOAA-11: 1989-1990, NOAA-14: 1995-1999, NOAA-18: 2006-2011). We pay much of our attention to DB's performance over mainland China. Therefore, in the presenting paper, we focus on validating AVHRR/DB dataset over different land covers in China in 2007, 2008 and 2010. Both of data from ground-based networks from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) and China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) are used as reference data. The collocation method is to match data at a time range of of satellite pass-by and at a spatial frame of pixels around ground-based site. Totally, data from 18 AERONET and 25 CARSNET are used as shown in figure, collocating 922 matches with AERONET and 2325 matches with CARSNET. Additionally, we introduced a corrected RMS error as main evaluation metric. As a result, AVHRR/DB underestimates AOD increasingly and more uncertainties and errors will be introduced with the growth of AOD. Otherwise, the performance of AVHRR/DB are better compared with AERONET data than with CARSNET data from RMSbc of 0.35 vs. 0.42. Their Rs (0.757 vs. 0.654) prove this characteristic too. For urban areas, the performances in Beijing are better than that in Xi'an from RMSbc, otherwise RMS in Xi'an (0.324) is lower than others' (0.346 and 0.383) mainly because of small AOD observed range and low R (0.624). For croplands, those performances are at same levels with RMSbc from 0.312 to 0

  6. Methods of Evaluating Thermodynamic Properties of Landscape Cover Using Multispectral Reflected Radiation Measurements by the Landsat Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Puzachenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses methods of evaluating thermodynamic properties of landscape cover based on multi-spectral measurements by the Landsat satellites. Authors demonstrate how these methods could be used for studying functionality of landscapes and for spatial interpolation of Flux NET system measurements.

  7. Systematic content evaluation and review of measurement properties of questionnaires for measuring self-reported fatigue among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Thorlene; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Nygård, Arnhild J; Thingstad, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of fatigue in older people requires simple and user-friendly questionnaires that capture the phenomenon, yet are free from items indistinguishable from other disorders and experiences. This study aimed to evaluate the content, and systematically review and rate the measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for measuring fatigue, in order to identify the most suitable questionnaires for older people. This study firstly involved identification of questionnaires that purport to measure self-reported fatigue, and evaluation of the content using a rating scale developed for the purpose from contemporary understanding of the construct. Secondly, for the questionnaires that had acceptable content, we identified studies reporting measurement properties and rated the methodological quality of those studies according to the COSMIN system. Finally, we extracted and synthesised the results of the studies to give an overall rating for each questionnaire for each measurement property. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013005589). Of the 77 identified questionnaires, twelve were selected for review after content evaluation. Methodological quality varied, and there was a lack of information on measurement error and responsiveness. The PROMIS-Fatigue item bank and short forms perform the best. The FACIT-Fatigue scale, Parkinsons Fatigue Scale, Perform Questionnaire, and Uni-dimensional Fatigue Impact Scale also perform well and can be recommended. Minor modifications to improve performance are suggested. Further evaluation of unresolved measurement properties, particularly with samples including older people, is needed for all the recommended questionnaires.

  8. Evaluation of 3D laser device for characterizing shape and surface properties of aggregates used in pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available program for the 3D laser device using fifteen different spherical and twelve cubic shaped objects. The laser device was evaluated for accuracy and repeatability to compute aggregate surface area and volume properties. The results showed that the laser...

  9. Properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx cast steel modified with niobium; evaluation methodology and experimental preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzczynski, E.F.; Chatterjee, S.; Mueller, Arno

    1982-01-01

    The experimental methodology to evaluate the mechanical properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx steels modified with NB in the as cast and heat treated conditions and the first preliminary results obtained in a laboratory scale, are presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films for food packaging: Evaluation of water adsorption, mechanical properties, light-barrier properties and transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazón, Patricia; Vázquez, Manuel; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2018-09-01

    Nowadays consumers are aware of environmental problems. As an alternative to petrochemical polymers for food packaging, researchers have been focused on biopolymeric materials as raw material. The aim of this study was to evaluate mechanical properties (toughness, burst strength and distance to burst), water adsorption, light-barrier properties and transparency of composite films based on cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol. Scanning electron microscopy, spectral analysis (FT-IR and UV-VIS-NIR) and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to explain the morphology, structural and thermal properties of the films. Results showed that polyvinyl alcohol enhances the toughness of films up to 44.30 MJ/m 3 . However, toughness decreases when glycerol concentration is increased (from 23.41 to 10.55 MJ/m 3 ). Water adsorption increased with increasing polyvinyl alcohol concentration up to 222%. Polyvinyl alcohol increased the film thickness. The films showed higher burst strength (up to 12014 g) than other biodegradable films. The films obtained have optimal values of transparency like those values of synthetic polymers. Glycerol produced a UV protective effect in the films, an important effect for food packaging to prevent lipid oxidative deterioration. Results showed that it is feasible to obtain cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films with improved properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. To Study Capping or Lamination Tendency of Tablets Through Evaluation of Powder Rheological Properties and Tablet Mechanical Properties of Directly Compressible Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhat, Siddhi M; Kettler, Charles N; Dave, Rutesh H

    2017-05-01

    Air entrapment efficiency of the powders is one of the main factors leading to occurrence of capping or lamination tendency of tablets manufactured from the directly compressible powder blends. The purpose of the current research was to study this underlying cause leading to occurrence of capping or lamination of tablets through evaluation of powder rheological properties. Powder blends were prepared by addition of 0% w/w to 100% w/w of individual active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) [two model API: acetaminophen (APAP) and ibuprofen (IBU)] with microcrystalline cellulose without and with 0.5% w/w Magnesium Stearate as lubricant. Powder rheological properties were analyzed using FT4 Powder Rheometer for dynamic, bulk, and shear properties. Tablet mechanical properties of the respective blends were studied by determining the ability of the material to form tablet of specific strength under applied compaction pressure through tabletability profile. The results showed that powder rheometer distinguished the powder blends based on their ability to relieve entrapped air along with the distinctive flow characteristics. Powder blend prepared with increasing addition of APAP displayed low powder permeability as compared to IBU blends with better powder permeability, compressibility and flow characteristics. Also, lubrication of the APAP blends did not ease their ability to relieve air. Tabletability profiles revealed the potential occurrence of capping or lamination in tablets prepared from the powder blends with high APAP content. This study can help scientist to understand tableting performance at the early-developmental stages and can avoid occurrence capping and lamination of tablets.

  12. Systematic review of measurement properties of self-reported instruments for evaluating self-care in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Maria; Lommi, Marzia; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to identify instruments developed to assess self-care in healthy adults; to determine the theory on which they were based; their validity and reliability properties and to synthesize the evidence on their measurement properties. Many instruments have been developed to assess self-care in many different populations and conditions. Clinicians and researchers should select the most appropriate self-care instrument based on the knowledge of their measurement properties. Systematic review of measurement instruments according to the protocol recommended by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus and CINAHL databases were searched from inception to December 2015. Studies testing measurement properties of self-report instruments assessing self-care in healthy adults, published in the English language and in peer review journals were selected. Two reviewers independently appraised the methodological quality of the studies with the COSMIN checklist and the quality of results using specific quality criteria. Twenty-six articles were included in the review testing the measurement properties of nine instruments. Seven instruments were based on Orem's Self-care theory. Not all the measurement properties were evaluated for the identified instruments. No self-care instrument showed strong evidence supporting the evaluated measurement properties. Despite the development of several instruments to assess self-care in the adult population, no instrument can be fully recommended to clinical nurses and researchers. Further studies of high methodological quality are needed to confirm the measurement properties of these instruments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide and its viability as a solvent in the evaluation of neuroprotective antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín-Suárez, Carolina; Soto-Otero, Ramón; Sánchez-Sellero, Inés; Méndez-Álvarez, Estefanía

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is an amphiphilic compound whose miscibility with water and its ability to dissolve lipophilic compounds make it an appreciated solvent in biomedical research. However, its reported antioxidant properties raise doubts about its use as a solvent in evaluating new antioxidants. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate its antioxidant properties and carry out a comparative study on the antioxidant properties of some known neuroprotective antioxidants in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. The antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide were studied in rat brain homogenates by determining its ability to reduce both lipid peroxidation (TBARS formation) and protein oxidation (increase in protein carbonyl content and decrease in free thiol content) induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide. Its ability to reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals by 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation was also estimated. The same study was also performed with three known antioxidants (α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone; 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane; 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Our results showed that dimethyl sulfoxide is able to reduce both lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenates. It can also reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals during 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation. However, it increases the oxidation of protein thiol groups caused by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenate. Despite the here reported antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide, the results obtained with α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane, and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide corroborate the antioxidant properties attributed to these compounds and support the potential use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent in the study of the antioxidant properties of lipophilic compounds. Dimethyl sulfoxide

  14. Evaluation of hand-arm and whole-body vibrations in construction and property management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Marie A; Van Lente, Eric; McCallig, Margaret; Paddan, Gurmail; Moore, Ken

    2010-11-01

    To identify and measure the magnitude of hand-arm vibration (HAV) and whole-body vibration (WBV) sources (tools, vehicles etc.) in use within a previously unexamined sector: a construction and property management company. To evaluate the effect of factors such as age of tool, materials being worked on, number and location of tool handles, tool weight, and manufacturer brand on HAV magnitude and the effect of factors such as manufacturer machine brand, terrain, and work task on WBV magnitude. This study was carried out in a construction and property management company, employees (n = 469) working in the engineering services and maintenance departments who use vibrating equipment as part of their work were invited to participate. Two hundred and eighty-nine employees working as general operatives, excavator drivers, stone masons, carpenters, labourers, fitters, welders, and gardeners agreed to participate. A total of 20 types of hand tool (n = 264) and 11 types of vehicle (n = 158) in use within the company were selected for inclusion in the study. Five pieces of equipment had never previously been measured. Vibration measurements were carried out in accordance with ISO 5349-1 (Mechanical vibration-measurement and assessment of human exposure to hand transmitted vibration-Part 1: general guidance. 2001) (HAV) and ISO 2631-1 (Mechanical vibration and shock: evaluation of human exposure to WBV in the working environment. Part 1-general requirements. 1997) (WBV). Vibration measurements were made while workers were operating the equipment as part of their normal work activities. A wide range of vibration emission values were recorded for most tool types, e.g. orbital sanders (1.39-10.90 m s⁻²) and angle grinders (0.28-12.25 m s⁻²), and vehicle, e.g. forklifts (0.41-1.00 m s⁻²) and tractors (0.04-0.42 m s⁻²). Vibration magnitudes were largely consistent with those found in previous studies. The highest HAV magnitude was measured on a demolition hammer (13.3 m

  15. Evaluating the effect of neighbourhood weight matrices on smoothing properties of Conditional Autoregressive (CAR models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Conditional Autoregressive (CAR model is widely used in many small-area ecological studies to analyse outcomes measured at an areal level. There has been little evaluation of the influence of different neighbourhood weight matrix structures on the amount of smoothing performed by the CAR model. We examined this issue in detail. Methods We created several neighbourhood weight matrices and applied them to a large dataset of births and birth defects in New South Wales (NSW, Australia within 198 Statistical Local Areas. Between the years 1995–2003, there were 17,595 geocoded birth defects and 770,638 geocoded birth records with available data. Spatio-temporal models were developed with data from 1995–2000 and their fit evaluated within the following time period: 2001–2003. Results We were able to create four adjacency-based weight matrices, seven distance-based weight matrices and one matrix based on similarity in terms of a key covariate (i.e. maternal age. In terms of agreement between observed and predicted relative risks, categorised in epidemiologically relevant groups, generally the distance-based matrices performed better than the adjacency-based neighbourhoods. In terms of recovering the underlying risk structure, the weight-7 model (smoothing by maternal-age 'Covariate model' was able to correctly classify 35/47 high-risk areas (sensitivity 74% with a specificity of 47%, and the 'Gravity' model had sensitivity and specificity values of 74% and 39% respectively. Conclusion We found considerable differences in the smoothing properties of the CAR model, depending on the type of neighbours specified. This in turn had an effect on the models' ability to recover the observed risk in an area. Prior to risk mapping or ecological modelling, an exploratory analysis of the neighbourhood weight matrix to guide the choice of a suitable weight matrix is recommended. Alternatively, the weight matrix can be chosen a priori

