WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluate ecosystem phenology

  1. Use of Remote Sensing and Dust Modelling to Evaluate Ecosystem Phenology and Pollen Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Watts, Carol; Shaw, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The impact of pollen release and downwind concentrations can be evaluated utilizing remote sensing. Previous NASA studies have addressed airborne dust prediction systems PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing) which have determined that pollen forecasts and simulations are possible. By adapting the deterministic dust model (as an in-line system with the National Weather Service operational forecast model) used in PHAiRS to simulate downwind dispersal of pollen, initializing the model with pollen source regions from MODIS, assessing the results a rapid prototype concept can be produced. We will present the results of our effort to develop a deterministic model for predicting and simulating pollen emission and downwind concentration to study details or phenology and meteorology and their dependencies, and the promise of a credible real time forecast system to support public health and agricultural science and service. Previous studies have been done with PHAiRS research, the use of NASA data, the dust model and the PHAiRS potential to improve public health and environmental services long into the future.

  2. Phenological Indicators of Vegetation Recovery in Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeo, S.; Dronova, I.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape phenology is increasingly used to measure the impacts of climatic and environmental disturbances on plant communities. As plants show rapid phenological responses to environmental changes, variation in site phenology can help characterize vegetation recovery following restoration treatments and qualify their resistance to environmental fluctuations. By leveraging free remote sensing datasets, a phenology-based analysis of vegetation dynamics could offer a cost-effective assessment of restoration progress in wetland ecosystems. To fulfill this objective, we analyze 20 years of free remote sensing data from NASA's Landsat archive to offer a landscape-scale synthesis of wetland restoration efforts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Through an analysis of spatio-temporal changes in plant phenology and greenness, we assess how 25 restored wetlands across the Delta have responded to restoration treatments, time, and landscape context. We use a spline smoothing approach to generate both site-wide and pixel-specific phenological curves and identify key phenological events. Preliminary results reveal a greater variability in greenness and growing season length during the initial post-restoration years and a significant impact of landscape context in the time needed to reach phenological stability. Well-connected sites seem to benefit from an increased availability of propagules enabling them to reach peak greenness and maximum growing season length more rapidly. These results demonstrate the potential of phenological analyses to measure restoration progress and detect factors promoting wetland recovery. A thorough understanding of wetland phenology is key to the quantification of ecosystem processes including carbon sequestration and habitat provisioning.

  3. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  4. Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chaoyang; Chen, Xi Jing; Black, T. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of autumn phenology in controlling interannual variability of forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and to derive new phenological metrics to explain the interannual variability of NEP. North America and Europe. Flux data from nine deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF......, soil water content and precipitation, were also used to explain the phenological variations. We found that interannual variability of NEP can be largely explained by autumn phenology, i.e. the autumn lag. While variation in neither annual gross primary productivity (GPP) nor in annual ecosystem...

  5. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, A.D.; Black, T.A.; Ciais, P.; Delbart, N.; Moors, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We use eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from 21 FLUXNET sites (153 site-years of data) to investigate relationships between phenology and productivity (in terms of both NEP and gross ecosystem photosynthesis, GEP) in temperate and boreal forests. Results are used to

  6. Ecosystem Responses To Plant Phenology Across Scales And Trophic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, D.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J. R.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Edwards, T., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Plant phenology in arid and semi-arid ecoregions is constrained by water availability and governs the life history characteristics of primary and secondary consumers. We related the behavior, demography, and distribution of mammalian herbivores and their principal predator to remotely sensed vegetation and climatological indices across the western United States for the period 2000-2014. Across scales, terrain and topographic position moderates the effects of climatological drought on primary productivity, resulting in differential susceptibility among plant functional types to water stress. At broad scales, herbivores tie parturition to moist sites during the period of maximum increase in local forage production. Consequently, juvenile mortality is highest in regions of extreme phenological variability. Although decoupled from primary production by one or more trophic levels, carnivore home range size and density is negatively correlated to plant productivity and growing season length. At the finest scales, predation influences the behavior of herbivore prey through compromised habitat selection, in which maternal females trade nutritional benefits of high plant biomass for reduced mortality risk associated with increased visibility. Climate projections for the western United States predict warming combined with shifts in the timing and form of precipitation. Our analyses suggest that these changes will propagate through trophic levels as increased phenological variability and shifts in plant distributions, larger consumer home ranges, altered migration behavior, and generally higher volatility in wildlife populations. Combined with expansion and intensification of human land use across the region, these changes will likely have economic implications stemming from increased human-wildlife conflict (e.g., crop damage, vehicle collisions) and changes in wildlife-related tourism.

  7. Evaluating Gridded Spring Indices Using the USA National Phenology Network's Observational Phenology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Gerst, K.

    2017-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) produces and freely delivers daily and short-term forecast maps of spring onset dates at fine spatial scale for the conterminous United States and Alaska using the Spring Indices. These models, which represent the start of biological activity in the spring season, were developed using a long-term observational record of four species of lilacs and honeysuckles contributed by volunteer observers. Three of the four species continue to be tracked through the USA-NPN's phenology observation program, Nature's Notebook. The gridded Spring Index maps have utility for a wide range of natural resource planning and management applications, including scheduling invasive species and pest detection and control activities, anticipating allergy outbreaks and planning agricultural harvest dates. However, to date, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of how well the gridded Spring Index maps accurately reflect phenological activity in lilacs and honeysuckles or other species of plants. In this study, we used observational plant phenology data maintained by the USA-NPN to evaluate how well the gridded Spring Index maps match leaf and flowering onset dates in a) the lilac and honeysuckle species used to construct the models and b) in several species of deciduous trees. The Spring Index performed strongly at predicting the timing of leaf-out and flowering in lilacs and honeysuckles. The average error between predicted and observed date of onset ranged from 5.9 to 11.4 days. Flowering models performed slightly better than leaf-out models. The degree to which the Spring Indices predicted native deciduous tree leaf and flower phenology varied by year, species, and region. Generally, the models were better predictors of leaf and flowering onset dates in the Northeastern and Midwestern US. These results reveal when and where the Spring Indices are a meaningful proxy of phenological activity across the United States.

  8. Influence of physiological phenology on the seasonal pattern of ecosystem respiration in deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Richardson, Andrew D; Mahecha, Miguel D; Cremonese, Edoardo; Delpierre, Nicolas; Galvagno, Marta; Law, Beverly E; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ceccherini, Guido; Chen, Jiquan; Gobron, Nadine; Koffi, Ernest; Munger, J William; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Robustelli, Monica; Tomelleri, Enrico; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental and biotic drivers of respiration at the ecosystem level is a prerequisite to further improve scenarios of the global carbon cycle. In this study we investigated the relevance of physiological phenology, defined as seasonal changes in plant physiological properties, for explaining the temporal dynamics of ecosystem respiration (RECO) in deciduous forests. Previous studies showed that empirical RECO models can be substantially improved by considering the biotic dependency of RECO on the short-term productivity (e.g., daily gross primary production, GPP) in addition to the well-known environmental controls of temperature and water availability. Here, we use a model-data integration approach to investigate the added value of physiological phenology, represented by the first temporal derivative of GPP, or alternatively of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, for modeling RECO at 19 deciduous broadleaved forests in the FLUXNET La Thuile database. The new data-oriented semiempirical model leads to an 8% decrease in root mean square error (RMSE) and a 6% increase in the modeling efficiency (EF) of modeled RECO when compared to a version of the model that does not consider the physiological phenology. The reduction of the model-observation bias occurred mainly at the monthly time scale, and in spring and summer, while a smaller reduction was observed at the annual time scale. The proposed approach did not improve the model performance at several sites, and we identified as potential causes the plant canopy heterogeneity and the use of air temperature as a driver of ecosystem respiration instead of soil temperature. However, in the majority of sites the model-error remained unchanged regardless of the driving temperature. Overall, our results point toward the potential for improving current approaches for modeling RECO in deciduous forests by including the phenological cycle of the canopy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  9. Characterizing spatiotemporal dynamics in phenology of urban ecosystems based on Landsat data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuecao; Zhou, Yuyu; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Meng, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal phenology of vegetation plays an important role in global carbon cycle and ecosystem productivity. In urban environments, vegetation phenology is also important because of its influence on public health (e.g., allergies), and energy demand (e.g. cooling effects). In this study, we studied the potential use of remotely sensed observations (i.e. Landsat data) to derive some phenology indicators for vegetation embedded within the urban core domains in four distinctly different U.S. regions (Washington, D.C., King County in Washington, Polk County in Iowa, and Baltimore City and County in Maryland) during the past three decades. We used all available Landsat observations (circa 3000 scenes) from 1982 to 2015 and a self-adjusting double logistic model to detect and quantify the annual change of vegetation phenophases, i.e. indicators of seasonal changes in vegetation. The proposed model can capture and quantify not only phenophases of dense vegetation in rural areas, but also those of mixed vegetation in urban core domains. The derived phenology indicators show a good agreement with similar indicators derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in situ observations, suggesting that the phenology dynamic depicted by the proposed model is reliable. The vegetation phenology and its seasonal and interannual dynamics demonstrate a distinct spatial pattern in urban domains with an earlier (9–14 days) start-of season (SOS) and a later (13–20 days) end-of season (EOS), resulting in an extended (5–30 days) growing season length (GSL) when compared to the surrounding suburban and rural areas in the four study regions. There is a general long-term trend of decreasing SOS (-0.30 day per year), and increasing EOS and GSL (0.50 and 0.90 day per year, respectively) over past three decades for these study regions. The magnitude of these trends varies among the four urban systems due to their diverse local climate conditions, vegetation

  10. Trends in land surface phenology and atmospheric CO2 seasonality in the Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Northern terrestrial ecosystems have shown global warming-induced advances in start, delays in end, and thus increased lengths of growing season and gross photosynthesis in recent decades. The tradeoffs between seasonal dynamics of two opposing fluxes, CO2 uptake through photosynthesis and release through respiration, determine the influence of the terrestrial ecosystems on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotope ratio seasonality. Atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality is controlled by vegetation phenology, but is not identical because growth will typically commence some time before and terminate some time after the net carbon exchange changes sign in spring and autumn, respectively. Here, we use 34-year satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations to determine how changes in vegetation productivity and phenology affect both the atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality. Differences and similarities in recent trends of CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality and vegetation phenology will be discussed. Furthermore, we use the NDVI observations, and atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C data to show the trends and variability of the timing of peak season plant activity. Preliminary results show that the peak season plant activity of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical terrestrial ecosystems is shifting towards spring, largely in response to the warming-induced advance of the start of growing season. Besides, the spring-ward shift of the peak plant activity is contributing the most to the increasing peak season productivity. In other words, earlier start of growing season is highly linked to earlier arrival of peak of season and higher NDVI. Changes in the timing of peak season plant activity are expected to disrupt the synchrony of biotic interaction and exert strong biophysical feedbacks on climate by modifying the surface albedo and energy budget.

  11. Ecophysiological and phenological strategies in seasonally-dry ecosystems: an ecohydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Thompson, Sally; Molini, Annalisa; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    Seasonally-dry climates are particularly challenging for vegetation, as they are characterized by prolonged dry periods and often marked inter-annual variability. During the dry season plants face predictable physiological stress due to lack of water, whereas the inter-annual variability in rainfall timing and amounts requires plants to develop flexible adaptation strategies. The variety of strategies observed across seasonally-dry (Mediterranean and tropical) ecosystems is indeed wide - ranging from near-isohydric species that adjust stomatal conductance to avoid drought, to anisohydric species that maintain gas exchange during the dry season. A suite of phenological strategies are hypothesized to be associated to ecophysiological strategies. Here we synthetize current knowledge on ecophysiological and phenological adaptations through a comprehensive ecohydrological model linking a soil water balance to a vegetation carbon balance. Climatic regimes are found to select for different phenological strategies that maximize the long-term plant carbon uptake. Inter-annual variability of the duration of the wet season allows coexistence of different drought-deciduous strategies. In contrast, short dry seasons or access to groundwater favour evergreen species. Climatic changes causing more intermittent rainfall and/or shorter wet seasons are predicted to favour drought-deciduous species with opportunistic water use.

  12. Generation and Evaluation of a Global Land Surface Phenology Product from Suomi-NPP VIIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, L.; Yan, D.; Moon, M.; Liu, Y.; Henebry, G. M.; Friedl, M. A.; Schaaf, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) datasets have been produced from a variety of coarse spatial resolution satellite observations at both regional and global scales and spanning different time periods since 1982. However, the LSP product generated from NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at a spatial resolution of 500m, which is termed Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2), is the only global product operationally produced and freely accessible at annual time steps from 2001. Because MODIS instrument is aging and will be replaced by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), this research focuses on the generation and evaluation of a global LSP product from Suomi-NPP VIIRS time series observations that provide continuity with the MCD12Q2 product. Specifically, we generate 500m VIIRS global LSP data using daily VIIRS Nadir BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function)-Adjusted reflectances (NBAR) in combination with land surface temperature, snow cover, and land cover type as inputs. The product provides twelve phenological metrics (seven phenological dates and five phenological greenness magnitudes), along with six quality metrics characterizing the confidence and quality associated with phenology retrievals at each pixel. In this paper, we describe the input data and algorithms used to produce this new product, and investigate the impact of VIIRS data time series quality on phenology detections across various climate regimes and ecosystems. As part of our analysis, the VIIRS LSP is evaluated using PhenoCam imagery in North America and Asia, and using higher spatial resolution satellite observations from Landsat 8 over an agricultural area in the central USA. We also explore the impact of high frequency cloud cover on the VIIRS LSP product by comparing with phenology detected from the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8. AHI is a new geostationary sensor that observes land surface every 10 minutes, which increases

  13. Variability and Changes in Climate, Phenology, and Gross Primary Production of an Alpine Wetland Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Kang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the variability and changes in phenology and gross primary production (GPP of alpine wetlands in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau under climate change is essential for assessing carbon (C balance dynamics at regional and global scales. In this study, in situ eddy covariance (EC flux tower observations and remote sensing data were integrated with a modified, satellite-based vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to investigate the variability in climate change, phenology, and GPP of an alpine wetland ecosystem, located in Zoige, southwestern China. Two-year EC data and remote sensing vegetation indices showed that warmer temperatures corresponded to an earlier start date of the growing season, increased GPP, and ecosystem respiration, and hence increased the C sink strength of the alpine wetlands. Twelve-year long-term simulations (2000–2011 showed that: (1 there were significantly increasing trends for the mean annual enhanced vegetation index (EVI, land surface water index (LSWI, and growing season GPP (R2 ≥ 0.59, p < 0.01 at rates of 0.002, 0.11 year−1 and 16.32 g·C·m−2·year−1, respectively, which was in line with the observed warming trend (R2 = 0.54, p = 0.006; (2 the start and end of the vegetation growing season (SOS and EOS experienced a continuous advancing trend at a rate of 1.61 days·year−1 and a delaying trend at a rate of 1.57 days·year−1 from 2000 to 2011 (p ≤ 0.04, respectively; and (3 with increasing temperature, the advanced SOS and delayed EOS prolonged the wetland’s phenological and photosynthetically active period and, thereby, increased wetland productivity by about 3.7–4.2 g·C·m−2·year−1 per day. Furthermore, our results indicated that warming and the extension of the growing season had positive effects on carbon uptake in this alpine wetland ecosystem.

  14. The phenology of gross ecosystem productivity and ecosystem respiration in temperate hardwood and conifer chronosequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Noormets

    2009-01-01

    The relative duration of active and dormant seasons has a strong influence on ecosystem net carbon balance and its carbon uptake potential. While recognized as an important source of temporal and spatial variability, the seasonality of ecosystem carbon balance has not been studied explicitly, and still lacks standard terminology. In the current chapter, we apply a...

  15. Potential and limitations of using digital repeat photography to track structural and physiological phenology in Mediterranean tree-grass ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; EI-Madany, Tarek; Filippa, Gianluca; Carrara, Arnaud; Cremonese, Edoardo; Galvagno, Marta; Hammer, Tiana; Pérez-Priego, Oscar; Reichstein, Markus; Martín Isabel, Pilar; González Cascón, Rosario; Migliavacca, Mirco

    2017-04-01

    Tree-Grass ecosystems are global widely distributed (16-35% of the land surface). However, its phenology (especially in water-limited areas) has not yet been well characterized and modeled. By using commercial digital cameras, continuous and relatively vast phenology data becomes available, which provides a good opportunity to monitor and develop a robust method used to extract the important phenological events (phenophases). Here we aimed to assess the usability of digital repeat photography for three Tree-Grass Mediterranean ecosystems over two different growing seasons (Majadas del Tietar, Spain) to extract critical phenophases for grass and evergreen broadleaved trees (autumn regreening of grass- Start of growing season; resprouting of tree leaves; senescence of grass - End of growing season), assess their uncertainty, and to correlate them with physiological phenology (i.e. phenology of ecosystem scale fluxes such as Gross Primary Productivity, GPP). We extracted green chromatic coordinates (GCC) and camera based normalized difference vegetation index (Camera-NDVI) from an infrared enabled digital camera using the "Phenopix" R package. Then we developed a novel method to retrieve important phenophases from GCC and Camera-NDVI from various region of interests (ROIs) of the imagery (tree areas, grass, and both - ecosystem) as well as from GPP, which was derived from Eddy Covariance tower in the same experimental site. The results show that, at ecosystem level, phenophases derived from GCC and Camera-NDVI are strongly correlated (R2 = 0.979). Remarkably, we observed that at the end of growing season phenophases derived from GCC were systematically advanced (ca. 8 days) than phenophase from Camera-NDVI. By using the radiative transfer model Soil Canopy Observation Photochemistry and Energy (SCOPE) we demonstrated that this delay is related to the different sensitivity of GCC and NDVI to the fraction of green/dry grass in the canopy, resulting in a systematic

  16. Impacts of warming on phytoplankton abundance and phenology in a typical tropical marine ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Gittings, John; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Krokos, George; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    In the tropics, thermal stratification (during warm conditions) may contribute to a shallowing of the mixed layer above the nutricline and a reduction in the transfer of nutrients to the surface lit-layer, ultimately limiting phytoplankton growth. Using remotely sensed observations and modelled datasets, we study such linkages in the northern Red Sea (NRS) - a typical tropical marine ecosystem. We assess the interannual variability (1998-2015) of both phytoplankton biomass and phenological indices (timing of bloom initiation, duration and termination) in relation to regional warming. We demonstrate that warmer conditions in the NRS are associated with substantially weaker winter phytoplankton blooms, which initiate later, terminate earlier and are shorter in their overall duration (~ 4 weeks). These alterations are directly linked with the strength of atmospheric forcing (air-sea heat fluxes) and vertical stratification (mixed layer depth [MLD]). The interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is found to be a good indicator of phytoplankton abundance, but appears to be less important for predicting bloom timing. These findings suggest that future climate warming scenarios may have a two-fold impact on phytoplankton growth in tropical marine ecosystems: 1) a reduction in phytoplankton abundance and 2) alterations in the timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms.

  17. Impacts of warming on phytoplankton abundance and phenology in a typical tropical marine ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Gittings, John

    2018-01-29

    In the tropics, thermal stratification (during warm conditions) may contribute to a shallowing of the mixed layer above the nutricline and a reduction in the transfer of nutrients to the surface lit-layer, ultimately limiting phytoplankton growth. Using remotely sensed observations and modelled datasets, we study such linkages in the northern Red Sea (NRS) - a typical tropical marine ecosystem. We assess the interannual variability (1998-2015) of both phytoplankton biomass and phenological indices (timing of bloom initiation, duration and termination) in relation to regional warming. We demonstrate that warmer conditions in the NRS are associated with substantially weaker winter phytoplankton blooms, which initiate later, terminate earlier and are shorter in their overall duration (~ 4 weeks). These alterations are directly linked with the strength of atmospheric forcing (air-sea heat fluxes) and vertical stratification (mixed layer depth [MLD]). The interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is found to be a good indicator of phytoplankton abundance, but appears to be less important for predicting bloom timing. These findings suggest that future climate warming scenarios may have a two-fold impact on phytoplankton growth in tropical marine ecosystems: 1) a reduction in phytoplankton abundance and 2) alterations in the timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms.

  18. Understanding the relationship between vegetation phenology and productivity across key dryland ecosystem types through the integration of PhenoCam, satellite, and eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J.; Biederman, J. A.; Smith, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) - defined as remotely sensed seasonal variations in vegetation greenness - is intrinsically linked to seasonal carbon uptake, and is thus commonly used as a proxy for vegetation productivity (gross primary productivity; GPP). Yet, the relationship between LSP and GPP remains uncertain, particularly for understudied dryland ecosystems characterized by relatively large spatial and temporal variability. Here, we explored the relationship between LSP and the phenology of GPP for three dominant dryland ecosystem types, and we evaluated how these relationships change as a function of spatial and temporal scale. We focused on three long-term dryland eddy covariance flux tower sites: Walnut Gulch Lucky Hills Shrubland (WHS), Walnut Gulch Kendall Grassland (WKG), and Santa Rita Mesquite (SRM). We analyzed daily canopy-level, 16-day 30m, and 8-day 500m time series of greenness indices from PhenoCam, Landsat 7 ETM+/Landsat 8 OLI, and MODIS, respectively. We first quantified the impact of spatial scale by temporally resampling canopy-level PhenoCam, 30m Landsat, and 500m MODIS to 16-day intervals and then comparing against flux tower GPP estimates. We next quantified the impact of temporal scale by spatially resampling daily PhenoCam, 16-day Landsat, and 8-day MODIS to 500m time series and then comparing against flux tower GPP estimates. We find evidence of critical periods of decoupling between LSP and the phenology of GPP that vary according to the spatial and temporal scale, and as a function of ecosystem type. Our results provide key insight into dryland LSP and GPP dynamics that can be used in future efforts to improve ecosystem process models and satellite-based vegetation productivity algorithms.

  19. Pattern of xylem phenology in conifers of cold ecosystems at the Northern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Čufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gričar, Jožica; Gruber, Andreas; Huang, Jian-Guo; Jyske, Tuula; Kašpar, Jakub; King, Gregory; Krause, Cornelia; Liang, Eryuan; Mäkinen, Harri; Morin, Hubert; Nöjd, Pekka; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Saracino, Antonio; Swidrak, Irene; Treml, Václav

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between xylem phenology and climate assesses forest growth and productivity and carbon storage across biomes under changing environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of wood formation are maintained unaltered despite the temperature changes across cold ecosystems. Wood microcores were collected weekly or biweekly throughout the growing season for periods varying between 1 and 13 years during 1998-2014 and cut in transverse sections for assessing the onset and ending of the phases of xylem differentiation. The data set represented 1321 trees belonging to 10 conifer species from 39 sites in the Northern Hemisphere and covering an interval of mean annual temperature exceeding 14 K. The phenological events and mean annual temperature of the sites were related linearly, with spring and autumnal events being separated by constant intervals across the range of temperature analysed. At increasing temperature, first enlarging, wall-thickening and mature tracheids appeared earlier, and last enlarging and wall-thickening tracheids occurred later. Overall, the period of wood formation lengthened linearly with the mean annual temperature, from 83.7 days at -2 °C to 178.1 days at 12 °C, at a rate of 6.5 days °C -1 . April-May temperatures produced the best models predicting the dates of wood formation. Our findings demonstrated the uniformity of the process of wood formation and the importance of the environmental conditions occurring at the time of growth resumption. Under warming scenarios, the period of wood formation might lengthen synchronously in the cold biomes of the Northern Hemisphere. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Impacts of Extreme Events on Phenology: Drought-Induced Changes in Productivity of Mixed Woody-Herbaceous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, P. M.; Breshears, D. D.; White, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Ecosystem responses to key climate drivers are reflected in phenological dynamics such as the timing and degree of "greenup" that integrate responses over spatial scales from individual plants to ecosystems. This integration is clearest in ecosystems dominated by a single species or life form, such as seasonally dynamic grasslands or more temporally constant evergreen forests. Yet many ecosystems have substantial contribution of cover from both herbaceous and woody evergreen plants. Responses of mixed woody- herbaceous ecosystems to climate are of increasing concern due to their extensive nature, the potential for such systems to yield more complex responses than those dominated by a single life form, and projections that extreme climate and weather events will increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. We present responses of a mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystem type to an extreme event: regional scale piñon pine mortality following an extended drought and the subsequent herbaceous greenup following the first wet period after the drought. This example highlights how reductions in greenness of the slower, more stable evergreen woody component can rapidly be offset by increases associated with resources made available to the relatively more responsive herbaceous component. We hypothesize that such two-phase phenological responses to extreme events are characteristic of many mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystems.

  1. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  2. A New Digital Imaging and Analysis System for Plant and Ecosystem Phenological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, G.; Ramirez, G. A.; Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Luna, N. R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, environmental scientists have increasingly used low-cost sensors and custom software to gather and analyze environmental data. Included in this trend has been the use of imagery from field-mounted static digital cameras. Published literature has highlighted the challenge scientists have encountered with poor and problematic camera performance and power consumption, limited data download and wireless communication options, general ruggedness of off the shelf camera solutions, and time consuming and hard-to-reproduce digital image analysis options. Data loggers and sensors are typically limited to data storage in situ (requiring manual downloading) and/or expensive data streaming options. Here we highlight the features and functionality of a newly invented camera/data logger system and coupled image analysis software suited to plant and ecosystem phenological studies (patent pending). The camera has resulted from several years of development and prototype testing supported by several grants funded by the US NSF. These inventions have several unique features and functionality and have been field tested in desert, arctic, and tropical rainforest ecosystems. The system can be used to acquire imagery/data from static and mobile platforms. Data is collected, preprocessed, and streamed to the cloud without the need of an external computer and can run for extended time periods. The camera module is capable of acquiring RGB, IR, and thermal (LWIR) data and storing it in a variety of formats including RAW. The system is full customizable with a wide variety of passive and smart sensors. The camera can be triggered by state conditions detected by sensors and/or select time intervals. The device includes USB, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, serial, GSM, Ethernet, and Iridium connections and can be connected to commercial cloud servers such as Dropbox. The complementary image analysis software is compatible with all popular operating systems. Imagery can be viewed and

  3. Drought footprint on European ecosystems between 1999 and 2010 assessed by remotely sensed vegetation phenology and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivits, Eva; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    bioclimatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used as drought indicator whereas changes in growing season length and vegetation productivity were assessed using remote sensing time-series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Drought spatio...... length, indicating that these ecosystems did not buffer the effects of drought well. In a climate change perspective, increase in drought frequency or intensity may result in larger impacts over these ecosystems, thus management and adaptation strategies should be strengthened in these areas of concerns.......Drought affects more people than any other natural disaster but there is little understanding of how ecosystems react to droughts. This study jointly analyzed spatio-temporal changes of drought patterns with vegetation phenology and productivity changes between 1999 and 2010 in major European...

  4. Phytoplankton phenology indices in coral reef ecosystems: Application to ocean-color observations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Racault, Marie-Fanny

    2015-02-18

    Phytoplankton, at the base of the marine food web, represent a fundamental food source in coral reef ecosystems. The timing (phenology) and magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass are major determinants of trophic interactions. The Red Sea is one of the warmest and most saline basins in the world, characterized by an arid tropical climate regulated by the monsoon. These extreme conditions are particularly challenging for marine life. Phytoplankton phenological indices provide objective and quantitative metrics to characterize phytoplankton seasonality. The indices i.e. timings of initiation, peak, termination and duration are estimated here using 15 years (1997–2012) of remote sensing ocean-color data from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative project (OC-CCI) in the entire Red Sea basin. The OC-CCI product, comprising merged and bias-corrected observations from three independent ocean-color sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS), and processed using the POLYMER algorithm (MERIS period), shows a significant increase in chlorophyll data coverage, especially in the southern Red Sea during the months of summer NW monsoon. In open and reef-bound coastal waters, the performance of OC-CCI chlorophyll data is shown to be comparable with the performance of other standard chlorophyll products for the global oceans. These features have permitted us to investigate phytoplankton phenology in the entire Red Sea basin, and during both winter SE monsoon and summer NW monsoon periods. The phenological indices are estimated in the four open water provinces of the basin, and further examined at six coral reef complexes of particular socio-economic importance in the Red Sea, including Siyal Islands, Sharm El Sheikh, Al Wajh bank, Thuwal reefs, Al Lith reefs and Farasan Islands. Most of the open and deeper waters of the basin show an apparent higher chlorophyll concentration and longer duration of phytoplankton growth during the winter period (relative to the summer

  5. Fine Root Growth Phenology, Production, and Turnover in a Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley J. Raynal

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the nutrient flux in deciduous forests is through fine root turnover, yet this process is seldom measured. As part of a nutrient cycling study, fine root dynamics were studied for two years at Huntington Forest in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York, USA. Root growth phenology was characterized using field rhizotrons, three methods were used to...

  6. Terrestrial biosphere models need better representation of vegetation phenology: results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; Ryan S. Anderson; M. Altaf Arain; Alan G. Barr; Gil Bohrer; Guangsheng Chen; Jing M. Chen; Philippe Ciais; Kenneth J. David; Ankur R. Desai; Michael C. Dietze; Danilo Dragoni; Steven R. Garrity; Christopher M. Gough; Robert Grant; David Hollinger; Hank A. Margolis; Harry McCaughey; Mirco Migliavacca; Russel K. Monson; J. William Munger; Benjamin Poulter; Brett M. Raczka; Daniel M. Ricciuto; Alok K. Sahoo; Kevin Schaefer; Hanqin Tian; Rodrigo Vargas; Hans Verbeeck; Jingfeng Xiao; Yongkang. Xue

    2012-01-01

    Phenology, by controlling the seasonal activity of vegetation on the land surface, plays a fundamental role in regulating photosynthesis and other ecosystem processes, as well as competitive interactions and feedbacks to the climate system. We conducted an analysis to evaluate the representation of phenology, and the associated seasonality of ecosystem-scale CO

  7. Effects of short term and long term soil warming on ecosystem phenology of a sub-arctic grassland: an NDVI-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblans, Niki; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2014-05-01

    Phenology has been defined as the study of the timing of recurring biological events and the causes of their timing with regard to abiotic and biotic factors. Ecosystem phenology, including the onset of the growing season and its senescence in autumn, plays an important role in the carbon, water and energy exchange between biosphere and atmosphere at higher latitudes. Factors that influence ecosystem phenology can therefore induce important climate-controlling feedback mechanisms. Global surface temperatures have been predicted to increase in the coming decades. Hence, a better understanding of the effect of temperature on ecosystem phenology is essential. Natural geothermal soil temperature gradients in Iceland offer a unique opportunity to study the soil temperature (Ts) dependence of ecosystem phenology and distinguish short-term (transient) warming effects (in recently established Ts gradients) from long-term (permanent) effects (in centuries-old Ts gradients). This research was performed in the framework of an international research project (ForHot; www.forhot.is). ForHot includes two natural grassland areas with gradients in Ts, dominated by Festuca sp., Agrostis sp.. The first warmed area was created in 2008, when an earthquake in S-Iceland caused geothermal systems to be shifted to previously cold soils. The second area is located about 3 km away from this newly warmed grassland. For this area, there are proofs that the natural soil warming has been continuous for at least 300 year. In the present study we focus on Ts elevation gradients of +0 to +10°C. The experiment consists of five transects with five temperature levels (+0,+1,+3,+5 and +10°C) in the two aforementioned grassland ecosystems (n=25 in each grassland). From April until November 2013, weekly measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were taken. In the short-term warmed grassland, the greening of the vegetation was 36 days advanced at +10°C Ts and the date of 50

  8. Modeling winter wheat phenological responses to water deficits in the Unified Plant Growth Model (UPGM) component of the spatially distributed Agricultural Ecosystem Services (AgES) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately predicting phenology in crop simulation models is critical for correctly simulating crop production. While extensive work in modeling phenology has focused on the temperature response function (resulting in robust phenology models), limited work on quantifying the phenological responses t...

  9. Ecosystem Phenology from Eddy-covariance Measurements: Spring Photosynthesis in a Cool Temperate Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, P.; Moore, T. R.; Poon, D.; Seaquist, J.

    2005-12-01

    The onset and increase of spring photosynthetic flux of carbon dioxide is an important attribute of the carbon budget of northern ecosystems and we used eddy-covariance measurements from March to May over 5 years at the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog to establish the important controls. The onset of ecosystem photosynthesis (day-of-year from 86 to 101) was associated with the disappearance on the snow cover and there is evidence that photosynthesis can continue after a thin new snowfall. The growth of photosynthesis during the spring period was partially associated with light (daily photosynthetically active radiation) but primarily with temperature, with the strongest correlation being observed with peat temperature at a depth of 5 and 10 cm, except in one year in which there was a long snow cover. The vegetation comprises mosses, which are able to photosynthesize very early, evergreen shrubs, which appear dependent on soil warming, and deciduous shrubs, which leaf-out only in late spring. We observed changes in shrub leaf colour from brown to green and concomitant increases in foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations during the spring in this "evergreen" system. We analyzed MODIS images for periods of overlap of tower and satellite data and found a generally strong correlation, though the infrequent satellite measurements were unable to pick out the onset and timing of rapid growth of photosynthesis in this ecosystem.

  10. Climate regulates alpine lake ice cover phenology and aquatic ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.; Caine, Nel; McKnight, Diane M.; Williams, Mark W.; Hell, Katherina; Miller, Matthew P.; Hart, Sarah J.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2016-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, yet relatively few records are available to characterize shifts in ecosystem structure or their underlying mechanisms. Using a long-term dataset on seven alpine lakes (3126 to 3620 m) in Colorado, USA, we show that ice-off dates have shifted seven days earlier over the past 33 years and that spring weather conditions – especially snowfall – drive yearly variation in ice-off timing. In the most well-studied lake, earlier ice-off associated with increases in water residence times, thermal stratification, ion concentrations, dissolved nitrogen, pH, and chlorophyll-a. Mechanistically, low spring snowfall and warm temperatures reduce summer stream flow (increasing lake residence times) but enhance melting of glacial and permafrost ice (increasing lake solute inputs). The observed links among hydrological, chemical, and biological responses to climate factors highlight the potential for major shifts in the functioning of alpine lakes due to forecasted climate change.

  11. Evaluation of land surface model representation of phenology: an analysis of model runs submitted to the NACP Interim Site Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.; Nacp Interim Site Synthesis Participants

    2010-12-01

    Phenology represents a critical intersection point between organisms and their growth environment. It is for this reason that phenology is a sensitive and robust integrator of the biological impacts of year-to-year climate variability and longer-term climate change on natural systems. However, it is perhaps equally important that phenology, by controlling the seasonal activity of vegetation on the land surface, plays a fundamental role in regulating ecosystem processes, competitive interactions, and feedbacks to the climate system. Unfortunately, the phenological sub-models implemented in most state-of-the-art ecosystem models and land surface schemes are overly simplified. We quantified model errors in the representation of the seasonal cycles of leaf area index (LAI), gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), and net ecosystem exchange of CO2. Our analysis was based on site-level model runs (14 different models) submitted to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Synthesis, and long-term measurements from 10 forested (5 evergreen conifer, 5 deciduous broadleaf) sites within the AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada networks. Model predictions of the seasonality of LAI and GEP were unacceptable, particularly in spring, and especially for deciduous forests. This is despite an historical emphasis on deciduous forest phenology, and the perception that controls on spring phenology are better understood than autumn phenology. Errors of up to 25 days in predicting “spring onset” transition dates were common, and errors of up to 50 days were observed. For deciduous sites, virtually every model was biased towards spring onset being too early, and autumn senescence being too late. Thus, models predicted growing seasons that were far too long for deciduous forests. For most models, errors in the seasonal representation of deciduous forest LAI were highly correlated with errors in the seasonality of both GPP and NEE, indicating the importance of getting the underlying

  12. Evaluation of Different Phenological Information to Map Crop Rotation in Complex Irrigated Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeel, A.; Zhou, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Accurate information of crop rotation in large basin is essential for policy decisions on land, water and nutrient resources around the world. Crop area estimation using low spatial resolution remote sensing data is challenging in a large heterogeneous basin having more than one cropping seasons. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of two phenological datasets individually and in combined form to map crop rotations in complex irrigated Indus basin without image segmentation. Phenology information derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, having 8-day temporal and 1000 m spatial resolution, was used in the analysis. An unsupervised (temporal space clustering) to supervised (area knowledge and phenology behavior) classification approach was adopted to identify 13 crop rotations. Estimated crop area was compared with reported area collected by field census. Results reveal that combined dataset (NDVI*LAI) performs better in mapping wheat-rice, wheat-cotton and wheat-fodder rotation by attaining root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.55, 16.84, 20.58 and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 24.56 %, 36.82 %, 30.21 % for wheat, rice and cotton crop respectively. For sugarcane crop mapping, LAI produce good results by achieving RMSE of 8.60 and MAPE of 34.58 %, as compared to NDVI (10.08, 40.53 %) and NDVI*LAI (10.83, 39.45 %). The availability of major crop rotation statistics provides insight to develop better strategies for land, water and nutrient accounting frameworks to improve agriculture productivity.

  13. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PHENOLOGICAL INFORMATION TO MAP CROP ROTATION IN COMPLEX IRRIGATED INDUS BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismaeel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information of crop rotation in large basin is essential for policy decisions on land, water and nutrient resources around the world. Crop area estimation using low spatial resolution remote sensing data is challenging in a large heterogeneous basin having more than one cropping seasons. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of two phenological datasets individually and in combined form to map crop rotations in complex irrigated Indus basin without image segmentation. Phenology information derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Leaf Area Index (LAI of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor, having 8-day temporal and 1000 m spatial resolution, was used in the analysis. An unsupervised (temporal space clustering to supervised (area knowledge and phenology behavior classification approach was adopted to identify 13 crop rotations. Estimated crop area was compared with reported area collected by field census. Results reveal that combined dataset (NDVI*LAI performs better in mapping wheat-rice, wheat-cotton and wheat-fodder rotation by attaining root mean square error (RMSE of 34.55, 16.84, 20.58 and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 24.56 %, 36.82 %, 30.21 % for wheat, rice and cotton crop respectively. For sugarcane crop mapping, LAI produce good results by achieving RMSE of 8.60 and MAPE of 34.58 %, as compared to NDVI (10.08, 40.53 % and NDVI*LAI (10.83, 39.45 %. The availability of major crop rotation statistics provides insight to develop better strategies for land, water and nutrient accounting frameworks to improve agriculture productivity.