  16. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Salem, F. M.; Abu Arab, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning fatty liver, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 degree centigrade were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 degree centigrade. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 degree centigrade could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 degree centigrade). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of

  17. Applied biomechanics to evaluate the properties of laser beam treated orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieretti, Eurico Felix

    2016-01-01

    Laser beam marking is used to ensure biomaterials’ identification and traceability. The texturing imparts greater adhesion to the surfaces of implantable medical devices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface behaviour of the austenitic stainless steel ABNT NBR ISO 5832-1 marked and textured by optical fiber laser beam using selected parameters, changing the pulse frequency; in face of its biomechanical behaviour, through tests of tensile strength, fatigue and wear; verify the localized corrosion susceptibility by electrochemical tests in a solution that simulates the body fluids; and analyze microstructural changes. The treatments performed altered the biomaterials roughness and their micro hardness as a function of the increase of the pulse frequency. The microstructure and chemical composition of the surfaces underwent changes that directly affected the passive layer of the stainless steels, triggering the corrosion process. This effect was evidenced by SVET, XPS and characterization of electronic properties of the passive film by the Mott-Schottky technique. These two types of laser treatments increased the surfaces' magnetic susceptibility. The parameters used for the marking and texturing did not induce a decrease in the cellular viability of the samples, as no cytotoxicity was showed even after prolonged incubation. This biomaterial was adequate on the biomechanical tests, since the laser treatments, under the conditions used, did not induce the formation of surface tensions of magnitude capable of leading the fatigue fracture, indicating infinite fatigue life; the region of fracture by tension could not be related to the laser marking. The wear volume decreased as a function of the increase in micro hardness produced by the increase of the pulse frequency in the texturing. The visual character of the markings and texturing was assured after the majority of the tests performed. (author)

  18. Non destructive methods for evaluating the mechanical properties of cemented toxic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of resonant frequency and ultrasonic pulse velocity proved quite useful in order to follow the development of mechanical properties of cemented wastes in laboratory scale. Values of the elastic modulus (Young's modulus), shear and Poisson' s ratio have been obtained from these techniques and compared with dimensional movements and mechanical strength determined on the same formulations. The influence of crack formation on resonant frequency and quenching coefficient has also been evaluated in one case, in order to demonstrate the validity of such techniques for verifying any modification in the internal structure of the material. Sclerometric hardness was also determined on small samples and related to the compressive strength. However sclerometric measurements on full scale samples did not prove reliable. [Italian] Misure di frequenza di risonanza e di diffusione degli impulsi ultrasonici si sono rilevate un utile metodo di indagine a livello di laboratorio per meglio comprendere lo sviluppo delle proprieta' meccaniche dei rifiuti tossici condizionati in matrice cementizia. I valori del modulo di elasticita' (o modulo di Young), del modulo a torsione e del rapporto di Poisson, ottenuti mediante queste tecniche, sono stati messi in relazione con le variazioni dimensionali e con le proprieta' meccaniche di campioni ottenuti dallo stesso impasto. In un singolo caso e' stato valutato anche l'effetto che la formazione di crepe nel materiale esercita sul valore del picco di risonanza e sul coefficiente di smorzamento, allo scopo di dimostrare la validita' di queste tecniche nella verifica di modifiche insorte nella struttura interna di tali prodotti. Sono state fatte anche determinazioni di durezza per mezzo dello sclerometro, correlando i valori ottenuti con la resistenza alla compressione, mettendo altresi' in evidenza la non applicabilita' di tale metodo a manufatti preparati industrialmente.

  19. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Barrett, Geraldine; Dos Santos, Osmara Alves; Nascimento, Natalia de Castro; Cavalhieri, Fernanda Bigio; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2016-08-24

    Estimates of unplanned pregnancy worldwide are of concern, especially in low and middle-income countries, including Brazil. Although the contraceptive prevalence rate is high in Brazil, almost half of all pregnancies are reported as unintended. The only source of nationally representative data about pregnancy intention is the Demographic and Health Survey, as with many other countries. In more recent years, however, it has been realized that concept of unintended pregnancy is potentially more complex and requires more sophisticated measurement strategies, such as the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). The LMUP has been translated and validated in other languages, but not Portuguese yet. In this study, we evaluate the psychometric properties of the LMUP in the Portuguese language, Brazilian version. A Brazilian Portuguese version of the LMUP was produced via translation and back-translation. After piloting, the mode of administration was changed from self-completion to interviewer-administration. The measure was field tested with pregnant, postpartum, and postabortion women recruited at maternity and primary health care services in Sao Paulo city. Reliability (internal consistency) was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations. Construct validity was assessed using principal components analysis and hypothesis testing. Scaling was assessed with Mokken analysis. 759 women aged 15-44 completed the Brazilian Portuguese LMUP. There were no missing data. The measure was acceptable and well targeted. Reliability testing demonstrated good internal consistency (alpha = 0.81, all item-rest correlations >0.2). Validity testing confirmed that the measure was unidimensional and that all hypotheses were met: there were lower LMUP median scores among women in the extreme age groups (p Portuguese LMUP is a valid and reliable measure of pregnancy planning/intention that is now available for use in Brazil. It represents a useful addition to the

  20. In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of pterostilbene against human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawszczyk, Joanna; Kapral, Małgorzata; Hollek, Andrzej; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer has been remaining the second leading cause of cancer mortality in Poland in the last years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies reveal that dietary phytochemicals may exert chemopreventive and therapeutic effect against colorectal cancer. There is a growing interest in identifying new biologically active agents from dietary sources in this respect. Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring stilbene, that has been found to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antipro- liferative properties. Compared to other stilbenes, pterostilbene has greater bioavailability, and so, a greater potential for clinical applications. Recent studies showed that pterostilbene exhibits the hallmark characteristics of an anticancer agent. The aim of this study was to analyze antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of pterostilbene on human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. They were cultured using standard techniques and exposed to increasing doses of pterostilbene (5-100 μM) for 48 and 72 h. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. The growth of treated cells was expressed as a percentage of that of untreated control cells. Pterostilbene decreased proliferation rate of Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its concentrations = 25 μM did not affect cell growth after 48 h treatment period. Significant growth inhibition was observed in cultures incubated with higher concentrations of pterostilbene (40-100 μM). Pterostilbene at all concentrations used (5-100 μM) caused significant inhibition of cell proliferation when the experimental time period was elongated to 72 h. The maximum growth reduction was observed at 100 mM pterostilbene. The cytotoxicity of pterostilbene was evaluated in 48 h cultures based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the culture medium and showed dose-related pattern. The findings of this study showed significant dose-dependent antiproliferative and cytotoxic

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effectiveness and Moisture Binding Properties of Wound Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Srichana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of silver-coated dressings and some impregnated with other chemicals are now available in the market; however, there have been few studies analyzing their comparative efficacies as antimicrobial agents. Moreover, their properties for retaining an appropriate level of moisture that is critical for effective wound healing have never been reported. Five commercially available silver-containing and chlorhexidine dressings, Urgotul SSD®, Bactigras®, Acticoat®, Askina Calgitrol Ag® and Aquacel Ag®, were tested to determine their comparative antimicrobial effectiveness in vitro against five common wound pathogens, namely methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mepitel®, a flexible polyamide net coated with soft silicone, was used as a control. The zones of inhibition and both the rapidity and the extent of killing of these pathogens were evaluated. All five antimicrobial dressings investigated exerted some bactericidal activity, particularly against E. coli. The spectrum and rapidity of action ranged widely for the different dressings. Acticoat® had a broad spectrum of action against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Other dressings demonstrated a narrower range of bactericidal activities. Regarding the absorption and release of moisture, Askina Calgitrol Ag® absorbed and released the most moisture from the environment. Aquacel Ag® also exhibited good moisture absorption and moisture release, but to a lower degree. The other tested dressings absorbed or released very little moisture. Askina Calgitrol Ag® and Aquacel Ag® are good alternative dressings for treating wounds with high exudates and pus. An understanding of the characteristics of these dressings will be useful for utilizing them for specific requirements under specified conditions.

  2. Evaluation of the wound healing property of Commiphora guidottii Chiov. ex. Guid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Michael; Asres, Kaleab; Bisrat, Daniel; Mazumder, Avijit; Lindemann, Peter; Bucar, Franz

    2015-08-18

    The traditional use of the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora guidottii Chiov. ex. Guid., which is commonly called scented myrrh, for topical treatment of wound is well documented. The major objective of the present study was to investigate the essential oil and resin obtained from C. guidottii for their potential wound healing properties. Due to their influence on the wound healing process, the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of scented myrrh have also been investigated. Powdered oleo-gum-resin of C. guidottii was steam-distilled to obtain essential oil, and the resin was extracted from the marc with MeOH and filtered. The TLC fingerprint profile of the resin has been recorded by using silica gel GF254 as stationary phase. The essential oil components were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Ointments prepared from the essential oil (4% v/w) and the resin (5% w/w) were used for wound healing activity tests. Toxicity of the formulated ointments was investigated according to Draize skin irritation test. Acute anti-inflammatory effect in mice was evaluated using carrageenan induced mouse hind paw oedema model. Antimicrobial activity tests were carried out using disk diffusion and broth dilution techniques against 21 pathogenic bacterial and 4 fungal strains. Ointment formulations of both the oil and resin were found to be non-irritant at the concentrations used and showed significant (p<0.05-0.001) increase in wound contraction rate, shorter epithelization time and higher skin breaking strength as compared to the negative control. Overall, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the oil and resin were comparable with the standard antibiotics ciprofloxacin and griseofulvin, respectively. The results confirm that scented myrrh possesses genuine wound healing activity supporting the traditional use of the plant.

  3. Glass Polyalkenoate Cements Designed for Cranioplasty Applications: An Evaluation of Their Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel A. Khader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs have potential for skeletal cementation. Unfortunately, commercial GPCs all contain, and subsequently release, aluminum ions, which have been implicated in degenerative brain disease. The purpose of this research was to create a series of aluminum-free GPCs constructed from silicate (SiO2, calcium (CaO, zinc (ZnO and sodium (Na2O-containing glasses mixed with poly-acrylic acid (PAA and to evaluate the potential of these cements for cranioplasty applications. Three glasses were formulated based on the SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O parent glass (KBT01 with 0.03 mol % (KBT02 and 0.06 mol % (KBT03 germanium (GeO2 substituted for ZnO. Each glass was then mixed with 50 wt % of a patented SiO2-CaO-ZnO-strontium (SrO glass composition and the resultant mixtures were subsequently reacted with aqueous PAA (50 wt % addition to produce three GPCs. The incorporation of Ge in the glass phase was found to result in decreased working (142 s to 112 s and setting (807 s to 448 s times for the cements manufactured from them, likely due to the increase in crosslink formation between the Ge-containing glasses and the PAA. Compressive (σc and biaxial flexural (σf strengths of the cements were examined at 1, 7 and 30 days post mixing and were found to increase with both maturation and Ge content. The bonding strength of a titanium cylinder (Ti attached to bone by the cements increased from 0.2 MPa, when placed, to 0.6 MPa, after 14 days maturation. The results of this research indicate that Germano-Silicate based GPCs have suitable handling and mechanical properties for cranioplasty fixation.