  14. Accuracy and precision in the calculation of phenology metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    a phenology metric is first determined from a noise- and gap-free time series, and again once it has been modified. We show that precision is a greater concern than accuracy for many of these metrics, an important point that has been hereto overlooked in the literature. The variability in precision between...... phenology metrics is substantial, but it can be improved by the use of preprocessing techniques (e.g., gap-filling or smoothing). Furthermore, there are important differences in the inherent variability of the metrics that may be crucial in the interpretation of studies based upon them. Of the considered......Phytoplankton phenology (the timing of seasonal events) is a commonly used indicator for evaluating responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. However, phenological metrics are vulnerable to observation-(bloom amplitude, missing data, and observational noise) and analysis-related (temporal...

  15. Experimental Whole-Ecosystem Warming Alters Vegetation Phenology in a Boreal Spruce Bog: Initial Results from the SPRUCE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Phenology is one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. However, the response of phenology to future environmental conditions still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9°C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu), where processed to yield quantitative measures of canopy color. These data are complemented by on-the-ground phenological data collected by human observers. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015. We observed a delay in senescence during autumn 2015 (2-5 days per degree of warming) and an advance in onset during spring 2016 (1-4 days per degree of warming). These patterns are robust across species and methods of phenological observation (i.e. camera-based vs. human observer). And, our results show very little evidence for photoperiod acting as a constraint on the response to warming. Early spring onset and consequent loss of frost hardiness in the warmest chambers proved disadvantageous when a brief period of extreme cold (to -12°C in the control chambers, to -3°C in the +9°C chambers) followed a month of generally mild weather. Foliage mortality for both Larix and Picea was immediate and severe, although both species subsequently re-flushed. These results give support for the hypothesis that warming may enhance the likelihood of spring frost

  16. Evaluating Heavy Metal Stress Levels in Rice Based on Remote Sensing Phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjiao; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Wu, Ling

    2018-03-14

    Heavy metal pollution of croplands is a major environmental problem worldwide. Methods for accurately and quickly monitoring heavy metal stress have important practical significance. Many studies have explored heavy metal stress in rice in relation to physiological function or physiological factors, but few studies have considered phenology, which can be sensitive to heavy metal stress. In this study, we used an integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series image set to extract remote sensing phenology. A phenological indicator relatively sensitive to heavy metal stress was chosen from the obtained phenological periods and phenological parameters. The Dry Weight of Roots (WRT), which directly affected by heavy metal stress, was simulated by the World Food Study (WOFOST) model; then, a feature space based on the phenological indicator and WRT was established for monitoring heavy metal stress. The results indicated that the feature space can distinguish the heavy metal stress levels in rice, with accuracy greater than 95% for distinguishing the severe stress level. This finding provides scientific evidence for combining rice phenology and physiological characteristics in time and space, and the method is useful to monitor heavy metal stress in rice.

  17. Application of Near-Surface Remote Sensing and computer algorithms in evaluating impacts of agroecosystem management on Zea mays (corn) phenological development in the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Suyker, A.; LeBauer, D.; Newcomb, M.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is a USDA-ARS effort that focuses on conducting research that addresses current and emerging issues in agriculture related to sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems in the face of climate change and population growth. There are 18 sites across the USA covering key agricultural production regions. In Nebraska, a partnership between the University of Nebraska - Lincoln and ARD/USDA resulted in the establishment of the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer LTAR site in 2014. The site conducts research to sustain multiple ecosystem services focusing specifically on Nebraska's main agronomic production agroecosystems that comprise of abundant corn, soybeans, managed grasslands and beef production. As part of the national LTAR network, PR-HPA participates and contributes near-surface remotely sensed imagery of corn, soybean and grassland canopy phenology to the PhenoCam Network through high-resolution digital cameras. This poster highlights the application, advantages and usefulness of near-surface remotely sensed imagery in agroecosystem studies and management. It demonstrates how both Infrared and Red-Green-Blue imagery may be applied to monitor phenological events as well as crop abiotic stresses. Computer-based algorithms and analytic techniques proved very instrumental in revealing crop phenological changes such as green-up and tasseling in corn. This poster also reports the suitability and applicability of corn-derived computer based algorithms for evaluating phenological development of sorghum since both crops have similarities in their phenology; with sorghum panicles being similar to corn tassels. This later assessment was carried out using a sorghum dataset obtained from the Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture Phenotyping Reference Platform project, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Arizona.

  18. Review: advances in in situ and satellite phenological observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shin; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Inoue, Tomoharu; Saitoh, Taku M.; Suzuki, Rikie

    2016-04-01

    To accurately evaluate the responses of spatial and temporal variation of ecosystem functioning (evapotranspiration and photosynthesis) and services (regulating and cultural services) to the rapid changes caused by global warming, we depend on long-term, continuous, near-surface, and satellite remote sensing of phenology over wide areas. Here, we review such phenological studies in Japan and discuss our current knowledge, problems, and future developments. In contrast with North America and Europe, Japan has been able to evaluate plant phenology along vertical and horizontal gradients within a narrow area because of the country's high topographic relief. Phenological observation networks that support scientific studies and outreach activities have used near-surface tools such as digital cameras and spectral radiometers. Differences in phenology among ecosystems and tree species have been detected by analyzing the seasonal variation of red, green, and blue digital numbers (RGB values) extracted from phenological images, as well as spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The relationships between seasonal variations in RGB-derived indices or spectral characteristics and the ecological and CO2 flux measurement data have been well validated. In contrast, insufficient satellite remote-sensing observations have been conducted because of the coarse spatial resolution of previous datasets, which could not detect the heterogeneous plant phenology that results from Japan's complex topography and vegetation. To improve Japanese phenological observations, multidisciplinary analysis and evaluation will be needed to link traditional phenological observations with "index trees," near-surface and satellite remote-sensing observations, "citizen science" (observations by citizens), and results published on the Internet.

  19. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  20. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos = Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. &Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologiautilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob

  1. Phylogenetic Conservatism in Plant Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Salamin, Nicolas; Allen, Jenica M.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Cleland, Elsa E.; Cook, Benjamin I.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Phenological events defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism the tendency for closely related species to share similar ecological and biological attributes in phenological traits across flowering plants. We aggregated published and unpublished data on timing of first flower and first leaf, encompassing 4000 species at 23 sites across the Northern Hemisphere. We reconstructed the phylogeny for the set of included species, first, using the software program Phylomatic, and second, from DNA data. We then quantified phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology within and across sites. We show that more closely related species tend to flower and leaf at similar times. By contrasting mean flowering times within and across sites, however, we illustrate that it is not the time of year that is conserved, but rather the phenological responses to a common set of abiotic cues. Our findings suggest that species cannot be treated as statistically independent when modelling phenological responses.Closely related species tend to resemble each other in the timing of their life-history events, a likely product of evolutionarily conserved responses to environmental cues. The search for the underlying drivers of phenology must therefore account for species' shared evolutionary histories.

  2. Current and future carbon budget at Takayama site, Japan, evaluated by a regional climate model and a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Noh, Nam-Jin; Saitoh, Taku M; Ito, Akihiko; Wakazuki, Yasutaka; Muraoka, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Accurate projection of carbon budget in forest ecosystems under future climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration is important to evaluate the function of terrestrial ecosystems, which serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO 2 . In this study, we examined the effects of spatial resolution of meteorological data on the accuracies of ecosystem model simulation for canopy phenology and carbon budget such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of a deciduous forest in Japan. Then, we simulated the future (around 2085) changes in canopy phenology and carbon budget of the forest by incorporating high-resolution meteorological data downscaled by a regional climate model. The ecosystem model overestimated GPP and ER when we inputted low-resolution data, which have warming biases over mountainous landscape. But, it reproduced canopy phenology and carbon budget well, when we inputted high-resolution data. Under the future climate, earlier leaf expansion and delayed leaf fall by about 10 days compared with the present state was simulated, and also, GPP, ER and NEP were estimated to increase by 25.2%, 23.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the increase of NEP in June and October would be mainly caused by rising temperature, whereas that in July and August would be largely attributable to CO 2 fertilization. This study suggests that the downscaling of future climate data enable us to project more reliable carbon budget of forest ecosystem in mountainous landscape than the low-resolution simulation due to the better predictions of leaf expansion and shedding.

  3. PHENOALP: a new project on phenology in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonese, E.

    2009-04-01

    PHENOALP is a new EU co-funded Interreg Project under the operational programme for cross-border cooperation "Italy-France (Alps-ALCOTRA)" 2007 - 2013, aiming to get a better understanding of phenological changes in the Alps. The major goals of the project are: 1- The implementation of an observation network in the involved territories (i.e. the Aosta Valley and the Savoies in the Western Alps); 2- The definition of a common observation strategy and common protocols; 3- The involvement of local community members (e.g. through schools) in the observation activities as a way to increase the awareness on the issue of the effects of climate change. Project leader is the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta - IT) and the partners are the Research Center on High Altitude Ecosystem (CREA - FR), Mont Avic Regional Parc (IT), Bauges Massif Regional Natural Parc (FR) and the Protected Area Service of Aosta Valley (IT). Project activities are: 1. Pheno-plantes: definition of common observation protocols (e.g. field observation and webcams) of different alpine species (trees and herbaceous) and implementation of the observation network; analysis of the relations between climate and phenological events; application and evaluation of phenological models. 2. Pheno-detection: remote sensing of European larch and high elevation pastures with MODIS data; multitemporal analysis (2000-2011) of phenological variations in the Western Alps. 3. Pheno-flux: analysis of the relation between the seasonal and interannual variability of plant phenology and productivity, assessed measuring CO2 fluxes (eddy-covariance technique), radiometric indexes and phenological events at specific (European larch stand and alpine pastures) monitoring site. 4. Pheno-zoo: definition of common observation protocols for the phenology of animal taxa (birds, mammals, amphibians and insects) along altitudinal gradients; implementation of the observation network. 5. Inter

  4. Tracking vegetation phenology across diverse North American biomes using PhenoCam imagery: A new, publicly-available dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation phenology controls the seasonality of many ecosystem processes, as well as numerous biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Phenology is highly sensitive to climate change and variability, and is thus a key aspect of global change ecology. The goal of the PhenoCam network is to serve as a long-term, continental-scale, phenological observatory. The network uses repeat digital photography—images captured using conventional, visible-wavelength, automated digital cameras—to characterize vegetation phenology in diverse ecosystems across North America and around the world. At present, imagery from over 200 research sites, spanning a wide range of ecoregions, climate zones, and plant functional types, is currently being archived and processed in near-real-time through the PhenoCam project web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/). Data derived from PhenoCam imagery have been previously used to evaluate satellite phenology products, to constrain and test new phenology models, to understand relationships between canopy phenology and ecosystem processes, and to study the seasonal changes in leaf-level physiology that are associated with changes in leaf color. I will describe a new, publicly-available phenological dataset, derived from over 600 site-years of PhenoCam imagery. For each archived image (ca. 5 million), we extracted RGB (red, green, blue) color channel information, with means and other statistics calculated across a region-of-interest (ROI) delineating a specific vegetation type. From the high-frequency (typically, 30 minute) imagery, we derived time series characterizing vegetation color, including "canopy greenness", processed to 1- and 3-day intervals. For ecosystems with a single annual cycle of vegetation activity, we derived estimates, with uncertainties, for the start, middle, and end of spring and autumn phenological transitions. Given the lack of multi-year, standardized, and geographically distributed phenological data for North America, we

  5. Tracking vegetation phenology across diverse North American biomes using PhenoCam imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D.; Hufkens, Koen; Milliman, Tom; Aubrecht, Donald M.; Chen, Min; Gray, Josh M.; Johnston, Miriam R.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Klosterman, Stephen T.; Kosmala, Margaret; Melaas, Eli K.; Friedl, Mark A.; Frolking, Steve

    2018-03-01

    Vegetation phenology controls the seasonality of many ecosystem processes, as well as numerous biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Phenology is also highly sensitive to climate change and variability. Here we present a series of datasets, together consisting of almost 750 years of observations, characterizing vegetation phenology in diverse ecosystems across North America. Our data are derived from conventional, visible-wavelength, automated digital camera imagery collected through the PhenoCam network. For each archived image, we extracted RGB (red, green, blue) colour channel information, with means and other statistics calculated across a region-of-interest (ROI) delineating a specific vegetation type. From the high-frequency (typically, 30 min) imagery, we derived time series characterizing vegetation colour, including “canopy greenness”, processed to 1- and 3-day intervals. For ecosystems with one or more annual cycles of vegetation activity, we provide estimates, with uncertainties, for the start of the “greenness rising” and end of the “greenness falling” stages. The database can be used for phenological model validation and development, evaluation of satellite remote sensing data products, benchmarking earth system models, and studies of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. On the usefulness of ecosystem services evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Belmontes, J. A.; López Pintor, A.; Rodríguez, M. A.; Gómez-Sal, A.

    1997-01-01

    A ground breaking paper by COSTANZA et al. published in Nature this year has led to an intense debate about the potential, and convenience of making economical valuations of the services provided by ecosystems. This debate has been encouraged by the journal, by giving Internet free access to the paper, as well as by the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) and the Communications for a Sustainable Future (CSF) who had co-exponsored an Online Forum offering the possibility to s...

  7. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  8. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Weijerman

    Full Text Available Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  9. Potential and Limitations of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems for Monitoring Altitudinal Vegetation Phenology in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. S. F.; Torres, R. S.; Morellato, P.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is a key component of ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling, and highly susceptible to climatic change. Phenological knowledge in the tropics is limited by lack of monitoring, traditionally done by laborious direct observation. Ground-based digital cameras can automate daily observations, but also offer limited spatial coverage. Imaging by low-cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) combines the fine resolution of ground-based methods with and unprecedented capability for spatial coverage, but challenges remain in producing color-consistent multitemporal images. We evaluated the applicability of multitemporal UAS imaging to monitor phenology in tropical altitudinal grasslands and forests, answering: 1) Can very-high resolution aerial photography from conventional digital cameras be used to reliably monitor vegetative and reproductive phenology? 2) How is UAS monitoring affected by changes in illumination and by sensor physical limitations? We flew imaging missions monthly from Feb-16 to Feb-17, using a UAS equipped with an RGB Canon SX260 camera. Flights were carried between 10am and 4pm, at 120-150m a.g.l., yielding 5-10cm spatial resolution. To compensate illumination changes caused by time of day, season and cloud cover, calibration was attempted using reference targets and empirical models, as well as color space transformations. For vegetative phenological monitoring, multitemporal response was severely affected by changes in illumination conditions, strongly confounding the phenological signal. These variations could not be adequately corrected through calibration due to sensor limitations. For reproductive phenology, the very-high resolution of the acquired imagery allowed discrimination of individual reproductive structures for some species, and its stark colorimetric differences to vegetative structures allowed detection of the reproductive timing on the HSV color space, despite illumination effects. We conclude that reliable

  10. USA National Phenology Network observational data documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Marsh, R. Lee; Posthumus, Erin E.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-04-25

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to advance the science of phenology and facilitate ecosystem stewardship by providing phenological information freely and openly. To accomplish these goals, the USA-NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) delivers observational data on plant and animal phenology in several formats, including minimally processed status and intensity datasets and derived phenometrics for individual plants, sites, and regions. This document describes the suite of observational data products delivered by the USA National Phenology Network, covering the period 2009–present for the United States and accessible via the Phenology Observation Portal (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F78S4N1V) and via an Application Programming Interface. The data described here have been used in diverse research and management applications, including over 30 publications in fields such as remote sensing, plant evolution, and resource management.

  11. [Forest ecosystem service and its evaluation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jin; Lu, Shaowei; Yu, Xinxiao; Rao, Liangyi; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhag, Zhenming

    2005-08-01

    Facing the relative lag of forest ecosystem service and estimation in China, this paper proposed to quickly carry out the research on the evaluation of forest ecosystem service. On the basis of the classification of forest ecosystem types in China, the service of artificial and semi-artificial forest ecosystems was investigated, which was divided into eight types, i.e., timber and other products, recreation and eco-tourism, water storage, C fixation and O2 release, nutrient cycling, air quality purifying, erosion control, and habitat provision. According to the assessment index system for global ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al., a series of assessment index system suitable for Chinese forest ecosystem service was set up, by which, the total value of forest ecosystem service in China was estimated to be 30 601.20 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), including direct and indirect economic value about 1 920.23 x 10(8) and 28 680.97 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), respectively. The indirect value was as 14.94 times as the direct one. The research aimed to bring natural resources and environment factors into the account system of national economy quickly, and to realize the green GDP at last, which would be helpful to realize sustainable development and environment protection.

  12. On the usefulness of ecosystem services evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmontes, J. A.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A ground breaking paper by COSTANZA et al. published in Nature this year has led to an intense debate about the potential, and convenience of making economical valuations of the services provided by ecosystems. This debate has been encouraged by the journal, by giving Internet free access to the paper, as well as by the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE and the Communications for a Sustainable Future (CSF who had co-exponsored an Online Forum offering the possibility to submit opinions to their web site. In the present work, we resume and analyse these opinions. In spite of potentially enormous technical difficulties, and strong ethic arguments against it, many consider worth the effort to deep into the economical value of the services provided by ecosystems. It is considered that this kind of valuations can become important ingredients of the conservationist debate, since monetary value is a measure that can be understood by the society as a whole.

    Un artículo polémico escrito por COSTANZA et al., publicado en Nature el pasado año, ha provocado un intenso debate sobre el potencial y la conveniencia de realizar valoraciones económicas de las funciones o beneficios proporcionados por los ecosistemas. Este debate ha sido estimulado por la revista, dando libre acceso al artículo en Internet, y también por la International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE y Communications for a Sustainable Future (CSF, quienes han ofrecido la posibilidad de remitir opiniones a su página de la World Wide Web. En este trabajo se resumen y analizan estas opiniones. A pesar de las enormes dificultades técnicas y de sus importantes problemas éticos, muchos consideran que merece la pena el esfuerzo de realizar valoraciones de los servicios proporcionados por los ecosistemas. Se considera que. estas valoraciones pueden ser elementos importantes para el debate conservacionista, ya que el valor monetario es una medida que puede ser

  13. Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min

    The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the

  14. Phenological response of an Arizona dryland forest to short-term climatic extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica; de Beurs, Kirsten; Wynne, Randolph

    2015-01-01

    Baseline information about dryland forest phenology is necessary to accurately anticipate future ecosystem shifts. The overarching goal of our study was to investigate the variability of vegetation phenology across a dryland forest landscape in response to climate alterations. We analyzed the influence of site characteristics and climatic conditions on the phenological patterns of an Arizona, USA, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest during a five-year period (2005 to 2009) that encompassed extreme wet and dry precipitation regimes. We assembled 80 synthetic Landsat images by applying the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion method (STARFM) to 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data. We tested relationships between site characteristics and the timing of peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the effect of climatic stress on the green-up of individual pixels during or after the summer monsoon. Our results show that drought-induced stress led to a fragmented phenological response that was highly dependent on microsite parameters, as both the spatial autocorrelation of peak timing and the number of significant site variables increased during the drought year. Pixels at lower elevations and with higher proportions of herbaceous vegetation were more likely to exhibit dynamic responses to changes in precipitation conditions. Our study demonstrates the complexity of responses within dryland forest ecosystems and highlights the need for standardized monitoring of phenology trends in these areas. The spatial and temporal variability of phenological signals may provide a quantitative solution to the problem of how to evaluate dryland land surface trends across time.

  15. Phenological Response of an Arizona Dryland Forest to Short-Term Climatic Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information about dryland forest phenology is necessary to accurately anticipate future ecosystem shifts. The overarching goal of our study was to investigate the variability of vegetation phenology across a dryland forest landscape in response to climate alterations. We analyzed the influence of site characteristics and climatic conditions on the phenological patterns of an Arizona, USA, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa forest during a five-year period (2005 to 2009 that encompassed extreme wet and dry precipitation regimes. We assembled 80 synthetic Landsat images by applying the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion method (STARFM to 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM data. We tested relationships between site characteristics and the timing of peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to assess the effect of climatic stress on the green-up of individual pixels during or after the summer monsoon. Our results show that drought-induced stress led to a fragmented phenological response that was highly dependent on microsite parameters, as both the spatial autocorrelation of peak timing and the number of significant site variables increased during the drought year. Pixels at lower elevations and with higher proportions of herbaceous vegetation were more likely to exhibit dynamic responses to changes in precipitation conditions. Our study demonstrates the complexity of responses within dryland forest ecosystems and highlights the need for standardized monitoring of phenology trends in these areas. The spatial and temporal variability of phenological signals may provide a quantitative solution to the problem of how to evaluate dryland land surface trends across time.

  16. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; Van de Water, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Direct detection of pollen via satellite is not practical. A practical alternative combines modeling and phenological observations using ground based sampling and satellite data. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Nickovic et al. 2001). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). In the current project MODIS data will provide critical input to the PREAM model providing pollen source location, timing of pollen release, and vegetation type. We are modifying the DREAM model (PREAM - Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that the potential association of health effects of pollen can better be tracked for possible linkage with health outcome data which may be associated with asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost workdays. Juniperus spp. pollen phenology may respond to a wide range of environmental factors such as day length, growing degree-days, precipitation patterns and soil moisture. Species differences are also important. These environmental factors vary over both time and spatial scales. Ground based networks such as the USA National Phenology Network have been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, the density of observers is not adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability

  17. Investigating the impact of climate change on crop phenological events in Europe with a phenology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaoxiu; Churkina, Galina; Trusilova, Kristina

    2012-07-01

    Predicting regional and global carbon and water dynamics requires a realistic representation of vegetation phenology. Vegetation models including cropland models exist (e.g. LPJmL, Daycent, SIBcrop, ORCHIDEE-STICS, PIXGRO) but they have various limitations in predicting cropland phenological events and their responses to climate change. Here, we investigate how leaf onset and offset days of major European croplands responded to changes in climate from 1971 to 2000 using a newly developed phenological model, which solely relies on climate data. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data measured with eddy covariance technique at seven sites in Europe were used to adjust model parameters for wheat, barley, and rapeseed. Observational data from the International Phenology Gardens were used to corroborate modeled phenological responses to changes in climate. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and a crop calendar were explored as alternative predictors of leaf onset and harvest days, respectively, over a large spatial scale. In each spatial model simulation, we assumed that all European croplands were covered by only one crop type. Given this assumption, the model estimated that the leaf onset days for wheat, barley, and rapeseed in Germany advanced by 1.6, 3.4, and 3.4 days per decade, respectively, during 1961-2000. The majority of European croplands (71.4%) had an advanced mean leaf onset day for wheat, barley, and rapeseed (7.0% significant), whereas 28.6% of European croplands had a delayed leaf onset day (0.9% significant) during 1971-2000. The trend of advanced onset days estimated by the model is similar to observations from the International Phenology Gardens in Europe. The developed phenological model can be integrated into a large-scale ecosystem model to simulate the dynamics of phenological events at different temporal and spatial scales. Crop calendars and enhanced vegetation index have substantial uncertainties in predicting phenological events of croplands. Caution

  18. Data-model integration to interpret connectivity between biogeochemical cycling, and vegetation phenology and productivity in mountainous ecosystems under changing hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, E.; Arora, B.; Beller, H. R.; Bill, M.; Bouskill, N.; Chakraborty, R.; Conrad, M. E.; Dafflon, B.; Enquist, B. J.; Falco, N.; Henderson, A.; Karaoz, U.; Polussa, A.; Sorensen, P.; Steltzer, H.; Wainwright, H. M.; Wang, S.; Williams, K. H.; Wilmer, C.; Wu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In mountainous systems, snow-melt is associated with a large pulse of nutrients that originates from under-snow microbial mineralization of organic matter and microbial biomass turnover. Vegetation phenology in these systems is regulated by environmental cues such as air temperature ranges and photoperiod, such that, under typical conditions, vegetation greening and nutrient uptake occur in sync with microbial biomass turnover and nutrient release, closing nutrient cycles and enhancing nutrient retention. However, early snow-melt has been observed with increasing frequency in the mountainous west and is hypothesized to disrupt coupled plant-microbial behavior, potentially resulting in a temporal discontinuity between microbial nutrient release and vegetation greening. As part of the Watershed Function Scientific Focus Area (SFA) at Berkeley Lab we are quantifying below-ground biogeochemistry and above-ground phenology and vegetation chemistry and their relationships to hydrologic events at a lower montane hillslope in the East River catchment, Crested Butte, CO. This presentation will focus on data-model integration to interpret connectivity between biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and vegetation nitrogen demand. Initial model results suggest that early snow-melt will result in an earlier accumulation and leaching loss of nitrate from the upper soil depths but that vegetation productivity may not decline as traits such as greater rooting depth and resource allocation to stems are favored.

  19. Evaluation of Environmental Quality Productive Ecosystem Guayas (Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2015-04-01

    Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas

  20. [Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-02-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests.

  1. Unifying Dynamic Prognostic Phenology, Heterogeneous Soil and Vegetation Fluxes, and Ecosystem Biomass and Carbon Stocks To Predict the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle and Land-Atmosphere Exchanges in the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, S.

    2016-12-01

    Future climate projections require process-based models that incorporate the mechanisms and feedbacks controlling the carbon cycle. Over the past three decades, land surface models have been key contributors to Earth system models, evolving from predicting latent (LE) and sensible (SH) heat fluxes to energy and water budgets, momentum transfer, and terrestrial carbon exchange and storage. This study presents the latest version of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4), which builds on a compilation of previous versions and adds a new mechanistic-based scheme that fully predicts the terrestrial carbon cycle. The main SiB4 updates can be summarized as follows: (i) Incorporation of carbon pools that use new respiration and transfer methods, (ii) Creation of a new dynamic phenology scheme that uses mechanistic-based seasonal stages, and (iii) Unification of carbon pools, phenology and disturbance to close the carbon cycle. SiB4 removes the dependence on satellite-based vegetation indices, and instead uses a single mathematical framework to prognose self-consistent land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, energy, radiation, and momentum, as well as carbon storage. Since grasslands cover 30% of land and are highly seasonal, we investigated forty grass sites. Diurnal cycles of gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), LE and SH have third-quartile root mean squared (RMS) errors less than 2.0 µmol m-2 s-1, 1.9 µmol m-2 s-1, 2.0 µmol m-2 s-1, 42 W m-2, and 78 W m-2, respectively. On the synoptic timeframe, all sites have significant LE correlation coefficients of non-seasonal daily data; and all but one have significant SH correlations. Mean seasonal cycles for leaf area index (LAI), GPP, RE, LE, and SH have third-quartile normalized RMS errors less than 32%, 25%, 28%, 16%, and 48%, respectively. On multi-year timescales, daily correlations of LAI, GPP, RE, and LE are all statistically significant, with third-quartile RMS

  2. The Plant Phenology Ontology: A New Informatics Resource for Large-Scale Integration of Plant Phenology Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Brian J; Guralnick, Rob; Deck, John; Denny, Ellen G; Bolmgren, Kjell; Walls, Ramona

    2018-01-01

    Plant phenology - the timing of plant life-cycle events, such as flowering or leafing out - plays a fundamental role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, including human agricultural systems. Because plant phenology is often linked with climatic variables, there is widespread interest in developing a deeper understanding of global plant phenology patterns and trends. Although phenology data from around the world are currently available, truly global analyses of plant phenology have so far been difficult because the organizations producing large-scale phenology data are using non-standardized terminologies and metrics during data collection and data processing. To address this problem, we have developed the Plant Phenology Ontology (PPO). The PPO provides the standardized vocabulary and semantic framework that is needed for large-scale integration of heterogeneous plant phenology data. Here, we describe the PPO, and we also report preliminary results of using the PPO and a new data processing pipeline to build a large dataset of phenology information from North America and Europe.

  3. Evaluation of propagation methods, nitrogen fertilization and phenology in stevia in the Cauca Valley, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla C, Carmen R; Sánchez O, Manuel S.; Perlaza, Diego F

    2007-01-01

    En el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira se evaluó el prendimiento de estacas apicales y basales de Stevia rebaudiana en tres sustratos de enraizamiento (carbonilla-arena, carbonilla-compost y arena-compost) y tres fuentes de nitrógeno (urea 46%N, compost 1.5%N y gallinaza 1% N). El mejor método de propagación fue la estaca apical en sustrato carbonilla-arena 1:1, volumen; las fuentes de nitrógeno no presentaron diferencias significativas en la acumulación...

  4. Evaluation of some Phenological and Pomological Characteristics of Selected Walnut Genotypes from Shahroud-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Akhiani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first step in walnut breeding programs is to identify and evaluate superior genotypes of fruit trees. Hence, there are various walnut breeding programs in various areas of Iran. A study aimed to evaluate the morphological and chemical characteristics of selected superior genotypes of walnut was conducted in the Shahroud region in 2011-2012.  The following genotypes were selected in this study as the best walnut genotypes:  X-18 homogamous genotypes due to desirable late leafing;   genotype X-11 for its high percentage of kernel production, easily removal of shell, thin shell; genotype X-52 due to its kernel plumpness compared to other genotypes, thin shell and high percentage of kernel and genotype X-70 for its kernel brightness, easily kernel extracting and high percentage of kernels. The X-49 and X-5 genotypes had the highest amount of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids and higher nutritional quality compared to other genotypes. Three genotypes, X-3, X-11 and X-22, had the highest amount of oil. Genotypes X-9 and X-45 had the highest amount of protein. The difference between oil content and fatty acid compositions was presumably due to genetic diversity and ecological conditions of the studied genotypes cultivation.

  5. Evaluating the Governance Model of Hardware-Dependent Software Ecosystems – A Case Study of the Axis Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Wnuk, Krzysztof; Manikas, Konstantinos; Runeson, Per; Matilda, Lantz; Oskar, Weijden; Munir, Hussan

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem governance becomes gradually more relevant for a set of companies or actors characterized by symbiotic relations evolved on the top of a technological platform, i.e. a software ecosystem. In this study, we focus on the governance of a hardware-dependent software ecosystem. More specifically, we evaluate the governance model applied by Axis, a network video and surveillance camera producer, that is the platform owner and orchestrator of the Application Development Partner (ADP) softw...

  6. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model To Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, Estelle; Huete, Alfredo; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen release will be estimated based on MODIS derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  7. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478 Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. & Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologia utilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H

  8. Evaluating the governance model of hardware-dependent software ecosystems - a case study of the axis ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wnuk, Krzysztof; Manikas, Konstantinos; Runeson, Per

    2014-01-01

    specifically, we evaluate the governance model applied by Axis, a network video and surveillance camera producer, that is the platform owner and orchestrator of the Application Development Partner (ADP) software ecosystem. We conduct an exploratory case study collecting data from observations and interviews...... and apply the governance model for prevention and improvement of the software ecosystem health proposed by Jansen and Cusumano. Our results reveal that although the governance actions do not address the majority of their governance model, the ADP ecosystem is considered a growing ecosystem providing...

  9. Quantifying characteristic growth dynamics in a semiarid grassland ecosystem by predicting short-term NDVI phenology from daily rainfall: a simple 4 parameter coupled-reservoir model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicting impacts of the magnitude and seasonal timing of rainfall pulses in water-limited grassland ecosystems concerns ecologists, climate scientists, hydrologists, and a variety of stakeholders. This report describes a simple, effective procedure to emulate the seasonal response of grassland bio...

  10. Emergy evaluation of benthic ecosystems influenced by upwelling in northern Chile: Contributions of the ecosystems to the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy evaluations of three benthic ecosystem networks found in Mejillones, Antofagasta and Tongoy Bays, located on the coast of northern Chile, were carried out with the intent of documenting the contributions of these coastal ecosystems to the economy. The productivity of these...

  11. Evaluating international development investments based on ecosystem services impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremier, A. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Mulligan, M.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Gordon, L.; Luedeling, E.; Jones, S. K.; DeClerck, F.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered water-control structures to supply water for agriculture are frequently funded by international development to an effort to improve human wellbeing. Dams, reservoirs, and other forms of water control frequently have negative impacts on other water users; however, their sustainability in the face of climate change and evolving watershed processes have been called into question. Increasingly, planning for and evaluation of investments in water control require integration of these larger scale impacts and dependencies. Ecosystem service approaches can use local to regional scale knowledge to integrate a broader scope of project impacts by quantifying trade-offs in multiple services across proposed development interventions and future scenarios (economic, climate, demographic). Here, we illustrate the role an ecosystem service approach can play in investment decision making to evaluate the impact of small reservoirs on human wellbeing in the Upper Volta Basin of West Africa. Our project has four components: (1) design of a spatially explicit regional-level social-ecological characterization; (2) construction of future scenario analyses for rainfed and irrigated production system interventions; (3) co-design and co-development of benefit sharing mechanisms at the reservoir catchment level and enhancing institutional capacity to implement these mechanisms through training, professional development and targeting tools; and (4) intervention decision analysis to identify benefits, costs and risks associated with decision options. We illustrate how this approach highlights different outcomes than standard cost-benefit analysis focused narrowly on the single project. Anticipated outcomes are development of ecosystem services-based methods for more equitably and sustainably evaluating development interventions and identifying management approaches to water-impoundment structures that promote a range of ecosystem services to provide food security to a broader

  12. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  13. The European Phenology Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Groot, de R.S.; Bellens, Y.; Braun, P.; Bruegger, R.; Bruns, E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Estreguil, C.; Flechsig, M.; Jeanneret, F.; Maggi, M.; Martens, P.; Menne, B.; Menzel, A.; Sparks, T.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of changes in the timing of life cycle-events of organisms (phenology) has been able to contribute significantly to the assessment of potential impacts of climate change on ecology. These phenological responses of species to changes in climate are likely to have significant relevance

  14. Toward a U.S. National Phenological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, Geoffrey M.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2010-01-01

    Third USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) and Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 5-9 October 2009; Directional climate change will have profound and lasting effects throughout society that are best understood through fundamental physical and biological processes. One such process is phenology: how the timing of recurring biological events is affected by biotic and abiotic forces. Phenology is an early and integrative indicator of climate change readily understood by nonspecialists. Phenology affects the planting, maturation, and harvesting of food and fiber; pollination; timing and magnitude of allergies and disease; recreation and tourism; water quantity and quality; and ecosystem function and resilience. Thus, phenology is the gateway to climatic effects on both managed and unmanaged ecosystems. Adaptation to climatic variability and change will require integration of phenological data and models with climatic forecasts at seasonal to decadal time scales. Changes in phenologies have already manifested myriad effects of directional climate change. As these changes continue, it is critical to establish a comprehensive suite of benchmarks that can be tracked and mapped at local to continental scales with observations and climate models.

  15. Improving carbon model phenology using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exrayat, Jean-François; Smallman, T. Luke; Bloom, A. Anthony; Williams, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    Carbon cycle dynamics is significantly impacted by ecosystem phenology, leading to substantial seasonal and inter-annual variation in the global carbon balance. Representing inter-annual variability is key for predicting the response of the terrestrial ecosystem to climate change and disturbance. Existing terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs) often struggle to accurately simulate observed inter-annual variability. TEMs often use different phenological models based on plant functional type (PFT) assumptions. Moreover, due to a high level of computational overhead in TEMs they are unable to take advantage of globally available datasets to calibrate their models. Here we describe the novel CARbon DAta MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM) for data assimilation. CARDAMOM is used to calibrate the Data Assimilation Linked Ecosystem Carbon version 2 (DALEC2) model using Bayes' Theorem within a Metropolis Hastings - Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MH-MCMC). CARDAMOM provides a framework which combines knowledge from observations, such as remotely sensed LAI, and heuristic information in the form of Ecological and Dynamical Constraints (EDCs). The EDCs are representative of real world processes and constrain parameter interdependencies and constrain carbon dynamics. We used CARDAMOM to bring together globally spanning datasets of LAI and the DALEC2 and DALEC2-GSI models. These analyses allow us to investigate the sensitivity ecosystem processes to the representation of phenology. DALEC2 uses an analytically solved model of phenology which is invariant between years. In contrast DALEC2-GSI uses a growing season index (GSI) calculated as a function of temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and photoperiod to calculate bud-burst and leaf senescence, allowing the model to simulate inter-annual variability in response to climate. Neither model makes any PFT assumptions about the phenological controls of a given ecosystem, allowing the data alone to determine the impact of the meteorological

  16. Relationships between Wood Formation and Cambium Phenology on the Tibetan Plateau during 1960–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhui He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The variability of tree stem phenology plays a critical role in determining the productivity of forest ecosystems. Therefore, we aim to identify the relationships between the timings of cambium phenology, and forest growth in terms of tree-ring width over a long-term scale. A meta-analysis was performed that combined the timings of xylem formation, which were calculated by a tree-ring formation model of the VS (Vaganov-Shashkin-oscilloscope during the period 1960–2014, and a tree-ring width series at 20 composite sites on the Tibetan Plateau. Both the start and length of the growing season significantly affected the formation of wood at 70% of the 20 composite sites within the study region. A wider tree ring probably resulted from an earlier start and a longer duration of the growing season. The influence of ending dates on tree-ring width was less evident, and more site-dependent. Weak relationships were identified between the start and end of the growing season at 85% of the composite sites. Compared to the monitoring results, which could only detect the relationships between cambium phenology and xylem cell production from a limited number of trees and years, our long-term relationships deepened such connections, and therefore should be used to improve mechanism models for the accurate evaluating and predicting of wood production and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems under current and future climate change.

  17. Combining satellite derived phenology with climate data for climate change impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivits, E.; Cherlet, M.; Tóth, G.; Sommer, S.; Mehl, W.; Vogt, J.; Micale, F.