  4. The mechanical properties of human dentin for 3-D finite element modeling: Numerical and analytical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzebieluch, Wojciech; Będziński, Romuald; Czapliński, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2017-07-01

    The FEM is often used in investigations of dentin loading conditions; however, its anisotropy is mostly neglected. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anisotropy and the elastic properties of an equivalent homogenous material model of human dentin as well as to compare isotropic and anisotropic dentin FE-models. Analytical and numerical dentin homogenization according to Luciano and Barbero was performed and E-modulus (E), Poisson's ratios (v) G-modulus (G) were calculated. The E-modulus of the dentin matrix was 28.0 GPa, Poisson's ratio (v) was 0.3; finite element models of orthotropic and isotropic dentin were created, loaded and compared using Ansys® 14.5 and CodeAster® 11.2 software. Anisotropy of the dentin ranged from 6.9 to 35.2%. E-modulus and G-modulus were as follows: E1 = 22.0-26.0 GPa, E2/E3 = 15.7-23.0 GPa; G12/G13 = 6.96-9.35 GPa and G23 = 6.08-8.09 GPa (highest values in the superficial layer). In FEM analysis of the displacement values were higher in the isotropic than in the orthotropic model, reaching up to 16% by shear load, 37% by compression and 23% in the case of shear with bending. Strain values were higher in the isotropic model, up to 35% for the shear load, 31% for compression and 35% in the case of shear with bending. The decrease in the volumetric fraction and diameter of tubules increased the G and E values. Anisotropy of the dentin applied during FEM analysis decreased the displacements and strain values. The numerical and analytical homogenization of dentin showed similar results.

  5. Non-Operational Property Evaluation for the Hanford Site River Corridor - 12409

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, John [CH2M HILL, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Aly, Alaa [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company and INTERA Incorporated, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site River Corridor consists of the former reactor areas of the 100 Areas and the former industrial (fuel processing) area in the 300 Area. Most of the waste sites are located close to the decommissioned reactors or former industrial facilities along the Columbia River. Most of the surface area of the River Corridor consists of land with little or no subsurface infrastructure or indication of past or present releases of hazardous constituents, and is referred to as non-operational property or non-operational area. Multiple lines of evidence have been developed to assess identified fate and transport mechanisms and to evaluate the potential magnitude and significance of waste site-related contaminants in the non-operational area. Predictive modeling was used for determining the likelihood of locating waste sites and evaluating the distribution of radionuclides in soil based on available soil concentration data and aerial radiological surveys. The results of this evaluation indicated: 1) With the exception of stack emissions, transport pathways associated with waste site contaminants are unlikely to result in dispersion of contaminants in soil away from operational areas, 2) Stack emissions that may have been associated with Hanford Site operations generally emitted short-lived and/or gaseous radionuclides, and (3) the likelihood of detecting elevated radionuclide concentrations or other waste sites in non-operational area soils is very small. The overall conclusions from the NPE evaluation of the River Corridor are: - With the exception of stack emissions to the air, transport pathways associated with waste site contaminants are unlikely to result in dispersion of contaminants in soil away from operational areas. While pathways such as windblown dust, overland transport and biointrusion have the potential for dispersing waste site contaminants, the resulting transport is unlikely to result in substantial contamination in non-operational areas. - Stack

  6. Evaluation of effective material properties of spiral wound gasket through homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathan, G.; Siva Prasad, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a homogenization methodology is proposed to determine the material properties of spiral wound gaskets (SWGs) using finite element analysis through representative volume elements (RVE) of the gaskets. The constituents of this RVE are described by elasto-plastic material properties. The RVE are subjected to six load cases and the volume averaged responses are analyzed simultaneously to predict the anisotropic properties. The mechanical behaviour is simplified to an orthotropic material model with Hill's plasticity model and the properties are verified with micro-mechanical simulation and experimental results available in the literature. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the results. Formulae for elastic properties are also derived by a simplified analytical method based on lamination theory and compared with those obtained from homogenization.

  7. Evaluation of effective material properties of spiral wound gasket through homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Siva Prasad, N., E-mail: siva@iitm.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, a homogenization methodology is proposed to determine the material properties of spiral wound gaskets (SWGs) using finite element analysis through representative volume elements (RVE) of the gaskets. The constituents of this RVE are described by elasto-plastic material properties. The RVE are subjected to six load cases and the volume averaged responses are analyzed simultaneously to predict the anisotropic properties. The mechanical behaviour is simplified to an orthotropic material model with Hill's plasticity model and the properties are verified with micro-mechanical simulation and experimental results available in the literature. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the results. Formulae for elastic properties are also derived by a simplified analytical method based on lamination theory and compared with those obtained from homogenization.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation.

  9. Evaluation of thermal properties of food materials at high pressures using a dual-needle line-heat-source method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S; Ramaswamy, H S; Marcotte, M; Chen, C; Shao, Y; Le Bail, A

    2007-03-01

    Thermal properties of food systems at high pressure (HP) are important in the design and operation of HP processing equipment. Available techniques for thermal property evaluation under HP conditions are still very limited. In this study, a dual-needle line-heat-source (DNL) device was installed in an HP vessel to evaluate thermal conductivity (k), diffusivity (alpha), and volumetric heat capacity (C(pV)) of foods at high pressure. The DNL probe was calibrated using glycerin (0.1 MPa) and 2% (w/w) agar gel (0.1 to 350 MPa) at 5 and 25 degrees C. Calibration results showed a good correlation with the reference data of pure water: R(2)= 0.966 for thermal conductivity and R(2)= 0.837 for diffusivity, and a small standard deviation of relative error (3.18%) for the volumetric heat capacity. Fresh potato and cheddar cheese were used as test samples at 5 degrees C at selected pressure levels (0.1 to 350 MPa). The potato samples gave thermal properties very close to those of pure water, but much higher than those of the cheese. The k and alpha values of both potato and cheese increased with pressure and a 2nd-order polynomial well fitted their pressure dependency. The volumetric heat capacity data did not show a clear pressure-dependency trend. The experimental system worked well for the evaluation of thermal properties at pressures up to 350 MPa.

  10. Differences in physicochemical properties to consider in the design, evaluation and choice between microparticles and nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Daniel P; Otto, Anja; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2015-05-01

    The increase in the development of novel nanoparticle drug delivery systems makes the choice between micro- and nanoscale drug delivery systems ubiquitous. Changes in physical and chemical properties between micro- to nanosized particles give them different properties that influence their physiological, anatomical and clinical behavior and therefore potential application. This review focuses on the effect changes in the surface-to-volume ratio have on the thermal properties, solubility, dissolution and crystallization of micro- versus nanosized drug delivery systems. With these changes in the physicochemical properties in mind, the review covers computational and biophysical approaches to the design and evaluation of micro- and nanodelivery systems. The emphasis of the review is on the effect these properties have on clinical performance in terms of drug release, tissue retention, biodistribution, efficacy, toxicity and therefore choice of delivery system. Ultimately, the choice between micro- and nanometer-sized delivery systems is not straightforward. However, if the fundamental differences in physical and chemical properties are considered, it can be much easier to make a rational choice of the appropriate drug delivery system size.

  11. Evaluation of the mechanical properties after thermal treatment of a structural hot rolled multiphase steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asensio-Lozano, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper corresponds to the experimental study conducted on a hot rolled (HR multiphase (MP steel, in which hardness, tensile and toughness properties were measured after the application of a series of subcritical and intercritical heat treatments (HT to the hot rolled stock. The aforementioned values were compared to the corresponding ones in the as-rolled state and after normalizing. The microstructure in the longitudinal plane of the strip was analyzed by light optical microscopy in the as-rolled state and in the HT samples. Longitudinal (L and transverse (T tensile and toughness specimens were cut to characterize every condition studied. Toughness properties were evaluated by means of Charpy V-notch tests conducted at 20 °C, 0 °C, –20 °C, –40 °C, –60 °C and –80 °C . It was observed that the yield stress increased with the increase in the heat treatment temperature in the subcritical range, while the tensile strength decreased slightly over the same range of temperatures. Uniform and total elongation only showed a slight improvement when the treatment was conducted at 620 °C and 700 °C, while the best toughness response corresponded to the sample treated at 500 °C for operating temperatures comprised between –40 °C and room temperature (RT.

    El presente estudio corresponde al trabajo experimental desarrollado en un acero multifase laminado en caliente, en el que se evaluaron las propiedades de dureza, tracción y tenacidad a impacto, tras realizar tratamientos térmicos subcríticos e intercríticos al material laminado en caliente. Los valores precedentes se comparan con el material de partida laminado en caliente y tras tratamiento de normalizado. Se analiza la microestructura en microscopía óptica de reflexión, en el plano longitudinal tanto en el estado laminado como en las muestras tratadas térmicamente. Se estudiaron los comportamientos longitudinales y transversales en tracción y frente a impacto

  12. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical properties of jatropha curcas seed oil for coolant-lubricant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Muhamad Nasir; Sharif, Safian; Rahim, Erween Abd.; Abdullah, Rozaini

    2017-09-01

    Increased attention to environmental issues due to industrial activities has forced the authorities raise awareness and implement regulations to reduce the use of mineral oil. Some vegetable oils unexplored or less explored, particularly the non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) and others. Physicochemical properties of JCO is compared with others edible oils, synthetic ester and fatty alcohol to obtain a viable alternative in metal cutting fluids. The oil was found to show the suitability of properties for coolant-lubricant applications in term of its physicochemical properties and better in flash point and viscosity value.

  13. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of silicone- and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Verardino de CAMARGO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the physicochemical properties of AH Plus, GuttaFlow 2, GuttaFlow BioSeal, and MM Seal, five samples of each root canal sealer were evaluated to determine their setting time (ST, dimensional change (DC, solubility (SL, flow (FL, and radiopacity (RD according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA Specification 57. The distilled and deionized water obtained from the SL test were subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry to observe the presence of Ca2+, K+, and Na+ ions. Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey–Kramer tests (p < 0.05. The following results were obtained: ST (min (AH Plus 463.6 ± 13.22; GuttaFlow 2 24.35 ± 2.78; GuttaFlow Bioseal 17.4 ± 0.55; MM Seal 47.60 ± 4.39, DC (% (AH Plus 0.06 ± 0.12; GuttaFlow 2 −26.06 ± 1.24; GuttaFlow Bioseal 2.10 ± 1.47; MM Seal 8.47 ± 2.41, SL (% (AH Plus 0.41 ± 0.21; GuttaFlow 2 5.13 ± 4.11; GuttaFlow Bioseal 3.03 ± 1.05; MM Seal 0.94 ± 0.17, FL (mm (AH Plus 36.42 ± 0.40; GuttaFlow 2 36.44 ± 0.05; GuttaFlow Bioseal 35.4 ± 0.03; MM Seal 52.75 ± 0.60, and RD (mmAl (AH Plus 7.52 ± 1.59; GuttaFlow 2 6.85 ± 0.14; GuttaFlow Bioseal 7.02 ± 0.18; MM Seal 3.32 ± 0.90. ST, DC, SL, FL, and RD showed statistical differences among the root canal sealers (p < 0.05. As AH Plus showed the lowest DC and SL values (p < 0.05, the findings indicate that this sample is the only sealer conforming to ANSI/ADA standards.

  14. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS). For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation) via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient) were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items ("partner" subscale) of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the "baby" subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of "nurse," "physician," and "baby," which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the "self" subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Moreover, the Farsi version of the MCSRS showed excellent repeatability (r = 0

  15. Summary and evaluation of available hydraulic property data for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1992-11-01

    Improving the hydrologic characterization of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system is one of the objectives of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project. To help meet this objective, hydraulic property data available for the aquifer have been compiled, mainly from reports published over the past 40 years. Most of the available hydraulic property estimates are based on constant-rate pumping tests of wells. Slug tests have also been conducted at some wells and analyzed to determine hydraulic properties. Other methods that have been used to estimate hydraulic properties of the unconfined aquifer are observations of water-level changes in response to river stage, analysis of ground-water mound formation, tracer tests, and inverse groundwater flow models

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  17. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Amalan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions.

  18. Evaluation of some properties of wheat-brewers' spent cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brewers' spent cassava flour blends and that it has a lot of potential in the food industry especially its use as thickener and binding agent in the food systems. Keywords: Brewers' spent cassava flour, wheat flour, proximate, functional properties.

  19. Investigation of a piezoelectric droplet delivery method for fuel injection and physical property evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    A piezoelectric droplet generator is investigated to deliver liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a micro-combustor application. Besides fuel delivery, the setup is intended to measure fuel physical properties such as viscosity and surface tension. These properties are highly relevant to spray generation in internal combustion engines. Accordingly, a drop-on-demand piezoelectric dispenser is used to generate fuel droplet trains, which are studied using imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA). The diagnostics provide information regarding droplet size and velocity and their evolution over time. The measurements are correlated with results from one-dimensional (1D) models that incorporate sub-models for piezo-electric actuation and droplet vaporization. By validating the 1D models for fuels with known physical properties, a technique is developed that has the capability to meter low-vapor pressure liquid fuels to the microcombustor and use information from the droplet train to calculate physical properties of novel fuels.

  20. Characterization of phenolic constituents and evaluation of antioxidant properties of leaves and stems of Eriocephalus africanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Catarino

    2018-01-01

    Overall, these results are an important contribution for the elucidation of the phenolic composition of E. africanus, as well as for the understanding of the biological properties of this medicinal plant species.

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maj Obaseki

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization assays. ... bonariensis affirms the anti-inflammatory property of the plant and the phytochemicals ..... Plasma for liver function tests was obtained by centrifuging the.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  3. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P.

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (蘆薈 lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  4. A critical evaluation of the enhancement of mechanical properties of epoxy modified using CNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsole, Robert W.; Park, Cheol; Bogert, Philip B.; Tippur, Hareesh V.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely shown in the literature to improve mechanical properties of epoxy, such as tensile strength, elastic modulus, strain to failure, and fracture toughness. These improvements in nanocomposite properties have been attributed to the extraordinary properties of the nanotubes, as well as the quality of their dispersion within and adhesion to the epoxy matrix. However, many authors have also struggled to show significant mechanical improvements using similar methodologies and despite, in some cases, showing qualitative improvements in dispersion with optical microscopy. These authors have frequently resorted to other methods for improving the mechanical properties of CNT/epoxy, such as electrically aligning CNTs, using different types of CNTs, or modifying the stoichiometry. The current work examines many different dispersion techniques, types of CNTs, types of epoxies, curing cycles, and other variables in an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of neat epoxy with CNTs. Despite seeing significant changes in the microscopy, no significant improvements in tensile or fracture properties have been attributed to CNTs in this work.

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.75 - What is the most important consideration in evaluating a proposed transfer of excess real property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the most... Guidelines § 102-75.75 What is the most important consideration in evaluating a proposed transfer of excess real property? In every case of a proposed transfer of excess real property, the most important...

  6. Measurement and evaluation of the radiative properties of a thin solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettegrew, Richard; Street, Kenneth; Pitch, Nancy; Tien, James; Morrison, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Accurate modeling of combustion systems requires knowledge of the radiative properties of the system. Gas phase properties are well known, but detailed knowledge of surface properties is limited. Recent work has provided spectrally resolved data for some solid fuels, but only for the unburned material at room temperature, and for limited sets of previously burned and quenched samples. Due to lack of knowledge of the spectrally resolved properties at elevated temperatures, as well as processing limitations in the modeling effort, graybody values are typically used for the fuels surface radiative properties. However, the spectrally resolved properties for the fuels at room temperature can be used to give a first-order correction for temperature effects on the graybody values. Figure 1 shows a sample of the spectrally resolved emittance/absorptance for a thin solid fuel of the type commonly used in combustion studies, from approximately 2 to 20 microns. This plot clearly shows a strong spectral dependence across the entire range. By definition, the emittance is the ratio of the emitted energy to that of a blackbody at the same temperature. Therefore, to determine a graybody emittance for this material, the spectrally resolved data must be applied to a blackbody curve. The total area under the resulting curve is ratioed to the total area under the blackbody curve to yield the answer. Due to the asymmetry of the spectrally resolved emittance and the changing shape of the blackbody curve as the temperature increases, the relative importance of the emittance value at any given wavelength will change as a function of temperature. Therefore, the graybody emittance value for a given material will change as a function of temperature even if the spectral dependence of the radiative properties remains unchanged. This is demonstrated in Figures 2 and 3, which are plots of the spectrally resolved emittance for KimWipes (shown in Figure 1) multiplied by the blackbody curves for

  7. College Students' Evaluation of Effective Teaching: Developing an Instrument and Assessing Its Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2013-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching (SETs) are currently the most commonly used method for evaluating teaching effectiveness in higher education institutions. They aid in evaluating the quality of faculty teaching and provide useful information for administrators, faculty, and students. The majority of SET instruments were developed based on faculty…

  8. Evaluation of the magnetic and mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel steels by incremental permeability change curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebine, N.; Suzuki, M.

    2001-01-01

    Incremental permeability measurement was performed for two types of structural steels along with the magnetization of their hysteresis minor-loop. The obtained incremental permeability change curve has two sharp peaks, and the width between the two peaks is correlated with the coercivity. Hence the existence of good correlation was verified. On the basis of this result, nondestructive measurement experiments were carried out with planar coils to evaluate changes in the material properties of ferromagnetic structural steel plates. Changes in output voltages from planar coils with different test plates were correlated with their mechanical and magnetic properties. The correlation is so good that the measurement method adopted in this work could be used for nondestructive evaluation of material degradation in ferromagnetic structural steels. (author)

  9. Evaluation of physical property of light-weight soil with air foam using X-ray CT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Jun; Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the physical property of light-weight soil made of dredged slurry mixed with air foam and cement using X-ray CT method. In this study, not only the specimen made in laboratory but also the one sampled at the in-situ construction site were used and the property in the soil was visualized and the distributions of the density an air porosity were evaluated quantitatively using the results of CT scanning. Here, the method of image processing analysis was also used for this evaluation study. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is concluded that the X-ray CT method is a powerful tool even for geotechnical engineering and this makes not only the visualization but also the quantitative ion discussion possible for the light-weight soil with air foam. (author)

  10. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of insulation materials for HTS power devices at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Diaz, Mark Angelo [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In superconducting power devices including power cables in which high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes are utilized, a reliable electrical insulation should be achieved for its maximum performance. For an efficient design of HTS superconducting devices, a comparative evaluation of the mechanical and thermal propperties for various insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures is required. Especially, in the process of the property evaluation of the sheet-shaped insulation materials, anisotropy according to the machining direction should be considered because the mechanical and thermal properties are significantly influenced by the sample orientation. In this study, the cryogenic thermal and mechanical properties of various insulation material sheets such as PPLP, Cryoflex, Teflon, and Kapton were determined considering sample orientation. All samples tested at cryogenic temperature showed significantly higher tensile strength as compared with that of room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength at both temperature conditions significantly depended upon the sample orientation. The thermal properties of the insulation materials exhibited a slight difference among samples depending on the orientation: for the PPLP and Cryoflex, the CD orientation showed larger thermal contraction up to 77 K as compared to the MD one. MD samples in PPLP and Cryoflex showed a lower CTE and thermal contraction which made it more promising as an insulation material due to its comparable CTE with HTS CC tapes.

  11. Brazilian Version of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ-Br): Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Evaluation of Measurement Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana F. B.; Laurindo, Ieda M. M.; Rodrigues, Priscilla T.; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, S?rgio C.; Tanaka, Clarice

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. INTRODUCTION: This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0-100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pr...

  12. Patient-reported outcome instruments that evaluate adherence behaviours in adults with asthma: A systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Myriam; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Pérez, Norma; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2018-04-30

    To systematically identify the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) that evaluate adherence to inhaled maintenance medication in adults with asthma. We conducted a systematic review of six databases. Two reviewers independently included studies on the measurement properties of PROs that evaluated adherence in asthmatic participants aged ≥18 years. Based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN), the reviewers (1) extracted data on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, structural validity, hypotheses testing, cross-cultural validity, criterion validity, and responsiveness; (2) assessed the methodological quality of the included studies; (3) assessed the quality of the measurement properties (positive or negative); and (4) summarised the level of evidence (limited, moderate, or strong). We screened 6,068 records and included 15 studies (14 PROs). No studies evaluated measurement error or responsiveness. Based on methodological and measurement property quality assessments, we found limited positive evidence of: (a) internal consistency of the Adherence Questionnaire, Refined Medication Adherence Reason Scale (MAR-Scale), Medication Adherence Report Scale for Asthma (MARS-A), and Test of the Adherence to Inhalers (TAI); (b) reliability of the TAI; and (c) structural validity of the Adherence Questionnaire, MAR-Scale, MARS-A, and TAI. We also found limited negative evidence of: (d) hypotheses testing of Adherence Questionnaire; (e) reliability of the MARS-A; and (f) criterion validity of the MARS-A and TAI. Our results highlighted the need to conduct further high-quality studies that will positively evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the available PROs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation the Mechanical Properties of Shot Peened TIG Welded Aluminum Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ameed Zain Al-Abideen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A tungsten inert gas (TIG welding is one of the most popular kinds of welding used to join metals mainly for aluminum alloys. However, many challenges may be met with this kind of joining process; these challenges arise from decay of mechanical properties of welded materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to enhancing the mechanical properties of TIG weld joint of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy by hardening the surfaces using shoot peening technique. To optimize the shoot peening process three times of exposure (5, 10, and 15 min. was used. All peened and unpeened, and welded and unwelded samples were characterized by metallographic test to indicate the phase transformation and modification in microstructure occurring during welding process. Tensile test and Vickers micro-hardness measurements were performed for all samples to investigate the effect of shoot peening on mechanical properties of welded aluminum. The results indicated a significant improvement in properties for peened welded and unwelded samples compared with those unpeened one. Also, the results showed that the tensile and microhardness properties were increased with increasing the time of exposure to 15 min. due to generation of compressive residual stresses at surface.

  14. Evaluation of hygrothermal effects on the shear properties of Carall composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, E.C.; Pardini, L.C.; Rezende, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Fiber metal laminates are the frontline materials for aeronautical and space structures. These composites consists of layers of 2024-T3-aluminum alloy and composite prepreg layers. When the composite layer is a carbon fiber prepreg, the fiber metal laminate, named Carall, offers significant improvements over current available materials for aircraft structures. While weight reduction and improved damage tolerance characteristics were the prime drivers to develop this new family of materials, it turns out that they have additional benefits, which become more and more important for today's designers, such as cost reduction and improved safety. The degradation of composites is due to environmental effects mainly on the chemical and/or physical properties of the polymer matrix leading to loss of adhesion of fiber/resin interface. Also, the reduction of fiber strength and stiffness are expected due to environmental degradation. Changes in interface/interphase properties leads to more pronounced changes in shear properties than any other mechanical properties. In this work, the influence of moisture in shear properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites and Carall have been investigated by using interlaminar shear (ILSS) and Iosipescu tests. It was observed that hygrothermal conditioning reduces the Iosipescu shear strength of CF/E and Carall composites due to the moisture absorption in these materials

  15. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  16. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Medical Applications of Polycaprolactone Small Diameter Artificial Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnazsadat Mirbagheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the cardiovascular diseases and decreasing the possibility of autograft surgery are important factors that cause the choice of artificial vascular graft as an alternative treatment method. In this regard, producing artificial grafts similar to natural vessels is an important purpose that has long been followed as a gold standard by many researchers worldwide. In addition, mechanical properties including strength, long patency, bio-compatibility and hydrophobicity are necessary properties to achieve ideal vascular grafts. Hence there are various factors such as polymer type and preparation methods, which contribute to suitable mechanical properties. The electrospinning as an optimized method on one side and biocompatible, degradable and semicrystalline polycaprolactone (PCL on the other side are used for their acceptable mechanical properties to manufacture synthetic vessels. In this study, PCL vascular grafts have been reviewed and a wide range of parameters affecting the improvement of mechanical properties and their performance have been described along with clinical applications. Therefore, by investigating and comparing single and composite PCL vascular grafts, we achieved acceptable results in the field of cell growth and adhesion as well as implanting grafts in animals such as rat and rabbit. By reviewing other studies, it was revealed that synthetic composite vessels made of PCL and natural polymers such as collagen and chitosan and synthetic polymers such as polyurethane (PU for long patency and acceptable cell adhesion have shown good clinical results.