    2012-05-01

    The projected influence of climate change on the timing and volume of phytomass production is expected to affect a number of ecosystem services. In order to develop coherent and locally effective adaptation and mitigation strategies, spatially explicit information on the observed changes is needed. Long-term variations of the vegetative growing season in different environmental zones of Europe for 1982-2006 have been derived by analysing time series of GIMMS NDVI data. The associations of phenologically homogenous spatial clusters to time series of temperature and precipitation data were evaluated. North-east Europe showed a trend to an earlier and longer growing season, particularly in the northern Baltic areas. Despite the earlier greening up large areas of Europe exhibited rather stable season length indicating the shift of the entire growing season to an earlier period. The northern Mediterranean displayed a growing season shift towards later dates while some agglomerations of earlier and shorter growing season were also seen. The correlation of phenological time series with climate data shows a cause-and-effect relationship over the semi natural areas consistent with results in literature. Managed ecosystems however appear to have heterogeneous change pattern with less or no correlation to climatic trends. Over these areas climatic trends seemed to overlap in a complex manner with more pronounced effects of local biophysical conditions and/or land management practices. Our results underline the importance of satellite derived phenological observations to explain local nonconformities to climatic trends for climate change impact assessment.

  18. Phenology-based Spartina alterniflora mapping in coastal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary using time series of GaoFen satellite no. 1 wide field of view imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jinquan; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Spartina alterniflora is an aggressive invasive plant species that replaces native species, changes the structure and function of the ecosystem across coastal wetlands in China, and is thus a major conservation concern. Mapping the spread of its invasion is a necessary first step for the implementation of effective ecological management strategies. The performance of a phenology-based approach for S. alterniflora mapping is explored in the coastal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary using a time series of GaoFen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) imagery. First, a time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was constructed to evaluate the phenology of S. alterniflora. Two phenological stages (the senescence stage from November to mid-December and the green-up stage from late April to May) were determined as important for S. alterniflora detection in the study area based on NDVI temporal profiles, spectral reflectance curves of S. alterniflora and its coexistent species, and field surveys. Three phenology feature sets representing three major phenology-based detection strategies were then compared to map S. alterniflora: (1) the single-date imagery acquired within the optimal phenological window, (2) the multitemporal imagery, including four images from the two important phenological windows, and (3) the monthly NDVI time series imagery. Support vector machines and maximum likelihood classifiers were applied on each phenology feature set at different training sample sizes. For all phenology feature sets, the overall results were produced consistently with high mapping accuracies under sufficient training samples sizes, although significantly improved classification accuracies (10%) were obtained when the monthly NDVI time series imagery was employed. The optimal single-date imagery had the lowest accuracies of all detection strategies. The multitemporal analysis demonstrated little reduction in the overall accuracy compared with the

  19. Using benefit indicators to evaluate ecosystem services resulting from restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration can reestablish ecosystem services that provide valuable social and environmental benefits. Final ecosystem goods and services (FEGS) are the goods and services that directly benefit people. Explicitly identifying the people who benefit and characterizing w...

  20. Evaluating stocking efficacy in an ecosystem undergoing oligotrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Oligotrophication has negatively affected fisheries production in many freshwater ecosystems and could conceivably reduce the efficacy of stockings used to enhance fisheries. In Lake Michigan, offshore oligotrophication has occurred since the 1970s, owing to reductions in total phosphorus (TP) inputs and nearshore sequestration of TP by nonindigenous dreissenid mussels. We evaluated simultaneous effects of stock enhancement and oligotrophication on salmonine species (Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, and steelhead O. mykiss) that support valuable recreational fisheries. We employed a novel application of an Ecopath with Ecosim model by conducting a full factorial simulation experiment. Our design included multiple levels of salmonine stocking, consumption by invasive quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis), and TP that were informed by manager interests. Under all levels of TP and quagga mussel consumption, our results showed that stock enhancement could still increase salmonine biomass, but positive responses were stronger for lake trout and steelhead than Chinook salmon. Simulations showed that quagga mussel consumption has deleterious effects on pelagic-oriented prey fishes and Chinook salmon, which feed almost exclusively on the pelagic-oriented alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). In summary, results from our simulation experiment suggested that lake trout and steelhead are better suited to the current ecosystem than Chinook salmon, and therefore, stock enhancement provides the highest gains for these two species. Furthermore, simulated biomass of all recreational salmonine species increased with increasing TP, indicating the need for managers to consider how potential future oligotrophication will limit the carrying capacity of salmonine biomass in Lake Michigan

  1. Influence of spring phenology on seasonal and annual carbon balance in two contrasting New England forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; D. Bryan Dail; John T. Lee; J. William Munger; John O' Keefe

    2009-01-01

    Spring phenology is thought to exert a major influence on the carbon (C) balance of temperate and boreal ecosystems. We investigated this hypothesis using four spring onset phenological indicators in conjunction with surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange data from the conifer-dominated Howland Forest and deciduous-dominated Harvard Forest AmeriFlux...

  2. Evaluating ecosystem services provided by non-native species: an experimental test in California grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M; Harpole, W Stanley; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services--the benefits that nature provides to human's society--has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem.

  3. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J.

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen

  4. A Evaluation of Effects on a Ecosystem and Countermeasures in accordance with Climate Change I- Forest Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha; Jeon, Seong Woo; Choi, Jae Yong; Jeong Hwi Chol; Kim, Jeong Won [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Climate change requests a lot of changes in the existing life style and economic developing system, which form the foundation of modern culture and economic/social development. Especially, in Korea, whose economic basis is mainly dependent on fossil energy, it is expected that the change of policies on climate change have a bigger effect on many-sided fields including ecosystem than other nations. Therefore, even though all of the Government, academic organizations, and private organizations have made efforts to estimate effects of climate change and to prepare countermeasures, the focus has been on forecast and evaluation of the mutual effect between industrial/economic activities and climate change. Forecast of ecosystem change and preservation of ecosystem according to climate change is another political field to promote. However, such a field has not been promoted systematically in Korea. The Institute recognizing such a current state, as part of the policy on ecosystem preservation according to climate change, forecasted the effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the economic effects according to the effect of forest ecosystem, and started this study to prepare the countermeasures of the Government-level. This study collected and analyzed international trend and necessary data to develop the model, which would be executed in future, and then suggested the selection and development of the model fitted to Korea. There could be differences between Institute's view and the Government/other institutes. However, such differences are caused by the different methods in capturing the effects of various ecosystems. Such various approaching methods will be of great help to estimate the correct effects and to establish the Government's policies as base data. I hope that this study cannot only be applied to analyze the effects of forest ecosystem according to climate change but contribute to enlarging the understanding of various problems according to climate

  5. Mapping Ecosystem Services: An Integrated Biophysical and Economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hayha, T.

    2014-01-01

    Forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services, from timber and non-wood products (provisioning services) to carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection (regulating services), and recreation and aesthetic experiences (cultural services). Nonmarketed forest ecosystem services tend to be undervalued due to the lack of a market price and a clear understanding of their vital support to socio-economic systems. Ecosystem services are interlinked, and therefore the optimization of one typol...

  6. On Variability in Satellite Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements: Relationships with Phenology and Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange, Vegetation Structure, Clouds, and Sun-Satellite Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E.; Koehler, P.; Jung, M.; Tucker, C. J.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Frankenberg, C.; Berry, J. A.; Koster, R. D.; Reichle, R. H.; Lee, J. E.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Walker, G. K.; Van der Tol, C.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past several years, there have been several breakthroughs in our ability to detect the very small fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll in vegetation globally from space. There are now multiple instruments in space capable of measuring this signal at varying temporal and spatial resolutions. We will review the state-of-the-art with respect to these relatively new satellite measurements and ongoing studies that examine the relationships with photosynthesis. Now that we have a data record spanning more than seven years, we can examine variations due to seasonal carbon uptake, interannual variability, land-use changes, and water and temperature stress. In addition, we examine how clouds and satellite viewing geometry impact the signal. We compare and contrast these variations with those from popular vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), related to the potential photosynthesis as well as with measurements from flux tower gas exchange measurements and other model-based estimates of Global Primary Productivity (GPP). Vegetation fluorescence can be simulated in global vegetation models as well as with 1D canopy radiative transport models. We will describe how the satellite fluorescence data are being used to evaluate and potentially improve these models.

  7. Recent history of large-scale ecosystem disturbances in North America derived from the AVHRR satellite record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Potter; Tan Pang-Ning; Vipin Kumar; Chris Kucharik; Steven Klooster; Vanessa Genovese; Warren Cohen; Sean. Healey

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by disturbance events, many of which in North America are associated with seasonal temperature extremes, wildfires, and tropical storms. This study was conducted to evaluate patterns in a 19-year record of global satellite observations of vegetation phenology from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR...

  8. Perspectivs and challenges of phenology research on South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Morellato, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    Detecting plant responses to environmental changes across the Southern Hemisphere is an important question in the global agenda, as there is still a shortage of studies addressing phenological trends related to global warming. Here I bring a fresh perspective on the current knowledge of South America's phenology, and discusss the challenges and future research agendas for one of the most diverse regions of the world. I will syntethize: (i) What is the current focus of contemporany phenological research in South America? (ii) Is phenology contributing to the detection of trends and shifts related to climate or antropogenic changes? (iii) How has phenology been integrated to conservation, restoration, and management of natural vegetation and endangered species? (iv) What would be the main challenges and new avenues for South American phenological research in the 21st century? (v) Can we move towards phenology monitoring networks, linked to citizen science and education? My perspective is based on recent reviews addressing the Southeastern Hemisphere, South America, and Neotropical phenology; and on reviews and essays on the contribution of phenological research to biodiversity conservation, management, and ecological restoration, emphasizing tropical, species-rich ecosystems. Phenological research has grown at an unprecedented rate in the last 20 years, surpassing 100 articles per year after 2010. There is still a predominance of short-term studies (2-3 years) describing patterns and drivers for reproduction and leaf exchange. Only 10 long-term studies were found, based on direct observations or plant traps, and this number did not add much to the previous surveys. Therefore, we remain in need of more long-term studies to enhance the contribution of phenology to climate change research in South America. It is also mandatory to bring conservation issues to phenology research. The effects of climatic and antropogenic changes on plant phenology have been addressed

  9. [Ecosystem services evaluation based on geographic information system and remote sensing technology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Huang; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystem services evaluation is a hot topic in current ecosystem management, and has a close link with human beings welfare. This paper summarized the research progress on the evaluation of ecosystem services based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology, which could be reduced to the following three characters, i. e., ecological economics theory is widely applied as a key method in quantifying ecosystem services, GIS and RS technology play a key role in multi-source data acquisition, spatiotemporal analysis, and integrated platform, and ecosystem mechanism model becomes a powerful tool for understanding the relationships between natural phenomena and human activities. Aiming at the present research status and its inadequacies, this paper put forward an "Assembly Line" framework, which was a distributed one with scalable characteristics, and discussed the future development trend of the integration research on ecosystem services evaluation based on GIS and RS technologies.

  10. The need for simultaneous evaluation of ecosystem services and land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Liu, Shu-Guang; Feng, Min; Mushet, David M.; Auch, Roger F.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    We are living in a period of massive global change. This rate of change may be almost without precedent in geologic history (1). Even the most remote areas of the planet are influenced by human activities. Modern landscapes have been highly modified to accommodate a growing human population that the United Nations has forecast to peak at 9.1 billion by 2050. Over this past century, reliance on services from ecosystems has increased significantly and, over past decades, sustainability of our modern, intensively managed ecosystems has been a topic of serious international concern (1). Numerous papers addressing a particular land-use change effect on specific ecosystem services have recently been published. For example, there is currently great interest in increasing biofuel production to achieve energy inde- pendence goals and recent papers have independently focused attention on impacts of land-use change on single ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration (2) and many others (e.g., water availability, biodiversity, pollination). However, land-use change clearly affects myriad ecosystem services simultaneously. Hence, a broader perspective and context is needed to evaluate and understand interrelated affects on multiple ecosystem services, especially as we strive for the goal of sustainably managing global ecosystems. Similarly, land uses affect ecosystem services synergistically; single land-use evaluations may be misleading because the overall impact on an ecosystem is not evaluated. A more holistic approach would provide a means and framework to characterize how land-use change affects provisioning of goods and services of complete ecosystems.

  11. Phenological sensitivity to climate across taxa and trophic levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thackeray, Stephen J.; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Differences in phenological responses to climate change among species can desynchronise ecological interactions and thereby threaten ecosystem function. To assess these threats, we must quantify the relative impact of climate change on species at different trophic levels. Here, we apply a Climate...

  12. [Evaluation of ecosystem service and emergy of Wanshan Waters in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan-xin; Chen, Pi-mao; Zhang, An-kai; Yuan, Hua; Li, Guo-ying; Shu, Li-ming; Zhou, Yan-bo; Li, Xiao-guo

    2015-06-01

    The method for monetary value and emergy value analysis of ecosystem service was used in this paper to analyze the change in value of marine ecosystem service of Wanshan District, Zhuhai from 2007 to 2012. The result showed that the monetary value and emergy value of marine ecosystem service of Wanshan District, Zhuhai rose to 11512840000 yuan and 1.97 x 10(22) sej from 7721630000 yuan and 1.04 x 10(22) sej, respectively. Both monetary value and emergy value could forecast the change in the value of marine ecosystem service, but they reflected different value structures and ecological energy, which could be used to more objectively evaluate the ecosystem service. Ecological civilization development, as an inherent driving force to impel the development of marine ecosystem service structure, was important for rational exploitation of marine resources and optimization of marine ecosystem service.

  13. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  14. Predicting phenology by integrating ecology, evolution and climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Kraft, Nathan J.B.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Betancourt, Julio L.; Cleland, Elsa E.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting how species and ecosystems will respond to climate change has been a major aim of ecology in recent years. Much of this research has focused on phenology — the timing of life-history events. Phenology has well-demonstrated links to climate, from genetic to landscape scales; yet our ability to explain and predict variation in phenology across species, habitats and time remains poor. Here, we outline how merging approaches from ecology, climate science and evolutionary biology can advance research on phenological responses to climate variability. Using insight into seasonal and interannual climate variability combined with niche theory and community phylogenetics, we develop a predictive approach for species' reponses to changing climate. Our approach predicts that species occupying higher latitudes or the early growing season should be most sensitive to climate and have the most phylogenetically conserved phenologies. We further predict that temperate species will respond to climate change by shifting in time, while tropical species will respond by shifting space, or by evolving. Although we focus here on plant phenology, our approach is broadly applicable to ecological research of plant responses to climate variability.

  15. Atmospheric circulation patterns and phenological anomalies of grapevine in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, Gabriele; Alilla, Roberta; Dal Monte, Giovanni; Epifani, Chiara; Mariani, Luigi; Parisi, Simone Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a fundamental crop for Italian agriculture as testified by the first place of Italy in the world producers ranking. This justify the importance of quantitative analyses referred to this crucial crop and aimed to quantify meteorological resources and limitations to development and production. Phenological rhythms of grapevine are strongly affected by surface fields of air temperature which in their turn are affected by synoptic circulation. This evidence highlights the importance of an approach based on dynamic climatology in order to detect and explain phenological anomalies that can have relevant effects on quantity and quality of grapevine production. In this context, this research is aimed to study the existing relation among the 850 hPa circulation patterns over the Euro-Mediterranean area from NOAA Ncep dataset and grapevine phenological fields for Italy over the period 2006-2013, highlighting the main phenological anomalies and analyzing synoptic determinants. This work is based on phenological fields with a standard pixel of 2 km routinely produced from 2006 by the Iphen project (Italian Phenological network) on the base of phenological observations spatialized by means of a specific algorithm based on cumulated thermal resources expressed as Normal Heat Hours (NHH). Anomalies have been evaluated with reference to phenological normal fields defined for the Italian area on the base of phenological observations and Iphen model. Results show that relevant phenological anomalies observed over the reference period are primarily associated with long lasting blocking systems driving cold air masses (Arctic or Polar-Continental) or hot ones (Sub-Tropical) towards the Italian area. Specific cases are presented for some years like 2007 and 2011.

  16. Evaluating post-disaster ecosystem resilience using MODIS GPP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Amy E.; Renschler, Chris S.; Miles, Scott B.

    2013-04-01

    An integrated community resilience index (CRI) quantifies the status, exposure, and recovery of the physical, economic, and socio-cultural capital for a specific target community. However, most CRIs do not account for the recovery of ecosystem functioning after extreme events, even though many aspects of a community depend on the services provided by the natural environment. The primary goal of this study was to monitor the recovery of ecosystem functionality (ecological capital) using remote sensing-derived gross primary production (GPP) as an indicator of 'ecosystem-wellness' and assess the effect of resilience of ecological capital on the recovery of a community via an integrated CRI. We developed a measure of ecosystem resilience using remotely sensed GPP data and applied the modeling prototype ResilUS in a pilot study for a four-parish coastal community in southwestern Louisiana, USA that was impacted by Hurricane Rita in 2005. The results illustrate that after such an extreme event, the recovery of ecological capital varies according to land use type and may take many months to return to full functionality. This variable recovery can potentially impact the recovery of certain businesses that rely heavily on ecosystem services such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and tourism.

  17. The Phenological Network of Catalonia: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    ). Fenocat technicians are also involved in data rescue initiatives that allow the study of historical phenological series. The La Serra d'Almos (near Tarragona) phenological series is an example that shows the life cycle trends for plants and birds observed since 1971. The Phenological Network of Catalonia has marked a turning point in the recording of the rhythms of nature in Catalonia and works to preserve sensitive information for the study of climate change in the fragile Mediterranean ecosystem.

  18. Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan L. Schilling

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. "Passive" monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially...

  19. Evaluation of the Mineral Status of Two Ecosystems for Sustainable Goat Rearing in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vilallonga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral status in two ecosystems typical of the Iberian Peninsula was evaluated. Ecosystem I was formed by forests and ecosystem II by hilly areas. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and selenium in soils, rations and serum were measured. The concentratons of iron, copper, zinc and selenium were also checked in liver. Ecosystem I showed higher values of every mineral, except for phosphorus. Seasonal differences were recorded for rations and serum, with higher values in spring. The rations produced by both ecosystems met the mineral requirements of goats in lactation. Thus, both ecosystems are suitable for the development of an ecological goat farming system. However, extra supply of minerals, particularly calcium, may be needed in the maximum productions periods.

  20. Incorporating genetic variation into a model of budburst phenology of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; Bradley J. St Clair

    2011-01-01

    Models to predict budburst and other phenological events in plants are needed to forecast how climate change may impact ecosystems and for the development of mitigation strategies. Differences among genotypes are important to predicting phenological events in species that show strong clinal variation in adaptive traits. We present a model that incorporates the effects...

  1. Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and

  2. Toxicological evaluation of parathion and azinphosmethyl in freshwater model ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the possible hazards of long-term exposure of freshwater ecosystems to low (< 1 mg m -3) concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides. Range-finding, acute and sub-acute (3 weeks) laboratory toxicity trials were

  3. Evaluating Satellite and Supercomputing Technologies for Improved Coastal Ecosystem Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew James

    Water quality and wetlands represent two vital elements of a healthy coastal ecosystem. Both experienced substantial declines in the U.S. during the 20th century. Overall coastal wetland cover decreased over 50% in the 20th century due to coastal development and water pollution. Management and legislative efforts have successfully addressed some of the problems and threats, but recent research indicates that the diffuse impacts of climate change and non-point source pollution may be the primary drivers of current and future water-quality and wetland stress. In order to respond to these pervasive threats, traditional management approaches need to adopt modern technological tools for more synoptic, frequent and fine-scale monitoring and assessment. In this dissertation, I explored some of the applications possible with new, commercial satellite imagery to better assess the status of coastal ecosystems. Large-scale land-cover change influences the quality of adjacent coastal water. Satellite imagery has been used to derive land-cover maps since the 1960's. It provides multiple data points with which to evaluate the effects of land-cover change on water quality. The objective of the first chapter of this research was to determine how 40 years of land-cover change in the Tampa Bay watershed (6,500 km2) may have affected turbidity and chlorophyll concentration - two proxies for coastal water quality. Land cover classes were evaluated along with precipitation and wind stress as explanatory variables. Results varied between analyses for the entire estuary and those of segments within the bay. Changes in developed land percent cover best explained the turbidity and chlorophyll-concentration time series for the entire bay (R2 > 0.75, p Ocean-color satellite imagery was used to derive proxies for coastal water with near-daily satellite observations since 2000. The goal of chapter two was to identify drivers of turbidity variability for 11 National Estuary Program water bodies

  4. Tracking global change at local scales: Phenology for science, outreach, conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharron, Ed; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-01

    A Workshop Exploring the Use of Phenology Studies for Public Engagement; New Orleans, Louisiana, 14 March 2011 ; During a George Wright Society Conference session that was led by the USA National Phenology Network (USANPN; http://www.usanpn.org) and the National Park Service (NPS), professionals from government organizations, nonprofits, and higher-education institutions came together to explore the possibilities of using phenology monitoring to engage the public. One of the most visible effects of global change on ecosystems is shifts in phenology: the timing of biological events such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. These shifts are already occurring and reflect biological responses to climate change at local to regional scales. Changes in phenology have important implications for species ecology and resource management and, because they are place-based and tangible, serve as an ideal platform for education, outreach, and citizen science.

  5. Divergent phenological response to hydroclimate variability in forested mountain watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taehee; Band, Lawrence E; Miniat, Chelcy F; Song, Conghe; Bolstad, Paul V; Vose, James M; Love, Jason P

    2014-08-01

    Mountain watersheds are primary sources of freshwater, carbon sequestration, and other ecosystem services. There is significant interest in the effects of climate change and variability on these processes over short to long time scales. Much of the impact of hydroclimate variability in forest ecosystems is manifested in vegetation dynamics in space and time. In steep terrain, leaf phenology responds to topoclimate in complex ways, and can produce specific and measurable shifts in landscape forest patterns. The onset of spring is usually delayed at a specific rate with increasing elevation (often called Hopkins' Law; Hopkins, 1918), reflecting the dominant controls of temperature on greenup timing. Contrary with greenup, leaf senescence shows inconsistent trends along elevation gradients. Here, we present mechanisms and an explanation for this variability and its significance for ecosystem patterns and services in response to climate. We use moderate-resolution imaging spectro-radiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to derive landscape-induced phenological patterns over topoclimate gradients in a humid temperate broadleaf forest in southern Appalachians. These phenological patterns are validated with different sets of field observations. Our data demonstrate that divergent behavior of leaf senescence with elevation is closely related to late growing season hydroclimate variability in temperature and water balance patterns. Specifically, a drier late growing season is associated with earlier leaf senescence at low elevation than at middle elevation. The effect of drought stress on vegetation senescence timing also leads to tighter coupling between growing season length and ecosystem water use estimated from observed precipitation and runoff generation. This study indicates increased late growing season drought may be leading to divergent ecosystem response between high and low elevation forests. Landscape-induced phenological patterns

  6. An Architecture Framework for Orchestrating Context-Aware IT Ecosystems: A Case Study for Quantitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of various forms of smart devices and new paradigms such as the Internet of Things (IoT concept, the IT (Information Technology service areas are expanding explosively compared to the provision of services by single systems. A new system operation concept that has emerged in accordance with such technical trends is the IT ecosystem. The IT ecosystem can be considered a special type of system of systems in which multiple systems with various degrees of autonomy achieve common goals while adapting to the given environment. The single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem adapt autonomously to the current situation based on collected data from sensors. Furthermore, to maintain the services supported by the whole IT ecosystem sustainably, the configuration of single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem also changes appropriately in accordance with the changed situation. In order to support the IT ecosystem, this paper proposes an architecture framework that supports dynamic configuration changes to achieve the goal of the whole IT ecosystem, while ensuring the autonomy of single systems through the collection of data from sensors so as to recognize the situational context of individual participating systems. For the feasibility evaluation of the proposed framework, a simulated example of an IT ecosystem for unmanned forest management was constructed, and the quantitative evaluation results are discussed in terms of the extent to which the proposed architecture framework can continuously provide sustainable services in response to diverse environmental context changes.

  7. Phenology of seed and leaves rain in response to periodic climatic variability in a seasonal wet tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, D.; Wright, S. J.; Davies, S. J.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Wolfe, B.; Detto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Phenology, by controlling the rhythms of plants, plays a fundamental role in regulating access to resources, ecosystem processes, competition among species, interactions with consumers and feedbacks to the climate. In high biodiverse tropical forests, where phenology of flowering and leafing are complex, an adequate representation of phenology must take into account a given set of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors. Climatic factors are particularly important because plants may use them as cues for timing different phenological phases and be influenced by their intensity. Climatic variability can be periodic, if events occur with regular frequency, or aperiodic. One prominent periodic large-scale pattern that causes unusual weather is ENSO event. In general, Central America tends to be dry and warm during a mature phase of an ENSO event, which usually peaks between October and January with a frequency of 2-3 events per decade. Because in many tropical areas the effect of ENSO is highly prominent, it is plausible that plants have adapted their growth and reproduction mechanisms to synchronize ENSO phases, in a similar way that plants do during the seasonal cycle. We used a long dataset (30+ years) of fruits and leaves rains of tropical trees and lianas to determine ecosystem response and species specific response of these phenological events to local climate variability corresponding to the modes of ENSO. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that phenological responses to ENSO are similar to response to seasonal cycles, i.e., higher litterfall before a warm-dry phase and higher fruiting after such phase, with strong correlation between seeds and leaves. At sub-community level, we evaluated whether evergreen and deciduous, biotic and abiotic dispersers and free and climbing life forms, have the same response to ENSO in terms of leaves and seeds rain. At species level we tested the hypothesis that species with low photosynthetic capacity leaves are more responsive

  8. Seasonal & Daily Amazon Column CO2 & CO Observations from Ground & Space Used to Evaluate Tropical Ecosystem Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Parker, H. A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Jacobson, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Basu, S.; O'Dell, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Baker, D. F.; Christofferson, B.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; De Araujo, A. C.; Miller, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon basin stores 150-200 PgC, exchanges 18 PgC with the atmosphere every year and has taken up 0.42-0.65 PgC/y over the past two decades. Despite its global significance, the response of the tropical carbon cycle to climate variability and change is ill constrained as evidenced by the large negative and positive feedbacks in future climate simulations. The complex interplay of radiation, water and ecosystem phenology remains unresolved in current tropical ecosystem models. We use high frequency regional scale TCCON observations of column CO2, CO and CH4 near Manaus, Brazil that began in October 2014 to understand the aforementioned interplay of processes in regulating biosphere-atmosphere exchange. We observe a robust daily column CO2 uptake of about 2 ppm (4 ppm to 0.5 ppm) over 8 hours and evaluate how it changes as we transition to the dry season. Back-trajectory calculations show that the daily CO2 uptake footprint is terrestrial and influenced by the heterogeneity of the Amazon rain forests. The column CO falls from above 120 ppb to below 80 ppb as we transition from the biomass burning to wet seasons. The daily mean column CO2 rises by 3 ppm from October through June. Removal of biomass burning, secular CO2 increase and variations from transport (by Carbon tracker simulations) implies an increase of 2.3 ppm results from tropical biospheric processes (respiration and photosynthesis). This is consistent with ground-based remote sensing and eddy flux observations that indicate that leaf development and demography drives the tropical carbon cycle in regions that are not water limited and is not considered in current models. We compare our observations with output from 7 CO2 inversion transport models with assimilated meteorology and find that while 5 models reproduce the CO2 seasonal cycle all of them under predict the daily drawdown of CO2 by a factor of 3. This indicates that the CO2 flux partitioning between photosynthesis and respiration is incorrect

  9. Phenology Atlas of Czechia in preparation - aim & content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The main task is to create Phenology Atlas of Czechia for the period 1991 - 2010 by using geographic information systems. The general outputs will be maps (average phenophase onset at different altitudes), graphs (evaluation of phenophase onset in time) and tables (statistical results) with text, picture and botanical specification. The publication will be divided into 6 main chapters (Introduction, Phenology in Czechia & Europe, Methodology of observation, Field crops & Fruit trees & Wild plants, Phenology regionalisation, Temporal and Spatial variability). The essantial emphasis will be enforced on wild plants especially allergology important plants and phenophases. CHMI phenological and meteorological data will be used as an input data. This publication will be allocated for general public, supposed size B4, 270 - 300 pages. The research project is proposed for 3 years (2009 - 2011). In the presentation will be given several examples of Atlas content (Norway Spruce and Birch phenophases from Transaction of CHMI Nr.50, 2007).

  10. Comparison of phenology models for predicting the onset of growing season over the Northern Hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fu

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology models are important for examining the impact of climate change on the length of the growing season and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, large uncertainties in present phenology models make accurate assessment of the beginning of the growing season (BGS a challenge. In this study, based on the satellite-based phenology product (i.e. the V005 MODIS Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2 product, we calibrated four phenology models, compared their relative strength to predict vegetation phenology; and assessed the spatial pattern and interannual variability of BGS in the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that parameter calibration significantly influences the models' accuracy. All models showed good performance in cool regions but poor performance in warm regions. On average, they explained about 67% (the Growing Degree Day model, 79% (the Biome-BGC phenology model, 73% (the Number of Growing Days model and 68% (the Number of Chilling Days-Growing Degree Day model of the BGS variations over the Northern Hemisphere. There were substantial differences in BGS simulations among the four phenology models. Overall, the Biome-BGC phenology model performed best in predicting the BGS, and showed low biases in most boreal and cool regions. Compared with the other three models, the two-phase phenology model (NCD-GDD showed the lowest correlation and largest biases with the MODIS phenology product, although it could catch the interannual variations well for some vegetation types. Our study highlights the need for further improvements by integrating the effects of water availability, especially for plants growing in low latitudes, and the physiological adaptation of plants into phenology models.

  11. Comparison of phenology models for predicting the onset of growing season over the Northern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Zhang, Haicheng; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation phenology models are important for examining the impact of climate change on the length of the growing season and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, large uncertainties in present phenology models make accurate assessment of the beginning of the growing season (BGS) a challenge. In this study, based on the satellite-based phenology product (i.e. the V005 MODIS Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2) product), we calibrated four phenology models, compared their relative strength to predict vegetation phenology; and assessed the spatial pattern and interannual variability of BGS in the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that parameter calibration significantly influences the models' accuracy. All models showed good performance in cool regions but poor performance in warm regions. On average, they explained about 67% (the Growing Degree Day model), 79% (the Biome-BGC phenology model), 73% (the Number of Growing Days model) and 68% (the Number of Chilling Days-Growing Degree Day model) of the BGS variations over the Northern Hemisphere. There were substantial differences in BGS simulations among the four phenology models. Overall, the Biome-BGC phenology model performed best in predicting the BGS, and showed low biases in most boreal and cool regions. Compared with the other three models, the two-phase phenology model (NCD-GDD) showed the lowest correlation and largest biases with the MODIS phenology product, although it could catch the interannual variations well for some vegetation types. Our study highlights the need for further improvements by integrating the effects of water availability, especially for plants growing in low latitudes, and the physiological adaptation of plants into phenology models.

  12. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was invest...

  13. Phenological changes of the most commonly sampled ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the UK environmental change network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozsgai, Gabor; Baird, John; Littlewood, Nick A.; Pakeman, Robin J.; Young, Mark R.

    2018-03-01

    Despite the important roles ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) play in ecosystems, the highly valued ecosystem services they provide, and ample descriptive documentation of their phenology, the relative impact of various environmental factors on carabid phenology is not well studied. Using the long-term pitfall trap capture data from 12 terrestrial Environmental Change Network (ECN) sites from the UK, we examined how changing climate influenced the phenology of common carabids, and the role particular climate components had on phenological parameters. Of the 28 species included in the analyses, 19 showed earlier start of their activity. This advance was particularly pronounced in the spring, supporting the view that early phenophases have a greater tendency to change and these changes are more directly controlled by temperature than later ones. Autumn activity extended only a few cases, suggesting a photoperiod-driven start of hibernation. No association was found between life-history traits and the ability of species to change their phenology. Air temperatures between April and June were the most important factors determining the start of activity of each species, whilst late season precipitation hastened the cessation of activity. The balance between the advantages and disadvantages of changing phenology on various levels is likely to depend on the species and even on local environmental criteria. The substantially changing phenology of Carabidae may influence their function in ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide.

  14. Phenology MMS: a program to simulate crop phenological responses to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop phenology is fundamental for understanding crop growth and development, and increasingly influences many agricultural management practices. Water deficits are one environmental factor that can influence crop phenology through shortening or lengthening the developmental phase, yet the phenologic...

  15. Simulating crop phenological responses to water stress using the phenology mms software component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop phenology is fundamental for understanding crop growth and development, and increasingly influences many agricultural management practices. Water deficits are one environmental factor that can influence crop phenology through shortening or lengthening the developmental phase, yet the phenologic...

  16. Tools and methods for evaluating and refining alternative futures for coastal ecosystem management—the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Labiosa, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model (PSEPM) is a decision-support tool that uses scenarios to evaluate where, when, and to what extent future population growth, urban growth, and shoreline development may threaten the Puget Sound nearshore environment. This tool was designed to be used iteratively in a workshop setting in which experts, stakeholders, and decisionmakers discuss consequences to the Puget Sound nearshore within an alternative-futures framework. The PSEPM presents three possible futures of the nearshore by analyzing three growth scenarios developed out to 2060: Status Quo—continuation of current trends; Managed Growth—adoption of an aggressive set of land-use management policies; and Unconstrained Growth—relaxation of land-use restrictions. The PSEPM focuses on nearshore environments associated with barrier and bluff-backed beaches—the most dominant shoreforms in Puget Sound—which represent 50 percent of Puget Sound shorelines by length. This report provides detailed methodologies for development of three submodels within the PSEPM—the Shellfish Pollution Model, the Beach Armoring Index, and the Recreation Visits Model. Results from the PSEPM identify where and when future changes to nearshore ecosystems and ecosystem services will likely occur within the three growth scenarios. Model outputs include maps that highlight shoreline sections where nearshore resources may be at greater risk from upland land-use changes. The background discussed in this report serves to document and supplement model results displayed on the PSEPM Web site located at http://geography.wr.usgs.gov/pugetSound/.

  17. Strong evidence for changing fish reproductive phenology under climate warming on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Juan; He, Dekui; Kennard, Mark J; Ding, Chengzhi; Bunn, Stuart E; Liu, Chunlong; Jia, Yintao; Che, Rongxiao; Chen, Yifeng

    2018-05-01

    Phenological responses to climate change have been widely observed and have profound and lasting effects on ecosystems and biodiversity. However, compared to terrestrial ecosystems, the long-term effects of climate change on species' phenology are poorly understood in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the long-term changes in fish reproductive phenology is essential for predicting population dynamics and for informing management strategies, but is currently hampered by the requirement for intensive field observations and larval identification. In this study, a very low-frequency sampling of juveniles and adults combined with otolith measurements (long axis length of the first annulus; LAFA) of an endemic Tibetan Plateau fish (Gymnocypris selincuoensis) was used to examine changes in reproductive phenology associated with climate changes from the 1970s to 2000s. Assigning individual fish to their appropriate calendar year class was assisted by dendrochronological methods (crossdating). The results demonstrated that LAFA was significantly and positively associated with temperature and growing season length. To separate the effects of temperature and the growing season length on LAFA growth, measurements of larval otoliths from different sites were conducted and revealed that daily increment additions were the main contributor (46.3%), while temperature contributed less (12.0%). Using constructed water-air temperature relationships and historical air temperature records, we found that the reproductive phenology of G. selincuoensis was strongly advanced in the spring during the 1970s and 1990s, while the increased growing season length in the 2000s was mainly due to a delayed onset of winter. The reproductive phenology of G. selincuoensis advanced 2.9 days per decade on average from the 1970s to 2000s, and may have effects on recruitment success and population dynamics of this species and other biota in the ecosystem via the food web. The methods used in this study

  18. Towards an integration of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and food web theory to evaluate relationships between multiple ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hines, Jes; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.; Wagg, Cameron; Voigt, Winfried; Mulder, Christian; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Engel, Jan; Melian, Carlos; Scheu, Stefan; Birkhofer, Klaus; Ebeling, Anne; Scherber, Christoph; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem responses to changes in species diversity are often studied individually. However, changes in species diversity can simultaneously influence multiple interdependent ecosystem functions. Therefore, an important challenge is to determine when and how changes in species diversity that

  19. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts

  20. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  1. Evaluation of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in TEMAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver, F.; Vazquez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability study of the best countermeasures for the restoration of environments contaminated by the accidental liberation of radionuclides, requires the assessment of the space and the temporal flow of radionuclides. The objective of the multinational project TEMAS (Techniques and Management Strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences), that is carried out under EU-CIEMAT contract n. TI4-CT95-0021, is the development of management tool that provides the necessary support in the selection of the best strategies of environmental restoration after a nuclear accident, considering all the possible affected environments (urban, agricultural, semi natural and forest). In the forest environment,CIEMAT is working with the University of Lund (Sweden) and the Physical Science Faculty of the University of Seville in the prognosis of the distribution of Cesium and Strontium in forest ecosystems and through the associated production systems. This paper summarizes the study of the response of two different models, FORM and FORESTPATH to predict the radionuclides flow in the event of an accidental contamination of a forest. The comparison of results has been carried out over a period of 100 years after deposition on a coniferous forest. Although the approaches are different, the results obtained (using generic parameters) indicate that either model could to be selected for the analysis of the intervention in TEMAS. (Author) 14 refs

  2. [Differences of vegetation phenology monitoring by remote sensing based on different spectral vegetation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lu; Wang, Huan Jiong; Liu, Rong Gao; Liu, Yang; Shang, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Vegetation phenology is a comprehensive indictor for the responses of terrestrial ecosystem to climatic and environmental changes. Remote sensing spectrum has been widely used in the extraction of vegetation phenology information. However, there are many differences between phenology extracted by remote sensing and site observations, with their physical meaning remaining unclear. We selected one tile of MODIS data in northeastern China (2000-2014) to examine the SOS and EOS differences derived from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ratio vegetation index (SR) based on both the red and near-infrared bands. The results showed that there were significant differences between NDVI-phenology and SR-phenology. SOS derived from NDVI averaged 18.9 days earlier than that from SR. EOS derived from NDVI averaged 19.0 days later than from SR. NDVI-phenology had a longer growing season. There were significant differences in the inter-annual variation of phenology from NDVI and SR. More than 20% of the pixel SOS and EOS derived from NDVI and SR showed the opposite temporal trend. These results caused by the seasonal curve characteristics and noise resistance differences of NDVI and SR. The observed data source of NDVI and SR were completely consistent, only the mathematical expressions were different, but phenology results were significantly different. Our results indicated that vegetation phenology monitoring by remote sensing is highly dependent on the mathematical expression of vegetation index. How to establish a reliable method for extracting vegetation phenology by remote sensing needs further research.