  17. Evaluation of the sealing properties and TMA study of multilayer PA/PE film treated with e-beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Angel V.; Gargalaka Junior, Joao; Wiebeck, Helio

    2007-01-01

    Multilayer films are widely used in the food industry as thermoforming as well as non thermoforming vacuum packaging. In this study a PA6/LDPE multilayer film underwent E-beam radiation and its sealing properties were evaluated over 3 years after the film was irradiated. Packaging materials have been widely processed by ionizing radiation in order to improve their chemical and physical properties and also for sterilization purposes. Basically, flexible packaging manufacturers apply specific radiation doses to promote cross-linking and scission of the polymeric chains and thus obtain alterations in certain properties. While enhancing a specific property, significant losses may result in others. We examined the effects of E-beam radiation on the sealing properties of the multilayer film irradiated with doses up to 127 kGy. Results showed that as doses go up, the sealing strength goes down. The TMA study shows that the softening/melting temperatures of the LDPE layer (sealing layer) varies according to the irradiation doses and helps explain the results of the sealing strength tests. (author)

  18. Evaluating effects of sewage sludge and household compost on soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Petersen, S.O.; Kure, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture may help maintain soil fertility via effects on physical, chemical and biological properties. Efficient use, however, requires an individual assessment of waste products, and effects should be compared with natural variations due to climate and soil......C, as well as in the field. The following properties were monitored: wet-stability of soil aggregates, clay dispersibility, hot-water extractable carbohydrates, resin-extractable P-i, inorganic N, biomass C and N, PLFA profiles, FDA hydrolysis activity, beta-glucosidase activity and CO2 evolution. In general...... amendment on the fraction of soil in wet-stable aggregates, or on the microbiological properties tested, which supported the observation from the incubation study that effects of organic wastes were transient. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. The Hanford Site N Reactor buildings task identification and evaluation of historic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, D.C.; Marceau, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    The New Production Reactor complex at Hanford (hereafter referred to as N Reactor) is proposed to be deactivated, decommissioned, and demolished in the coming years. Recognizing that the Hanford Site has been important to the nation, state, and local community, a task was funded to examine the effects that these activities may have on the historic properties of N Reactor. The objectives of the N Reactor buildings task were to identify potential historic properties at N Reactor, to complete Historic Property Inventory forms for all structures considered eligible and ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, and to prepare a Memorandum of Agreement that identifies the measures required to mitigate any adverse effects

  20. Effect of helium implantation on mechanical properties of EUROFER97 evaluated by nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldán, M.; Fernández, P.; Rams, J.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Ortiz, C.J.; Vila, R.

    2014-01-01

    Helium effects on EUROFER97 mechanical properties were studied by means of nanoindentation. The steel was implanted with He ions in a stair-like profile configuration using energies from 2 to 15 MeV at room temperature. Firstly, a deep nanoindentation study was carried out on as-received state (normalized + tempered) in order to obtain a reliable properties database at the nanometric scale, including aspects such as indentation size effect. The nanoindentation hardness of tests on He implanted samples showed a hardness increase depending on the He concentration. The hardness increase follows the He implantation concentration profile with a good accuracy according to BCA calculations using MARLOWE code, considering the whole volume affected by the nanoindentation tests. The results obtained in this work shown that nanoindentation technique permits to assess any change of hardness properties due to ion implantation

  1. Evaluation of electrical, structural, thermal and optical properties of Co_3O_4 semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Jeferson A.; Maestrelli, Sylma C.; Morelli, Marcio R.

    2016-01-01

    Among the new semiconductors, the tricobalt tetraoxide is a material of increasing interest; nevertheless, there is a limited number of studies about its properties. Thus, this work has investigated the structural, thermal, optical and electronic properties of Co_3O_4 and its correlation with structure and microstructure. For that, the commercial material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, diffuse reflectance, FTIR and impedance spectroscopy. The results have shown that the assessed Co_3O_4 has non-stoichiometric spinel structure, presenting a band gap energy capable to completely absorb the visible spectra (1.75 eV). Furthermore, it can be visualized in infrared spectra the bands related to Co-O bonds. The activation energy of electric conduction was 0.35 eV related to the hopping mechanism. Therefore, the results confirm the potentiality of use of Co_3O_4 in optoelectronic devices due to its promising properties for technological utilization. (author)

  2. Physical and mechanical properties evaluation of Acropora palmata coralline species for bone substitution applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, K; Camero, S; Alarcón, M E; Rivas, A; González, G

    2002-05-01

    The search for ideal materials for bone substitution has been a challenge for many decades. Numerous natural and synthetic materials have been studied. For this application, exoskeletons of coral have been considered a good alternative given its tendency to resorption, biocompatibility and similarity to the mineral bone phase. Very few studies of these materials consider a detailed analysis of the structure-property relationship. The purpose of this work was to carry out the microstructural characterization of a coralline species named Acropora palmata and the determination of the mechanical and physico-chemical properties. Measurements of hardness, compressive strength, bulk density and apparent porosity were performed. From these results it was determined that this marine coral species could be an alternative xenograft due to its mechanical properties and osteoconductive nature.

  3. Evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Elanchezhian, C.; Jaivignesh, M.; Rajesh, S.; Parswajinan, C.; Siddique Ahmed Ghias, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of MMC with aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide is done. • Different proportions of reinforcements are added. • The effects of varying proportions are studied. • Investigation on mechanical properties above composites is performed. • Failure morphology analysis is done using SEM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the fabrication and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy, alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and boron carbide metal matrix composites. Aluminium is the matrix metal having properties like light weight, high strength and ease of machinability. Alumina which has better wear resistance, high strength, hardness and boron carbide which has excellent hardness and fracture toughness are added as reinforcements. Here, the fabrication is done by stir casting which involves mixing the required quantities of additives into stirred molten aluminium. After solidification, the samples are prepared and tested to find the various mechanical properties like tensile, flexural, impact and hardness. The internal structure of the composite is observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  4. Evaluation of mechanical properties of as-cast Al-Zn-Ce alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraju, H.K.; Jayaraj, T.; Sadanandarao, P.R.; Venkatesha, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cerium on Al-Zn alloys with T6 and T5 treatments was investigated for mechanical and impact properties. Alloys were prepared by controlled melting and casting. The cast alloys were solution heat treated at 500-550 o C, for up to 24 h, followed by artificial aging at 165 o C for 6 h (T6). The T5 type temper was produced merely by applying a precipitation treatment to the as-cast castings, without previous solution treatment. All the tests were conducted according to ASTM standards. From the investigation, it was found that there was an improvement in mechanical and impact properties. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to characterize the structural properties of different heat treatments and the effect of cerium. In addition, the fractured specimens were examined using a scanning electron microscopy in order to clarify fracture.

  5. Computer codes for the evaluation of thermodynamic and transport properties for equilibrium air to 30000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui; Gupta, Roop N.

    1991-01-01

    The computer codes developed here provide self-consistent thermodynamic and transport properties for equilibrium air for temperatures from 500 to 30000 K over a temperature range of 10 (exp -4) to 10 (exp -2) atm. These properties are computed through the use of temperature dependent curve fits for discrete values of pressure. Interpolation is employed for intermediate values of pressure. The curve fits are based on mixture values calculated from an 11-species air model. Individual species properties used in the mixture relations are obtained from a recent study by the present authors. A review and discussion of the sources and accuracy of the curve fitted data used herein are given in NASA RP 1260.

  6. Holistic information evaluation of divergence of soil's properties by using of legacy data of large scale monitoring surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheeva, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Identification of tendencies of soil's transformations is very important for adequate ecological and economical assessment of degradation of soils. But monitoring of conditions of soils, and other natural objects, bring up a number of important methodological questions, including the probabilistic and statistical analysis of the accumulated legacy data and their use for verification of quantitative estimates of natural processes. Owing to considerable natural variability there is a problem of a reliable assessment of contemporary soil evolution under the influence of environmental management and climate changes. When studying dynamics of soil quality it is necessary to consider soil as open complex system with parameters which significantly vary in space. The analysis of probabilistic distributions of attributes of studied system is informative for the characteristic of holistic state and behavior of the system. Therefore earlier we had offered the method of evaluation of alterations of soils by analysis of changes of pdf of their properties and their statistical entropy. The executed analysis of dynamics of pdf showed that often opposite tendencies to decrease and to increase of property can be shown at the same time. However to give an adequate quantitative evaluation of changes of soil properties it is necessary to characterize them in general. We proposed that it is reasonable to name processes of modern changes in soil properties concerning their start meaning by the term "divergence" and investigate it quantitatively. For this purpose we suggested to use value of information divergence which is defined as a measure of distinctions of pdf in compared objects or in various time. As the measure of dissimilarity, divergence should satisfy come conditions, the most important is scale-invariance property. Information divergence was used by us for evaluation of distinctions of soils according heterogeneity of factors of soil formation and with course of natural and

  7. Structure and property evaluation of a vacuum plasma sprayed nanostructured tungsten-hafnium carbide bulk composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, K.E.; Viswanathan, V.; Kruize, A.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de; O'Dell, S.; McKechnie, T.; Rajagopalan, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Seal, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming of tungsten-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMCs) has shown to be a cost effective and time saving method for the formation of bulk monolithic nanostructured thermo-mechanical components. Spray drying of powder feedstock appears to have a significant effect on the improved mechanical properties of the bulk nanocomposite. The reported elastic modulus of the nanocomposite nearly doubles due to the presence of HfC nano particulates in the W matrix. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed the retention of nanostructures at the select process conditions and is correlated with the enhanced mechanical properties of the nanocomposite

  8. Evaluation of gamma-ray attenuation properties of bismuth borate glass systems using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D.A.; Gurler, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi 2 O 3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented. - Highlights: • Radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass systems have been reported. • Mass attenuation coefficients increase linearly with increase in Bi concentration. • Half-value layer decreases with increasing concentration of Bi. • Half-value layer decreases with the increase in the sample density.

  9. Development and application of measurement techniques for evaluating localised magnetic properties in electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. J.; Anderson, P. I.; Gao, Y.; Robinson, F.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a measurement probe which couples local flux density measurements obtained using the needle probe method with the local magnetising field attained via a Hall effect sensor. This determines the variation in magnetic properties including power loss and permeability at increasing distances from the punched edge of 2.4% and 3.2% Si non-oriented electrical steel sample. Improvements in the characterisation of the magnetic properties of electrical steels would aid in optimising the efficiency in the design of electric machines.

  10. Evaluation of the Kinetic Property of Single-Molecule Junctions by Tunneling Current Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, Takanori; Hasegawa, Yusuke; Kiguchi, Manabu; Nishino, Tomoaki

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the formation and breaking of single-molecule junctions of two kinds of dithiol molecules by time-resolved tunneling current measurements in a metal nanogap. The resulting current trajectory was statistically analyzed to determine the single-molecule conductance and, more importantly, to reveal the kinetic property of the single-molecular junction. These results suggested that combining a measurement of the single-molecule conductance and statistical analysis is a promising method to uncover the kinetic properties of the single-molecule junction.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Water Retted and Non-retted Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers.