  3. First-year Progress and Future Directions of the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M. V.

    2008-12-01

    Background Periodic plant and animal cycles driven by seasonal variations in climate (i.e., phenology) set the stage for dynamics of ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The predictive potential of phenology requires a new data resource-a national network of integrated phenological observations and the tools to access and analyze them at multiple scales. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the Nation's resources. The USA-NPN will establish a wall-to-wall science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN began operation in August 2007 at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. This first year of operation produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement, as well as identification of future directions for the USA NPN. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 185 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and monitoring protocols, as well as

  4. Earth Observation Data for Mapping and Evaluation of Ecosystem Services to Improve Human Livelihoods and Conserve Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie C.; Bhagabati, Nirmal

    2010-12-01

    Mapping and evaluating ecosystem services is of increasing concern and urgency for conservation organizations such as WWF. Coupling biodiversity assessments with ecosystem services e.g., carbon sequestration, water regulation, sediment reduction, is an effective way to visualize additional financial and human benefits of conservation for decision makers. WWF is eager to apply various Earth Observation data to conservation applications for consistent mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems and the potential impacts of their loss on humans and wildlife alike. Such examples include forest carbon mapping, integrated evaluation of ecosystem services (via the InVEST tool) and bundling endangered Tiger habitat with various ecosystem services for bundled benefits.

  5. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  6. [Evaluation of ecosystem resilience in the regions across Qinghai-Tibet railway based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Zhi-qiang; Li, Shuang-cheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on GIS technique and the methods of mean-squared deviation weight decision and catastrophe progression, a more clear definition and associated evaluation for ecosystem resilience were given, with a case study in the regions across Qinghai-Tibet railway by using the indices of plant community coverage, species diversity, and biomass. It was shown that the areas with high ecosystem resilience were mainly located in the Qilian Mountain meadow grassland, Huangshui Valley needle-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved forest, and south Tanggula Mountain kobresia swamp meadow, while those with the lowest resilience were in the central part of Qaidam Basin, and the Kunlun Mountains. Most areas in the regions had higher or medium ecosystem resilience, with a trend of that in the south of Kunlun Mountains, the resilience in the north of the railway was lower, while in the east of Qaidam Basin (especially in the Qinghai Lake area), the resilience was lower in the south than in the north of the railway. Through the evaluation of ecosystem resilience, the key issues in the process of ecological resilience could be found, and corresponding effective measures would be pointed out to manage alpine ecosystems. Moreover, combining with the evaluation of vulnerability, scientific basis for regional development could be provided to avoid or mitigate the negative effects of human activities on eco-environment.

  7. Remote sensing of land surface phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.

  8. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists

  9. Growth and phenology of three dwarf shrub species in a six-year soil warming experiment at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Rixen, Christian; Cherubini, Paolo; Wipf, Sonja; Hagedorn, Frank; Dawes, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Global warming can have substantial impacts on the phenological and growth patterns of alpine and Arctic species, resulting in shifts in plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics. We evaluated the effects of a six-year experimental soil warming treatment (+4°C, 2007-2012) on the phenology and growth of three co-dominant dwarf shrub species growing in the understory of Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata at treeline in the Swiss Alps. We monitored vegetative and reproductive phenology of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum throughout the early growing season of 2012 and, following a major harvest at peak season, we measured the biomass of above-ground ramet fractions. For all six years of soil warming we measured annual shoot growth of the three species and analyzed ramet age and xylem ring width of V. myrtillus. Our results show that phenology of the three species was more influenced by snowmelt timing, and also by plot tree species (Larix or Pinus) in the case of V. myrtillus, than by soil warming. However, the warming treatment led to increased V. myrtillus total above-ground ramet biomass (+36% in 2012), especially new shoot biomass (+63% in 2012), as well as increased new shoot increment length and xylem ring width (+22% and +41%, respectively; average for 2007-2012). These results indicate enhanced overall growth of V. myrtillus under soil warming that was sustained over six years and was not caused by an extended growing period in early summer. In contrast, E. hermaphroditum only showed a positive shoot growth response to warming in 2011 (+21%), and V. gaultherioides showed no significant growth response. Our results indicate that V. myrtillus might have a competitive advantage over the less responsive co-occurring dwarf shrub species under future global warming.

  10. Growth and phenology of three dwarf shrub species in a six-year soil warming experiment at the alpine treeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Anadon-Rosell

    Full Text Available Global warming can have substantial impacts on the phenological and growth patterns of alpine and Arctic species, resulting in shifts in plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics. We evaluated the effects of a six-year experimental soil warming treatment (+4°C, 2007-2012 on the phenology and growth of three co-dominant dwarf shrub species growing in the understory of Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata at treeline in the Swiss Alps. We monitored vegetative and reproductive phenology of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum throughout the early growing season of 2012 and, following a major harvest at peak season, we measured the biomass of above-ground ramet fractions. For all six years of soil warming we measured annual shoot growth of the three species and analyzed ramet age and xylem ring width of V. myrtillus. Our results show that phenology of the three species was more influenced by snowmelt timing, and also by plot tree species (Larix or Pinus in the case of V. myrtillus, than by soil warming. However, the warming treatment led to increased V. myrtillus total above-ground ramet biomass (+36% in 2012, especially new shoot biomass (+63% in 2012, as well as increased new shoot increment length and xylem ring width (+22% and +41%, respectively; average for 2007-2012. These results indicate enhanced overall growth of V. myrtillus under soil warming that was sustained over six years and was not caused by an extended growing period in early summer. In contrast, E. hermaphroditum only showed a positive shoot growth response to warming in 2011 (+21%, and V. gaultherioides showed no significant growth response. Our results indicate that V. myrtillus might have a competitive advantage over the less responsive co-occurring dwarf shrub species under future global warming.

  11. Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    maximum growth period. In contrast, root growth was characterized by multiple production peaks. Q. rubra root growth experienced many small flushes around day of year (DOY) 156 (early June) and one large peak on 234 (late August). T. canadensis root growth peaked on DOY 188 (early July), 234.5 (late August) and 287 (mid-October). However, particular phenological patterns varied widely from site to site. Despite large spatial heterogeneity, it appears that Q. rubra experiences greater overall root production as well as more allocation to roots during the growing season. The storage pool of nonstructural carbohydrates experiences a mid-summer drawdown in Q. rubra but not T. canadensis roots. Timing of belowground C allocation to root growth and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may be regulated by climate factors as well as endogenous factors such as vessel size, growth form, or tradeoffs in C allocated between plant organs. Plant roots supply substrate to microbial communities and hence their production feeds back to other plant and soil processes that affect ecosystem C fluxes.

  12. Using FLUXNET data to improve models of springtime vegetation activity onset in forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melaas, E.; Richardson, A.; Friedl, M.; Dragoni, D.; Gough, C.; Herbst, M.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation phenology is sensitive to climate change and variability, and is a first order control on the carbon budget of forest ecosystems. Robust representation of phenology is therefore needed to support model-based projections of how climate change will affect ecosystem function. A variety of

  13. Cross-scale phenological data integration to benefit resource management and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is presenting new challenges for natural resource managers charged with maintaining sustainable ecosystems and landscapes. Phenology, a branch of science dealing with seasonal natural phenomena (bird migration or plant flowering in response to weather changes, for example), bridges the gap between the biosphere and the climate system. Phenological processes operate across scales that span orders of magnitude—from leaf to globe and from days to seasons—making phenology ideally suited to multiscale, multiplatform data integration and delivery of information at spatial and temporal scales suitable to inform resource management decisions.A workshop report: Workshop held June 2016 to investigate opportunities and challenges facing multi-scale, multi-platform integration of phenological data to support natural resource management decision-making.

  14. MODIS phenology image service ArcMap toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Colin; Kern, Tim J.; Morisette, Jeff; Brown, Don; James, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal change is important to consider when managing conservation areas at landscape scales. The study of such patterns throughout the year is referred to as phenology. Recurring life-cycle events that are initiated and driven by environmental factors include animal migration and plant flowering. Phenological events capture public attention, such as fall color change in deciduous forests, the first flowering in spring, and for those with allergies, the start of the pollen season. These events can affect our daily lives, provide clues to help understand and manage ecosystems, and provide evidence of how climate variability can affect the natural cycle of plants and animals. Phenological observations can be gathered at a range of scales, from plots smaller than an acre to landscapes of hundreds to thousands of acres. Linking these observations to diverse disciplines such as evolutionary biology or climate sciences can help further research in species and ecosystem responses to climate change scenarios at appropriate scales. A cooperative study between the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been exploring how satellite information can be used to summarize phenological patterns observed at the park or landscape scale and how those summaries can be presented to both park managers and visitors. This study specifically addressed seasonal changes in plants, including the onset of growth, photosynthesis in the spring, and the senescence of deciduous vegetation in the fall. The primary objective of the work is to demonstrate that seasonality even in protected areas changes considerably across years. A major challenge is to decouple natural variability from possible trends—directional change that can lead to a permanent and radically different ecosystem state. Trends can be either a gradual degradation of the landscape (often from external influences) or steady improvement (by

  15. Recreational Water Contact and Fish Consumption Assessment to Inform Risk Estimates and Evaluate Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Surface waters provide invaluable ecosystem services, including drinking water, food, waste water disposal, and recreation. The nature and frequency of recreational contact with surface waters is a critical consideration in evaluating benefits to human well-being (e.g...

  16. Dynamical evaluation of vaginal micro-ecosystem in a Chinese woman with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Q; Zhou, W; Yue, X A; Mu, L Y; Jiang, Y M

    2015-03-30

    We reported a rare case of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) in this study. Through dynamic evaluation of the vaginal micro-ecosystem, we found that only depuratory degree, spores, blastospores, and hyphae were specific indicators and the "barometer" of RVVC development. Therefore, an understanding of vaginal micro-ecological changes can help clinicians to improve the treatment of patients with RVVC.

  17. Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  18. How Resource Phenology Affects Consumer Population Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Sharon; Cantrell, R Stephen; Cosner, Chris; Fagan, William F

    2016-02-01

    Climate change drives uneven phenology shifts across taxa, and this can result in changes to the phenological match between interacting species. Shifts in the relative phenology of partner species are well documented, but few studies have addressed the effects of such changes on population dynamics. To explore this, we develop a phenologically explicit model describing consumer-resource interactions. Focusing on scenarios for univoltine insects, we show how changes in resource phenology can be reinterpreted as transformations in the year-to-year recursion relationships defining consumer population dynamics. This perspective provides a straightforward path for interpreting the long-term population consequences of phenology change. Specifically, by relating the outcome of phenological shifts to species traits governing recursion relationships (e.g., consumer fecundity or competitive scenario), we demonstrate how changes in relative phenology can force systems into different dynamical regimes, with major implications for resource management, conservation, and other areas of applied dynamics.

  19. The USA National Phenology Network; taking the pulse of our planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Jake F.

    2011-01-01

    People have tracked phenology for centuries and for the most practical reasons: it helped them know when to hunt and fish, when to plant and harvest crops, and when to navigate waterways. Now phenology is being used as a tool to assess climate change and its effects on both natural and modified ecosystems. How is the timing of events in plant and animal life cycles, like flowering or migration, responding to climate change? And how are those responses, in turn, affecting people and ecosystems? The USA National Phenology Network (the Network) is working to answer these questions for science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and their relationship to environmental change. The Network is a consortium of organizations and individuals that collect, share, and use phenology data, models, and related information to enable scientists, resource managers, and the public to adapt in response to changing climates and environments. In addition, the Network encourages people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology as a way to discover and explore the nature and pace of our dynamic world. The National Coordinating Office (NCO) of the Network is a resource center that facilitates and encourages widespread collection, integration, and sharing of phenology data and related information (for example, meteorological and hydrological data). The NCO develops and promotes standardized methods for field data collection and maintains several online user interfaces for data upload and download, as well as data exploration, visualization, and analysis. The NCO also facilitates basic and applied research related to phenology, the development of decision-support tools for resource managers and planners, and the design of educational and outreach materials

  20. Intercropping with shrub species that display a 'steady-state' flowering phenology as a strategy for biodiversity conservation in tropical agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Valerie E

    2014-01-01

    Animal species in the Neotropics have evolved under a lower spatiotemporal patchiness of food resources compared to the other tropical regions. Although plant species with a steady-state flowering/fruiting phenology are rare, they provide predictable food resources and therefore may play a pivotal role in animal community structure and diversity. I experimentally planted a supplemental patch of a shrub species with a steady-state flowering/fruiting phenology, Hamelia patens Jacq., into coffee agroforests to evaluate the contribution of this unique phenology to the structure and diversity of the flower-visiting community. After accounting for the higher abundance of captured animals in the coffee agroforests with the supplemental floral resources, species richness was 21% higher overall in the flower-visiting community in these agroforests compared to control agroforests. Coffee agroforests with the steady-state supplemental floral patch also had 31% more butterfly species, 29% more hummingbird species, 65% more wasps and 85% more bees than control coffee agroforests. The experimental treatment, together with elevation, explained 57% of the variation in community structure of the flower-visiting community. The identification of plant species that can support a high number of animal species, including important ecosystem service providers, is becoming increasingly important for restoration and conservation applications. Throughout the Neotropics plant species with a steady-state flowering/fruiting phenology can be found in all aseasonal forests and thus could be widely tested and suitable species used throughout the tropics to manage for biodiversity and potentially ecosystem services involving beneficial arthropods.

  1. Intercropping with shrub species that display a 'steady-state' flowering phenology as a strategy for biodiversity conservation in tropical agroecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie E Peters

    Full Text Available Animal species in the Neotropics have evolved under a lower spatiotemporal patchiness of food resources compared to the other tropical regions. Although plant species with a steady-state flowering/fruiting phenology are rare, they provide predictable food resources and therefore may play a pivotal role in animal community structure and diversity. I experimentally planted a supplemental patch of a shrub species with a steady-state flowering/fruiting phenology, Hamelia patens Jacq., into coffee agroforests to evaluate the contribution of this unique phenology to the structure and diversity of the flower-visiting community. After accounting for the higher abundance of captured animals in the coffee agroforests with the supplemental floral resources, species richness was 21% higher overall in the flower-visiting community in these agroforests compared to control agroforests. Coffee agroforests with the steady-state supplemental floral patch also had 31% more butterfly species, 29% more hummingbird species, 65% more wasps and 85% more bees than control coffee agroforests. The experimental treatment, together with elevation, explained 57% of the variation in community structure of the flower-visiting community. The identification of plant species that can support a high number of animal species, including important ecosystem service providers, is becoming increasingly important for restoration and conservation applications. Throughout the Neotropics plant species with a steady-state flowering/fruiting phenology can be found in all aseasonal forests and thus could be widely tested and suitable species used throughout the tropics to manage for biodiversity and potentially ecosystem services involving beneficial arthropods.

  2. European-wide simulations of croplands using an improved terrestrial biosphere model: Phenology and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. C.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Meurdesoif, Y.; Bondeau, A.

    2010-03-01

    Aiming at producing improved estimates of carbon source/sink spatial and interannual patterns across Europe (35% croplands), this work combines the terrestrial biosphere model Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE), for vegetation productivity, water balance, and soil carbon dynamics, and the generic crop model Simulateur Multidisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard (STICS), for phenology, irrigation, nitrogen balance, and harvest. The ORCHIDEE-STICS model, relying on three plant functional types for the representation of temperate agriculture, is evaluated over the last few decades at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The simulated leaf area index seasonal cycle is largely improved relative to the original ORCHIDEE simulating grasslands, and compares favorably with remote-sensing observations (correlation doubles over Europe). Crop yield is derived from annual net primary productivity and compared with wheat and grain maize harvest data for five European countries. Discrepancies between 30 year mean simulated and reported yields are large in Mediterranean countries. Interannual variability amplitude expressed relative to the mean is reduced toward the observed variability (≈10%) when using ORCHIDEE-STICS. Overall, this study highlights the importance of accounting for the specific phenologies of crops sown both in winter and in spring and for irrigation applied to spring crops in regional/global models of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Limitations suggest to account for temporal and spatial variability in agricultural practices for further simulation improvement.

  3. [Connotation characterization and evaluation of ecological well-being based on ecosystem service theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zheng; Zou, Xin- Qing

    2016-04-22

    China is advocating ecological civilization construction nowadays. Further researches on the relation between ecosystem service and humanity well-being are full of theoretical and practical significance. Combining related researches, this paper defined the concept and connotation of ecological well-being based on ecosystem service theory. Referencing theory of national economic accounting and relative researches, the evaluation indicators of ecological well-being supply and consumption were established. The quantitative characterization and evaluation method of red line of regional ecological well-being was proposed on the basis of location quotient. Then the evaluation of ecological well-being in mainland China in 2012 was set as an example for empirical research. The results showed that the net product values of 6 ecosystems, includingcultivated land, forest land, grassland, wetland, water area and unused land, were respectively 1481.925, 8194.806, 4176.277, 4245.760, 3177.084 and 133.762 billion CNY. Spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem net product in different provinces was distinct. Ecological well-being per capita of forest land, grassland, wetland, cultivated land and unused land in eastern and middle provinces were under the red line and less than the national average. The spatial distribution of 9 kinds of ecological well-being per capita split at Hu's line with high value in northwest and low value in southeast, and was aggravated by differences in density of population and land resources gift.

  4. Phenology prediction component of GypsES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse A. Logan; Lukas P. Schaub; F. William Ravlin

    1991-01-01

    Prediction of phenology is an important component of most pest management programs, and considerable research effort has been expended toward development of predictive tools for gypsy moth phenology. Although phenological prediction is potentially valuable for timing of spray applications (e.g. Bt, or Gypcheck) and other management activities (e.g. placement and...

  5. Comparison of a Mass Balance and an Ecosystem Model Approach when Evaluating the Carbon Cycling in a Lake Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva; Sobek, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Carbon budgets are frequently used in order to understand the pathways of organic matter in ecosystems, and they also have an important function in the risk assessment of harmful substances. We compared two approaches, mass balance calculations and an ecosystem budget, to describe carbon processing in a shallow, oligotrophic hardwater lake. Both approaches come to the same main conclusion, namely that the lake is a net auto trophic ecosystem, in spite of its high dissolved organic carbon and low total phosphorus concentrations. However, there were several differences between the carbon budgets, e.g. in the rate of sedimentation and the air-water flux of CO 2 . The largest uncertainty in the mass balance is the contribution of emergent macrophytes to the carbon cycling of the lake, while the ecosystem budget is very sensitive towards the choice of conversion factors and literature values. While the mass balance calculations produced more robust results, the ecosystem budget gave valuable insights into the pathways of organic matter transfer in the ecosystem. We recommend that when using an ecosystem budget for the risk assessment of harmful substances, mass balance calculations should be performed in parallel in order to increase the robustness of the conclusions

  6. Vegetation coupling to global climate: Trajectories of vegetation change and phenology modeling from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeremy Isaac

    Important systematic shifts in ecosystem function are often masked by natural variability. The rich legacy of over two decades of continuous satellite observations provides an important database for distinguishing climatological and anthropogenic ecosystem changes. Examples from semi-arid Sudanian West Africa and New England (USA) illustrate the response of vegetation to climate and land-use. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, pastoral and agricultural practices compete for land area, while degradation may follow intensification. The Nouhao Valley is a natural experiment in which pastoral and agricultural land uses were allocated separate, coherent reserves. Trajectories of annual net primary productivity were derived from 18 years of coarse-grain (AVHRR) satellite data. Trends suggested that pastoral lands had responded rigorously to increasing rainfall after the 1980's droughts. A detailed analysis at Landsat resolution (30m) indicated that the increased vegetative cover was concentrated in the river basins of the pastoral region, implying a riparian wood expansion. In comparison, riparian cover was reduced in agricultural regions. We suggest that broad-scale patterns of increasing semi-arid West African greenness may be indicative of climate variability, whereas local losses may be anthropogenic in nature. The contiguous deciduous forests, ocean proximity, topography, and dense urban developments of New England provide an ideal landscape to examine influences of climate variability and the impact of urban development vegetation response. Spatial and temporal patterns of interannual climate variability were examined via green leaf phenology. Phenology, or seasonal growth and senescence, is driven by deficits of light, temperature, and water. In temperate environments, phenology variability is driven by interannual temperature and precipitation shifts. Average and interannual phenology analyses across southern New England were conducted at resolutions of 30m (Landsat

  7. Applying and Individual-Based Model to Simultaneously Evaluate Net Ecosystem Production and Tree Diameter Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Reconciling observations at fundamentally different scales is central in understanding the global carbon cycle. This study investigates a model-based melding of forest inventory data, remote-sensing data and micrometeorological-station data ("flux towers" estimating forest heat, CO2 and H2O fluxes). The individual tree-based model FORCCHN was used to evaluate the tree DBH increment and forest carbon fluxes. These are the first simultaneous simulations of the forest carbon budgets from flux towers and individual-tree growth estimates of forest carbon budgets using the continuous forest inventory data — under circumstances in which both predictions can be tested. Along with the global implications of such findings, this also improves the capacity for forest sustainable management and the comprehensive understanding of forest ecosystems. In forest ecology, diameter at breast height (DBH) of a tree significantly determines an individual tree's cross-sectional sapwood area, its biomass and carbon storage. Evaluation the annual DBH increment (ΔDBH) of an individual tree is central to understanding tree growth and forest ecology. Ecosystem Carbon flux is a consequence of key ecosystem processes in the forest-ecosystem carbon cycle, Gross and Net Primary Production (GPP and NPP, respectively) and Net Ecosystem Respiration (NEP). All of these closely relate with tree DBH changes and tree death. Despite advances in evaluating forest carbon fluxes with flux towers and forest inventories for individual tree ΔDBH, few current ecological models can simultaneously quantify and predict the tree ΔDBH and forest carbon flux.

  8. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Čufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E.; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gričar, Jožica; Gruber, Andreas; King, Gregory M.; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-l...

  9. Linking ecosystem services with state-and-transition models to evaluate rangeland management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, S.; Heilman, P.; deSteiguer, J. E.; Guertin, D. P.; Wissler, C.; McClaran, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying ecosystem services is a crucial topic for land management decision making. However, market prices are usually not able to capture all the ecosystem services and disservices. Ecosystem services from rangelands, that cover 70% of the world's land area, are even less well-understood since knowledge of rangelands is limited. This study generated a management framework for rangelands that uses remote sensing to generate state and transition models (STMs) for a large area and a linear programming (LP) model that uses ecosystem services to evaluate natural and/or management induced transitions as described in the STM. The LP optimization model determines the best management plan for a plot of semi-arid land in the Empire Ranch in southeastern Arizona. The model allocated land among management activities (do nothing, grazing, fire, and brush removal) to optimize net benefits and determined the impact of monetizing environmental services and disservices on net benefits, acreage allocation and production output. The ecosystem services under study were forage production (AUM/ac/yr), sediment (lbs/ac/yr), water runoff (inches/yr), soil loss (lbs/ac/yr) and recreation (thousands of number of visitors/ac/yr). The optimization model was run for three different scenarios - private rancher, public rancher including environmental services and excluding disservices, and public rancher including both services and disservices. The net benefit was the highest for the public rancher excluding the disservices. A result from the study is a constrained optimization model that incorporates ecosystem services to analyze investments on conservation and management activities. Rangeland managers can use this model to understand and explain, not prescribe, the tradeoffs of management investments.

  10. Detecting Inter-Annual Variations in the Phenology of Evergreen Conifers Using Long-Term MODIS Vegetation Index Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Ulsig, Laura; Nichol, Caroline J.; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Mammarella, Ivan; Levula, Janne; Porcar-Castell, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This study investigates the potential of a Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of MO...

  11. Detecting inter-annual variations in the phenology of evergreen conifers using long-term MODIS vegetation index time series.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulsig, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This study investigates the potential of the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of ...

  12. Variability of Phenology and Fluxes of Water and Carbon with Observed and Simulated Soil Moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM Version 1.0.1.0.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Aleinov, Igor; Puma, M. J.; Kiang, N. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) is a mixed-canopy dynamic global vegetation model developed specifically for coupling with land surface hydrology and general circulation models (GCMs). This study describes the leaf phenology submodel implemented in the Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0 coupled to the carbon allocation scheme of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. The phenology submodel adopts a combination of responses to temperature (growing degree days and frost hardening), soil moisture (linearity of stress with relative saturation) and radiation (light length). Growth of leaves, sapwood, fine roots, stem wood and coarse roots is updated on a daily basis. We evaluate the performance in reproducing observed leaf seasonal growth as well as water and carbon fluxes for four plant functional types at five Fluxnet sites, with both observed and prognostic hydrology, and observed and prognostic seasonal leaf area index. The phenology submodel is able to capture the timing and magnitude of leaf-out and senescence for temperate broadleaf deciduous forest (Harvard Forest and Morgan- Monroe State Forest, US), C3 annual grassland (Vaira Ranch, US) and California oak savanna (Tonzi Ranch, US). For evergreen needleleaf forest (Hyytiäla, Finland), the phenology submodel captures the effect of frost hardening of photosynthetic capacity on seasonal fluxes and leaf area. We address the importance of customizing parameter sets of vegetation soil moisture stress response to the particular land surface hydrology scheme. We identify model deficiencies that reveal important dynamics and parameter needs.

  13. Variability of phenology and fluxes of water and carbon with observed and simulated soil moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Aleinov, I.; Puma, M. J.; Kiang, N. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) is a mixed-canopy dynamic global vegetation model developed specifically for coupling with land surface hydrology and general circulation models (GCMs). This study describes the leaf phenology submodel implemented in the Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0 coupled to the carbon allocation scheme of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. The phenology submodel adopts a combination of responses to temperature (growing degree days and frost hardening), soil moisture (linearity of stress with relative saturation) and radiation (light length). Growth of leaves, sapwood, fine roots, stem wood and coarse roots is updated on a daily basis. We evaluate the performance in reproducing observed leaf seasonal growth as well as water and carbon fluxes for four plant functional types at five Fluxnet sites, with both observed and prognostic hydrology, and observed and prognostic seasonal leaf area index. The phenology submodel is able to capture the timing and magnitude of leaf-out and senescence for temperate broadleaf deciduous forest (Harvard Forest and Morgan-Monroe State Forest, US), C3 annual grassland (Vaira Ranch, US) and California oak savanna (Tonzi Ranch, US). For evergreen needleleaf forest (Hyytiäla, Finland), the phenology submodel captures the effect of frost hardening of photosynthetic capacity on seasonal fluxes and leaf area. We address the importance of customizing parameter sets of vegetation soil moisture stress response to the particular land surface hydrology scheme. We identify model deficiencies that reveal important dynamics and parameter needs.

  14. Influence of spring phenology on seasonal and annual carbon balance in two contrasting New England forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D; Hollinger, David Y; Dail, D Bryan; Lee, John T; Munger, J William; O'keefe, John

    2009-03-01

    Spring phenology is thought to exert a major influence on the carbon (C) balance of temperate and boreal ecosystems. We investigated this hypothesis using four spring onset phenological indicators in conjunction with surface-atmosphere CO(2) exchange data from the conifer-dominated Howland Forest and deciduous-dominated Harvard Forest AmeriFlux sites. All phenological measures, including CO(2) source-sink transition dates, could be well predicted on the basis of a simple two-parameter spring warming model, indicating good potential for improving the representation of phenological transitions and their dynamic responsiveness to climate variability in land surface models. The date at which canopy-scale photosynthetic capacity reached a threshold value of 12 micromol m(-2) s(-1) was better correlated with spring and annual flux integrals than were either deciduous or coniferous bud burst dates. For all phenological indicators, earlier spring onset consistently, but not always significantly, resulted in higher gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) for both seasonal (spring months, April-June) and annual flux integrals. The increase in RE was less than that in GPP; depending on the phenological indicator used, a one-day advance in spring onset increased springtime net ecosystem productivity (NEP) by 2-4 g C m(-2) day(-1). In general, we could not detect significant differences between the two forest types in response to earlier spring, although the response to earlier spring was generally more pronounced for Harvard Forest than for Howland Forest, suggesting that future climate warming may favor deciduous species over coniferous species, at least in this region. The effect of earlier spring tended to be about twice as large when annual rather than springtime flux integrals were considered. This result is suggestive of both immediate and lagged effects of earlier spring onset on ecosystem C cycling, perhaps as a result of accelerated N cycling

  15. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  16. Urban phenological studies – Past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Phenology is believed to be a suitable bio-indicator to track climate change. Based on the strong statistical association between phenology and temperature phenological observations provide an inexpensive means for the temporal and spatial analysis of the urban heat island. However, other environmental factors might also weaken this relationship. In addition, the investigation of urban phenology allows an estimation of future phenology from current information since cities with their amplified temperatures may serve as a proxy for future conditions. Nevertheless, the design of spatial compared to long-term studies might be influenced by different factors which should be taken into consideration when interpreting results from a specific study. In general, plants located in urban areas tend to flush and bloom earlier than in the countryside. What are the consequences of these urban–rural differences? This review will document existing findings on urban phenology and will highlight areas in which further research is needed. - Highlights: • Urban phenology can be used for the estimation of the urban heat island effect. • Confounding factors weaken the phenology–temperature relationship. • Urban phenology is useful as a proxy for climate change impacts on phenology. • Differences in the study design hinder the generalisation of one specific method. • Urban–rural variations in phenology affect vegetation, meteorology, human health. - Studies on urban phenology can be used to detect urban heat islands and to assess climate change impacts but it still remains important to adequately link spatial and long-term data

  17. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape. PMID:21106761

  18. Changes in vegetation phenology on the Mongolian Plateau and their climatic determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Miao

    Full Text Available Climate change affects the timing of phenological events, such as the start, end, and length of the growing season of vegetation. A better understanding of how the phenology responded to climatic determinants is important in order to better anticipate future climate-ecosystem interactions. We examined the changes of three phenological events for the Mongolian Plateau and their climatic determinants. To do so, we derived three phenological metrics from remotely sensed vegetation indices and associated these with climate data for the period of 1982 to 2011. The results suggested that the start of the growing season advanced by 0.10 days yr-1, the end was delayed by 0.11 days yr-1, and the length of the growing season expanded by 6.3 days during the period from 1982 to 2011. The delayed end and extended length of the growing season were observed consistently in grassland, forest, and shrubland, while the earlier start was only observed in grassland. Partial correlation analysis between the phenological events and the climate variables revealed that higher temperature was associated with an earlier start of the growing season, and both temperature and precipitation contributed to the later ending. Overall, our findings suggest that climate change will substantially alter the vegetation phenology in the grasslands of the Mongolian Plateau, and likely also in biomes with similar environmental conditions, such as other semi-arid steppe regions.

  19. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-02-01

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/. Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  20. Changes in vegetation phenology on the Mongolian Plateau and their climatic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lijuan; Müller, Daniel; Cui, Xuefeng; Ma, Meihong

    2017-01-01

    Climate change affects the timing of phenological events, such as the start, end, and length of the growing season of vegetation. A better understanding of how the phenology responded to climatic determinants is important in order to better anticipate future climate-ecosystem interactions. We examined the changes of three phenological events for the Mongolian Plateau and their climatic determinants. To do so, we derived three phenological metrics from remotely sensed vegetation indices and associated these with climate data for the period of 1982 to 2011. The results suggested that the start of the growing season advanced by 0.10 days yr-1, the end was delayed by 0.11 days yr-1, and the length of the growing season expanded by 6.3 days during the period from 1982 to 2011. The delayed end and extended length of the growing season were observed consistently in grassland, forest, and shrubland, while the earlier start was only observed in grassland. Partial correlation analysis between the phenological events and the climate variables revealed that higher temperature was associated with an earlier start of the growing season, and both temperature and precipitation contributed to the later ending. Overall, our findings suggest that climate change will substantially alter the vegetation phenology in the grasslands of the Mongolian Plateau, and likely also in biomes with similar environmental conditions, such as other semi-arid steppe regions.

  1. Pan European Phenological database (PEP725): a single point of access for European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Koch, Elisabeth; Bolmgren, Kjell; Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Scheifinger, Helfried; Rutishauser, This; Busto, Montserrat; Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Hájková, Lenka; Hodzić, Sabina; Kaspar, Frank; Pietragalla, Barbara; Romero-Fresneda, Ramiro; Tolvanen, Anne; Vučetič, Višnja; Zimmermann, Kirsten; Zust, Ana

    2018-06-01

    The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data. So far, 32 European meteorological services and project partners from across Europe have joined and supplied data collected by volunteers from 1868 to the present for the PEP725 database. Most of the partners actively provide data on a regular basis. The database presently holds almost 12 million records, about 46 growing stages and 265 plant species (including cultivars), and can be accessed via http://www.pep725.eu/ . Users of the PEP725 database have studied a diversity of topics ranging from climate change impact, plant physiological question, phenological modeling, and remote sensing of vegetation to ecosystem productivity.

  2. Climate change impacts on ecosystems and ecosystem services in the United States: Process and prospects for sustained assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy B.; Groffman, Peter M; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Tallis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The third United States National Climate Assessment emphasized an evaluation of not just the impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, but also the impacts of climate change on the benefits that people derive from nature, known as ecosystem services. The ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services component of the assessment largely drew upon the findings of a transdisciplinary workshop aimed at developing technical input for the assessment, involving participants from diverse sectors. A small author team distilled and synthesized this and hundreds of other technical input to develop the key findings of the assessment. The process of developing and ranking key findings hinged on identifying impacts that had particular, demonstrable effects on the U.S. public via changes in national ecosystem services. Findings showed that ecosystem services are threatened by the impacts of climate change on water supplies, species distributions and phenology, as well as multiple assaults on ecosystem integrity that, when compounded by climate change, reduce the capacity of ecosystems to buffer against extreme events. As ecosystems change, such benefits as water sustainability and protection from storms that are afforded by intact ecosystems are projected to decline across the continent due to climate change. An ongoing, sustained assessment that focuses on the co-production of actionable climate science will allow scientists from a range of disciplines to ascertain the capability of their forecasting models to project environmental and ecological change and link it to ecosystem services; additionally, an iterative process of evaluation, development of management strategies, monitoring, and reevaluation will increase the applicability and usability of the science by the U.S. public.

  3. Evaluation of the Ecosystem Services of Inland Waters in the Slovak Republic - To Date Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnovský Radoslav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES (goods and services represent the outputs of natural systems from which people can have benefits. Evaluation of the benefits resulting from ES of inland waters or the benefits, which are lost when the necessary measures are not implemented, is one of the methods of evaluating the external costs of environmental damage - environmental and resource costs. Evaluation of ES is based on the CICES classification v. 4.3, which defines provision, regulation/ maintenance and cultural services. In the assessment of ES also enters groundwater, although in comparison with surface waters in lesser extent. At present, the evaluation is performed at the level of sub-basins of the Slovak Republic. In this paper, evaluation of selected ES is presented. Use of evaluation in practice is also discussed.

  4. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  5. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak U Benson

    Full Text Available Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria. The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF and global contamination factor (GCF. Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA, cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources.

  6. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of L reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Sharitz, R.R.; Gladden, J.B.

    1981-10-01

    Information is presented on the following subjects: habitat and vegetation, the avifauna, semi-aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, and aquatic communities of Steel Creek, species of special concern, and radiocesium in Steel Creek. Two main goals of the study were the compilation of a current inventory of the flora and fauna of the Steel Creek ecosystem and an assessment of the probable impacts of radionuclides, primarily 137 Cs, that were released into Steel Creek during earlier reactor operations. Although a thorough evaluation of the impacts of the L reactor restart is impossible at this time, it is concluded that the effects on the Steel Creek ecosystem will be substantial if no mitigative measures are taken

  7. An Architecture Framework for Orchestrating Context-Aware IT Ecosystems: A Case Study for Quantitative Evaluation †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Park, Sungyong; Park, Young B

    2018-02-12

    With the emergence of various forms of smart devices and new paradigms such as the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, the IT (Information Technology) service areas are expanding explosively compared to the provision of services by single systems. A new system operation concept that has emerged in accordance with such technical trends is the IT ecosystem. The IT ecosystem can be considered a special type of system of systems in which multiple systems with various degrees of autonomy achieve common goals while adapting to the given environment. The single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem adapt autonomously to the current situation based on collected data from sensors. Furthermore, to maintain the services supported by the whole IT ecosystem sustainably, the configuration of single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem also changes appropriately in accordance with the changed situation. In order to support the IT ecosystem, this paper proposes an architecture framework that supports dynamic configuration changes to achieve the goal of the whole IT ecosystem, while ensuring the autonomy of single systems through the collection of data from sensors so as to recognize the situational context of individual participating systems. For the feasibility evaluation of the proposed framework, a simulated example of an IT ecosystem for unmanned forest management was constructed, and the quantitative evaluation results are discussed in terms of the extent to which the proposed architecture framework can continuously provide sustainable services in response to diverse environmental context changes.

  8. Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately under climate change conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Inaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    or compromise dormancy break at the species equatorward range limits leading to a delay or even impossibility to flower or set new leaves. These models are classically parameterized with flowering or budburst dates only, with no information on the dormancy break date because this information is very scarce. We evaluated the efficiency of a set of process-based phenological models to accurately predict the dormancy break dates of four fruit trees. Our results show that models calibrated solely with flowering or budburst dates do not accurately predict the dormancy break date. Providing dormancy break date for the model parameterization results in much more accurate simulation of this latter, with however a higher error than that on flowering or bud break dates. But most importantly, we show also that models not calibrated with dormancy break dates can generate significant differences in forecasted flowering or bud break dates when using climate scenarios. Our results claim for the urgent need of massive measurements of dormancy break dates in forest and fruit trees to yield more robust projections of phenological changes in a near future.

  9. Evaluating the Return in Ecosystem Services from Investment in Public Land Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; Polasky, Stephen; Nelson, Erik; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Pennington, Derric; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Taff, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the return on investment (ROI) from public land conservation in the state of Minnesota, USA. We use a spatially-explicit modeling tool, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST), to estimate how changes in land use and land cover (LULC), including public land acquisitions for conservation, influence the joint provision and value of multiple ecosystem services. We calculate the ROI of a public conservation acquisition as the ratio of the present value of ecosystem services generated by the conservation to the cost of the conservation. For the land scenarios analyzed, carbon sequestration services generated the greatest benefits followed by water quality improvements and recreation opportunities. We found ROI values ranged from 0.21 to 5.28 depending on assumptions about future land use change, service values, and discount rate. Our study suggests conservation is a good investment as long as investments are targeted to areas with low land costs and high service values. PMID:23776429

  10. Evaluating the return in ecosystem services from investment in public land acquisitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Kovacs

    Full Text Available We evaluate the return on investment (ROI from public land conservation in the state of Minnesota, USA. We use a spatially-explicit modeling tool, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST, to estimate how changes in land use and land cover (LULC, including public land acquisitions for conservation, influence the joint provision and value of multiple ecosystem services. We calculate the ROI of a public conservation acquisition as the ratio of the present value of ecosystem services generated by the conservation to the cost of the conservation. For the land scenarios analyzed, carbon sequestration services generated the greatest benefits followed by water quality improvements and recreation opportunities. We found ROI values ranged from 0.21 to 5.28 depending on assumptions about future land use change, service values, and discount rate. Our study suggests conservation is a good investment as long as investments are targeted to areas with low land costs and high service values.

  11. Trade-offs in ecosystem services and varying stakeholder preferences: evaluating conflicts, obstacles, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth King

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In efforts to increase human well-being while maintaining the natural systems and processes upon which we depend, navigating the trade-offs that can arise between different ecosystem services is a profound challenge. We evaluated a recently developed simple analytic framework for assessing ecosystem service trade-offs, which characterizes such trade-offs in terms of their underlying biophysical constraints as well as divergences in stakeholders' values for the services in question. Through a workshop and subsequent discussions, we identified four different types of challenging situations under which the framework allows important insights to clarify the nature of stakeholder conflicts, obstacles to promoting more sustainable outcomes, and potential enabling factors to promote efficiency and sustainability of ecosystem service yields. We illustrated the framework's analytical steps by applying them to case studies representing three of the challenging situations. We explored the fourth challenging situation conceptually, using published literature for examples. We examined the potential utility and feasibility of using the framework as a participatory tool in resource management and conflict resolution. We concluded that the framework can be instrumental for promoting pluralism and insightful analysis of trade-offs. The insights offered here may be viewed as hypotheses to be tested and refined as additional unforeseen challenges and benefits are revealed as the framework is put into practice.

  12. Measurement of Farmland Ecosystem Services Evaluation in Beidaihe District, Hebei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiao-dan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Farmland ecosystem is an important part of supporting and maintaining earth's life systems. It has the direct function value of providing agricultural product as well as the indirect function values of adjustment, support and culture. Chose the Beidaihe district in Hebei Province as the study region, the eco-system service functions were evaluated by ecological economics approach. The results showed that the indirect value was 1.09 times of the value direct in 2014. The farmland ecosystem not only had direct production function, but also had important ecological supporting functions. In the process of agricultural structure adjustment, the indirect functions should be given enough attention. The sort of values were production function > tourism function > carbon sequestration and oxygen release function > dispose of waste function > water conservation function > social security function > soil protection value > straw returning to field function > clean air function. In the process of accelerating the construction of modern agricultural park, vigorously developing ecological leisure agriculture, pushing forward the comprehensive utilization of crop straw, and actively developing ecological cycle of agriculture, the Beidaihe district should rationally adjust the use of farmland and focus on improving the values of indirect services to optimize service values. The study can be used as decision basis and scientific support for effective protection and sustainable utilization of farmland resources.

  13. K-12 Phenology Lessons for the Phenocam Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is defined as periodic [or annual] life cycles of plants and animals driven by seasonal environmental changes. Climate change impinges a strong effect on phenology, potentially altering the structure and functioning of ecosystems. In the fall of 2011, the Ashburnham-Westminster Regional School District became the first of five schools to join Harvard University's Phenocam Network with the installation of a webcam to monitor phenology (or 'phenocam') at Overlook Middle School in Ashburnham, Massachusetts. Our school district is now part of a network of near-surface remote sensing phenocams that capture and send images of forest, shrub, and grassland vegetation cover at more than 130 diverse sites in North America. Our phenocam provides a digital image every half hour of the mixed forest canopy north from the school, enabling the detection of changes in canopy development, quantified as canopy 'greenness'. As a part of the Phenocam project, students at the K-12 level have expanded the scope of phenological monitoring protocol that is part of the Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program, Buds, Leaves, and Global Warming. In this protocol, students work with ecologists at Harvard Forest to monitor buds and leaves on schoolyard trees to determine the length of the growing season, giving them the opportunity to be a part of real and important research concerning the critical environmental issue of climate change. Students involved in the Buds, Leaves, and Global Warming study have the opportunity to compare their ground data on budburst, color change, and leaf drop to the phenocam images, as well as to similar forested sites in locations throughout the United States. Lessons have been developed for comparing student data to phenocam images, canopy greenness time series graphs extracted from the images, and satellite data. Lessons addressing map scale and the Urban Heat Island effect will also be available for teachers. This project will greatly enhance the

  14. Interactive Vegetation Phenology, Soil Moisture, and Monthly Temperature Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, R. D.; Walker, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    The time scales that characterize the variations of vegetation phenology are generally much longer than those that characterize atmospheric processes. The explicit modeling of phenological processes in an atmospheric forecast system thus has the potential to provide skill to subseasonal or seasonal forecasts. We examine this possibility here using a forecast system fitted with a dynamic vegetation phenology model. We perform three experiments, each consisting of 128 independent warm-season monthly forecasts: 1) an experiment in which both soil moisture states and carbon states (e.g., those determining leaf area index) are initialized realistically, 2) an experiment in which the carbon states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts, and 3) an experiment in which both the carbon and soil moisture states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts. Evaluating the monthly forecasts of air temperature in each ensemble against observations, as well as quantifying the inherent predictability of temperature within each ensemble, shows that dynamic phenology can indeed contribute positively to subseasonal forecasts, though only to a small extent, with an impact dwarfed by that of soil moisture.

  15. Can Growing Degree Days and Photoperiod Predict Spring Wheat Phenology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Aslam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum production in the rainfed area of Pothwar Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to high temperature. The expected increase in temperature due to global warming should result in shorter crop life cycles, and thus lower biomass and grain yield. Two major factors control wheat phenological development: temperature and photoperiod. To evaluate wheat development in response to these factors, we conducted experiments that created diverse temperature and daylength conditions by adjusting the crop sowing time. The study was conducted during 2013–14 and 2014–15 using five spring wheat genotypes, four sowing times, at three sites under rainfed management in Pothwar, Pakistan. Wheat crops experienced more cold days with early sowing, but later sowing dates resulted in higher temperatures, especially from anthesis to maturity. These treatments produced large differences in phenology, biomass production, and yield. To investigate whether growing degree days (GDD and photoperiod algorithms could predict wheat phenology under these changing conditions, GDD was calculated based on the method proposed by Wang and Engel while photoperiod followed the approach introduced in the APSIM crop growth model. GDD was calculated separately and in combination with photoperiod from germination to anthesis. For the grain filling period, only GDD was calculated. The observed and predicted number of days to anthesis and maturity were in good agreement, showing that the combination of GDD and photoperiod algorithms provided good estimations of spring wheat phenology under variable temperature and daylength conditions.

  16. Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Gaydos

    Full Text Available Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA, British Columbia (Canada, and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as

  17. An exposure-effect approach for evaluating ecosystem-wide risks from human activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knights, A.M.; Piet, G.J.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Tamis, J.E.; Robinson, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is promoted as the solution for sustainable use. An ecosystem-wide assessment methodology is therefore required. In this paper, we present an approach to assess the risk to ecosystem components from human activities common to marine and coastal ecosystems. We build

  18. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, G; Schrader, G; Baker, R H A; Ceglarska, E; Kertész, V K; Lövei, G; Navajas, M; Rossi, V; Tramontini, S; van Lenteren, J C

    2014-01-15

    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis. © 2013.

  19. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus spp. pollen is a significant aeroallergen that can be transported 200-600 km from the source. Local observations of Juniperus spp. phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Methods: The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM)is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We successfully modified the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport (PREAM) and used MODIS satellite images to develop Juniperus ashei pollen input source masks. The Pollen Release Potential Source Map, also referred to as a source mask in model applications, may use different satellite platforms and sensors and a variety of data sets other than the USGS GAP data we used to map J. ashei cover type. MODIS derived percent tree cover is obtained from MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product (collection 3 and 4, MOD44B, 500 and 250 m grid resolution). We use updated 2010 values to calculate pollen concentration at source (J. ashei ). The original MODIS derived values are converted from native approx. 250 m to 990m (approx. 1 km) for the calculation of a mask to fit the model (PREAM) resolution. Results: The simulation period is chosen following the information that in the last 2 weeks of December 2010. The PREAM modeled near-surface concentrations (Nm-3) shows the transport patterns of J. ashei pollen over a 5 day period (Fig. 2). Typical scales of the simulated transport process are regional.

  20. Satellite time-series data for vegetation phenology detection and environmental assessment in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suepa, Tanita

    The relationship between temporal and spatial data is considered the major advantage of remote sensing in research related to biophysical characteristics. With temporally formatted remote sensing products, it is possible to monitor environmental changes as well as global climate change through time and space by analyzing vegetation phenology. Although a number of different methods have been developed to determine the seasonal cycle using time series of vegetation indices, these methods were not designed to explore and monitor changes and trends of vegetation phenology in Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA is adversely affected by impacts of climate change, which causes considerable environmental problems, and the increase in agricultural land conversion and intensification also adds to those problems. Consequently, exploring and monitoring phenological change and environmental impacts are necessary for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics and environmental change in this region. This research aimed to investigate inter-annual variability of vegetation phenology and rainfall seasonality, analyze the possible drivers of phenological changes from both climatic and anthropogenic factors, assess the environmental impacts in agricultural areas, and develop an enhanced visualization method for phenological information dissemination. In this research, spatio-temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were analyzed by using MODIS-EVI time series data over the period of 2001-2010. Rainfall seasonality was derived from TRMM daily rainfall rate. Additionally, this research assessed environmental impacts of GHG emissions by using the environmental model (DNDC) to quantify emissions from rice fields in Thailand. Furthermore, a web mapping application was developed to present the output of phenological and environmental analysis with interactive functions. The results revealed that satellite time-series data provided a great opportunity to study regional vegetation variability

  1. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  2. Reproductive phenology of Mauritia flexuosa L. (Arecaceae in a coastal restinga environment in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract The buriti, Mauritia flexuosa, is the most common palm in Brazil, where it has considerable ecological and economic importance. However, few data are available on the phenology of the species, mainly in coastal restinga ecosystems. The present study monitored the reproductive phenology of M. flexuosa in the restinga of Barreirinhas, in the Brazilian Northeast, and investigated the relationship between phenophases and climatic variables. The presence/absence of flowers and fruits was recorded monthly in 25 individuals of each sex between August, 2009, and October, 2012. There was no difference in the phenology of male and female specimens, with flowering and fruiting occurring exclusively in the dry season. We believe that the specific abiotic characteristics of the study environment, such as the intense sunlight and availability of water in the soil, contribute to the reproductive success of M. flexuosa in the dry season, with consequent germination and establishment of seedlings occurring during the subsequent rainy season.

  3. Reproductive phenology of Mauritia flexuosa L. (Arecaceae) in a coastal restinga environment in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F N; Valente, R M; Rêgo, M M C; Esposito, M C

    2017-03-01

    The buriti, Mauritia flexuosa, is the most common palm in Brazil, where it has considerable ecological and economic importance. However, few data are available on the phenology of the species, mainly in coastal restinga ecosystems. The present study monitored the reproductive phenology of M. flexuosa in the restinga of Barreirinhas, in the Brazilian Northeast, and investigated the relationship between phenophases and climatic variables. The presence/absence of flowers and fruits was recorded monthly in 25 individuals of each sex between August, 2009, and October, 2012. There was no difference in the phenology of male and female specimens, with flowering and fruiting occurring exclusively in the dry season. We believe that the specific abiotic characteristics of the study environment, such as the intense sunlight and availability of water in the soil, contribute to the reproductive success of M. flexuosa in the dry season, with consequent germination and establishment of seedlings occurring during the subsequent rainy season.

  4. USING PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MULTISPECTRAL SENSORS ON THE CORRELATION WITH THE PHENOLOGICAL INDICES OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Heloisa B.; Baio, Fabio H. R.; Neves, Danilo C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The investment in precision agriculture technologies has been growing as well the investment in vegetation index sensors with different types of data collection. This study aimed to evaluate the NDVI potential use obtained from passive and active multispectral sensors as phenological parameters indicator of cotton growth. The experiment was conducted in cultivated cotton fields during the harvest seasons of 2013/14 and 2014/15. The phenological variables analyzed in the field, were ...

  5. Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palesova, I.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

  6. Automated processing of webcam images for phenological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmann, Ludwig; Menzel, Annette; Menze, Bjoern H; Schunk, Christian; Kauermann, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Along with the global climate change, there is an increasing interest for its effect on phenological patterns such as start and end of the growing season. Scientific digital webcams are used for this purpose taking every day one or more images from the same natural motive showing for example trees or grassland sites. To derive phenological patterns from the webcam images, regions of interest are manually defined on these images by an expert and subsequently a time series of percentage greenness is derived and analyzed with respect to structural changes. While this standard approach leads to satisfying results and allows to determine dates of phenological change points, it is associated with a considerable amount of manual work and is therefore constrained to a limited number of webcams only. In particular, this forbids to apply the phenological analysis to a large network of publicly accessible webcams in order to capture spatial phenological variation. In order to be able to scale up the analysis to several hundreds or thousands of webcams, we propose and evaluate two automated alternatives for the definition of regions of interest, allowing for efficient analyses of webcam images. A semi-supervised approach selects pixels based on the correlation of the pixels' time series of percentage greenness with a few prototype pixels. An unsupervised approach clusters pixels based on scores of a singular value decomposition. We show for a scientific webcam that the resulting regions of interest are at least as informative as those chosen by an expert with the advantage that no manual action is required. Additionally, we show that the methods can even be applied to publicly available webcams accessed via the internet yielding interesting partitions of the analyzed images. Finally, we show that the methods are suitable for the intended big data applications by analyzing 13988 webcams from the AMOS database. All developed methods are implemented in the statistical software

  7. Species- and community-level responses combine to drive phenology of lake phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika; Sagrario, María de los Ángeles González; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Global change is leading to shifts in the seasonal timing of growth and maturation for primary producers. Remote sensing is increasingly used to measure the timing of primary production in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but there is often a poor correlation between these results and direct observations of life-history responses of individual species. One explanation may be that in addition to phenological shifts, global change is also causing shifts in community composition among species with different seasonal timing of growth and maturation. We quantified how shifts in species phenology and in community composition translated into phenological change in a diverse phytoplankton community from 1962-2000. During this time the aggregate community spring-summer phytoplankton peak has shifted 63 days earlier. The mean taxon shift was only 3 days earlier and shifts in taxa phenology explained only 40% of the observed community phenological shift. The remaining community shift was attributed to dominant early season taxa increasing in abundance while a dominant late season taxon decreased in abundance. In diverse producer communities experiencing multiple stressors, changes in species composition must be considered to fully understand and predict shifts in the seasonal timing of primary production.

  8. Disaggregating tree and grass phenology in tropical savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang

    Savannas are mixed tree-grass systems and as one of the world's largest biomes represent an important component of the Earth system affecting water and energy balances, carbon sequestration and biodiversity as well as supporting large human populations. Savanna vegetation structure and its distribution, however, may change because of major anthropogenic disturbances from climate change, wildfire, agriculture, and livestock production. The overstory and understory may have different water use strategies, different nutrient requirements and have different responses to fire and climate variation. The accurate measurement of the spatial distribution and structure of the overstory and understory are essential for understanding the savanna ecosystem. This project developed a workflow for separating the dynamics of the overstory and understory fractional cover in savannas at the continental scale (Australia, South America, and Africa). Previous studies have successfully separated the phenology of Australian savanna vegetation into persistent and seasonal greenness using time series decomposition, and into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (BS) using linear unmixing. This study combined these methods to separate the understory and overstory signal in both the green and senescent phenological stages using remotely sensed imagery from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. The methods and parameters were adjusted based on the vegetation variation. The workflow was first tested at the Australian site. Here the PV estimates for overstory and understory showed best performance, however NPV estimates exhibited spatial variation in validation relationships. At the South American site (Cerrado), an additional method based on frequency unmixing was developed to separate green vegetation components with similar phenology. When the decomposition and frequency methods were compared, the frequency

  9. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  10. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  11. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  12. Application of Satellite Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Understanding Large-Scale Variations in Vegetation Phenology and Function Over Northern High Latitude Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Schimel, David; Frankenberg, Christian; Drewry, Darren T.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Verma, Manish; Berry, Joseph A.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the large-scale seasonal phenology and physiology of vegetation over northern high latitude forests (40 deg - 55 deg N) during spring and fall by using remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and observation-based estimate of gross primary productivity (GPP) from 2009 to 2011. Based on GPP phenology estimation in GPP, the growing season determined by SIF time-series is shorter in length than the growing season length determined solely using NDVI. This is mainly due to the extended period of high NDVI values, as compared to SIF, by about 46 days (+/-11 days), indicating a large-scale seasonal decoupling of physiological activity and changes in greenness in the fall. In addition to phenological timing, mean seasonal NDVI and SIF have different responses to temperature changes throughout the growing season. We observed that both NDVI and SIF linearly increased with temperature increases throughout the spring. However, in the fall, although NDVI linearly responded to temperature increases, SIF and GPP did not linearly increase with temperature increases, implying a seasonal hysteresis of SIF and GPP in response to temperature changes across boreal ecosystems throughout their growing season. Seasonal hysteresis of vegetation at large-scales is consistent with the known phenomena that light limits boreal forest ecosystem productivity in the fall. Our results suggest that continuing measurements from satellite remote sensing of both SIF and NDVI can help to understand the differences between, and information carried by, seasonal variations vegetation structure and greenness and physiology at large-scales across the critical boreal regions.

  13. Comparing MODIS and near-surface vegetation indexes for monitoring tropical dry forest phenology along a successional gradient using optical phenology towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankine, C.; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G. A.; Guzmán, J. Antonio; Espirito-Santo, M. M.; Sharp, Iain

    2017-10-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) present strong seasonal greenness signals ideal for tracking phenology and primary productivity using remote sensing techniques. The tightly synchronized relationship these ecosystems have with water availability offer a valuable natural experiment for observing the complex interactions between the atmosphere and the biosphere in the tropics. To investigate how well the MODIS vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI)) represented the phenology of different successional stages of naturally regenerating TDFs, within a widely conserved forest fragment in the semi-arid southeast of Brazil, we installed several canopy towers with radiometric sensors to produce high temporal resolution near-surface vegetation greenness indices. Direct comparison of several years of ground measurements with a combined Aqua/Terra 8 day satellite product showed similar broad temporal trends, but MODIS often suffered from cloud contamination during the onset of the growing season and occasionally during the peak growing season. The strength of the in-situ and MODIS linear relationship was greater for NDVI than for EVI across sites but varied with forest stand age. Furthermore, we describe the onset dates and duration of canopy development phases for three years of in-situ monitoring. A seasonality analysis revealed significant discrepancies between tower and MODIS phenology transitions dates, with up to five weeks differences in growing season length estimation. Our results indicate that 8 and 16 day MODIS satellite vegetation monitoring products are suitable for tracking general patterns of tropical dry forest phenology in this region but are not temporally sufficient to characterize inter-annual differences in phenology phase onset dates or changes in productivity due to mid-season droughts. Such rapid transitions in canopy greenness are important indicators of climate change sensitivity of these

  14. An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Cranford, Peter J.; Kamermans, Pauline; Krause, Gesche; Mazurie, Joseph; Buck, Bela H.; Dolmer, Per; Fraser, David; Van Nieuwenhove, Kris; O'Beirn, Francis X.; Sanchez-mata, Adoracion; Thorarinsdottir, Gudrun G.; Strand, Oivind

    2012-01-01

    An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture–en...

  15. [Ecosystem service value and its aplication in evaluation of eco-economic harmonious development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2007-11-01

    Based on the data of land use/cover and by using eco-economic harmony index (EEH) this paper studied the spatiotemporal characteristics of ecosystem service value on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, and evaluated the harmony degree of eco-economic development in the region. The results showed that the total ecosystem service value on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains was increased from 319.93 x 10(8) yuan in 1989 to 321.26 x 10(8) yuan in 2000, with a net increment of 0.42%. The regional eco-economic development was overall at a low harmony level, being higher in eastern part than in middle and western parts, among which, eight counties had a positive value of EEH and their eco-economic development was harmonious, while seven counties had a negative value of EEH and their eco-economic development was inharmonic. The eco-economic development in the region was at the margin of harmony, and thus, more attention should be paid to strengthen the protection of eco-environment and promote the harmonious development of eco-economy to have a sustainable development.

  16. An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranford, P.J.; Kamermans, P.; Krause, G.H.M.; Mazurie, J.

    2012-01-01

    An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and

  17. Contributions of meteorology to the phenology of cyanobacterial blooms: implications for future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Duan, Hongtao; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Kong, Fanxiang

    2012-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are often a result of eutrophication. Recently, however, their expansion has also been found to be associated with changes in climate. To elucidate the effects of climatic variables on the expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu, China, we analyzed the relationships between climatic variables and bloom events which were retrieved by satellite images. We then assessed the contribution of each climate variable to the phenology of blooms using multiple regression models. Our study demonstrates that retrieving ecological information from satellite images is meritorious for large-scale and long-term ecological research in freshwater ecosystems. Our results show that the phenological changes of blooms at an inter-annual scale are strongly linked to climate in Taihu during the past 23 yr. Cyanobacterial blooms occur earlier and last longer with the increase of temperature, sunshine hours, and global radiation and the decrease of wind speed. Furthermore, the duration increases when the daily averages of maximum, mean, and minimum temperature each exceed 20.3 °C, 16.7 °C, and 13.7 °C, respectively. Among these factors, sunshine hours and wind speed are the primary contributors to the onset of the blooms, explaining 84.6% of their variability over the past 23 yr. These factors are also good predictors of the variability in the duration of annual blooms and determined 58.9% of the variability in this parameter. Our results indicate that when nutrients are in sufficiently high quantities to sustain the formation of cyanobacterial blooms, climatic variables become crucial in predicting cyanobacterial bloom events. Climate changes should be considered when we evaluate how much the amount of nutrients should be reduced in Taihu for lake management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Snowmelt timing, phenology, and growing season length in conifer forests of Crater Lake National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Donal S.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Wayne, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is having significant impacts on montane and high-elevation areas globally. Warmer winter temperatures are driving reduced snowpack in the western USA with broad potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics of particular concern for protected areas. Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of ecological response to climate change and is associated with snowmelt timing. Human monitoring of climate impacts can be resource prohibitive for land management agencies, whereas remotely sensed phenology observations are freely available at a range of spatiotemporal scales. Little work has been done in regions dominated by evergreen conifer cover, which represents many mountain regions at temperate latitudes. We used moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assess the influence of snowmelt timing and elevation on five phenology metrics (green up, maximum greenness, senescence, dormancy, and growing season length) within Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA from 2001 to 2012. Earlier annual mean snowmelt timing was significantly correlated with earlier onset of green up at the landscape scale. Snowmelt timing and elevation have significant explanatory power for phenology, though with high variability. Elevation has a moderate control on early season indicators such as snowmelt timing and green up and less on late-season variables such as senescence and growing season length. PCA results show that early season indicators and late season indicators vary independently. These results have important implications for ecosystem dynamics, management, and conservation, particularly of species such as whitebark pine ( Pinus albicaulis) in alpine and subalpine areas.

  19. An observation-based progression modeling approach to spring and autumn deciduous tree phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Schwartz, Mark D.; Donnelly, Alison; Liang, Liang

    2016-03-01

    It is important to accurately determine the response of spring and autumn phenology to climate change in forest ecosystems, as phenological variations affect carbon balance, forest productivity, and biodiversity. We observed phenology intensively throughout spring and autumn in a temperate deciduous woodlot at Milwaukee, WI, USA, during 2007-2012. Twenty-four phenophase levels in spring and eight in autumn were recorded for 106 trees, including white ash, basswood, white oak, boxelder, red oak, and hophornbeam. Our phenological progression models revealed that accumulated degree-days and day length explained 87.9-93.4 % of the variation in spring canopy development and 75.8-89.1 % of the variation in autumn senescence. In addition, the timing of community-level spring and autumn phenophases and the length of the growing season from 1871 to 2012 were reconstructed with the models developed. All simulated spring phenophases significantly advanced at a rate from 0.24 to 0.48 days/decade ( p ≤ 0.001) during the 1871-2012 period and from 1.58 to 2.00 days/decade ( p coloration) and 0.50 (full-leaf coloration) days/decade ( p coloration and leaf fall, and suggested accelerating simulated ecosystem responses to climate warming over the last four decades in comparison to the past 142 years.

  20. An evaluation of the ecological and environmental security on China's terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Xu, Erqi

    2017-04-11

    With rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, various ecological and environmental problems occur, which threaten and undermine the sustainable development and domestic survival of China. On the national scale, our progress remains in a state of qualitative or semi-quantitative evaluation, lacking a quantitative evaluation and a spatial visualization of ecological and environmental security. This study collected 14 indictors of water, land, air, and biodiversity securities to compile a spatial evaluation of ecological and environmental security in terrestrial ecosystems of China. With area-weighted normalization and scaling transformations, the veto aggregation (focusing on the limit indicator) and balanced aggregation (measuring balanced performance among different indicators) methods were used to aggregate security evaluation indicators. Results showed that water, land, air, and biodiversity securities presented different spatial distributions. A relatively serious ecological and environmental security crisis was found in China, but presented an obviously spatial variation of security evaluation scores. Hotspot areas at the danger level, which are scattered throughout the entirety of the country, were identified. The spatial diversities and causes of ecological and environmental problems in different regions were analyzed. Spatial integration of regional development and proposals for improving the ecological and environmental security were put forward.

  1. Ecosystem health evaluation system of the water-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ao; YUAN Hui; ZHANG Yan-hui; HU Gang

    2004-01-01

    This paper discribes the definition of ecosystem health for the water-level flutuation zone of the Three Gorges Region and puts forward an evaluation system involving indicators in three groups: 1) structural indicators comprise slope, biodiversity,environmental capacity, stability, restoration ability and damage situation; 2) functional indicators including probability of geological hazard, erosion rate, habitat rate, land use intension and days of tourist season; 3) environmental indicatiors made up of population quality, potential intension of human, ground water quality, ambient air quality, wastewater treatment rate, pesticide use rate, fertilizer use rate, environmental management and public participation. In the design of the system, the subject zone is regarded as the type similar to wetland and the impacts of human activities on the zone are attached great importance to.

  2. Multi-scale approach to Euro-Atlantic climatic cycles based on phenological time series, air temperatures and circulation indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi; Zavatti, Franco

    2017-09-01

    The spectral periods in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were analyzed and has been verified how they imprint a time series of European temperature anomalies (ETA), two European temperature time series and some phenological series (dates of cherry flowering and grapevine harvest). Such work had as reference scenario the linear causal chain MCTP (Macroscale Circulation→Temperature→Phenology of crops) that links oceanic and atmospheric circulation to surface air temperature which in its turn determines the earliness of appearance of phenological phases of plants. Results show that in the three segments of the MCTP causal chain are present cycles with the following central period in years (the % of the 12 analyzed time series interested by these cycles are in brackets): 65 (58%), 24 (58%), 20.5 (58%), 13.5 (50%), 11.5 (58%), 7.7 (75%), 5.5 (58%), 4.1 (58%), 3 (50%), 2.4 (67%). A comparison with short term spectral peaks of the four El Niño regions (nino1+2, nino3, nino3.4 and nino4) show that 10 of the 12 series are imprinted by periods around 2.3-2.4yr while 50-58% of the series are imprinted by El Niño periods of 4-4.2, 3.8-3.9, 3-3.1years. The analysis highlights the links among physical and biological variables of the climate system at scales that range from macro to microscale whose knowledge is crucial to reach a suitable understanding of the ecosystem behavior. The spectral analysis was also applied to a time series of spring - summer precipitation in order to evaluate the presence of peaks common with other 12 selected series with result substantially negative which brings us to rule out the existence of a linear causal chain MCPP (Macroscale Circulation→Precipitation→Phenology). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology

  4. Intra- and interspecific variation in tropical tree and liana phenology derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlman, S.; Park, J.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Rifai, S. W.; Dandois, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Phenology is a critical driver of ecosystem processes. There is strong evidence that phenology is shifting in temperate ecosystems in response to climate change, but tropical tree and liana phenology remains poorly quantified and understood. A key challenge is that tropical forests contain hundreds of plant species with a wide variety of phenological patterns. Satellite-based observations, an important source of phenology data in northern latitudes, are hindered by frequent cloud cover in the tropics. To quantify phenology over a large number of individuals and species, we collected bi-weekly images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the well-studied 50-ha forest inventory plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Between October 2014 and December 2015 and again in May 2015, we collected a total of 35 sets of UAV images, each with continuous coverage of the 50-ha plot, where every tree ≥ 1 cm DBH is mapped. Spectral, texture, and image information was extracted from the UAV images for individual tree crowns, which was then used as inputs for a machine learning algorithm to predict percent leaf and branch cover. We obtained the species identities of 2000 crowns in the images via field mapping. The objectives of this study are to (1) determined if machine learning algorithms, applied to UAV images, can effectively quantify changes in leaf cover, which we term "deciduousness; (2) determine how liana cover effects deciduousness and (3) test how well UAV-derived deciduousness patterns match satellite-derived temporal patterns. Machine learning algorithms trained on a variety of image parameters could effectively determine leaf cover, despite variation in lighting and viewing angles. Crowns with higher liana cover have less overall deciduousness (tree + liana together) than crowns with lower liana cover. Individual crown deciduousness, summed over all crowns measured in the 50-ha plot, showed a similar seasonal pattern as MODIS EVI composited over 10 years. However

  5. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  6. Global-Scale Associations of Vegetation Phenology with Rainfall and Temperature at a High Spatio-Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Clinton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenology response to climatic variables is a vital indicator for understanding changes in biosphere processes as related to possible climate change. We investigated global phenology relationships to precipitation and land surface temperature (LST at high spatial and temporal resolution for calendar years 2008–2011. We used cross-correlation between MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, MODIS LST and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN gridded rainfall to map phenology relationships at 1-km spatial resolution and weekly temporal resolution. We show these data to be rich in spatiotemporal information, illustrating distinct phenology patterns as a result of complex overlapping gradients of climate, ecosystem and land use/land cover. The data are consistent with broad-scale, coarse-resolution modeled ecosystem limitations to moisture, temperature and irradiance. We suggest that high-resolution phenology data are useful as both an input and complement to land use/land cover classifiers and for understanding climate change vulnerability in natural and anthropogenic landscapes.

  7. Season Spotter: Using Citizen Science to Validate and Scale Plant Phenology from Near-Surface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kosmala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a rapidly changing climate on the biosphere is an urgent area of research for mitigation policy and management. Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and regulates the seasonality of carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the land surface and the climate system, making it an important tool for studying biosphere–atmosphere interactions. To monitor plant phenology at regional and continental scales, automated near-surface cameras are being increasingly used to supplement phenology data derived from satellite imagery and data from ground-based human observers. We used imagery from a network of phenology cameras in a citizen science project called Season Spotter to investigate whether information could be derived from these images beyond standard, color-based vegetation indices. We found that engaging citizen science volunteers resulted in useful science knowledge in three ways: first, volunteers were able to detect some, but not all, reproductive phenology events, connecting landscape-level measures with field-based measures. Second, volunteers successfully demarcated individual trees in landscape imagery, facilitating scaling of vegetation indices from organism to ecosystem. And third, volunteers’ data were used to validate phenology transition dates calculated from vegetation indices and to identify potential improvements to existing algorithms to enable better biological interpretation. As a result, the use of citizen science in combination with near-surface remote sensing of phenology can be used to link ground-based phenology observations to satellite sensor data for scaling and validation. Well-designed citizen science projects targeting improved data processing and validation of remote sensing imagery hold promise for providing the data needed to address grand challenges in environmental science and Earth observation.

  8. Hydrological evaluation of a peri-urban stream and its impact on ecosystem services potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro-Borrero Angela

    2015-01-01

    The rivers of the Magdalena–Eslava sub-basin are among the few remaining surficial water sources in Mexico City. These rivers are located in an area classified as a Soil Conservation Zone, which has been intensely managed for decades. The aims of this paper are (1 to perform a hydrological evaluation of two urban streams and identify their relationship with the provision of hydrological ecosystem services via (i a hydraulic balance analysis, (ii a hydro-geomorphological characterization of each stream, (iii an estimate of present and potential hydraulic erosion, (iv the determination of physicochemical and bacteriological parameters and (v a description of macroinvertebrates, macroalgae and their habitats in order to (2 identify the impacts of socio-economic dynamics on the responses of this rural-urban lotic system. Our results show that water flow, forest cover and hydro-geomorphologic heterogeneity are key to sustaining ecosystem functioning, especially in the high and middle sections of the basin. The highest potential provision of water for direct use was recorded in the sub-basin’s middle section; however, the stream channels in that section have lost their natural water flow due to a water management infrastructure built to regulate flow during the rainy season. This intervention can be viewed as a regulation of HESs as water management infrastructure alters the transport of sediment and reduces available natural habitat. The provision of quality water in the lower area of the sub-basin has been seriously compromised by the establishment of illegal urban settlements. A relationship between biologically diverse ecological traits and their response capabilities was established and can be considered an indicator of current HES potential. Therefore, this sub-basin may constitute an example of good management and maximizing potential HESs in an urban-rural setting based on improved management strategies that could be applied in other developing nations.

  9. A Holistic Approach to the Evaluation of the Montado Ecosystem Using Proximal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Serrano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Montado is a silvo-pastoral system characterized by open canopy woodlands with natural or cultivated grassland in the undercover and grazing animals. The aims of this study were to present several proximal sensors with potential to monitor relevant variables in the complex montado ecosystem and demonstrate their application in a case study designed to evaluate the effect of trees on the pasture. This work uses data collected between March and June 2016, at peak of dryland pasture production under typical Mediterranean conditions, in twenty four sampling points, half under tree canopy (UTC and half outside tree canopy (OTC. Correlations were established between pasture biomass and capacitance measured by a commercial probe and between pasture quality and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI measured by a commercial active optical sensor. The interest of altimetric and apparent soil electrical conductivity maps as the first step in the implementation of precision agriculture projects was demonstrated. The use of proximal sensors to monitor soil moisture content, pasture photosynthetically active radiation and temperature helped to explain the influence of trees on pasture productivity and quality. The significant and strong correlations obtained between capacitance and pasture biomass and between NDVI and pasture nutritive value (in terms of crude protein, CP and neutral detergent fibre, NDF can make an important contribution to determination of key components of pasture productivity and quality and implementation of site-specific pasture management. Animal tracking demonstrated its potential to be an important tool for understanding the interaction between various factors and components that interrelate in the montado ecosystem and to support grazing management decisions.

  10. Simulated browsing affects leaf shedding phenology and litter quality of oak and birch saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio, Sara; Hester, A. J.; Maestro Martínez, Melchor; Millard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore effects on leaf litter can have a strong impact on ecosystem nutrient cycling. Although such effects are well described for insect herbivory, research on the impacts of browsing by mammalian herbivores on leaf litter dynamics and nutrient cycling has been more limited, particularly at the level of the individual plant. Clipping treatments (66% shoot removal twice, plus unclipped) were applied to analyse the effect of browsing on the phenology (start date and pattern of leaf shedding...

  11. Engage the Public in Phenology Monitoring: Lessons Learned from the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Lebuhn, G.; Miller-Rushing, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    a strategy and action plan, which articulate steps for successful large-scale phenology monitoring in parks. Additionally, pilot projects in parks in both the northeastern states and California are serving as “test beds” for phenology monitoring in parks, engaging park staff, volunteers, and visitors. This first season of data collection has yielded insights including the importance of engaging observers through established organizations, understanding the goals of our partner organizations, creating flexible monitoring methods that can be adapted to various audiences, providing clear training materials and support for observers, and maintaining clarity and simplicity in our approach. By carefully evaluating the experience of our partners and our observers, we intend to improve our program and the impacts it can have. We hope that the sharing the findings of this organization with a national focus might be useful to other citizen science-focused efforts.