  12. Characterization, Long-Term Behavior Evaluation and Thermomechanical Properties of Untreated and Treated Flax Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the usage of natural fiber reinforced composites in more advanced structural applications. Consequently, the need for improving their mechanical properties as well as service life and long-term behavior modeling and predictions has arisen. In a step towards further development of these materials, in this study, two newly developed biobased resins, derived from soybean oil, methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate and double methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate are combined with untreated and alkaline treated flax fiber to produce novel biocomposites. Vinyl ester reinforced with flax fiber is used as control in addition to comparing properties of biobased composites against commercial pultruded composites. Effects of alkaline treatment of flax fiber as well as addition of 1% acrylic resin to vinyl ester and the two mentioned biobased resins on mechanical properties are studied. Properties are evaluated in short-term and also, after being exposed to accelerated weathering (i.e. UV and moisture). Moreover, long-term creep of these novel biobased composites and effect of fiber and matrix treatment on viscoelastic behavior is investigated using Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle. Based on the results of this study, the TTS provides an accelerated method for evaluation of mechanical properties of biobased composites, and satisfactory master curves are achieved by use of this principle. Also, fiber and matrix treatments were effective in increasing mechanical properties of biobased composites in short-term, and treatments delayed the creep response and slowed the process of creep in composites under study in the steady state region. Overall, results of this study reveal the successful production of biocomposites having properties that meet or exceed those of conventional pultruded members while maintaining high biocontent. Composites using treated flax fiber and newly developed resins showed less

  13. A Summary of Properties Used to Evaluate INEEL Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite-Based Bone Reconstructive Materials with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Zorica R; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Ignjatović, Nenad L; Stojanović, Zoran; Mladenović-Antić, Snezana B; Kocić, Branislava D; Najman, Stevo; Petrović, Nenad D; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2016-02-01

    In the field of oral implantology the loss of bone tissue prevents adequate patient care, and calls for the use of synthetic biomaterials with properties that resemble natural bone. Special attention is paid to the risk of infection after the implantation of these materials. Studies have suggested that some nanocontructs containing metal ions have antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, compared to hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/poly-lactide-co-glycolide. The antibacterial effects of these powders were tested against two pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coi (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), using the disc diffusion method and the quantitative antimicrobial test in a liquid medium. The quantitative antimicrobial test showed that all of the tested biomaterials have some antibacterial properties. The effects of both tests were more prominent in case of S. aureus than in E coli. A higher percentage of cobalt in the crystal structure of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles led to an increased antimicrobial activity. All of the presented biomaterial samples were found to be non-hemolytic. Having in mind that the tested of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca/Co-HAp) material in given concentrations shows good hemocompatibility and antimicrobial effects, along with its previously studied biological properties, the conclusion can be reached that it is a potential candidate that could substitute calcium hydroxyapatite as the material of choice for use in bone tissue engineering and clinical practices in orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  15. Evaluation of the properties of complexing agent-collectors of eudialyte flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanova G.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid-based and complexing properties of reagent-collectors (carboxylic and hydroxamic acids, styrylphosphonic acid and dialkyl ether of phosphoric acid for flotation of zirconium-containing minerals have been studied. Stability constants for zirconium compounds of investigated reagents have been determined. Eudialyte-containing ore flotation has proved high efficiency of hydroxamic acids

  16. Assessment set for evaluation of clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis: psychometric properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řasová, K.; Martinková, Patrícia; Vyškovská, J.; Šedová, Michaela

    -, č. 3 (2012), s. 59-70 ISSN 1179-271X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) 1A8628 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : outcome assessment * reproducibility of results * psychometric properties * test–retest reliability * internal consistency Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  17. Alloy Design and Property Evaluation of Ti-Mo-Nb-Sn Alloy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ti-Mo alloy containing Nb and Sn were arc melted and composition analyzed by EDX. The XRD analysis indicates that the crystal structure and mechanical properties are sensitive to Sn concentration. A combination of Sn and Nb elements in synergy hindered formation athermal w phase and significantly enhanced b phase ...

  18. Evaluation of reactive force fields for prediction of the thermo-mechanical properties of cellulose Iâ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando L. Dri; Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini; Pablo D. Zavattieri

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is commonly used to study the properties of nanocellulose-based materials at the atomic scale. It is well known that the accuracy of these simulations strongly depends on the force field that describes energetic interactions. However, since there is no force field developed specifically for cellulose, researchers utilize models...

  19. Evaluation of the properties of TiO2 films on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizza, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of laboratory tests concerning the characterization of photo catalytic properties of titanium dioxide films obtained on titanium substrates by using three different techniques for anodizing. Been investigated in scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis cyclic voltammetry. [it

  20. Foam property tests to evaluate the potential for longwall shield dust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Beck, T W; Zheng, Y; Klima, S; Driscoll, J

    2018-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine properties of four foam agents for their potential use in longwall mining dust control. Foam has been tried in underground mining in the past for dust control and is currently being reconsidered for use in underground coal longwall operations in order to help those operations comply with the Mine Safety and Health Administration's lower coal mine respirable dust standard of 1.5 mg/m 3 . Foams were generated using two different methods. One method used compressed air and water pressure to generate foam, while the other method used low-pressure air generated by a blower and water pressure using a foam generator developed by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Foam property tests, consisting of a foam expansion ratio test and a water drainage test, were conducted to classify foams. Compressed-air-generated foams tended to have low expansion ratios, from 10 to 19, with high water drainage. Blower-air-generated foams had higher foam expansion ratios, from 30 to 60, with lower water drainage. Foams produced within these ranges of expansion ratios are stable and potentially suitable for dust control. The test results eliminated two foam agents for future testing because they had poor expansion ratios. The remaining two foam agents seem to have properties adequate for dust control. These material property tests can be used to classify foams for their potential use in longwall mining dust control.

  1. Evaluation of mechanical properties of calotropis giganteastem fiber-rein forced composite material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aruna, M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available as an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Owing to their availability, low cost, good mechanical properties, high specific strength, non-abrasive, eco-friendly and bio-degradability characteristics, they are exploited as a...

  2. Evaluation of mechanical properties of hybrid fiber (hemp, jute, kevlar) reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresha, K. V.; Shivanand, H. K.; Amith, A.; Vidyasagar, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world composites play wide role in all the engineering fields. The reinforcement of composites decides the properties of the material. Natural fiber composites compared to synthetic fiber possesses poor mechanical properties. The solution for this problem is to use combination of natural fiber and synthetic fiber. Hybridization helps to improve the overall mechanical properties of the material. In this study, hybrid reinforced composites of Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute fabric/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy composites are fabricated using Simple hand layup technique followed by Vacuum bagging process. Appropriate test methods as per standards and guidelines are followed to analyze mechanical behavior of the composites. The mechanical characteristics like tensile, compression and flexural properties of the hybrid reinforced composites are tested as per the ASTM standards by series of tensile test; compression test and three point bending tests were conducted on the hybrid composites. A quantitative relationship between the Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy has been established with constant thickness.

  3. Evaluation of flow properties in the weldments of vanadium alloys using a novel indentation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Lee, E.H.; King, J.F.; Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) testing, was successfully employed to determine the flow properties of the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal of the gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welds of the V-4Cr-4Ti (large heat no. 832665) and the V-5Cr-5Ti (heat 832394) alloys. ABI test results showed a clear distinction among the properties of the fusion zone, HAZ, and base metal in both GTA and EB welds of the two alloys. GTA and EB welds of both V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys show strengthening of both the fusion zone and the HAZ (compared to base metal) with the fusion zone having higher strength than the HAZ. These data correlate well with the Brinell hardness. On the other hand, GTA welds of both alloys, after a post-weld heat treatment of 950{degrees}C for 2 h, show a recovery of the properties to base metal values with V-5Cr-5Ti showing a higher degree of recovery compared to V-4Cr-4Ti. These measurements correlate with the reported recovery of the Charpy impact properties.

  4. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Macphee, Donald E.; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Imbabi, Mohammed Salah-Eldin

    2014-01-01

    the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive

  5. Experimental evaluation of the thermal properties of two tissue equivalent phantom materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, O I; Howle, L E; Clegg, S T

    1999-01-01

    Tissue equivalent radio frequency (RF) phantoms provide a means for measuring the power deposition of various hyperthermia therapy applicators. Temperature measurements made in phantoms are used to verify the accuracy of various numerical approaches for computing the power and/or temperature distributions. For the numerical simulations to be accurate, the electrical and thermal properties of the materials that form the phantom should be accurately characterized. This paper reports on the experimentally measured thermal properties of two commonly used phantom materials, i.e. a rigid material with the electrical properties of human fat, and a low concentration polymer gel with the electrical properties of human muscle. Particularities of the two samples required the design of alternative measuring techniques for the specific heat and thermal conductivity. For the specific heat, a calorimeter method is used. For the thermal diffusivity, a method derived from the standard guarded comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique was used for both materials. For the 'muscle'-like material, the thermal conductivity, density and specific heat at constant pressure were measured as: k = 0.31 +/- 0.001 W(mK)(-1), p = 1026 +/- 7 kgm(-3), and c(p) = 4584 +/- 107 J(kgK)(-1). For the 'fat'-like material, the literature reports on the density and specific heat such that only the thermal conductivity was measured as k = 0.55 W(mK)(-1).

  6. SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE SECONDARY COOLANTS: SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF THEIR THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Samuel Gomes Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative analysis of the thermophysical properties of ice slurry with conventional single-phase secondary fluids used in thermal storage cooling systems. The ice slurry is a two-phase fluid consisting of water, antifreeze and ice crystals. It is a new technology that has shown great energy potential. In addition to transporting energy as a heat transfer fluid, it has thermal storage properties due to the presence of ice, storing coolness by latent heat of fusion. The single-phase fluids analyzed are water-NaCl and water-propylene glycol solutions, which also operate as carrier fluids in ice slurry. The presence of ice changes the thermophysical properties of aqueous solutions and a number of these properties were determined: density, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. Data were obtained by software simulation. The results show that the presence of 10% by weight of ice provides a significant increase in thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity, without causing changes in density. The rheological behavior of ice slurries, associated with its high viscosity, requires higher pumping power; however, this was not significant because higher thermal conductivity allows a lower mass flow rate without the use of larger pumps. Thus, the ice slurry ensures its high potential as a secondary fluid in thermal storage cooling systems, proving to be more efficient than single-phase secondary fluids.

  7. Evaluation of gamma-ray attenuation properties of bismuth borate glass systems using Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D. A.; Gurler, Orhan

    2017-11-01

    A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi2O3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented.

  8. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras. Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA or sorbic acid (SA and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C. This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras. A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In

  9. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-03-01

    High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concretes are seen by many as a feasible solution for sustainable, low embodied carbon construction. At the moment, fly ash is classified as a waste by-product, primarily of thermal power stations. In this paper the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive strength and Young\\'s modulus respectively. Applicability of the CEB-FIP (Comite Euro-international du Béton - Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte) and ACI (American Concrete Institute) Building Model Code (Thomas, 2010; ACI Committee 209, 1982) [1,2] to the experimentally-derived mechanical property data for HVFA concretes was established. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, Mean Squared Residuals (MSRs) were obtained to determine whether a weight- or volume-based mix proportion is better to predict the mechanical properties of HVFA concrete. The significance levels of the design factors, which indicate how significantly the factors affect the HVFA concrete\\'s mechanical properties, were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The results show that a weight-based mix proportion is a slightly better predictor of mechanical properties than volume-based one. The significance level of fly ash substitution rate was higher than that of w/b ratio initially but reduced over time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Some dosimetric properties of the LiF:Mg,Ti evaluated by the automatic 6600 thermoluminescent reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Shachar, B; Weinstein, M; German, U [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    Some dosimetric properties of the new LiF:Mg,Ti TLD cards were checked, when evaluated by the new automatic 6600 TLD reader. The cards were calibrated to a dose of 1.0 mGy by five identical irradiations, and the TL-dose response was measured for a range of 75 - 1100 mGy. A very high accuracy was found for the three kind of chips measured (TLD-100, TLD-700 and TLD-600) and a low minimum measurable dose (MMD) was found, too. There is a good fit between the analytical evaluation and the theoretical calculation of the MMD. The results obtained are much better than those of the LiF:Mg,Ti cards evaluated by the older automatic 2271 reader used in the last two decades (authors).