  12. Complex responses of spring alpine vegetation phenology to snow cover dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Guangsheng; Yang, Qichun; Wang, Bin; Ma, Yuanxu; Shen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Snow cover dynamics are considered to play a key role on spring phenological shifts in the high-latitude, so investigating responses of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics is becoming an increasingly important way to identify and predict global ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we quantified the temporal trends and spatial variations of spring phenology and snow cover across the Tibetan Plateau by calibrating and analyzing time series of the NOAA AVHRR-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during 1983-2012. We also examined how snow cover dynamics affect the spatio-temporal pattern of spring alpine vegetation phenology over the plateau. Our results indicated that 52.21% of the plateau experienced a significant advancing trend in the beginning of vegetation growing season (BGS) and 34.30% exhibited a delaying trend. Accordingly, the snow cover duration days (SCD) and snow cover melt date (SCM) showed similar patterns with a decreasing trend in the west and an increasing trend in the southeast, but the start date of snow cover (SCS) showed an opposite pattern. Meanwhile, the spatial patterns of the BGS, SCD, SCS and SCM varied in accordance with the gradients of temperature, precipitation and topography across the plateau. The response relationship of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics varied within different climate, terrain and alpine plant community zones, and the spatio-temporal response patterns were primarily controlled by the long-term local heat-water conditions and topographic conditions. Moreover, temperature and precipitation played a profound impact on diverse responses of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Operational data products to support phenological research and applications at local to continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Phenological data from a variety of platforms - across a range of spatial and temporal scales - are required to support research, natural resource management, and policy- and decision-making in a changing world. Observational and modeled phenological data, especially when integrated with associated biophysical data (e.g., climate, land-use/land-cover, hydrology) has great potential to provide multi-faceted information critical to decision support systems, vulnerability and risk assessments, change detection applications, and early-warning and forecasting systems for natural and modified ecosystems. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is a national-scale science and monitoring initiative focused on understanding the drivers and feedback effects of phenological variation in changing environments. The Network maintains a centralized database of over 10M ground-based observations of plants and animals for 1954-present, and leverages these data to produce operational data products for use by a variety of audiences, including researchers and resource managers. This presentation highlights our operational data products, including the tools, maps, and services that facilitate discovery, accessibility and usability of integrated phenological information. We describe (1) the data download tool, a customizable GUI that provides geospatially referenced raw, bounded or summarized organismal and climatological data and associated metadata (including calendars, time-series curves, and XY graphs), (2) the visualization tool, which provides opportunities to explore, visualize and export or download both organismal and modeled (gridded) products at daily time-steps and relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 2.5 km to 4 km) for the period 1980 to 6 days into the future, and (3) web services that enable custom query and download of map, feature and cover services in a variety of standard formats. These operational products facilitate scaling of integrated

  14. An Ecosystem-Service Approach to Evaluate the Role of Non-Native Species in Urbanized Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Huang, Ko-Pu; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Huang, Shou-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Natural wetlands have been increasingly transformed into urbanized ecosystems commonly colonized by stress-tolerant non-native species. Although non-native species present numerous threats to natural ecosystems, some could provide important benefits to urbanized ecosystems. This study investigated the extent of colonization by non-native fish and bird species of three urbanized wetlands in subtropical Taiwan. Using literature data the role of each non-native species in the urbanized wetland was evaluated by their effect (benefits/damages) on ecosystem services (ES) based on their ecological traits. Our sites were seriously colonized by non-native fishes (39%–100%), but wetland ES. Our results indicated the importance of non-native fishes in supporting ES by serving as food source to fish-eating waterbirds (native, and migratory species) due to their high abundance, particularly for Oreochromis spp. However, all non-native birds are regarded as “harmful” species causing important ecosystem disservices, and thus eradication of these bird-invaders from urban wetlands would be needed. This simple framework for role evaluation of non-native species represents a holistic and transferable approach to facilitate decision making on management priority of non-native species in urbanized wetlands. PMID:25860870

  15. An Ecosystem-Service Approach to Evaluate the Role of Non-Native Species in Urbanized Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural wetlands have been increasingly transformed into urbanized ecosystems commonly colonized by stress-tolerant non-native species. Although non-native species present numerous threats to natural ecosystems, some could provide important benefits to urbanized ecosystems. This study investigated the extent of colonization by non-native fish and bird species of three urbanized wetlands in subtropical Taiwan. Using literature data the role of each non-native species in the urbanized wetland was evaluated by their effect (benefits/damages on ecosystem services (ES based on their ecological traits. Our sites were seriously colonized by non-native fishes (39%–100%, but <3% by non-native birds. Although most non-native species could damage ES regulation (disease control and wastewater purification, some could be beneficial to the urbanized wetland ES. Our results indicated the importance of non-native fishes in supporting ES by serving as food source to fish-eating waterbirds (native, and migratory species due to their high abundance, particularly for Oreochromis spp. However, all non-native birds are regarded as “harmful” species causing important ecosystem disservices, and thus eradication of these bird-invaders from urban wetlands would be needed. This simple framework for role evaluation of non-native species represents a holistic and transferable approach to facilitate decision making on management priority of non-native species in urbanized wetlands.

  16. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  17. The phenological development of Themeda triandra, Elyonurus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenological development of Themeda triandra, Elyonurus argenteus and ... fire or drought may have a detrimental effect on leaf, shoot and seed production. ... Keywords: afrikaans; botany; carbohydrate; crude protein content; cutting; ...

  18. Evaluating the attractiveness and effectiveness of artificial coral reefs as a recreational ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Yaniv; Rousseau, Meghan; Tynyakov, Jenny; Shashar, Nadav

    2017-12-01

    Artificial reefs are increasingly being used around the globe to attract recreational divers, for both environmental and commercial reasons. This paper examines artificial coral reefs as recreational ecosystem services (RES) by evaluating their attractiveness and effectiveness and by examining divers' attitudes toward them. An online survey targeted at divers in Israel (n = 263) indicated that 35% of the dives in Eilat (a resort city on the shore of the Red Sea) take place at artificial reefs. A second study monitored divers' behavior around the Tamar artificial reef, one of the most popular submerged artificial reefs in Eilat, and juxtaposed it with divers' activities around two adjacent natural reefs. Findings show that the average diver density at the artificial reef was higher than at the two nearby natural knolls and that the artificial reef effectively diverts divers from natural knolls. A third study that examined the attitudes towards natural vs. artificial reefs found that the artificial reefs are considered more appropriate for training, but that divers feel less relaxed around them. By utilizing the RES approach as a framework, the study offers a comprehensive methodology that brings together the aesthetic, behavioral, and attitudinal aspects in terms of which artificial reefs can be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  20. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-05-08

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index ( SPI ), standardized soil water content index ( SSWI ), and standardized streamflow index ( SSI ). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI 12 than SPI 12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to

  1. Global warming leads to more uniform spring phenology across elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Signarbieux, Constant; Fu, Yongshuo H

    2018-01-30

    One hundred years ago, Andrew D. Hopkins estimated the progressive delay in tree leaf-out with increasing latitude, longitude, and elevation, referred to as "Hopkins' bioclimatic law." What if global warming is altering this well-known law? Here, based on ∼20,000 observations of the leaf-out date of four common temperate tree species located in 128 sites at various elevations in the European Alps, we found that the elevation-induced phenological shift (EPS) has significantly declined from 34 d⋅1,000 m -1 conforming to Hopkins' bioclimatic law in 1960, to 22 d⋅1,000 m -1 in 2016, i.e., -35%. The stronger phenological advance at higher elevations, responsible for the reduction in EPS, is most likely to be connected to stronger warming during late spring as well as to warmer winter temperatures. Indeed, under similar spring temperatures, we found that the EPS was substantially reduced in years when the previous winter was warmer. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining EPS over the last six decades. Future climate warming may further reduce the EPS with consequences for the structure and function of mountain forest ecosystems, in particular through changes in plant-animal interactions, but the actual impact of such ongoing change is today largely unknown.

  2. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe; 1 objectives, set-up and evaluation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Vel, E.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Deelstra, H.; Klap, J.M.; Leeters, E.E.J.M.; Hendriks, C.M.A.; Kerkvoorden, M.; Landmann, G.; Herkendell, J.; Haussmann, T.; Erisman, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In order to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other environmental factors on forest ecosystems, a Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of the Programme must contribute to a

  3. Chapter Four : Towards an Integration of Biodiversity–Ecosystem Functioning and Food Web Theory to Evaluate Relationships between Multiple Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hines, J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Deyn, de G.B.; Wagg, C.; Voigt, W.; Mulder, C.; Weisser, W.W.; Engel, J.; Melian, C.; Scheu, S.; Birkhofer, K.; Ebeling, A.; Scherber, C.; Eisenhauer, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem responses to changes in species diversity are often studied individually. However, changes in species diversity can simultaneously influence multiple interdependent ecosystem functions. Therefore, an important challenge is to determine when and how changes in species diversity that

  4. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems store vast quantities of wealth, but difficulties measuring wealth held in ecosystems prevent its inclusion in accounting systems. Ecosystem-based management endeavors to manage ecosystems holistically. However, ecosystem-based management lacks headline indicators to evaluate performance. We unify the inclusive wealth and ecosystem-based management paradigms, allowing apples-to-apples comparisons between the wealth of the ecosystem and other forms of wealth, while providing a headl...

  5. Evaluating the Collaborative Ecosystem for an Innovation-Driven Economy: A Systems Analysis and Case Study of Science Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy based on historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis are adopted to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long range perspective. Third, the concepts of government-academia-industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem.

  6. No Consistent Evidence for Advancing or Delaying Trends in Spring Phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xufeng; Xiao, Jingfeng; Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong; Ma, Mingguo; Che, Tao; Dai, Liyun; Wang, Shaoying; Wu, Jinkui

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and has significant effects on the exchange of carbon, water, and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. The Tibetan Plateau, the Earth's "third pole," is a unique region for studying the long-term trends in vegetation phenology in response to climate change because of the sensitivity of its alpine ecosystems to climate and its low-level human disturbance. There has been a debate whether the trends in spring phenology over the Tibetan Plateau have been continuously advancing over the last two to three decades. In this study, we examine the trends in the start of growing season (SOS) for alpine meadow and steppe using the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS)3g normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data set (1982-2014), the GIMMS NDVI data set (1982-2006), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI data set (2001-2014), the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT-VEG) NDVI data set (1999-2013), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) NDVI data set (1998-2007). Both logistic and polynomial fitting methods are used to retrieve the SOS dates from the NDVI data sets. Our results show that the trends in spring phenology over the Tibetan Plateau depend on both the NDVI data set used and the method for retrieving the SOS date. There are large discrepancies in the SOS trends among the different NDVI data sets and between the two different retrieval methods. There is no consistent evidence that spring phenology ("green-up" dates) has been advancing or delaying over the Tibetan Plateau during the last two to three decades. Ground-based budburst data also indicate no consistent trends in spring phenology. The responses of SOS to environmental factors (air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature, and snow depth) also vary among NDVI data sets and phenology retrieval methods. The increases in winter and spring

  7. Land Surface Phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 Global Land Cover Dynamics Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Friedl, Mark A.; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Verma, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatiotemporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of

  8. Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, M.B.; Harig, A.L.; Loucks, D.P.; Goforth, R.R.; Mills, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Many methods and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ecosystems that were disturbed, healthy, and in the process of restoration. Most methods strive to address the concept of biological integrity and assessment effectiveness often can be impeded by the lack of more specific ecosystem management objectives. Scientific and policy explorations are needed to define new ways for designating a healthy system so as to allow specification of precise quality criteria that will promote further development of ecosystem analysis tools.

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of Ecosystem Health in a Karst Area of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzi Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose a GIS-based mechanism for diagnosing karst rocky desertification (KRD ecosystem health. Using the Huajiang Demonstration Area in Guizhou Province as a case study, this research offers a multi-factor indicator system for diagnosing KRD ecosystem health. A set of geologic, environmental, and socio-economic health indicators were developed based on remote sensing images from field-investigation, hydrological, and meteorological monitoring data. With the use of grid GIS technology, this study gives an indicator for diagnosing the spatial expression of desertification at a 5 m × 5 m grid scale. Using spatial overlaying technology based on grid data, the temporal and spatial dynamics of ecosystem health in the Huajiang Demonstration Area were tracked over a 10 year time span. The results of the analysis indicate that ecosystem health in the Huajiang Demonstration Area varies regionally, and has overall improved over time. The proportion of healthy area increased from 3.7% in 2000 to 8.2% in 2010. However, unhealthy and middle-health areas still accounted for 78.7% of the total area by 2010. The most obvious improvement of ecosystem health was in an area where comprehensive control measures for curbing KRD were implemented. These results suggest that comprehensive control of KRD can effectively mitigate ecosystem deterioration and improve ecosystem health in karst regions of South China.

  10. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of ecosystem-based adaptation: Kamiesberg wetlands case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Black

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA is increasingly being promoted as a cost-effective means of adaptation to climate change. However, in spite of considerable international press, there is still little evidence to substantiate this claim. This study proposes a method through which the cost-effectiveness of EbA strategies can be evaluated against alternative adaptation options, and contributes to South African literature on the subject. The potential cost-effectiveness of wetland restoration is assessed as a means of securing the carrying capacity of land for pastoralist communities of the Kamiesberg communal area in South Africa under projected future climate conditions. The conventional alternatives would be to respond to increasingly dry conditions by drilling boreholes and using supplemental feed for livestock. It was assumed that the EbA interventions would occur upfront, whereas the alternatives are more likely to be implemented in reaction to droughts over a longer time period. The study found the implementation of conventional alternatives to be more cost-effective than EbA as a means to sustaining livestock stocking rates, with EbA being twice as costly. However, this is framed from the perspective of those directly affected (the landowners, and does not include the benefits to broader society.

  11. An integrated framework for evaluating the effects of deforestation on ecosystem services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, X P; Huang, C; Townshend, J R

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation often results in massive carbon emissions and loss of ecosystem services. The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach to quantitatively derive changes in forest carbon stock and changes in the economic value of forest carbon due to deforestation. Combining the best available remote sensing and socioeconomic datasets, this approach establishes a comprehensive baseline of deforestation in terms of area, carbon and monetary value change. We applied this end-to-end evaluation method in the Brazilian state of Rondonia to assess the ecological and economic effects of its recent deforestation from 2000 to 2005. Our results suggest that deforestation occurred at an average rate of 2834 km 2 /yr during the study period, leading to 31 TgC/yr ''committed carbon emissions'' from deforestation. Coupling with the social cost of carbon at $23/tC and a market discount rate at 7%, this translates to $622 million U.S. dollars/yr loss in the economic value of forest carbon

  12. Evaluation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as biomonitors of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Bradley D; Driscoll, Charles T; Spada, Michael E; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Montesdeoca, Mario R

    2013-03-01

    Zebra mussels have invaded many lakes in the United States and could be a useful tool for monitoring responses of aquatic biota to changes in mercury loading. The goal of the present study was to evaluate zebra mussels for use as a biomonitor of mercury contamination by comparing zebra mussel mercury concentrations between a lake with only indirect atmospheric mercury contamination (Otisco Lake, NY, USA) and a lake that was directly contaminated by mercury discharges (Onondaga Lake, NY, USA). Zebra mussels were sampled in both the spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in zebra mussels were approximately seven times greater in Onondaga Lake than in Otisco Lake, and water column mercury concentrations differed by an order of magnitude between the two lakes. Seasonal differences resulted in significantly higher zebra mussel THg concentrations during the fall for both lakes. There was also significant variation among different sampling sites in Onondaga Lake. Mussel methylmercury concentrations averaged 53% of THg concentrations but were highly variable. Strong relationships between water column THg and zebra mussel THg suggest that zebra mussels are a good indicator of aquatic mercury concentrations and could be used as an effective biomonitor of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  13. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    Phenological observations have a long history. The long time series come from Korea and some other parts of Asia, while wine harvest dates form the oldest phenological data sets in Europe. One of them started as early as 1457 year in Vienna, i.e. on the border of the Carpathian region. However, the first systematic phenological observations started in the south Carpathians almost four hundred years later following the establishment of the phenological network in Austria and later in the Hungarian Kingdom. A medical doctor P. Wierbitzky did first phenological observations in the Carpathian region in the beginning of thirties of the nineteenth century in Orawicza. The first systematic observations and records of plant development in this region are connected with the establishment of Austrian Institute for Meteorology and Geomagnetism since 1851. Although the historical significance of these observations is high, the data recorded are of lower quality, frequently interrupted and fragmented. Further development of phenological observations came with the introduction of the methodology of the observations introduced by Karl Fritsch in the beginning of the sixties of the nineteenth century mainly with the establishment of Hungarian Meteorological Service in 1871. These historical data were recorded and published in the yearbooks and, despite of the fragmentary character of the records, they are usable for some evaluations. This article brings the description of the data sets of systematic phenological network in the Carpathian region and considers some possible phenological evaluations. The phenological observations were done in some cases at the same localities as the climatologic observations but the number of phenological stations was quite lower in several years. The historical plant phenological records were based in many cases on the observation of four phenological phases: leafing, flowering, ripening and fall of leaves. Both the volume and the quality of the

  14. A study on land surface phenology in eastern China based on SPOT/VGT datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Guifeng; Xie, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation phenology provides a relevant indicator of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. In this study, vegetation phenology measurements were extracted and the spatial distributions were investigated using time series SPOT/VGT NDVI datasets for eastern China. Four phenology measurements were analyzed: the start of the growing season (SOS), the end of the growing season (EOS), the length of the growing season (GSL) and the time of the peak NDVI. The SOS in the northern part of the study area occurred earlier than in the rest of the study area due to larger amounts of cropland. The EOS showed a strong latitudinal pattern, especially in the southern portion of the study area. The GSL also showed a clear spatial pattern along the latitudinal gradient from north to south. The time of peak NDVI did not show a spatial pattern along the latitudinal gradient, which is likely due to the influence of vegetation types and the types of farming systems. In addition, there were no significant correlations between longitude and the four phenology measurements. SOS does not correlate with latitude, longitude or altitude, but EOS, GSL and the time of peak NDVI all correlated with latitude and altitude

  15. Phenology of Succession: Tracking the Recovery of Dryland Forests after Wildfire Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Brown, J. F.; Sankey, J. B.; Wallace, C.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The frequency, size, and intensity of forest wildfires in the U.S. Southwest have increased over the past 30 years. In the coming decades, burn effects and altered climatic conditions may increasingly divert vegetation recovery trajectories from pre-disturbance forested ecosystems toward grassland or shrub woodlands. Dryland herbaceous and woody vegetation species exhibit different phenological responses to precipitation, resulting in temporal and spatial shifts in landscape phenology patterns as the proportions of plant functional groups change over time. We have developed time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) greenness measures derived from satellite imagery from 1984 - 2015 to record the phenological signatures that characterize recovery trajectories towards predominantly grassland, shrubland, or forest land cover types. We leveraged the data and computational resources available through the Google Earth Engine cloud-based platform to analyze time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected over maturing (40 years or more post-fire) dryland forests in Arizona and New Mexico, USA. These time series provided the basis for long-term comparisons of phenology behavior in different successional trajectories and enabled the assessment of climatic influence on the eventual outcomes.

  16. Phenology, growth, and fecundity as determinants of distribution in closely related nonnative taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushia, Robin G.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Holt, Jodie S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species researchers often ask: Why do some species invade certain habitats while others do not? Ecological theories predict that taxonomically related species may invade similar habitats, but some related species exhibit contrasting invasion patterns. Brassica nigra, Brassica tournefortii, and Hirschfeldia incana are dominant, closely related nonnative species that have overlapping, but dissimilar, distributions. Brassica tournefortii is rapidly spreading in warm deserts of the southwestern United States, whereas B. nigra and H. incana are primarily limited to semiarid and mesic regions. We compared traits of B. tournefortii that might confer invasiveness in deserts with those of related species that have not invaded desert ecosystems. Brassica tournefortii, B. nigra and H. incana were compared in controlled experiments conducted outdoors in a mesic site (Riverside, CA) and a desert site (Blue Diamond, NV), and in greenhouses, over 3 yr. Desert and mesic B. tournefortii populations were also compared to determine whether locally adapted ecotypes contribute to desert invasion. Experimental variables included common garden sites and soil water availability. Response variables included emergence, growth, phenology, and reproduction. There was no evidence for B. tournefortii ecotypes, but B. tournefortii had a more rapid phenology than B. nigra or H. incana. Brassica tournefortii was less affected by site and water availability than B. nigra and H. incana, but was smaller and less fecund regardless of experimental conditions. Rapid phenology allows B. tournefortii to reproduce consistently under variable, stressful conditions such as those found in Southwestern deserts. Although more successful in milder, mesic ecosystems, B. nigra and H. incana may be limited by their ability to reproduce under desert conditions. Rapid phenology and drought response partition invasion patterns of nonnative mustards along a gradient of aridity in the southwestern United States

  17. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  18. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda E Chambers

    Full Text Available Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias, although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially

  19. An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranford, Peter J.; Kamermans, Pauline; Krause, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    for bivalve aquaculture be based on a tiered indicator monitoring system that is structured on the principle that increased environmental risk requires increased monitoring effort. More than 1 threshold for each indicator would permit implementation of predetermined impact prevention and mitigation measures......An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social...... and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture–environment interactions and policy-related developments and decisions. The Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response...

  20. Automated processing of webcam images for phenological classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Bothmann

    Full Text Available Along with the global climate change, there is an increasing interest for its effect on phenological patterns such as start and end of the growing season. Scientific digital webcams are used for this purpose taking every day one or more images from the same natural motive showing for example trees or grassland sites. To derive phenological patterns from the webcam images, regions of interest are manually defined on these images by an expert and subsequently a time series of percentage greenness is derived and analyzed with respect to structural changes. While this standard approach leads to satisfying results and allows to determine dates of phenological change points, it is associated with a considerable amount of manual work and is therefore constrained to a limited number of webcams only. In particular, this forbids to apply the phenological analysis to a large network of publicly accessible webcams in order to capture spatial phenological variation. In order to be able to scale up the analysis to several hundreds or thousands of webcams, we propose and evaluate two automated alternatives for the definition of regions of interest, allowing for efficient analyses of webcam images. A semi-supervised approach selects pixels based on the correlation of the pixels' time series of percentage greenness with a few prototype pixels. An unsupervised approach clusters pixels based on scores of a singular value decomposition. We show for a scientific webcam that the resulting regions of interest are at least as informative as those chosen by an expert with the advantage that no manual action is required. Additionally, we show that the methods can even be applied to publicly available webcams accessed via the internet yielding interesting partitions of the analyzed images. Finally, we show that the methods are suitable for the intended big data applications by analyzing 13988 webcams from the AMOS database. All developed methods are implemented in the

  1. Land use impact evaluation in life cycle assessment based on ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagendorp, Tim; Gulinck, Hubert; Coppin, Pol; Muys, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of products with a major part of their life cycle in biological production systems (i.e. forestry and agriculture) are often incomplete because the assessment of the land use impact is not operational. Most method proposals include the quality of the land in a descriptive way using rank scores for an arbitrarily selected set of indicators. This paper first offers a theoretical framework for the selection of suitable indicators for land use impact assessment, based on ecosystem thermodynamics. According to recent theories on the thermodynamics of open systems, a goal function of ecosystems is to maximize the dissipation of exogenic exergy fluxes by maximizing the internal exergy storage under form of biomass, biodiversity and complex trophical networks. Human impact may decrease this ecosystem exergy level by simplification, i.e. decreasing biomass and destroying internal complexity. Within this theoretical framework, we then studied possibilities for assessing the land use impact in a more direct way by measuring the ecosystems' capacity to dissipate solar exergy. Measuring ecosystem thermal characteristics by using remote sensing techniques was considered a promising tool. Once operational, it could offer a quick and cheap alternative to quantify land use impacts in any terrestrial ecosystem of any size. Recommendations are given for further exploration of this method and for its integration into an ISO compatible LCA framework

  2. e-phenology: monitoring leaf phenology and tracking climate changes in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellato, Patrícia; Alberton, Bruna; Almeida, Jurandy; Alex, Jefersson; Mariano, Greice; Torres, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    The e-phenology is a multidisciplinary project combining research in Computer Science and Phenology. Its goal is to attack theoretical and practical problems involving the use of new technologies for remote phenological observation aiming to detect local environmental changes. It is geared towards three objectives: (a) the use of new technologies of environmental monitoring based on remote phenology monitoring systems; (b) creation of a protocol for a Brazilian long term phenology monitoring program and for the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to climate change; and (c) provide models, methods and algorithms to support management, integration and analysis of data of remote phenology systems. The research team is composed by computer scientists and biology researchers in Phenology. Our first results include: Phenology towers - We set up the first phenology tower in our core cerrado-savanna 1 study site at Itirapina, São Paulo, Brazil. The tower received a complete climatic station and a digital camera. The digital camera is set up to take daily sequence of images (five images per hour, from 6:00 to 18:00 h). We set up similar phenology towers with climatic station and cameras in five more sites: cerrado-savanna 2 (Pé de Gigante, SP), cerrado grassland 3 (Itirapina, SP), rupestrian fields 4 ( Serra do Cipo, MG), seasonal forest 5 (Angatuba, SP) and Atlantic raiforest 6 (Santa Virginia, SP). Phenology database - We finished modeling and validation of a phenology database that stores ground phenology and near-remote phenology, and we are carrying out the implementation with data ingestion. Remote phenology and image processing - We performed the first analyses of the cerrado sites 1 to 4 phenology derived from digital images. Analysis were conducted by extracting color information (RGB Red, Green and Blue color channels) from selected parts of the image named regions of interest (ROI). using the green color

  3. Long-term phenology and variability of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and classification of vegetation, (ii) studying the impact of climate change, and influence of rainfall variability (iii) monitoring Satellite-derived phenology and (iv) detecting changes in land use/ land cover. This study analyzed vegetation phenology across...

  4. Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pinesnake) Reproduction/breeding phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh B. Pierce; Craig Rudolph; Christopher A. Melder; Beau B. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Determing the reproductive phenology of snakes is important since it marks a time period where snakes are particularly vulnerable to predation. In addition, knowledge of reproductive phenology may help captive breeding programs specify appropriate times to pair snakes for reproduction.

  5. Evaluating the potential of large-scale simulations to predict carbon fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems over a European Eddy Covariance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Maignan, F.; Chevallier, F.; Poulter, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison between large scale simulations of three different land surface models (LSMs), ORCHIDEE, ISBA-A-gs and CTESSEL, forced with the same meteorological data, and compared with the carbon fluxes measured at 32 eddy covariance (EC) flux tower sites in Europe. The results show that the three simulations have the best performance for forest sites and the poorest performance for cropland and grassland sites. In addition, the three simulations have difficulties capturing the seasonality of Mediterranean and sub-tropical biomes, characterized by dry summers. This reduced simulation performance is also reflected in deficiencies in diagnosed light-use efficiency (LUE) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) dependencies compared to observations. Shortcomings in the forcing data may also play a role. These results indicate that more research is needed on the LUE and VPD functions for Mediterranean and sub-tropical biomes. Finally, this study highlights the importance of correctly representing phenology (i.e. leaf area evolution) and management (i.e. rotation-irrigation for cropland, and grazing-harvesting for grassland) to simulate the carbon dynamics of European ecosystems and the importance of ecosystem-level observations in model development and validation. (authors)

  6. Variability and climate change trend in vegetation phenology of recent decades in the Greater Khingan Mountain area, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology has been used in studies as an indicator of an ecosystem’s responses to climate change. Satellite remote sensing techniques can capture changes in vegetation greenness, which can be used to estimate vegetation phenology. In this study, a long-term vegetation phenology study of the Greater Khingan Mountain area in Northeastern China was performed by using the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS normalized difference vegetation index version 3 (NDVI3g dataset from the years 1982–2012. After reconstructing the NDVI time series, the start date of the growing season (SOS, the end date of the growing season (EOS and the length of the growing season (LOS were extracted using a dynamic threshold method. The response of the variation in phenology with climatic factors was also analyzed. The results showed that the phenology in the study area changed significantly in the three decades between 1982 and 2012, including a 12.1-day increase in the entire region’s average LOS, a 3.3-day advance in the SOS and an 8.8-day delay in the EOS. However, differences existed between the steppe, forest and agricultural regions, with the LOSs of the steppe region, forest region and agricultural region increasing by 4.40 days, 10.42 days and 1.71 days, respectively, and a later EOS seemed to more strongly affect the extension of the growing season. Additionally, temperature and precipitation were closely correlated with the phenology variations. This study provides a useful understanding of the recent change in phenology and its variability in this high-latitude study area, and this study also details the responses of several ecosystems to climate change.

  7. Detecting Inter-Annual Variations in the Phenology of Evergreen Conifers Using Long-Term MODIS Vegetation Index Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ulsig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. This study investigates the potential of a Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI, which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of MODIS-based estimates of phenology in an evergreen conifer forest. Timings of the start and end of the growing season (SGS and EGS were derived from a 13-year-long time series of PRI and NDVI based on a MAIAC (multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction processed MODIS dataset and standard MODIS NDVI product data. The derived dates were validated with phenology estimates from ground-based flux tower measurements of ecosystem productivity. Significant correlations were found between the MAIAC time series and ground-estimated SGS (R2 = 0.36–0.8, which is remarkable since previous studies have found it difficult to observe inter-annual phenological variations in evergreen vegetation from satellite data. The considerably noisier NDVI product could not accurately predict SGS, and EGS could not be derived successfully from any of the time series. While the strongest relationship overall was found between SGS derived from the ground data and PRI, MAIAC NDVI exhibited high correlations with SGS more consistently (R2 > 0.6 in all cases. The results suggest that PRI can serve as an effective indicator of spring seasonal transitions, however, additional work is necessary to confirm the relationships observed and to further explore the usefulness of MODIS PRI for detecting phenology.

  8. Estimating the impacts of conservation on ecosystem services and poverty by integrating modeling and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Nelson, Joanna L; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Nolte, Christoph; Sims, Katharine R E

    2015-06-16

    Scholars have made great advances in modeling and mapping ecosystem services, and in assigning economic values to these services. This modeling and valuation scholarship is often disconnected from evidence about how actual conservation programs have affected ecosystem services, however. Without a stronger evidence base, decision makers find it difficult to use the insights from modeling and valuation to design effective policies and programs. To strengthen the evidence base, scholars have advanced our understanding of the causal pathways between conservation actions and environmental outcomes, but their studies measure impacts on imperfect proxies for ecosystem services (e.g., avoidance of deforestation). To be useful to decision makers, these impacts must be translated into changes in ecosystem services and values. To illustrate how this translation can be done, we estimated the impacts of protected areas in Brazil, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand on carbon storage in forests. We found that protected areas in these conservation hotspots have stored at least an additional 1,000 Mt of CO2 in forests and have delivered ecosystem services worth at least $5 billion. This aggregate impact masks important spatial heterogeneity, however. Moreover, the spatial variability of impacts on carbon storage is the not the same as the spatial variability of impacts on avoided deforestation. These findings lead us to describe a research program that extends our framework to study other ecosystem services, to uncover the mechanisms by which ecosystem protection benefits humans, and to tie cost-benefit analyses to conservation planning so that we can obtain the greatest return on scarce conservation funds.

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Modern Copper Mining on Ecosystem Services in Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgone, K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Coeurdray, M.; Poupeau, F.

    2014-12-01

    Historic mining practices were conducted with little environmental forethought, and hence generated a legacy of environmental and human-health impacts. However, an awareness and understanding of the impacts of mining on ecosystem services has developed over the past few decades. Ecosystem services are defined as benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems, and upon which they are fundamentally dependent for their survival. Ecosystem services are divided into four categories including provisioning services (i.e., food, water, timber, and fiber); regulating services (i.e., climate, floods, disease, wastes, and water quality); supporting services (i.e., soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient cycling) and cultural services (i.e., recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits) (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Sustainable mining practices have been and are being developed in an effort to protect and preserve ecosystem services. This and related efforts constitute a new generation of "modern" mines, which are defined as those that are designed and permitted under contemporary environmental legislation. The objective of this study is to develop a framework to monitor and assess the impact of modern mining practices and sustainable mineral development on ecosystem services. Using the sustainability performance indicators from the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) as a starting point, we develop a framework that is reflective of and adaptive to specific local conditions. Impacts on surface and groundwater water quality and quantity are anticipated to be of most importance to the southern Arizona region, which is struggling to meet urban and environmental water demands due to population growth and climate change. We seek to build a more comprehensive and effective assessment framework by incorporating socio-economic aspects via community engaged research, including economic valuations, community-initiated environmental monitoring, and environmental human

  10. Drought resistance across California ecosystems: Evaluating changes in carbon dynamics using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Sparkle; Tulbure, Mirela; Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Bremer, Leah; Drucker, Debora; Hillis, Vicken; Varela, Sara; Goulden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a global issue that is exacerbated by climate change and increasing anthropogenic water demands. The recent occurrence of drought in California provides an important opportunity to examine drought response across ecosystem classes (forests, shrublands, grasslands, and wetlands), which is essential to understand how climate influences ecosystem structure and function. We quantified ecosystem resistance to drought by comparing changes in satellite-derived estimates of water-use efficiency (WUE = net primary productivity [NPP]/evapotranspiration [ET]) under normal (i.e., baseline) and drought conditions (ΔWUE = WUE2014 − baseline WUE). With this method, areas with increasing WUE under drought conditions are considered more resilient than systems with declining WUE. Baseline WUE varied across California (0.08 to 3.85 g C/mm H2O) and WUE generally increased under severe drought conditions in 2014. Strong correlations between ΔWUE, precipitation, and leaf area index (LAI) indicate that ecosystems with a lower average LAI (i.e., grasslands) also had greater C-uptake rates when water was limiting and higher rates of carbon-uptake efficiency (CUE = NPP/LAI) under drought conditions. We also found that systems with a baseline WUE ≤ 0.4 exhibited a decline in WUE under drought conditions, suggesting that a baseline WUE ≤ 0.4 might be indicative of low drought resistance. Drought severity, precipitation, and WUE were identified as important drivers of shifts in ecosystem classes over the study period. These findings have important implications for understanding climate change effects on primary productivity and C sequestration across ecosystems and how this may influence ecosystem resistance in the future.

  11. On the uncertainty of phenological responses to climate change, and implications for a terrestrial biosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Migliavacca

    2012-06-01

    degree of warming varied between 2.2 days °C−1 and 5.2 days °C−1 depending on model structure.

    We quantified the impact of uncertainties in bud-burst forecasts on simulated photosynthetic CO2 uptake and evapotranspiration (ET using a process-based terrestrial biosphere model. Uncertainty in phenology model structure led to uncertainty in the description of forest seasonality, which accumulated to uncertainty in annual model estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP and ET of 9.6% and 2.9%, respectively. A sensitivity analysis shows that a variation of ±10 days in bud-burst dates led to a variation of ±5.0% for annual GPP and about ±2.0% for ET.

    For phenology models, differences among future climate scenarios (i.e. driver represent the largest source of uncertainty, followed by uncertainties related to model structure, and finally, related to model parameterization. The uncertainties we have quantified will affect the description of the seasonality of ecosystem processes and in particular the simulation of carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, with a larger impact of uncertainties related to phenology model structure, followed by uncertainties related to phenological model parameterization.

  12. Examining spring phenology of forest understory using digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Liang; Mark D. Schwartz; Songlin Fei

    2011-01-01

    Phenology is an important indicator of forest health in relation to energy/nutrient cycles and species interactions. Accurate characterization of forest understory phenology is a crucial part of forest phenology observation. In this study, ground plots set up in a temperate mixed forest in Wisconsin were observed with a visible-light digital camera during spring 2007....

  13. Evaluation of mangrove ecosystem service functions of Ximen Island Marine Specially Protected Areas in Yueqing Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. G.; Sun, L.; Tan, Y. H.; Shi, A. Q.; Cheng, J.

    2017-08-01

    Taking the mangrove ecosystem of Ximen Island National Marine Specially Protected Areas as the research object, the ecological service value of the mangrove forest was evaluated and analyzed using a market value method, an ecological value method and a carbon tax method. The results showed that the ecosystem service value of the mangrove forest on Ximen Island is worth a total of 16,104,000 CNY/a. Among the value of individual ecosystem services, the direct value of material production function and leisure function reached 1,385,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 8.6%. The indirect value of disturbance regulation, gas regulation, water purification, habitat function and culture research reached 14,719,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 91.4%. Among the above sub-items, the proportion of disturbance regulation value, habitat function value and cultural research function value reached 78.8%, which reflects the important scientific value and ecological value of the Ximen Island mangrove ecosystem, especially its vital importance in providing a habitat for birds and playing a role in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  14. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  15. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas: A generic framework for implementation of ecosystem based marine management and its application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Breen, Patricia; Stamford, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas (SMAs), which is currently being tested by nine European case studies. The framework provides guidance on the selection, mapping, and assessment of ecosystem components and human pressures, the evaluati...... on qualitative information are addressed. The lessons learned will provide a better insight into the full range of methods and approaches required to support the implementation of the ecosystem approach to marine spatial management in Europe and elsewhere.......This study introduces a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas (SMAs), which is currently being tested by nine European case studies. The framework provides guidance on the selection, mapping, and assessment of ecosystem components and human pressures, the evaluation...... of management effectiveness and potential adaptations to management. Moreover, it provides a structured approach with advice on spatially explicit tools for practical tasks like the assessment of cumulative impacts of human pressures or pressure-state relationships. The case studies revealed emerging challenges...

  17. Morphological constraints on changing avian migration phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Rubolini, D; Saino, N

    2017-06-01

    Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored. In this comparative study, we investigate whether variation in wing aspect ratio (reflecting relative wing narrowness), an ecomorphological trait that is strongly associated with flight efficiency and migratory behaviour, affects the ability to advance timing of spring migration during 1960-2006 in a set of 80 European migratory bird species. Species with larger aspect ratio (longer and narrower wings) showed smaller advancement of timing of spring migration compared to species with smaller aspect ratio (shorter and wider wings) while controlling for phylogeny, migration distance and other life-history traits. In turn, migration distance positively predicted aspect ratio across species. Hence, species that are better adapted to migration appear to be more constrained in responding phenologically to rapid climate warming by advancing timing of spring migration. Our findings corroborate the idea that aspect ratio is a major evolutionary correlate of migration, and suggest that selection for energetically efficient flights, as reflected by high aspect ratio, may hinder phenotypically plastic/microevolutionary adjustments of migration phenology to ongoing climatic changes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Integrated research approach to the evaluation of the danger of airborne pollutants to forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F.; Smidt, S. [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The protection of the Alpine area, which, between Vienna and Nice, provides a home to thirteen million people, should be given highest priority not only because of the (commercial and other) benefits that the area offers and that are sometimes over-exploited for tourism, but also because the Alpine area is one of the largest coherent ecoregions of Europe and a Noah`s ark for endangered species and ecosystems. The present report focuses on two aspects of the dangers to forest ecosystems: on the threats caused by the input of ozone and nitrogen. (author)

  19. Integrated research approach to the evaluation of the danger of airborne pollutants to forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F; Smidt, S [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    The protection of the Alpine area, which, between Vienna and Nice, provides a home to thirteen million people, should be given highest priority not only because of the (commercial and other) benefits that the area offers and that are sometimes over-exploited for tourism, but also because the Alpine area is one of the largest coherent ecoregions of Europe and a Noah`s ark for endangered species and ecosystems. The present report focuses on two aspects of the dangers to forest ecosystems: on the threats caused by the input of ozone and nitrogen. (author)

  20. Mapping Rubber Plantations and Natural Forests in Xishuangbanna (Southwest China Using Multi-Spectral Phenological Metrics from MODIS Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian van der Linden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed and evaluated a new approach for mapping rubber plantations and natural forests in one of Southeast Asia’s biodiversity hot spots, Xishuangbanna in China. We used a one-year annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and short-wave infrared (SWIR reflectance data to develop phenological metrics. These phenological metrics were used to classify rubber plantations and forests with the Random Forest classification algorithm. We evaluated which key phenological characteristics were important to discriminate rubber plantations and natural forests by estimating the influence of each metric on the classification accuracy. As a benchmark, we compared the best classification with a classification based on the full, fitted time series data. Overall classification accuracies derived from EVI and SWIR time series alone were 64.4% and 67.9%, respectively. Combining the phenological metrics from EVI and SWIR time series improved the accuracy to 73.5%. Using the full, smoothed time series data instead of metrics derived from the time series improved the overall accuracy only slightly (1.3%, indicating that the phenological metrics were sufficient to explain the seasonal changes captured by the MODIS time series. The results demonstrate a promising utility of phenological metrics for mapping and monitoring rubber expansion with MODIS.

  1. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A; Huemmrich, K Fred; Wong, Christopher Y S; Ensminger, Ingo; Garrity, Steven; Hollinger, David Y; Noormets, Asko; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-11-15

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying "photosynthetic phenology" from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios, and evergreen photosynthetic activity, leading to a "chlorophyll/carotenoid index" (CCI) that tracks evergreen photosynthesis at multiple spatial scales. When calculated from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite sensor, the CCI closely follows the seasonal patterns of daily gross primary productivity of evergreen conifer stands measured by eddy covariance. This discovery provides a way of monitoring evergreen photosynthetic activity from optical remote sensing, and indicates an important regulatory role for carotenoid pigments in evergreen photosynthesis. Improved methods of monitoring photosynthesis from space can improve our understanding of the global carbon budget in a warming world of changing vegetation phenology.

  2. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  3. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  4. Long-term Satellite NDVI Data Sets: Evaluating Their Ability to Detect Ecosystem Functional Changes in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Germán; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Aragón, Roxana; Aversa, Fernando; Paruelo, José M; Jobbágy, Esteban G

    2008-09-03

    In the last decades, South American ecosystems underwent important functional modifications due to climate alterations and direct human intervention on land use and land cover. Among remotely sensed data sets, NOAA-AVHRR "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index" (NDVI) represents one of the most powerful tools to evaluate these changes thanks to their extended temporal coverage. In this paper we explored the possibilities and limitations of three commonly used NOAA-AVHRR NDVI series (PAL, GIMMS and FASIR) to detect ecosystem functional changes in the South American continent. We performed pixel-based linear regressions for four NDVI variables (average annual, maximum annual, minimum annual and intra-annual coefficient of variation) for the 1982-1999 period and (1) analyzed the convergences and divergences of significant multi-annual trends identified across all series, (2) explored the degree of aggregation of the trends using the O-ring statistic, and (3) evaluated observed trends using independent information on ecosystem functional changes in five focal regions. Several differences arose in terms of the patterns of change (the sign, localization and total number of pixels with changes). FASIR presented the highest proportion of changing pixels (32.7%) and GIMMS the lowest (16.2%). PAL and FASIR data sets showed the highest agreement, with a convergence of detected trends on 71.2% of the pixels. Even though positive and negative changes showed substantial spatial aggregation, important differences in the scale of aggregation emerged among the series, with GIMMS showing the smaller scale (≤11 pixels). The independent evaluations suggest higher accuracy in the detection of ecosystem changes among PAL and FASIR series than with GIMMS, as they detected trends that match expected shifts. In fact, this last series eliminated most of the long term patterns over the continent. For example, in the "Eastern Paraguay" and "Uruguay River margins" focal regions, the

  5. Evaluating the role of ecosystem serivces in participatory land use planning: proposing a balanced score card

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürst, C.; Opdam, P.; Inostroza, L.; Luque, S.

    2014-01-01

    The application of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in land use planning has great potential to enhance the awareness of planning actors on their interactions. At the same time it can contribute to improve the linkage between the role of land use patterns and the understanding of land system

  6. Evaluation of agricultural ecosystem services in fallowing land based on farmers' participation and model simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Yen Lan,; Chang Kang-tsung,; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Verburg, P.H.; Sun Chin Hong,

    2012-01-01

    Fallowing with green fertilizer can benefit agricultural ecosystem services (AES). Farmers in Taiwan do not implement fallow practices and plant green fertilizer because the current subsidy level (46,000 NT$ per ha) is too low to manage fallowing. This paper defines the objective of government

  7. Evaluation of Agricultural ecosystem services in fallowing land based on farmers’ participation and model simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.L.; Chang, K.T.; Stoorvogel, J.; Verburg, P.H.; Sun, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Fallowing with green fertilizer can benefit agricultural ecosystem services (AES). Farmers in Taiwan do not implement fallow practices and plant green fertilizer because the current subsidy level (46,000 NT$ per ha) is too low to manage fallowing. This paper defines the objective of government

  8. Rangeland ecosystem goods and services: Values and evaluation of opportunities for ranchers and land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristie Maczko; John A. Tanaka; Robert Breckenridge; Lori Hidinger; H. Theodore Heintz; William E. Fox; Urs P. Kreuter; Clifford S. Duke; John E. Mitchell; Daniel W. McCollum

    2011-01-01

    Although the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 public commitment to use market-based incentives for environmental stewardship and cooperative conservation focused land managers' attention on the concept of ecosystem goods and services (EGS), this was not a new idea. Much earlier in the 20th century, Aldo Leopold embraced the value of open space, calling for...

  9. Evaluating trophic cascades as drivers of regime shifts in different ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Andrew J.; Mills, Katherine E.; Record, Nicholas R.; Stamieszkin, Karen; Wurtzell, Katharine V.; Byron, Carrie J.; Fitzpatrick, Dominic; Golet, Walter J.; Koob, Elise

    2015-01-01

    In ecosystems that are strongly structured by predation, reducing top predator abundance can alter several lower trophic levels—a process known as a trophic cascade. A persistent trophic cascade also fits the definition of a regime shift. Such ‘trophic cascade regime shifts' have been reported in a few pelagic marine systems—notably the Black Sea, Baltic Sea and eastern Scotian Shelf—raising the question of how common this phenomenon is in the marine environment. We provide a general methodology for distinguishing top-down and bottom-up effects and apply this methodology to time series from these three ecosystems. We found evidence for top-down forcing in the Black Sea due primarily to gelatinous zooplankton. Changes in the Baltic Sea are primarily bottom-up, strongly structured by salinity, but top-down forcing related to changes in cod abundance also shapes the ecosystem. Changes in the eastern Scotian Shelf that were originally attributed to declines in groundfish are better explained by changes in stratification. Our review suggests that trophic cascade regime shifts are rare in open ocean ecosystems and that their likelihood increases as the residence time of water in the system increases. Our work challenges the assumption that negative correlation between consecutive trophic levels implies top-down forcing.

  10. Observing Spring and Fall Phenology in a Deciduous Forest with Aerial Drone Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Klosterman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of the effects of global change on terrestrial ecosystems and controls the timing of key ecosystem functions including photosynthesis and transpiration. Aerial drone imagery and photogrammetric techniques promise to advance the study of phenology by enabling the creation of distortion-free orthomosaics of plant canopies at the landscape scale, but with branch-level image resolution. The main goal of this study is to determine the leaf life cycle events corresponding to phenological metrics derived from automated analyses based on color indices calculated from drone imagery. For an oak-dominated, temperate deciduous forest in the northeastern USA, we find that plant area index (PAI correlates with a canopy greenness index during spring green-up, and a canopy redness index during autumn senescence. Additionally, greenness and redness metrics are significantly correlated with the timing of budburst and leaf expansion on individual trees in spring. However, we note that the specific color index for individual trees must be carefully chosen if new foliage in spring appears red, rather than green—which we observed for some oak trees. In autumn, both decreasing greenness and increasing redness correlate with leaf senescence. Maximum redness indicates the beginning of leaf fall, and the progression of leaf fall correlates with decreasing redness. We also find that cooler air temperature microclimates near a forest edge bordering a wetland advance the onset of senescence. These results demonstrate the use of drones for characterizing the organismic-level variability of phenology in a forested landscape and advance our understanding of which phenophase transitions correspond to color-based metrics derived from digital image analysis.

  11. Observing Spring and Fall Phenology in a Deciduous Forest with Aerial Drone Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Stephen; Richardson, Andrew D

    2017-12-08

    Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of the effects of global change on terrestrial ecosystems and controls the timing of key ecosystem functions including photosynthesis and transpiration. Aerial drone imagery and photogrammetric techniques promise to advance the study of phenology by enabling the creation of distortion-free orthomosaics of plant canopies at the landscape scale, but with branch-level image resolution. The main goal of this study is to determine the leaf life cycle events corresponding to phenological metrics derived from automated analyses based on color indices calculated from drone imagery. For an oak-dominated, temperate deciduous forest in the northeastern USA, we find that plant area index (PAI) correlates with a canopy greenness index during spring green-up, and a canopy redness index during autumn senescence. Additionally, greenness and redness metrics are significantly correlated with the timing of budburst and leaf expansion on individual trees in spring. However, we note that the specific color index for individual trees must be carefully chosen if new foliage in spring appears red, rather than green-which we observed for some oak trees. In autumn, both decreasing greenness and increasing redness correlate with leaf senescence. Maximum redness indicates the beginning of leaf fall, and the progression of leaf fall correlates with decreasing redness. We also find that cooler air temperature microclimates near a forest edge bordering a wetland advance the onset of senescence. These results demonstrate the use of drones for characterizing the organismic-level variability of phenology in a forested landscape and advance our understanding of which phenophase transitions correspond to color-based metrics derived from digital image analysis.

  12. The plant phenological online database (PPODB): an online database for long-term phenological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenbach, Jonas; Badeck, Franz-W.; Schaber, Jörg

    2013-09-01

    We present an online database that provides unrestricted and free access to over 16 million plant phenological observations from over 8,000 stations in Central Europe between the years 1880 and 2009. Unique features are (1) a flexible and unrestricted access to a full-fledged database, allowing for a wide range of individual queries and data retrieval, (2) historical data for Germany before 1951 ranging back to 1880, and (3) more than 480 curated long-term time series covering more than 100 years for individual phenological phases and plants combined over Natural Regions in Germany. Time series for single stations or Natural Regions can be accessed through a user-friendly graphical geo-referenced interface. The joint databases made available with the plant phenological database PPODB render accessible an important data source for further analyses of long-term changes in phenology. The database can be accessed via www.ppodb.de .

  13. Phenology and growth of European trees in relation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Research topics

    The relationships between climate and both phenology and growth of some important European tree species were studied to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on trees and forests in Europe. In order to make such assessments, insight is

  14. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley St. Clair

    2012-01-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  15. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how climate change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first-year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  16. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  17. Nature's Notebook Provides Phenology Observations for NASA Juniper Phenology and Pollen Transport Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luval, J. C.; Crimmins, T. M.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Phenology Network has been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, as the Network is still in the early phases of establishment and growth, the density of observers is not yet adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability over large regions. Hence a combination of satellite data and ground observations can provide optimal information regarding juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was to observe Juniperus supp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product provided information on the Juniper supp. cone formation and cone density. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Approximately 10, 818 records of juniper phenology for male cone formation Juniperus ashei., J. monosperma, J. scopulorum, and J. pinchotti were reported by Nature's Notebook observers in 2013 These observations provided valuable information for the analysis of satellite images for developing the pollen concentration masks for input into the PREAM (Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) pollen transport model. The combination of satellite data and ground observations allowed us to improve our confidence in predicting pollen release and spread, thereby improving asthma and allergy alerts.

  18. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  19. Variations in global land surface phenology: a comparison of satellite optical and passive microwave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X.; Tian, F.; Brandt, M.; Zhang, W.; Liu, Y.; Fensholt, R.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in vegetation phenological events are among the most sensitive biological responses to climate change. In last decades, facilitating by satellite remote sensing techniques, land surface phenology (LSP) have been monitored at global scale using proxy approaches as tracking the temporal change of a satellite-derived vegetation index. However, the existing global assessments of changes in LSP are all established on the basis of leaf phenology using NDVI derived from optical sensors, being responsive to vegetation canopy cover and greenness. Instead, the vegetation optical depth (VOD) parameter from passive microwave sensors, which is sensitive to the aboveground vegetation water content by including as well the woody components in the observations, provides an alternative, independent and comprehensive means for global vegetation phenology monitoring. We used the unique long-term global VOD record available for the period 1992-2012 to monitoring the dynamics of LSP metrics (length of season, start of season and end of season) in comparison with the dynamics of LSP metrics derived from the latest GIMMS NDVI3G V1. We evaluated the differences in the linear trends of LSP metrics between two datasets. Currently, our results suggest that the level of seasonality variation of vegetation water content is less than the vegetation greenness. We found significant phenological changes in vegetation water content in African woodlands, where has been reported with little leaf phenological change regardless of the delays in rainfall onset. Therefore, VOD might allow us to detect temporal shifts in the timing difference of vegetation water storage vs. leaf emergence and to see if some ecophysiological thresholds seem to be reached, that could cause species turnover as climate change-driven alterations to the African monsoon proceed.

  20. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  1. Environmental drivers of cambial phenology in Great Basin bristlecone pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2016-07-01

    The timing of wood formation is crucial to determine how environmental factors affect tree growth. The long-lived bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) is a foundation treeline species in the Great Basin of North America reaching stem ages of about 5000 years. We investigated stem cambial phenology and radial size variability to quantify the relative influence of environmental variables on bristlecone pine growth. Repeated cellular measurements and half-hourly dendrometer records were obtained during 2013 and 2014 for two high-elevation stands included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network. Daily time series of stem radial variations showed rehydration and expansion starting in late April-early May, prior to the onset of wood formation at breast height. Formation of new xylem started in June and lasted until mid-September. There were no differences in phenological timing between the two stands, or in the air and soil temperature thresholds for the onset of xylogenesis. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted a separate effect of air and soil temperature on xylogenesis, the relevance of which was modulated by the interaction with vapor pressure and soil water content. While air temperature plays a key role in cambial resumption after winter dormancy, soil thermal conditions coupled with snowpack dynamics also influence the onset of wood formation by regulating plant-soil water exchanges. Our results help build a physiological understanding of climate-growth relationships in P. longaeva, the importance of which for dendroclimatic reconstructions can hardly be overstated. In addition, environmental drivers of xylogenesis at the treeline ecotone, by controlling the growth of dominant species, ultimately determine ecosystem responses to climatic change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Issues in evaluation of ecosystem change in response to global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Shevliakova, E.; Kandlikar, M.

    1994-12-31

    Uncertainty analysis of our integrated climate assessment model has revealed the importance of obtaining better market and non-market impacts. Improving market and non-market damage assessments has necessitated advances in the theoretical and applied dimensions of the problem. The assessment of climate change impacts on ecosystems provides a severe test for the new ideas being put forward. This paper provides a brief overview of, (i) the challenges inherent in modeling ecosystem dynamics; (ii) the problem of selecting an appropriate metric of change; and, (iii) the thorny issue of how to place a monetary value on market and non-market impacts. We focus on two central issues in estimation of impacts: (i) before climate change, are the systems being impacted (both ecological and economic) in equilibrium? and (ii) how quickly do ecological and related economic systems adapt to change? In addition, we attempt to be comprehensive in laying out the magnitude of the challenge ahead.

  3. Phenological monitoring of fruit trees in the Czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Striz, M.; Nekovar, J.

    2010-09-01

    Phenological observations at CHMI has a long tradition. Aside from several short-term series in 18th and 19th century the general phenology network has been started in 1923.In 1987 the network has been divided into tree observation types (field crops, fruit trees and wild plants) with separate methodology instructions. The period 1991 - 2010 has been selected. We have statistically evaluated results of fruit trees phenophase onset (bud burst - BBCH07, inflorescence emergence - BBCH57, beginning of flowering - BBCH61, end of flowering - BBCH69) in above mentioned period (apple, pear, cherry, morello, apricot). The second step has been evaluation of interval duration with meteorological characteristics (air temperature, sunshine duration, number of days with precipitation above 1 mm).In selected period 1991 - 2009 were observed subsequent average phenophase onset: BBCH 07 - 25th March, BBCH 57 - 14th April, BBCH61 - 26th April, BBCH69 - 12th May (Malus domestica Borkh. - species Idared). Prunus armeniaca L. - species Velkopavlovická shows these results in period 1991 - 2009: BBCH07 - 27th March, BBCH57 - 5th April, BBCH61 - 7th April, BBCH69 - 19th April.

  4. Evaluation of Weed Biodiversity on Rice (Oryza sativa L Agro-ecosystems (Organic and High-input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Yusef Musavi Toghyani

    2017-12-01

    system, there was no significant difference between the two systems. Confirmations suggest that the combination of plant and animal communities and the structure of food webs in rice agro-ecosystems are very similar in different parts of the world. Comparison of different stages of sampling based on the average of the two systems revealed a decline in diversity and evenness of weeds in the fourth stage (after harvest. The evaluation of biodiversity indicators of both organic and high input systems also showed a significant reduction in weed biodiversity indices in the fourth stage compared to the previous stages. This result could be due to the disturbance of rice agro-ecosystems affected by harvesting and soil preparation for the emergence of various weed species. As regards that evidences suggest that in these conditions (disturbance and stress only certain species (especially resistant species are dominant. Despite the anticipation of increasing diversity in these conditions, because of drought stress at the harvesting stage, resistant species to stress emerged and established. In the tolerance model, despite the existence of opportunistic species, low-expected species (low R star are grown and mature at lower resource levels. The superiority of diversity in the organic system, especially in the fourth stage, can be related to the emergence and establishment of resistant weeds to disturbance and stress conditions such as Digitaria spp. X. strumarium, and E. prostrata (species of non-flooding conditions in addition to common weeds of the rice agro-ecosystems, such as Echinochloacrussgulli and Cyperus spp. (species of flooding conditions. Conclusion The results showed that in general, biodiversity (diversity and evenness indices of weeds were higher in the organic system compared to the conventional one. From this viewpoint, it can be said that the sustainability of organic systems rather than the conventional ones is mainly due to their greater diversity. Because of

  5. Evaluation of Sustainability of the Carbon and Silicon Ecosystem: From Nanoparticles to Macroworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, V.

    Rapid development of nanotechnologies has led to a complicated problem of utilization, storage and treatment of waste nanodevices of silicon and carbon origin. The processes of physico-chemical and biogeochemical destruction of carbon—silicon—uranium nanoparticles of Chernobyl origin has been studied. The period of half-destruction assessed by leaching of different radionuclide from particles is between 5 and 25 years. Natural ecosystems are generally of carbon and silicon origin. The behavior of radionuclide in natural media is observed over a period of 20 years. For the balance calculations we have utilized the Geochemical Transition Factor (GTF) that represents the quantity of substance, which is accumulated by living matter from the area unit. The main part of total carbon is involved in biogeochemical cycles in the forest ecosystem. Anthropogenic activity leads to a considerable imbalance of carbon isotopes. The distribution of carbon isotopes between different biotic levels demonstrates that radiocarbon of artificial emission is substantially less bio-available than those from natural sources. The environmental ability to recovery, lies in decontamination of carbon trophic circuits, is an order of magnitude greater than the rate of natural attenuation and corresponds to the removal of artificial matter from natural silicon media. The modern sustainability of the silicon and carbon ecosystem is determined by an insignificant quantity of artificial matter involved in biogeochemical cycles.

  6. Methodology for Evaluating the Quality of Ecosystem Maps: A Case Study in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in thematic maps has been tested mainly in maps with discrete or fuzzy classifications based on spectral data. However, many ecosystem maps in tropical countries consist of discrete polygons containing information on various ecosystem properties such as vegetation cover, soil, climate, geomorphology and biodiversity. The combination of these properties into one class leads to error. We propose a probability-based sampling design with two domains, multiple stages, and stratification with selection of primary sampling units (PSUs proportional to the richness of strata present. Validation is undertaken through field visits and fine resolution remote sensing data. A pilot site in the center of the Colombian Andes was chosen to validate a government official ecosystem map. Twenty primary sampling units (PSUs of 10 × 15 km were selected, and the final numbers of final sampling units (FSUs were 76 for the terrestrial domain and 46 for the aquatic domain. Our results showed a confidence level of 95%, with the accuracy in the terrestrial domain varying between 51.8% and 64.3% and in the aquatic domain varying between 75% and 92%. Governments need to account for uncertainty since they rely on the quality of these maps to make decisions and guide policies.

  7. Building a Shared Understanding of Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, A.; Posthumus, E.; Gerst, K.

    2017-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) seeks to advance the science of phenology and support the use of phenology information in decision-making. We envision that natural resource, human health, recreation and land-use decisions, in the context of a variable and changing climate, will be supported by USA-NPN products and tools. To achieve this vision we developed a logic model, breaking down the necessary inputs (e.g., IT infrastructure), participants, activities and the short- to long-term goals (e.g., use of phenological information in adaptive management). Here we compare the ongoing activities and outcomes of three recent collaborations to our logic model, in order to improve the model and inform future collaborations. At Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, resource managers use the USA-NPN's phenology monitoring program to pinpoint the minimum number of days between initial growth and seed set in an invasive species. The data output and calendar visualizations that USA-NPN provides are sufficient to identify the appropriate treatment window. In contrast to a direct relationship with a natural resource manager using USA-NPN tools and products, some collaborations require substantive iterative work between partners. USA-NPN and National Park Service staff, along with academic researchers, assessed advancement in the timing of spring, and delivered the work in a format appropriate for park managers. Lastly, collaborations with indigenous communities reveal a requirement to reconsider the relationship between Western science and indigenous knowledge systems, as well as address ethical considerations and develop trust, before Western science can be meaningfully incorporated into decision-making. While the USA-NPN is a boundary organization, working in between federal agencies, states and universities, and is mandated to support decision-making, we still face challenges in generating usable science. We share lessons learned based on our experience with

  8. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Cufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gricar, Jozica; Gruber, Andreas; King, Gregory M; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-linear patterns according to limiting factors that generate shifts and discontinuities, or contain thresholds beyond which responses change abruptly. This study investigates to what extent cambium phenology is associated with xylem growth and differentiation across conifer species of the northern hemisphere. Xylem cell production is compared with the periods of cambial activity and cell differentiation assessed on a weekly time scale on histological sections of cambium and wood tissue collected from the stems of nine species in Canada and Europe over 1-9 years per site from 1998 to 2011. The dynamics of xylogenesis were surprisingly homogeneous among conifer species, although dispersions from the average were obviously observed. Within the range analysed, the relationships between the phenological timings were linear, with several slopes showing values close to or not statistically different from 1. The relationships between the phenological timings and cell production were distinctly non-linear, and involved an exponential pattern. The trees adjust their phenological timings according to linear patterns. Thus, shifts of one phenological phase are associated with synchronous and comparable shifts of the successive phases. However, small increases in the duration of xylogenesis could correspond to a substantial increase in cell production. The findings suggest that the length of the growing season and the resulting amount of growth could respond differently to changes in environmental conditions.

  9. Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic Evaluation of Hydrological Ecosystem Services in Mediterranean River Basins Applied to a Case Study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mastrorilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use affects eco-hydrological processes with consequences for floods and droughts. Changes in land use affect ecosystems and hydrological services. The objective of this study is the analysis of hydrological services through the quantification of water resources, pollutant loads, land retention capacity and soil erosion. On the basis of a quantitative evaluation, the economic values of the ecosystem services are estimated. By assigning an economic value to the natural resources and to the hydraulic system, the hydrological services can be computed at the scale of catchment ecosystem. The proposed methodology was applied to the basin “Bonis” (Calabria Region, Italy. The study analyses four land use scenarios: (i forest cover with good vegetative status (baseline scenario; (ii modification of the forest canopy; (iii variation in forest and cultivated surfaces; (iv insertion of impermeable areas. The simulations prove that the variations of the state of forest areas has considerable influence on the water balance, and then on the provided economic value. Small economic changes derive from reducing the impermeable areas. Increasing the agricultural area to 50% of the total, and reducing the forest surface, affects soil erosion, reduces the storage capacity of the water, and consequently the water harvesting. The suggested methodology can be considered a suitable tool for land planning.

  11. The use of efficiency frontiers to evaluate the optimal land cover and irrigation practices for economic returns and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant; Xu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Efficiency frontiers are a useful tool for governmental agencies that balance the protection of ecosystem services with the economic returns from an agricultural landscape because the tool illustrates that a compromise of objectives generates greater value to society than optimizing a sole objective. Policy makers facing the problem of groundwater overdraft on an agricultural landscape want to know if regulations or irrigation technology adoption will enhance both economic and ecosystem service benefits. Conjunctive water management with on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery system is frequently suggested to alleviate groundwater and surface water quality problems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin of the United States, and this study evaluates the consequence of the adoption of this technology for the balance of ecosystem service and economic objectives. A compromise of objectives that maximizes the value to society provides 76% more value to society without reservoirs and 66% more value to society with reservoirs than the sole objective of economic returns. The reservoirs help an agricultural landscape maximizing economic returns to align more closely with a landscape maximizing the value to society, although there are still significant gains possible from finding a landscape that directly compromises on the objectives.

  12. Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Liao, Xiaoli; Zhai, Tianlin

    2018-04-01

    Climate change and rapid urbanization are important factors restricting future land use. Situational analysis, as an important foundation for the optimization of land use, needs to focus on the impact of climate factors and socio-economic factors. In this paper, the Markov model and the DLS (Simulation of Land System Dynamics) model are combined for the first time, and the land use pattern in 2020 is simulated based on the data of land use in 2000 and 2010 as well as the climate, soil, topography and socio-economic factors of Yunnan Province. In his paper, we took Yunnan Province as the case study area, and selected 12 driving factors by logistic regression method, then the land use demands and layout of Yunnan Province in 2020 has been forecasted and simulated under business as usual (BAU) scenario and farmland protection (FP) scenario and the changes in ecosystem service value has been calculated. The result shows that: (1) after the regression analysis and ROC (Relative Operating Characteristics) test, the 12 factors selected in this paper have a strong ability to explain the land use change in Yunnan Province. (2) Under the two scenarios, the significant reduction of arable land area is a common feature of land use change in Yunnan Province in the future, and its main land use type will be construction land. However, under FP scenario, the current situation where construction land encroach on arable land will be improved. Compared with the change from 2000 to 2010, the trend of arable land, forest land, water area, construction land and unused land will be the same under the two scenarios, whereas the change trend of grassland was opposite. (3) From 2000 to 2020, the value of ecosystem services in Yunnan Province is on the rise, but the ecosystem service value under FP scenario is higher than that of the ecosystem services under BAU scenario. In general, land use in 2020 in Yunnan Province continues the pattern of 2010, but there are also significant spatial

  13. Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services

  14. Contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy throughout the seasons under different nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Migliavacca, M.; Perez-Priego, O.; Luo, Y.; Moreno, G.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Reichstein, M.

    2017-12-01

    In semi-arid savanna type ecosystems, the carbon and water cycle are closely related to each other. Water availability is the main driver for the development and phenology of the vegetation, especially for annual plants. Depending on tree density, nutrient availability and species the contribution of the tree- and the herbaceous layer to ecosystem fluxes can vary substantially. We present data from an ecosystem scale nutrient manipulation experiment within a Mediterranean savanna type ecosystem which is used for cattle. The footprint areas of two out of three ecosystem eddy co-variance (EC) towers were fertilized with nitrogen (NT) and nitrogen plus phosphorous (NPT) while the third one served as the control tower (CT). At each ecosystem EC-tower an additional herbaceous layer tower was installed that only sampled fluxes from the herbaceous layer. Under certain assumptions flux differences between the ecosystem EC and the herbaceous layer EC systems can be considered as the contribution of the trees to the ecosystem fluxes. Based on phenology of the herbaceous layer estimated through green-chromatic-coordinates from digital imagery the year was separated into spring, senescence, regreening, and winter. The focus of the analysis is (i) the evaluation of the method and how it works throughout the different seasons and (ii) the quantification of the contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy under different environmental conditions and nutrient stoichiometry. The contribution of the trees to total ecosystem fluxes is variable in time. Especially, during the beginning of the senescence period high evapotranspiration rates and largest carbon uptake are measured while the contribution to sensible heat fluxes is largest during the end of the summer. During the regreening and winter the contribution of ET is relatively constant around 0.25 mm d-1. During the peak of the greenness ET and carbon flux of the herbaceous EC tower are

  15. Herbarium specimens can reveal impacts of climate change on plant phenology; a review of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Casey A; Daehler, Curtis C

    2018-01-01

    Studies in plant phenology have provided some of the best evidence for large-scale responses to recent climate change. Over the last decade, more than thirty studies have used herbarium specimens to analyze changes in flowering phenology over time, although studies from tropical environments are thus far generally lacking. In this review, we summarize the approaches and applications used to date. Reproductive plant phenology has primarily been analyzed using two summary statistics, the mean flowering day of year and first-flowering day of year, but mean flowering day has proven to be a more robust statistic. Two types of regression models have been applied to test for associations between flowering, temperature and time: flowering day regressed on year and flowering day regressed on temperature. Most studies analyzed the effect of temperature by averaging temperatures from three months prior to the date of flowering. On average, published studies have used 55 herbarium specimens per species to characterize changes in phenology over time, but in many cases fewer specimens were used. Geospatial grid data are increasingly being used for determining average temperatures at herbarium specimen collection locations, allowing testing for finer scale correspondence between phenology and climate. Multiple studies have shown that inferences from herbarium specimen data are comparable to findings from systematically collected field observations. Understanding phenological responses to climate change is a crucial step towards recognizing implications for higher trophic levels and large-scale ecosystem processes. As herbaria are increasingly being digitized worldwide, more data are becoming available for future studies. As temperatures continue to rise globally, herbarium specimens are expected to become an increasingly important resource for analyzing plant responses to climate change.

  16. Shifts in Arctic phenology in response to climate and anthropogenic factors as detected from multiple satellite time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Heqing; Jia, Gensuo; Forbes, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce the uncertainties in remotely sensed detection of phenological shifts of high latitude ecosystems in response to climate changes in past decades. In this study, vegetation phenology in western Arctic Russia (the Yamal Peninsula) was investigated by analyzing and comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) during the decade 2000–2010. The spatial patterns of key phenological parameters were highly heterogeneous along the latitudinal gradients based on multi-satellite data. There was earlier SOS (start of the growing season), later EOS (end of the growing season), longer LOS (length of the growing season), and greater MaxNDVI from north to south in the region. The results based on MODIS and VGT data showed similar trends in phenological changes from 2000 to 2010, while quite a different trend was found based on AVHRR data from 2000 to 2008. A significantly delayed EOS (p < 0.01), thus increasing the LOS, was found from AVHRR data, while no similar trends were detected from MODIS and VGT data. There were no obvious shifts in MaxNDVI during the last decade. MODIS and VGT data were considered to be preferred data for monitoring vegetation phenology in northern high latitudes. Temperature is still a key factor controlling spatial phenological gradients and variability, while anthropogenic factors (reindeer husbandry and resource exploitation) might explain the delayed SOS in southern Yamal. Continuous environmental damage could trigger a positive feedback to the delayed SOS. (letter)

  17. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  18. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-11

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  19. Pimp your landscape: a tool for qualitative evaluation of the effects of regional planning measures on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Christine; Volk, Martin; Pietzsch, Katrin; Makeschin, Franz

    2010-12-01

    The article presents the platform "Pimp your landscape" (PYL), which aims firstly at the support of planners by simulating alternative land-use scenarios and by an evaluation of benefits or risks for regionally important ecosystem services. Second, PYL supports an integration of information on environmental and landscape conditions into impact assessment. Third, PYL supports the integration of impacts of planning measures on ecosystem services. PYL is a modified 2-D cellular automaton with GIS features. The cells have the major attribute "land-use type" and can be supplemented with additional information, such as specifics regarding geology, topography and climate. The GIS features support the delineation of non-cellular infrastructural elements, such as roads or water bodies. An evaluation matrix represents the core element of the system. In this matrix, values in a relative scale from 0 (lowest value) to 100 (highest value) are assigned to the land-use types and infrastructural elements depending on their effect on ecosystem services. The option to configure rules for describing the impact of environmental attributes and proximity effects on cell values and land-use transition probabilities is of particular importance. User interface and usage of the platform are demonstrated by an application case. Constraints and limits of the recent version are discussed, including the need to consider in the evaluation, landscape-structure aspects such as patch size, fragmentation and spatial connectivity. Regarding the further development, it is planned to include the impact of land management practices to support climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in regional planning.

  20. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Zhu

    Full Text Available Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands, using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  1. Phenology Data Products to Support Assessment and Forecasting of Phenology on Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, K.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Moore, D. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database maintained by USA-NPN now has over 3.7 million records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2014, with the majority of these observations collected since 2008 as part of a broad, national contributory science strategy. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. While users are free to develop custom algorithms for data cleaning, winnowing and summarization prior to analysis, the National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation provides a progress report on data product development, including: (1) Quality controlled raw phenophase status data; (2) Derived phenometrics (e.g. onset, duration) at multiple scales; (3) Data visualization tools; (4) Tools to support assessment of species interactions and overlap; (5) Species responsiveness to environmental drivers; (6) Spatially gridded phenoclimatological products; and (7) Algorithms for modeling and forecasting future phenological responses. The prioritization of these data products is a direct response to stakeholder needs related to informing management and policy decisions. We anticipate that these products will contribute to broad understanding of plant

  2. Evaluating Ecosystem Services for Reducing Groundwater Nitrate Contamination: Nitrate Attenuation in the Unsaturated and Saturated Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrates are the most common type of groundwater contamination in agricultural regions. Environmental policies targeting nitrates have focused on input control (e.g., restricted fertilizer application), intermediate loads control (e.g., reduce nitrate leached from crop fields), and final loads control (e.g., reduce catchment nitrate loads). Nitrate loads can be affected by hydrological processes in both unsaturated and saturated zones. Although many of these processes have been extensively investigated in literature, they are commonly modeled as exogenous to farm management. A couple of recent studies by scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show that in some situations nitrate attenuation processes in the unsaturated/saturated zone, particularly denitrification, can be intensified by certain management practices to mitigate nitrate loads. Therefore, these nitrate attenuation processes can be regarded as a set of ecosystem services that farmers can take advantage of to reduce their cost of complying with environmental policies. In this paper, a representative California dairy farm is used as a case study to show how such ecosystem attenuation services can be framed within the farm owner's decision-making framework as an option for reducing groundwater nitrate contamination. I develop an integrated dynamic model, where the farmer maximizes discounted net farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. The model consists of three submodels: animal-waste-crop, hydrologic, and economic model. In addition to common choice variables such as irrigation, fertilization, and waste disposal options, the farmer can also endogenously choose from three water sources: surface water, deep groundwater (old groundwater in the deep aquifer that is not affected by farm effluent in the short term), and shallow groundwater (drainage water that can be recycled via capture wells at the downstream end of the farm). The capture wells not only

  3. Environmental and Human Controls of Ecosystem Functional Diversity in Temperate South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alcaraz-Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional controls of biodiversity patterns have been traditionally evaluated using structural and compositional components at the species level, but evaluation of the functional component at the ecosystem level is still scarce. During the last decades, the role of ecosystem functioning in management and conservation has increased. Our aim was to use satellite-derived Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs, patches of the land-surface with similar carbon gain dynamics to characterize the regional patterns of ecosystem functional diversity and to evaluate the environmental and human controls that determine EFT richness across natural and human-modified systems in temperate South America. The EFT identification was based on three descriptors of carbon gain dynamics derived from seasonal curves of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI: annual mean (surrogate of primary production, seasonal coefficient of variation (indicator of seasonality and date of maximum EVI (descriptor of phenology. As observed for species richness in the southern hemisphere, water availability, not energy, emerged as the main climatic driver of EFT richness in natural areas of temperate South America. In anthropogenic areas, the role of both water and energy decreased and increasing human intervention increased richness at low levels of human influence, but decreased richness at high levels of human influence.

  4. Evaluating CO2 and CH4 dynamics of Alaskan ecosystems during the Holocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujie; Jones, Miriam C.; Zhuang, Qianlai; Bochicchio, Christopher; Felzer, B. S.; Mason, Erik; Yu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic has experienced much greater warming than the global average in recent decades due to polar amplification. Warming has induced ecological changes that have impacted climate carbon-cycle feedbacks, making it important to understand the climate and vegetation controls on carbon (C) dynamics. Here we used the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, 11–9 ka BP, 1 ka BP = 1000 cal yr before present) in Alaska as a case study to examine how ecosystem Cdynamics responded to the past warming climate using an integrated approach of combining paleoecological reconstructions and ecosystem modeling. Our paleoecological synthesis showed expansion of deciduous broadleaf forest (dominated by Populus) into tundra and the establishment of boreal evergreen needleleaf and mixed forest during the second half of the HTM under a warmer- and wetter-than-before climate, coincident with the occurrence of the highest net primary productivity, cumulative net ecosystem productivity, soil C accumulation and CH4 emissions. These series of ecological and biogeochemical shifts mirrored the solar insolation and subsequent temperature and precipitation patterns during HTM, indicating the importance of climate controls on C dynamics. Our simulated regional estimate of CH4 emission rates from Alaska during the HTM ranged from 3.5 to 6.4 Tg CH4 yr−1 and highest annual NPP of 470 Tg C yr−1, significantly higher than previously reported modern estimates. Our results show that the differences in static vegetation distribution maps used in simulations of different time slices have greater influence on modeled C dynamics than climatic fields within each time slice, highlighting the importance of incorporating vegetation community dynamics and their responses to climatic conditions in long-term biogeochemical modeling.

  5. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  6. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  7. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  8. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  9. Morpho-phenological and Antibacterial Characteristics of Aconitum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoirentomba Meetei SINAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum species have been traditionally used as ethnomedicine to cure various ailments. The present study reveals the morpho-phenology and antibacterial property of alkaloid extracts of the two Aconitum species. The morpho-phenological characteristics will be helpful for determining the resource availability. Aconitum nagarum is erect type, whereas, Aconitum elwesii is a climber. Aconitum elwesii grows in advance of A. nagarum in terms of growth, flowering and senescence. Towards the end of the year, when the fruits have ripened, the parent tuber dies off. As a result, the daughter tuber becomes independent and in the following spring, takes over the function of the parent tuber. Aconitum nagarum and A. elwesii were found to contain 4-5 aconitine equivalent (AE mg/g of alkaloid. These alkaloids showed antibacterial activity against different bacterial species including human pathogens, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Xanthomonas campestris. However, the extent of antibacterial activity varied among different bacterial species. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. bronchiseptica, and B. subtilis was bactericidal in nature, whereas, against other tested bacterial species was bacteriostatic. Efficacy of the antibacterial activity of these alkaloids was evaluated by comparing with that of standard antibiotics. Differential localization of the antibacterial principle was observed among the Aconitum species studied.