  11. Brazilian version of the foot health status questionnaire (FHSQ-BR: cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of measurement properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. B. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. INTRODUCTION: This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0-100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pre-tested (n = 40 rheumatoid arthritis subjects. The new version was submitted to a field test (n = 65 to evaluate measurement properties such as test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Health Assessment Questionnaire, Numeric Rating Scale for foot pain and Sharp/van der Heijde scores for foot X-rays were used to test the construct validity. RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation was completed with minor wording adaptations from the original instrument. The evaluation of measurement properties showed high reliability with low variation coefficients between interviews. The a-Cronbach coefficients varied from 0.468 to 0.855, while correlation to the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Numeric Rating Scale was statistically significant for five out of eight domains. DISCUSSION: Intra- and inter-observer correlations showed high reliability. Internal consistency coefficients were high for all domains, revealing higher values for less subjective domains. As for construct validity, each domain revealed correlations with a specific group of parameters according to what the domains intended to measure. CONCLUSION: The FHSQ was cross-culturally adapted, generating a reliable, consistent, and valid instrument that is useful for evaluating foot health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Brazilian version of the foot health status questionnaire (FHSQ-BR): cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F B; Laurindo, Ieda M M; Rodrigues, Priscilla T; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, Sérgio C; Tanaka, Clarice

    2008-10-01

    To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0-100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pre-tested (n = 40 rheumatoid arthritis subjects). The new version was submitted to a field test (n = 65) to evaluate measurement properties such as test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Health Assessment Questionnaire, Numeric Rating Scale for foot pain and Sharp/van der Heijde scores for foot X-rays were used to test the construct validity. The cross-cultural adaptation was completed with minor wording adaptations from the original instrument. The evaluation of measurement properties showed high reliability with low variation coefficients between interviews. The alpha-Cronbach coefficients varied from 0.468 to 0.855, while correlation to the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Numeric Rating Scale was statistically significant for five out of eight domains. Intra- and inter-observer correlations showed high reliability. Internal consistency coefficients were high for all domains, revealing higher values for less subjective domains. As for construct validity, each domain revealed correlations with a specific group of parameters according to what the domains intended to measure. The FHSQ was cross-culturally adapted, generating a reliable, consistent, and valid instrument that is useful for evaluating foot health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Evaluation of the mechanical properties and porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Zhu, Haiting; Gai, Xiuying; Wang, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the microstructure and mechanical properties of dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) dental alloy fabricated by SLM and to determine the correlation between its microstructure and mechanical properties and its porcelain bond strength. Five metal specimens and 10 metal ceramic specimens were fabricated to evaluate the mechanical properties of SLM Co-Cr dental alloy (SLM alloy) with a tensile test and its porcelain bond strength with a 3-point bending test. The relevant properties of the SLM alloy were compared with those of the currently used Co-Cr dental alloy fabricated with conventional cast technology (cast alloy). The Student t test was used to compare the results of the SLM alloy and the cast alloy (α=.05). The microstructure of the SLM alloy was analyzed with a metallographic microscope; the metal ceramic interface of the SLM porcelain bonded alloy was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and an electron probe microanalyzer. Both the mean (standard deviation) yield strength (884.37 ± 8.96 MPa) and tensile strength (1307.50 ±10.65 MPa) of the SLM alloy were notably higher than yield strength (568.10 ± 30.94 MPa) and tensile strength (758.73 ± 25.85 MPa) of the currently used cast alloy, and the differences were significant (P.05). Microstructure analysis suggested that the SLM alloy had a dense and obviously orientated microstructure, which led to excellent mechanical properties. Analysis from scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the electron probe microanalyzer indicated that the SLM alloy had an intermediate layer with elemental interpenetration between the alloy and the porcelain, which resulted in an improved bonding interface. Compared with the currently used cast alloy, SLM alloy possessed improved mechanical

  14. SOLAR SAIL PROPULSION SENSITIVITY TO MEMBRANE SHAPE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES USING THE SOLAR VECTORING EVALUATION TOOL (SVET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Solar sail propulsive performance is dependent on sail membrane optical properties and on sail membrane shape. Assumptions of an ideal sail (flat, perfect reflector) can result in errors which can affect spacecraft control, trajectory analyses, and overall evaluation of solar sail performance. A MATLAB(R) program has been developed to generate sail shape point cloud files for two square-architecture solar sail designs. Simple parabolic profiles are assumed for sail shape under solar pressure loading. These files are then input into the Solar Vectoring Evaluation Tool (SVET) software to determine the propulsive force vector, center of pressure, and moments about the sail body axes as a function of sail shape and optical properties. Also, the impact of the center-line angle, due to non-perfect optical properties, is addressed since this constrains sail force vector cone angle and is often overlooked when assuming ideal-reflector membranes. Preliminary sensitivity analysis using these tools aids in determining the key geometric and optical parameters that drive solar sail propulsive performance.

  15. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  16. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of MWCNT / Nanoclay Reinforced Aluminium alloy Metal Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Kumar, P. S. Samuel; Robinson Smart, D. S.; Alexis, S. John

    2018-04-01

    Aluminium alloy 5083 (AA5083) is a widely used material in aerospace, marine, defence and structural applications were mechanical and corrosion resistance property plays a vital role. For the present work, MWCNT / Nanoclay (montmorillonite (MMT) K10) mixed with AA5083 for different composition in weight percentage to enhance the mechanical property. Semi-solid state casting method (Compo-casting) was used to fabricate the composite materials. By using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) the uniform dispersion of the reinforcement and microstructure were studied. Finally, the addition of Nanoclay shows decrease in tensile strength compared to the AA5083 / MWCNT composites and hardness value of the composites (AA5083 / MWCNT and AA5083 / Nanoclay) was found to increase significantly.

  17. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Development of Expansion Plug Wedge Test for Clad Tubing Structure Mechanical Property Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL

    2016-01-12

    To determine the tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a simple test was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is described fully in US Patent Application 20060070455, “Expanded plug method for developing circumferential mechanical properties of tubular materials.” This method is designed for testing fuel rod cladding ductility in a hot cell using an expandable plug to stretch a small ring of irradiated cladding material. The specimen strain is determined using the measured diametrical expansion of the ring. This method removes many complexities associated with specimen preparation and testing. The advantages are the simplicity of measuring the test component assembly in the hot cell and the direct measurement of the specimen’s strain. It was also found that cladding strength could be determined from the test results.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Boehmite Evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy Experiments and Molecular Dynamic Finite Element Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhanel, J.; Daum, B.; Kempe, A.; Rolfes, R.; Silbernagl, D.; Khorasani, M.Gh.Z.; Sturm, H.; Sturm, H.

    2016-01-01

    Boehmite nanoparticles show great potential in improving mechanical properties of fiber reinforced polymers. In order to predict the properties of nanocomposites, knowledge about the material parameters of the constituent phases, including the boehmite particles, is crucial. In this study, the mechanical behavior of boehmite is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments and Molecular Dynamic Finite Element Method (MDFEM) simulations. Young’s modulus of the perfect crystalline boehmite nanoparticles is derived from numerical AFM simulations. Results of AFM experiments on boehmite nanoparticles deviate significantly. Possible causes are identified by experiments on complementary types of boehmite, that is, geological and hydrothermally synthesized samples, and further simulations of imperfect crystals and combined boehmite/epoxy models. Under certain circumstances, the mechanical behavior of boehmite was found to be dominated by inelastic effects that are discussed in detail in the present work. The studies are substantiated with accompanying X-ray diffraction and Raman experiments.

  20. Evaluation of the environmental aging and mechanical properties of the polypropylene/sugarcane bagasse composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Rayane Lima de Moura; Mulinari, Daniella Regina

    2013-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with fibers from sugarcane bagasse composites in different proportions were prepared. Also environmental aging was conducted for the composites and their mechanical properties determined. The results showed that chemical treatment caused changes in color and chemical composition of the fibers, removing impurities and amorphous constituents such as lignin and hemicellulose, techniques of FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed these data. Also, it was observed that addition of natural fiber in PP matrix provided an improvement in the mechanical properties materials. The weathering test revealed a slight mass gain after 75 days, but it was clear that the inclusion of fibers has a higher mass gain compared to pure PP. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320degF. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  2. Evaluation of tensile properties and water absortion of cassava starch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walster, R. Justin; Rozyanty, A. R.; Kahar, A. W. M.; Musa, L.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.

    2017-09-01

    Casava Starch film was prepared by casting method with different percentage of glycerol (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5%) as plasticizer. The effect of glycerol content in starch film on mechanical and water absorption properties was studied. Results shows that the increase of glycerol content in cassava starch film had decrease the tensile strength, tensile modulus and increase the elongation of break properties. The result of water absorbency tended to increase for starch film with higher percentage of glycerol content. The incorporation of glycerol in cassava starch film had increase the water absorption ability due to increase of hydroxyl content contributed by glycerol.

  3. Evaluation of the properties of cemented low level radioactive wastes through an extensive characterization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; De Angelis, G.

    1990-01-01

    The immobilized radioactive wastes have to fulfill the demands for packing, interim storage, trasportation and final disposal. For this purpose the possession of various properties, more or less relevant, are required by authorized agencies. In addition to transport regulations the attention is generally focused on physico-chemical and mechanical properties, thermal, radiation and water stability, as well as confinement ability. The assessment of such requirements needs the set up of experimental procedured. With this in mind an extensive programme for the characterization of cemented low level wastes has been undertaken at ENEA Casaccia in the frame of the Third (1985-1989) Europen Communities Programme on Radioactive Waste Management (Contract No. FI1W-0101-I(A)). Three types of waste streams of general interest have been taken into account: bead ion-exchange resins, BWR evaporator concentrates (Sulphates) and filter sludges. Both labo. and full scale experiments have been carried out

  4. Synthesis of Some New Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Evaluation of their Surface properties and Solubilization Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, D.A.; Mohamed, A.S.; Mohamed, M.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Four cationic surfactants were prepared by condensing fatty acid methyl diethanolamine derivatives (C 6 , C I0 , C I2 , C I8 ) with stoichiometric amounts of trimethyl chlorosilane. The surface properties and parameters were investigated to find the relationship between the structure of the hydrophobic portion of such compounds and their efficiency toward solubilization. The properties studied included surface excess concentration (Γ m ax), critical micelle concentration (cmc). free energy of micellization (ΔG ο m ic) and adsorption (ΔG ο a ds) in addition to the surface tension (γ c mc) at cmc and effectiveness (Π c mc). The values of Γ m ax, ΔG ο mic and ΔG ο a ds were found to increase with increasing number of chain length. while cmc and minimum surface area occupied by one molecule (A m in) were decreased. Solubilization effect of these surfactants on paraffin oil as a non polar solubilizate and biodegradability were studied

  5. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Dissimilar Austenitic/Super Duplex Stainless Steel Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mehdi; Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of chemical composition on microstructural features and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between super duplex and austenitic stainless steels, welding was attempted by gas tungsten arc welding process with a super duplex (ER2594) and an austenitic (ER309LMo) stainless steel filler metal. While the austenitic weld metal had vermicular delta ferrite within austenitic matrix, super duplex stainless steel was mainly comprised of allotriomorphic grain boundary and Widmanstätten side plate austenite morphologies in the ferrite matrix. Also the heat-affected zone of austenitic base metal comprised of large austenite grains with little amounts of ferrite, whereas a coarse-grained ferritic region was observed in the heat-affected zone of super duplex base metal. Although both welded joints showed acceptable mechanical properties, the hardness and impact strength of the weld metal produced using super duplex filler metal were found to be better than that obtained by austenitic filler metal.

  6. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of microarc oxidation coatings and 2024 aluminium alloy substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Xue Wen Bin; Deng Zhi Wei; Chen Ru Yi; Li Yong Liang; Zhang Ton Ghe

    2002-01-01

    A determination of the phase constituents of ceramic coatings produced on Al-Cu-Mg alloy by microarc discharge in alkaline solution was performed using x-ray diffraction. The profiles of the hardness, H, and elastic modulus, E, across the ceramic coating were determined by means of nanoindentation. In addition, a study of the influence of microarc oxidation coatings on the tensile properties of the aluminium alloy was also carried out. The results show that the H-and E-profiles are similar, and both of them exhibit a maximum value at the same depth of coating. The distribution of the alpha-Al sub 2 O sub 3 phase content determines the H- and E-profiles of the coatings. The tensile properties of 2024 aluminium alloy show less change after the alloy has undergone microarc discharge surface treatment.

  7. Evaluation of Rheological Properties and Swelling Behaviour of Sonicated Scleroglucan Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Akber Ansari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide that has been proposed for various applications. However there is no investigation on its property variations when the molecular weight of this polymer is reduced. Scleroglucan was sonicated at two different polymer concentrations for different periods of time and the effect of sonication was investigated with respect to molecular weight variations and rheological properties. Molar mass, estimated by viscometric measurements, was drastically reduced already after a sonication for a few min. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording the mechanical spectra and the flow curves. A comparison with the system prepared with the dialysed polymer was also carried out. The anisotropic elongation, observed with tablets of scleroglucan and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  8. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF BASALT TEXTILE REINFORCED CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Valentová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the analysis of a ceramic matrix composite, more specifically the plain weave textile fabric composite made of basalt fibers embedded into the pyrolyzed polysiloxane matrix. Attention is paid to the determination of effective elastic properties of the yarn via homogenization based on the Mori-Tanaka averaging scheme and the 1st order numerical homogenization method adopting a suitable representative computational model. The latter approach is then employed to simulate the response of the yarn when loaded beyond the elastic limits. The required mechanical properties of individual material phases are directly measured using nanoindentation with in-build scanning probe microscopy. Applicability of the proposed computational methodology is supported by the analysis of a unidirectional fibrous composite, representing the yarn, subjected to a macroscopically uniform strain.

  9. Evaluation of nutraceutical and antinutritional properties in barnyard and finger millet varieties grown in Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Panwar, Priyankar; Dubey, Ashutosh; Verma, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Five elite varieties of barnyard (Echinochloafrumentacea) and finger (Eleusine coracana) growing at northwestern Himalaya were investigated for nutraceutical and antinutritional properties. Barnyard millet contained higher amount of crude fiber, total dietary fiber, tryptophan content, total carotenoids, ��-tocopherol compared to the finger millet whereas the finger millet contains higher amount of methionine and ascorbic acid as compared to the barnyard millet. The secondary metabolites of b...

  10. Evaluation of elastic properties of DLC layers using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and AFM nanoindentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Růžek, Michal; Landa, Michal; Jelínek, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2011), S67-S70 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : RUS-resonant ultrasound spectroscopy * PLD * diamond-like carbon * elastic properties * AFM nanoindentation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2011

  11. Evaluation of Effects of Sterilization on Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Results: Dry heat sterilization, autoclave, 2% glutaraldehyde solution had no effect on ultimate tensile strength, 0.1% yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of stainless steel and elgiloy wires. Tensile strength and yield strength of Nitinol and b-titanium wires together with percentage elongation of b-titanium wires significantly increased following dry heat sterilization and autoclave. No detrimental effects on properties of wires were observed. These sterilization procedures could be safely recommended for sterilization of orthodontic wires.

  12. Evaluation of antipathogenic activity and adherence properties of human Lactobacillus strains for vaginal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, M C; Coman, M M; Cecchini, C; Silvi, S; Orpianesi, C; Cresci, A

    2014-05-01

    To test different Lactobacillus strains for their antipathogenic activity towards Candida strains and their adhesion properties for the preparation of vaginal ovules and douches to be used in vaginal candidiasis prevention. Five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their antimicrobial potential against different clinically isolated Candida strains. They were also screened for their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide and to coaggregate with pathogens. Adhesion properties of the five different Lactobacillus strains to HeLa cells and the presence of arcA gene were also assessed. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that all the five Lactobacillus strains tested possessed inhibitory action against the Candida strains using the radial streak method, but the effect is strain dependent. The same situation arises with regard to the ability of coaggregation that is present in all the strains into different degrees. Only Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®) were able to produce H2O2 and none of the strains possess arcA gene. The most adherent strains to HeLa cells were Lact. rhamnosus IMC 501(®), Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) and also their combination SYNBIO(®). This latter was selected for the preparation of ovules and douches using different matrix. Witepsol(®) ovules have proved the best formulation in terms of probiotic viability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®), Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) and SYNBIO(®) were able to produce H2O2, to coaggregate and to exert antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida strains and to strongly adhere to HeLa cells. All these properties together with those technological make these strains good candidates for the realization of formulations suitable for vaginal health. To develop new vaginal formulations taking into account the impact of probiotic strains on pathogens as well as the technological properties of the strains to validate their effectiveness in human health. © 2014 The

  13. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire in Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Carlos Alberto da Cruz; Barbosa, Elsa Natalina Mendes; Nogueira, Maria José Carvalho; Sampaio, Francisco Miguel Correia

    2017-10-01

    Translate, adapt the language, and assess the psychometric properties of the Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire (MVQ) in a Portuguese population sample of young adults. A psychometric validation study was performed. The sample comprised 166 undergraduate students. Factor analysis was applied to extract three indicators. The MVQ showed divergent validity with the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (p Mental Health Inventory including five items (p mental vulnerability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  15. Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of 50Cr5NiMoV steel for forged backup roll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.Y.; Zhang, X.J.; Fu, L.C.; Yang, H.B.; Yang, K.; Zhu, L., E-mail: zl508@126.com

    2016-11-20

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of forged 50Cr5NiMoV steel backup roll were evaluated in this study. The microstructure characteristics from surface to center along radial direction of the backup roll were carefully observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the chemical composition, hardness, tensile property, impact and fracture toughness in different position of the backup roll were also examined. The results indicate that the finely precipitated carbides at different matrix during heat treatment process strongly influence mechanical properties of the backup roll. Especially, the spheroidized pearlite at the inner regions which consists of large globular or rod-like M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and a little of small globular M{sub 23}C{sub 6} possesses much better toughness and fracture resistance properties than those of the lamellar pearlite with lamellar M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and a little of globular M{sub 7}C{sub 3}.

  16. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Marginal Fit of Crowns Fabricated Using Commercially Pure Titanium and FUS-Invest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshuang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanical properties and single crown accuracy of the tailor-made Fourth University Stomatology investment (FUS-invest for casting titanium. Background. Current investment for casting titanium is not optimal for obtaining high-quality castings, and the commercially available titanium investment is costly. Methods. Titanium specimens were cast using the tailor-made FUS-invest. The mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine. Fractured castings were characterized by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. 19 titanium crowns were produced using FUS-invest and another 19 by Symbion. The accuracy of crowns was evaluated. Results. The mechanical properties of the titanium cast by FUS-invest were elastic modulus 125.6 ± 8.8 GPa, yield strength 567.5 ± 11.1 MPa, tensile strength 671.2 ± 15.6 MPa, and elongation 4.6 ± 0.2%. For marginal fit, no significant difference (P>0.05 was found at four marker points of each group. For internal fit, no significant difference (P>0.05 was found between two groups, whereas significant difference (P<0.01 was found at different mark point of each group. Conclusions. The mechanical properties of titanium casted using FUS-invest fulfilled the ISO 9693 criteria. The marginal and internal fit of the titanium crowns using either the FUS-invest or Symbion were similar.

  17. A combined fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal and 2-photon microscopy approach to re-evaluate the properties of sphingolipid domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sandra N; Fernandes, Fábio; Fedorov, Alexander; Futerman, Anthony H; Silva, Liana C; Prieto, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to provide further insight about the interplay between important signaling lipids and to characterize the properties of the lipid domains formed by those lipids in membranes containing distinct composition. To this end, we have used a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy and a stepwise approach to re-evaluate the biophysical properties of sphingolipid domains, particularly lipid rafts and ceramide (Cer)-platforms. By using this strategy we were able to show that, in binary mixtures, sphingolipids (Cer and sphingomyelin, SM) form more tightly packed gel domains than those formed by phospholipids with similar acyl chain length. In more complex lipid mixtures, the interaction between the different lipids is intricate and is strongly dictated by the Cer-to-Chol ratio. The results show that in quaternary phospholipid/SM/Chol/Cer mixtures, Cer forms gel domains that become less packed as Chol is increased. Moreover, the extent of gel phase formation is strongly reduced in these mixtures, even though Cer molar fraction is increased. These results suggest that in biological membranes, lipid domains such as rafts and ceramide platforms, might display distinctive biophysical properties depending on the local lipid composition at the site of the membrane where they are formed, further highlighting the potential role of membrane biophysical properties as an underlying mechanism for mediating specific biological processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the Physicochemical Properties of Mitragynine, a Principal Alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, for Preclinical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surash Ramanathan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Varied pharmacological responses have been reported for mitragynine in the literature, but no supportive scientific explanations have been given for this. These studies have been undertaken without a sufficient understanding of the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. In this work a UV spectrophotometer approach and HPLC-UV method were employed to ascertain the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. The pKa of mitragynine measured by conventional UV (8.11 ± 0.11 was in agreement with the microplate reader determination (8.08 ± 0.04. Mitragynine is a lipophilic alkaloid, as indicated by a logP value of 1.73. Mitragynine had poor solubility in water and basic media, and conversely in acidic environments, but it is acid labile. In an in vitro dissolution the total drug release was higher for the simulated gastric fluid but was prolonged and incomplete for the simulated intestinal fluid. The hydrophobicity, poor water solubility, high variability of drug release in simulated biological fluids and acid degradable characteristics of mitragynine probably explain the large variability of its pharmacological responses reported in the literature. The determined physicochemical properties of mitragynine will provide a basis for developing a suitable formulation to further improve its solubility, stability and oral absorption for better assessment of this compound in preclinical studies.

  19. Mechanical properties evaluation of single and hybrid composites polyester reinforced bamboo, PALF and coir fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihayat, T.; Suryani, S.; Fauzi, T.; Agusnar, H.; Wirjosentono, B.; Syafruddin; Helmi; Zulkifli; Alam, P. N.; Sami, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the composition fiber natural of bamboo, pineapple leaf and coir in single and hybrid composite to see the best characteristics of tensile strength and flexural test by using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and observe the effect on the microstructure of the composite through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Bamboo, Palf and coir have synthesis from natural fiber was used as reinforcement in polyester composite using hand lay up or a hot-compression moulding while filler:matrix was used (45%:55wt.%, 70%:30wt.% and 15%:85wt.%). From the variation of the volume fraction between filler and matrix show that mechanical properties of composites increased with increasing amount of filler in the matrix. This is evidenced by the high mechanical properties A:B:C/Ps in compositions 45%: 55wt.% 136 Mpa while flexural strength 93 N and good structure surface morphology. This research has produced a hybrid composite materials that have high mechanical properties and bending compared with conventional synthetic fibers and other materials.

  20. Evaluation of setting time and flow properties of self-synthesize alginate impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Calista; Cahyanto, Arief; Sriwidodo, Harsatiningsih, Zulia

    2018-02-01

    Alginate is an elastic hydrocolloid dental impression materials to obtain negative reproduction of oral mucosa such as to record soft-tissue and occlusal relationships. The aim of the present study was to synthesize alginate and to determine the setting time and flow properties. There were five groups of alginate consisted of fifty samples self-synthesize alginate and commercial alginate impression product. Fifty samples were divided according to two tests, each twenty-five samples for setting time and flow test. Setting time test was recorded in the s unit, meanwhile, flow test was recorded in the mm2 unit. The fastest setting time result was in the group three (148.8 s) and the latest was group fours). The highest flow test result was in the group three (69.70 mm2) and the lowest was group one (58.34 mm2). Results were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA (α= 0.05), showed that there was a statistical significance of setting time while no statistical significance of flow properties between self-synthesize alginate and alginate impression product. In conclusion, the alginate impression was successfully self-synthesized and variation composition gives influence toward setting time and flow properties. The most resemble setting time of control group is group three. The most resemble flow of control group is group four.