  10. Hydrological Controls on Floodplain Forest Phenology Assessed using Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, M. G.; Keim, R.

    2017-12-01

    Although specific controls are not well understood, the phenology of temperate forests is generally thought to be controlled by photoperiod and temperature, although recent research suggests that soil moisture may also be important. The phenological controls of forested wetlands have not been thoroughly studied, and may be more controlled by site hydrology than other forests. For this study, remotely sensed vegetation indices were used to investigate hydrological controls on start-of-season timing, growing season length, and end-of-season timing at five floodplains in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas. A simple spring green-up model was used to determine the null spring start of season time for each site as a function of land surface temperature and photoperiod, or two remotely sensed indices: MODIS phenology data product and the MODIS Nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function-Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product. Preliminary results indicate that topographically lower areas within the floodplain with higher flood frequency experience later start-of-season timing. In addition, start-of-season is delayed in wet years relative to predicted timing based solely on temperature and photoperiod. The consequences for these controls unclear, but results suggest hydrological controls on floodplain ecosystem structure and carbon budgets are likely at least partially expressed by variations in growing season length.

  11. Effects of heavy-metal-contaminated soil on growth, phenology and biomass turnover of Hieracium piloselloides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryser, Peter; Sauder, Wendy R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low levels of heavy metals on plant growth, biomass turnover and reproduction were investigated for Hieracium pilosella. Plants were grown for 12 weeks on substrates with different concentrations of heavy metals obtained by diluting contaminated soils with silica sand. To minimize effects of other soil factors, the substrates were limed, fertilized, and well watered. The more metal-contaminated soil the substrate contained, the lower the leaf production rate and the plant mass were, and the more the phenological development was delayed. Flowering phenology was very sensitive to metals. Leaf life span was reduced at the highest and the lowest metal levels, the latter being a result of advanced seed ripening. Even if the effect of low metal levels on plant growth may be small, the delayed and reduced reproduction may have large effects at population, community and ecosystem level, and contribute to rapid evolution of metal tolerance. - Flowering phenology shows a very sensitive response to heavy metal contamination of soils

  12. Rainfall and topo-edaphic influences on woody community phenology in South African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, CM

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available the limiting periods, i.e. at Stockholm. the start and cessation of the rainy season. This was Fatubarin, A. (1985) Observations on the phenology of not reflected in the data presented here with respect to the woody plants and grasses in a savanna ecosystem... of temperature on evaporative demand (Bate, Furniss & Pendle, 1982).∗ Current address: Environmentek, CSIR, P.O. Box At a gross scale, annual rainfall is a coarse index of395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. e-mail: csh- ackle@csir.co.za. seasonal plant available...

  13. Predicting ecosystem dynamics at regional scales: an evaluation of a terrestrial biosphere model for the forests of northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, David; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2012-01-19

    Terrestrial biosphere models are important tools for diagnosing both the current state of the terrestrial carbon cycle and forecasting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. While there are a number of ongoing assessments of the short-term predictive capabilities of terrestrial biosphere models using flux-tower measurements, to date there have been relatively few assessments of their ability to predict longer term, decadal-scale biomass dynamics. Here, we present the results of a regional-scale evaluation of the Ecosystem Demography version 2 (ED2)-structured terrestrial biosphere model, evaluating the model's predictions against forest inventory measurements for the northeast USA and Quebec from 1985 to 1995. Simulations were conducted using a default parametrization, which used parameter values from the literature, and a constrained model parametrization, which had been developed by constraining the model's predictions against 2 years of measurements from a single site, Harvard Forest (42.5° N, 72.1° W). The analysis shows that the constrained model parametrization offered marked improvements over the default model formulation, capturing large-scale variation in patterns of biomass dynamics despite marked differences in climate forcing, land-use history and species-composition across the region. These results imply that data-constrained parametrizations of structured biosphere models such as ED2 can be successfully used for regional-scale ecosystem prediction and forecasting. We also assess the model's ability to capture sub-grid scale heterogeneity in the dynamics of biomass growth and mortality of different sizes and types of trees, and then discuss the implications of these analyses for further reducing the remaining biases in the model's predictions.

  14. Tracking Climate Effects on Plant-Pollinator Interaction Phenology with Satellites and Honey Bee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, Wayne E.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Tan, Bin; Ma, Peter L.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods: The complexity of plant-pollinator interactions, the large number of species involved, and the lack of species response functions present challenges to understanding how these critical interactions may be impacted by climate and land cover change on large scales. Given the importance of this interaction for terrestrial ecosystems, it is desirable to develop new approaches. We monitor the daily weight change of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to record the phenology of the Honey Bee Nectar Flow (HBNF) in a volunteer network (honeybeenet.gsfc.nasa.gov). The records document the successful interaction of a generalist pollinator with a variety of plant resources. We extract useful HBNF phenology metrics for three seasons. Sites currently exist in 35 states/provinces in North America, with a concentration in the Mid-Atlantic region. HBNF metrics are compared to standard phenology metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices from NASA's MODIS sensor and published results from NOAA's A VHRR. At any given time the percentage of plants producing nectar is usually a sma11 fraction of the total satellite sensor signal. We are interested in determining how well the 'bulk' satellite vegetation parameters relate to the phenology of the HBNF, and how it varies spatially on landscape to continental scales. Results/Conclusions: We found the median and peak seasonal HBNF dates to be robust, with variation between replicate scale hives of only a few days. We developed quality assessment protocols to identify abnormal colony artifacts. Temporally, the peak and median of the HBNF in the Mid-Atlantic show a significant advance of 0.58 d/y beginning about 1970, very similar to that observed by the A VHRR since 1982 (0.57 d/y). Spatially, the HBNF metrics are highly correlated with elevation and winter minimum temperature distribution, and exhibit significant but regionally coherent inter-annual variation. The relationship between median of the

  15. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  16. Old Plants, New Tricks: Phenological Research Using Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles G; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Primack, Richard B; Davis, Charles C; Pearson, Katelin D; Gallinat, Amanda S; Yost, Jenn M; Nelson, Gil; Mazer, Susan J; Rossington, Natalie L; Sparks, Tim H; Soltis, Pamela S

    2017-07-01

    The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate. We review the current state of herbarium-based phenological research, identify potential biases and limitations in the collection, digitization, and interpretation of specimen data, and discuss future opportunities for phenological investigations using herbarium specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenological change detection while accounting for abrupt and gradual trends in satellite image time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbesselt, J.; Hyndman, R.; Zeileis, A.; Culvenor, D.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in phenology studies is understanding what constitutes phenological change amidst background variation. The majority of phenological studies have focused on extracting critical points in the seasonal growth cycle, without exploiting the full temporal detail. The high degree of

  18. Using a phenological network to assess weather influences on first appearance of butterflies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, Van Der Henk Jan; Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Vliet, Van Arnold J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Phenological responses of butterflies to temperature have been demonstrated in several European countries by using data from standardized butterfly monitoring schemes. Recently, phenological networks have enabled volunteers to record phenological observations at project websites. In this study,

  19. Recent changes in phenology over the northern high latitudes detected from multi-satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Heqing; Jia Gensuo; Epstein, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Phenology of vegetation is a sensitive and valuable indicator of the dynamic responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Therefore, to better understand and predict ecosystems dynamics, it is important to reduce uncertainties in detecting phenological changes. Here, changes in phenology over the past several decades across the northern high-latitude region (≥60°N) were examined by calibrating and analyzing time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Over the past decade (2000–10), an expanded length of the growing season (LOS) was detected by MODIS, largely due to an earlier start of the growing season (SOS) by 4.7 days per decade and a delayed end of the growing season (EOS) by 1.6 days per decade over the northern high latitudes. There were significant differences between North America and Eurasia in phenology from 2000 to 2010 based on MODIS data (SOS: df = 21, F = 49.02, p < 0.0001; EOS: df = 21, F = 49.25, p < 0.0001; LOS: df = 21, F = 79.40, p < 0.0001). In northern America, SOS advanced by 11.5 days per decade, and EOS was delayed by 2.2 days per decade. In Eurasia, SOS advanced by 2.7 days per decade, and EOS was delayed by 3.5 days per decade. SOS has likely advanced due to the warming Arctic during April and May. Our results suggest that in recent decades the longer vegetation growing seasons can be attributed to more advanced SOS rather than delayed EOS. AVHRR detected longer LOS over the past three decades, largely related to delayed EOS rather than advanced SOS. These two datasets are significantly different in key phenological parameters (SOS: df = 17, F = 14.63, p = 0.0015; EOS: df = 17, F = 38.69, p < 0.0001; LOS: df = 17, F = 16.47, p = 0.0009) from 2000 to 2008 over the northern high latitudes. Thus, further inter-calibration between the sensors is needed to resolve the inconsistency and to better understand long-term trends of vegetation growth

  20. Evaluation of water conservation capacity of loess plateau typical mountain ecosystems based on InVEST model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xizhi; Zuo, Zhongguo; Xiao, Peiqing

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for water resources and frequently a general deterioration of local water resources, water conservation by forests has received considerable attention in recent years. To evaluate water conservation capacities of different forest ecosystems in mountainous areas of Loess Plateau, the landscape of forests was divided into 18 types in Loess Plateau. Under the consideration of the factors such as climate, topography, plant, soil and land use, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated by means of InVEST model. The result showed that 486417.7 hm2 forests in typical mountain areas were divided into 18 forest types, and the total water conservation quantity was 1.64×1012m3, equaling an average of water conversation quantity of 9.09×1010m3. There is a great difference in average water conversation capacity among various forest types. The water conservation function and its evaluation is crucial and complicated issues in the study of ecological service function in modern times.

  1. A multiple soil ecosystem services approach to evaluate the sustainability of reduced tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Guénola; Menasseri, Safya; Hallaire, Vincent; Cluzeau, Daniel; Heddadj, Djilali; Cotinet, Patrice; Manceau, Olivier; Pulleman, Mirjam

    2017-04-01

    In the current context of soil degradation, reduced tillage systems (including reduced soil disturbance, use of cover crops and crop rotation, and improved organic matter management) are expected to be good alternatives to conventional system which have led to a decrease of soil multi-functionality. Many studies worldwide have analysed the impact of tillage systems on different soil functions, but overran integrated view of the impact of these systems is still lacking. The SUSTAIN project (European SNOWMAN programme), performed in France and the Netherlands, proposes an interdisciplinary collaboration. The goals of SUSTAIN are to assess the multi-functionality of soil and to study how reduced-tillage systems impact on multiple ecosystem services such as soil biodiversity regulation (earthworms, nematodes, microorganisms), soil structure maintenance (aggregate stability, compaction, soil erosion), water regulation (run-off, transfer of pesticides) and food production. Moreover, a socio-economic study on farmer networks has been carried out to identify the drivers of adoption of reduced-tillage systems. Data have been collected in long-term experimental fields (5 - 13 years), representing conventional and organic farming strategies, and were complemented with data from farmer networks. The impact of different reduced tillage systems (direct seeding, minimum tillage, non-inverse tillage, superficial ploughing) were analysed and compared to conventional ploughing. Measurements (biological, chemical, physical, agronomical, water and element transfer) have been done at several dates which allow an overview of the evolution of the soil properties according to climate variation and crop rotation. A sociological approach was performed on several farms covering different production types, different courses (engagement in reduced tillage systems) and different geographical locations. Focusing on French trials, this multiple ecosystem services approach clearly showed that

  2. Phenological mismatch in coastal western Alaska may increase summer season greenhouse gas uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C.; Leffler, A. Joshua; Beard, Karen H.; Choi, Ryan T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2018-04-01

    High latitude ecosystems are prone to phenological mismatches due to climate change- driven advances in the growing season and changing arrival times of migratory herbivores. These changes have the potential to alter biogeochemical cycling and contribute to feedbacks on climate change by altering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) through large regions of the Arctic. Yet the effects of phenological mismatches on gas fluxes are currently unexplored. We used a three-year field experiment that altered the start of the growing season and timing of grazing to investigate how phenological mismatch affects GHG exchange. We found early grazing increased mean GHG emission to the atmosphere despite lower CH4 emissions due to grazing-induced changes in vegetation structure that increased uptake of CO2. In contrast, late grazing reduced GHG emissions because greater plant productivity led to an increase in CO2 uptake that overcame the increase in CH4 emission. Timing of grazing was an important control on both CO2 and CH4 emissions, and net GHG exchange was the result of opposing fluxes of CO2 and CH4. N2O played a negligible role in GHG flux. Advancing the growing season had a smaller effect on GHG emissions than changes to timing of grazing in this study. Our results suggest that a phenological mismatch that delays timing of grazing relative to the growing season, a change which is already developing along in western coastal Alaska, will reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere through increased CO2 uptake despite greater CH4 emissions.

  3. Phenological mismatch in coastal western Alaska may increase summer season greenhouse gas uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C.; Leffler, A. Joshua; Beard, Karen H.; Choi, Ryan T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2018-01-01

    High latitude ecosystems are prone to phenological mismatches due to climate change- driven advances in the growing season and changing arrival times of migratory herbivores. These changes have the potential to alter biogeochemical cycling and contribute to feedbacks on climate change by altering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) through large regions of the Arctic. Yet the effects of phenological mismatches on gas fluxes are currently unexplored. We used a three-year field experiment that altered the start of the growing season and timing of grazing to investigate how phenological mismatch affects GHG exchange. We found early grazing increased mean GHG emission to the atmosphere despite lower CH4 emissions due to grazing-induced changes in vegetation structure that increased uptake of CO2. In contrast, late grazing reduced GHG emissions because greater plant productivity led to an increase in CO2 uptake that overcame the increase in CH4 emission. Timing of grazing was an important control on both CO2 and CH4 emissions, and net GHG exchange was the result of opposing fluxes of CO2 and CH4. N2O played a negligible role in GHG flux. Advancing the growing season had a smaller effect on GHG emissions than changes to timing of grazing in this study. Our results suggest that a phenological mismatch that delays timing of grazing relative to the growing season, a change which is already developing along in western coastal Alaska, will reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere through increased CO2 uptake despite greater CH4 emissions.

  4. Herbarium specimens show patterns of fruiting phenology in native and invasive plant species across New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinat, Amanda S; Russo, Luca; Melaas, Eli K; Willis, Charles G; Primack, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013. We examined patterns in fruiting phenology among 37 native and 18 invasive woody plant species common to New England. We compared fruiting dates between native and invasive species, and analyzed how fruiting phenology varies with temperature, space, and time. Spring temperature and year explained a small but significant amount of the variation in fruiting dates. Accounting for the moderate phylogenetic signal in fruiting phenology, invasive species fruited 26 days later on average than native species, with significantly greater standard deviations. Herbarium specimens can be used to detect patterns in fruiting times among species. However, the amount of intraspecific variation in fruiting times explained by temporal, geographic, and climatic predictors is small, due to a combination of low temporal resolution of fruiting specimens and the protracted nature of fruiting. Later fruiting times in invasive species, combined with delays in autumn bird migrations in New England, may increase the likelihood that migratory birds will consume and disperse invasive seeds in New England later into the year. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Impact of dynamic vegetation phenology on the simulated pan-Arctic land surface state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Bernardo; Sushama, Laxmi; Arora, Vivek K.; Verseghy, Diana

    2018-03-01

    The pan-Arctic land surface is undergoing rapid changes in a warming climate, with near-surface permafrost projected to degrade significantly during the twenty-first century. Vegetation-related feedbacks have the potential to influence the rate of degradation of permafrost. In this study, the impact of dynamic phenology on the pan-Arctic land surface state, particularly near-surface permafrost, for the 1961-2100 period, is assessed by comparing two simulations of the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS)—one with dynamic phenology, modelled using the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM), and the other with prescribed phenology. These simulations are forced by atmospheric data from a transient climate change simulation of the 5th generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). Comparison of the CLASS coupled to CTEM simulation to available observational estimates of plant area index, spatial distribution of permafrost and active layer thickness suggests that the model captures reasonably well the overall distribution of vegetation and permafrost. It is shown that the most important impact of dynamic phenology on the land surface occurs through albedo and it is demonstrated for the first time that vegetation control on albedo during late spring and early summer has the highest potential to impact the degradation of permafrost. While both simulations show extensive near-surface permafrost degradation by the end of the twenty-first century, the strong projected response of vegetation to climate warming and increasing CO2 concentrations in the coupled simulation results in accelerated permafrost degradation in the northernmost continuous permafrost regions.

  6. PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF THE ‘ROXO DE VALINHOS’ FIG CULTIVAR IN WESTERN POTIGUAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO SIDENE OLIVEIRA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Roxo de Valinhos’ fig is one of the most widely grown varieties in the world, however, there are still few studies on the phenology and yield of fig trees, especially in semi-arid regions. This study evaluated the phenology and yield aspects of the ‘Roxo de Valinhos’ fig cultivar in Western Potiguar. The experiment was carried out from July to December 2015 in the didactic orchard of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid, UFERSA. The following phenological aspects were analyzed: pruning at the beginning of budding, emergence and maturity of the first fruit, beginning of harvest, length and diameter of branches, number of fruits per branch, length and diameter of fruits, absolute growth rate, yield per plant, number of fruits per plant, and fruit weight. We used descriptive statistics; for quantitative and qualitative characteristics, we used regression analysis and means test, through Tukey´s test at 5% probability. Fig trees showed good adaptability to semi-arid regions and precocity when compared to fig trees from temperate regions, in all phenological stages; the studied cultivar showed promising results for cultivation in this region.

  7. Reconstructing patterns of temperature, phenology, and frost damage over 124 years: spring damage risk is increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, Carol K

    2013-01-01

    Climate change, with both warmer spring temperatures and greater temperature fluctuations, has altered phenologies, possibly leading to greater risk of spring frost damage to temperate deciduous woody plants. Phenological observations of 20 woody species from 1993 to 2012 in Trelease Woods, Champaign County, Illinois, USA, were used to identify years with frost damage to vegetative and reproductive phases. Local temperature records were used in combination with the phenological observations to determine what combinations of the two were associated with damage. Finally, a long-term temperature record (1889-1992) was evaluated to determine if the frequency of frost damage has risen in recent decades. Frost Frost damage occurred in five years in the interior and in three additional years at only the forest edge. The degree of damage varied with species, life stage, tissue (vegetative or reproductive), and phenological phase. Common features associated with the occurrence of damage to interior plants were (1) a period of unusual warm temperatures in March, followed by (2) a frost event in April with a minimum temperature frost damage increased significantly, from 0.03 during 1889-1979 to 0.21 during 1980-2012. When the criteria were "softened" to frost damage events more common.

  8. Climatic effects on the phenology of geophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Eppich, Boglárka; Dede, Lilla; Ferenczy, Antal; Garamvölgyi , Ágnes; Horváth , Levente; Isépy , István; Priszter , Szaniszló; Hufnagel, Levente

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the scientific and social significance of the research of climatic effects has become outstanding. In order to be able to predict the ecological effects of the global climate change, it is necessary to study monitoring databases of the past and explore connections. For the case study mentioned in the title, historical weather data series from the Hungarian Meteorological Service and Szaniszló Priszter’s monitoring data on the phenology of geophytes have been used. These ...

  9. Vegetative and reproductive phenological patterns in coastal dunes in S Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenology of Mediterranean plant species has been extensively studied in different types of ecosystems. However, very little research has been conducted on dune ecosystems. The aim of this research is the phenological characterization and comparison among phenological patterns in three coastal dunes areas in S Spain. For this purpose, we apply the methodology proposed by Orshan (1989 and NLPCA phenological indexes. Our results show that seasonality of species from coastal dunes in S Spain follows the pattern observed in dry and warm Mediterranean ecosystems. The maximum phenological activity occurs for a period of 7-9 months, mainly in spring and late winter, whereas summer is clearly the most inactive period of the year. Vegetative phenophases predominate over the reproductive. Flowering is mainly early (March-May, but it may extend to summer. Flowering duration has been identified as a key index in the differentiation among coastal dunes with different conditions of Mediterranean macroclimate, whereas the importance of the phenophase sequence index has been shown in order to discriminate sectors within dunes. Using the NLPCA analysis based on phenological indexes, four phenological groups of species have been determined. From a conservation perspective, the identification of these groups point out the utility of developing different strategies of management according to the high diversity of eco- and phenomorphological variability that characterize the coastal dunes.La fenología de las especies vegetales mediterráneas ha sido ampliamente estudiada en diferentes tipos de ecosistemas. Sin embargo, es poco lo que se conoce sobre fenología de dunas costeras. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la caracterización y comparación de patrones fenológicos en tres áreas de dunas costeras del Sur de España. Para ello, se ha aplicado la metodología propuesta por Orshan (1989 así como índices fenológicos NLPCA. Nuestros resultados muestran

  10. Evaluating pesticide effects on freshwater invertebrate communities in alpine environment: a model ecosystem experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, A; Carolli, M; Varolo, E; Villa, S; Vighi, M

    2012-10-01

    Pesticide loads in streams are potentially one of the most relevant stressors for macroinvertebrate communities. Nevertheless, real effects provoked at the community level are still largely unknown. Model ecosystems are frequently used as tools for the risk assessment of pesticides, especially for their regulation, however, they can be also applied to site-specific risk assessment in order to gain better understanding of the responses of aquatic ecosystems to chemical stress. In the present work, an experimental system was composed of 5 artificial streams that reproduced a mountain lotic environment under controlled conditions. This study was aimed to better understand, whether (and how) the biological community was influenced by pesticides pulse exposures. 5 mixture load events were simulated over the productive season (March-July 2010): biological community was regularly sampled and nominal concentrations of water were tested. The results were interpreted comparing the output of different metrics and statistical methodologies. The sensitivity of different metrics was analyzed considering single exposure events (maximum Toxic Units) as well as overall temporal trends. Results showed how some common taxonomic metrics (e.g. taxa richness, Shannon's index, total abundance of organisms, and the Extended Biotic Index) were not suitable to identify the effects of pesticides at community level. On the contrary EPT%, SPEAR(pesticide) and the Principal Response Curve methodology proved to be sensitive to this kind of stress, providing comparable results. Temporal trends of these metrics proved to be related to the concentration of chemicals. Remarkably, the first Principal Response Curve illustrates the trend followed by the most vulnerable species, while the second is more related to the trend of opportunistic species. A high potential risk for the invertebrate community was highlighted by a statistically significant decline of 40 points (comparison with the control) in

  11. Evaluation and inversion of a net ecosystem carbon exchange model for grasslands and croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, M.; Klosterhalfen, A.; Weihermueller, L.; Graf, A.; Schmidt, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional soil water, heat, and CO2 flux model (SOILCO2), a pool concept of soil carbon turnover (RothC), and a crop growth module (SUCROS) was coupled to predict the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon. This model, further referred to as AgroC, was extended with routines for managed grassland as well as for root exudation and root decay. In a first step, the coupled model was applied to two winter wheat sites and one upland grassland site in Germany. The model was calibrated based on soil water content, soil temperature, biometric, and soil respiration measurements for each site, and validated in terms of hourly NEE measured with the eddy covariance technique. The overall model performance of AgroC was acceptable with a model efficiency >0.78 for NEE. In a second step, AgroC was optimized with the eddy covariance NEE measurements to examine the effect of various objective functions, constraints, and data-transformations on estimated NEE, which showed a distinct sensitivity to the choice of objective function and the inclusion of soil respiration data in the optimization process. Both, day and nighttime fluxes, were found to be sensitive to the selected optimization strategy. Additional consideration of soil respiration measurements improved the simulation of small positive fluxes remarkably. Even though the model performance of the selected optimization strategies did not diverge substantially, the resulting annual NEE differed substantially. We conclude that data-transformation, definition of objective functions, and data sources have to be considered cautiously when using a terrestrial ecosystem model to determine carbon balances by means of eddy covariance measurements.

  12. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmynowski, Dena P.; Root, Terry L.

    2007-05-01

    The intra- and inter-season complexity of bird migration has received limited attention in climatic change research. Our phenological analysis of 22 species collected in Chicago, USA, (1979 2002) evaluates the relationship between multi-scalar climate variables and differences (1) in arrival timing between sexes, (2) in arrival distributions among species, and (3) between spring and fall migration. The early migratory period for earliest arriving species (i.e., short-distance migrants) and earliest arriving individuals of a species (i.e., males) most frequently correlate with climate variables. Compared to long-distance migrant species, four times as many short-distance migrants correlate with spring temperature, while 8 of 11 (73%) of long-distance migrant species’ arrival is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While migratory phenology has been correlated with NAO in Europe, we believe that this is the first documentation of a significant association in North America. Geographically proximate conditions apparently influence migratory timing for short-distance migrants while continental-scale climate (e.g., NAO) seemingly influences the phenology of Neotropical migrants. The preponderance of climate correlations is with the early migratory period, not the median of arrival, suggesting that early spring conditions constrain the onset or rate of migration for some species. The seasonal arrival distribution provides considerable information about migratory passage beyond what is apparent from statistical analyses of phenology. A relationship between climate and fall phenology is not detected at this location. Analysis of the within-season complexity of migration, including multiple metrics of arrival, is essential to detect species’ responses to changing climate as well as evaluate the underlying biological mechanisms.

  13. Incorporating ecosystem function concept in environmental planning and decision making by means of multi-criteria evaluation: the case-study of Kalloni, Lesbos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Vera; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Troumbis, Andreas Y

    2011-01-01

    Nature provides life-support services which do not merely constitute the basis for ecosystem integrity but also benefit human societies. The importance of such multiple outputs is often ignored or underestimated in environmental planning and decision making. The economic valuation of ecosystem functions or services has been widely used to make these benefits economically visible and thus address this deficiency. Alternatively, the relative importance of the components of ecosystem value can be identified and compared by means of multi-criteria evaluation. Hereupon, this article proposes a conceptual framework that couples ecosystem function analysis, multi criteria evaluation and social research methodologies for introducing an ecosystem function-based planning and management approach. The framework consists of five steps providing the structure of a participative decision making process which is then tested and ratified, by applying the discrete multi-criteria method NAIADE, in the Kalloni Natura 2000 site, on Lesbos, Greece. Three scenarios were developed and evaluated with regard to their impacts on the different types of ecosystem functions and the social actors' value judgements. A conflict analysis permitted the better elaboration of the different views, outlining the coalitions formed in the local community and shaping the way towards reaching a consensus.

  14. Cascading effects of climate extremes on vertebrate fauna through changes to low-latitude tree flowering and fruiting phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nathalie; Seabrook, Leonie; Maron, Martine; Law, Bradley S; Dawson, Terence P; Syktus, Jozef; McAlpine, Clive A

    2015-09-01

    Forest vertebrate fauna provide critical services, such as pollination and seed dispersal, which underpin functional and resilient ecosystems. In turn, many of these fauna are dependent on the flowering phenology of the plant species of such ecosystems. The impact of changes in climate, including climate extremes, on the interaction between these fauna and flora has not been identified or elucidated, yet influences on flowering phenology are already evident. These changes are well documented in the mid to high latitudes. However, there is emerging evidence that the flowering phenology, nectar/pollen production, and fruit production of long-lived trees in tropical and subtropical forests are also being impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of climate extremes. Here, we examine the implications of these changes for vertebrate fauna dependent on these resources. We review the literature to establish evidence for links between climate extremes and flowering phenology, elucidating the nature of relationships between different vertebrate taxa and flowering regimes. We combine this information with climate change projections to postulate about the likely impacts on nectar, pollen and fruit resource availability and the consequences for dependent vertebrate fauna. The most recent climate projections show that the frequency and intensity of climate extremes will increase during the 21st century. These changes are likely to significantly alter mass flowering and fruiting events in the tropics and subtropics, which are frequently cued by climate extremes, such as intensive rainfall events or rapid temperature shifts. We find that in these systems the abundance and duration of resource availability for vertebrate fauna is likely to fluctuate, and the time intervals between episodes of high resource availability to increase. The combined impact of these changes has the potential to result in cascading effects on ecosystems through changes in pollinator and seed

  15. Evaluation of the ecological integrity and ecosystem health of three benthic networks influenced by coastal upwelling in the northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecological health of ecosystems relates to the maintenance or restoration of optimal system function when confronted with a disturbance. A healthy ecosystem is a prerequisite for ecological sustainability. Ecological integrity has been defined as an emergent property of ecosy...

  16. Global biogeographical pattern of ecosystem functional types derived from earth observation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivits, Eva; Cherlet, Michael; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2013-01-01

    correspondence of the EFTs to global climate and also to land use classification. The results show the great potential of Earth Observation derived parameters for the quantification of ecosystem functional dynamics and for providing reference status information for future assessments of ecosystem changes........ The association of the EFTs with existing climate and land cover classifications was demonstrated via Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The ordination indicated good description of the global environmental gradient by the EFTs, supporting the understanding of phenological and productivity dynamics...... of global ecosystems. Climatic constraints of vegetation growth explained 50% of variation in the phenological data along the EFTs showing that part of the variation in the global phenological gradient is not climate related but is unique to the Earth Observation derived variables. DCA demonstrated good...

  17. Combining soundscape analysis with in situ observations and oceanographic data for future ecosystem evaluation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S. E.; Freeman, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reef ecosystems face many anthropogenic threats. There are urgent requirements for improved monitoring and management. Conventional assessment methods using SCUBA are costly and prone to bias and under-sampling. Here, three approaches to understanding coral reef ecology are combined to aid the goal of enhanced passive monitoring in the future: statistical analysis of oceanographic habitats, remote cameras for nocturnal surveys of benthic fauna, and soundscape analysis in the context of oceanographic setting and ecological metrics collected in-situ. Hawaiian reefs from Kure Atoll to the island of Hawaii, an area spanning two oceanographic habitats, are assessed. Multivariate analysis of acoustic, remote camera, and in-situ observational data showed significant differences in more than 20 percent of ecological and acoustic variables when grouped by oceanic regime, suggesting that large-scale oceanography substantially influences local ecological states and associated soundscapes. Acoustic variables further delineated sites by island, suggesting local conditions influence the soundscape to a greater degree. While the number of invertebrates (with an emphasis on crustaceans and echinoderms) imaged using remote cameras correlated with a number of acoustic metrics, an increasingly higher correlation between invertebrate density and spectral level was observed as acoustic bands increased in frequency from 2 to 20 kHz. In turn, correlation was also observed between the number of predatory fish and sound levels above 2 kHz, suggesting a connection between the number of invertebrates, sound levels at higher frequencies, and the presence of their predators. Comparisons between sound recordings and diversity indices calculated from observational and remote camera data indicate that greater diversity in fishes and benthic invertebrates is associated with a larger change in sound levels between day and night. Interdisciplinary analyses provide a novel view to underwater

  18. Community patterns of tropical tree phenology derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images: intra- and interspecific variation, association with species plant traits, and response to interannual climate variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlman, Stephanie; Rifai, Sami; Park, John; Dandois, Jonathan; Muller-Landau, Helene

    2017-04-01

    Phenology is a key life history trait of plant species and critical driver of ecosystem processes. There is strong evidence that phenology is shifting in temperate ecosystems in response to climate change, but tropical forest phenology remains poorly quantified and understood. A key challenge is that tropical forests contain hundreds of plant species with a wide variety of phenological patterns, which makes it difficult to collect sufficient ground-based field data to characterize individual tropical tree species phenologies. Satellite-based observations, an important source of phenology data in northern latitudes, are hindered by frequent cloud cover in the tropics. To quantify phenology over a large number of individuals and species, we collected bi-weekly images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the well-studied 50-ha forest inventory plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The objective of this study is to quantify inter- and intra-specific responses of tropical tree leaf phenology to environmental variation over large spatial scales and identify key environmental variables and physiological mechanisms underpinning phenological variation. Between October 2014 and December 2015 and again in May 2015, we collected a total of 35 sets of UAV images, each with continuous coverage of the 50-ha plot, where every tree ≥ 1 cm DBH is mapped. UAV imagery was corrected for exposure, orthorectified, and then processed to extract spectral, texture, and image information for individual tree crowns, which was then used as inputs for a machine learning algorithm that successfully predicted the percentages of leaf, branch, and flower cover for each tree crown (r2=0.76 between observed and predicted percent branch cover for individual tree crowns). We then quantified cumulative annual deciduousness for each crown by fitting a non-parametric curve of flexible shape to its predicted percent branch time series and calculated the area under the curve. We obtained the species

  19. Evaluation of toxicity level of the polluted eco-system for an industrial city of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Akram, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06) in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06) in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  20. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill evaluated using an end-to-end ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Paris, Claire B; Perlin, Natalie; Dornberger, Lindsey N; Patterson, William F; Chancellor, Emily; Murawski, Steve; Hollander, David; Daly, Kendra; Romero, Isabel C; Coleman, Felicia; Perryman, Holly

    2018-01-01

    We use a spatially explicit biogeochemical end-to-end ecosystem model, Atlantis, to simulate impacts from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and subsequent recovery of fish guilds. Dose-response relationships with expected oil concentrations were utilized to estimate the impact on fish growth and mortality rates. We also examine the effects of fisheries closures and impacts on recruitment. We validate predictions of the model by comparing population trends and age structure before and after the oil spill with fisheries independent data. The model suggests that recruitment effects and fishery closures had little influence on biomass dynamics. However, at the assumed level of oil concentrations and toxicity, impacts on fish mortality and growth rates were large and commensurate with observations. Sensitivity analysis suggests the biomass of large reef fish decreased by 25% to 50% in areas most affected by the spill, and biomass of large demersal fish decreased even more, by 40% to 70%. Impacts on reef and demersal forage caused starvation mortality in predators and increased reliance on pelagic forage. Impacts on the food web translated effects of the spill far away from the oiled area. Effects on age structure suggest possible delayed impacts on fishery yields. Recovery of high-turnover populations generally is predicted to occur within 10 years, but some slower-growing populations may take 30+ years to fully recover.

  1. Evaluation of toxicity and translocation of Carbofuran in a simulated rice-fish ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikder, M.Q.; Nabi, M.R.; AminUddin, M.; Rahman, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Toxic effects of 14 C-carbofuran on climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), its translocation and residual accumulation in a rice-fish ecosystem under simulated conditions in an aquarium was studied. Mortality trial showed that carbofuran concentration of 4 ppm acutely toxic and kill the fish until the fifth day and after five days, residual concentration in water was not lethal to fish. Carbofuran was applied in the soil in glass aquarium planted with paddy at the rate of 0.75 kg a.i./ha. Maximum radioactivity was observed in water on day 1 (0.07 μg/l) and day 3 (0.07μg/l) after application of the pesticide. In soil sample radioactivity increased gradually and reached peak level of 1.134 μg/g on day 98 after pesticide application. In rice plants, the emergent portion was found highest level of 33.6 μg/g on day 71 and in the submerged portion it was 2.336 μg/g on the same day. Highest level of radioactivity was recorded in muscle tissue (0.252 μg/g) and visceral tissue of the fist (0.724 μg/g) on day 66 after carbofuran application.(author)

  2. Phenology and interspecific association of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Lordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate.

  3. Phenology and interspecific association of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens in apple orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordan, J.; Alegre, S.; Moerkens, R.; Sarasúa, M.J.; Alins, G.

    2015-07-01

    The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate. (Author)

  4. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan V; Alisauskas, Ray T; Douglas, David C; Kellett, Dana K

    2017-07-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992-2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May-30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment, leading

  5. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan V.; Alisaukas, Ray T.; Douglas, David C.; Kellett, Dana K.

    2017-01-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992–2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May–30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment

  6. Machine learning modeling of plant phenology based on coupling satellite and gridded meteorological dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernecki, Bartosz; Nowosad, Jakub; Jabłońska, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Changes in the timing of plant phenological phases are important proxies in contemporary climate research. However, most of the commonly used traditional phenological observations do not give any coherent spatial information. While consistent spatial data can be obtained from airborne sensors and preprocessed gridded meteorological data, not many studies robustly benefit from these data sources. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to create and evaluate different statistical models for reconstructing, predicting, and improving quality of phenological phases monitoring with the use of satellite and meteorological products. A quality-controlled dataset of the 13 BBCH plant phenophases in Poland was collected for the period 2007-2014. For each phenophase, statistical models were built using the most commonly applied regression-based machine learning techniques, such as multiple linear regression, lasso, principal component regression, generalized boosted models, and random forest. The quality of the models was estimated using a k-fold cross-validation. The obtained results showed varying potential for coupling meteorological derived indices with remote sensing products in terms of phenological modeling; however, application of both data sources improves models' accuracy from 0.6 to 4.6 day in terms of obtained RMSE. It is shown that a robust prediction of early phenological phases is mostly related to meteorological indices, whereas for autumn phenophases, there is a stronger information signal provided by satellite-derived vegetation metrics. Choosing a specific set of predictors and applying a robust preprocessing procedures is more important for final results than the selection of a particular statistical model. The average RMSE for the best models of all phenophases is 6.3, while the individual RMSE vary seasonally from 3.5 to 10 days. Models give reliable proxy for ground observations with RMSE below 5 days for early spring and late spring phenophases. For

  7. Citizen Science in Grand Teton National Park Reveals Phenological Response of Wildlife to Climate Change and Increases Public Involvement in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, T. D. S.; Riginos, C.

    2017-12-01

    Around the world, phenology —or the timing of ecological events — is shifting as the climate warms. This can lead to a variety of consequences for individual species and for ecological communities as a whole, most notably through asynchronies that can develop between plants and animals that depend upon each other (e.g. nectar-consuming pollinators). Within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and Grand Teton National Park (GTNP), there is little understanding of how climate change is affecting plant and animal phenology, yet through detailed scientific and citizen science observation there is tremendous potential to further our knowledge of this topic and increase public awareness. Detailed historic data are rare, but in GTNP we have the opportunity to capitalize on phenology data gathered by Dr. Frank Craighead, Jr. in the 1970s, before significant warming had occurred. We have already gathered, digitized, and quality-controlled Craighead's observations of plant first flowering dates. First flowering date for 87% of a 72-species data set correlate significantly with spring temperatures in the 1970s, suggesting that these plants are now flowering earlier and will continue to flower earlier in the future. Our multi-year project has project has 3 primary goals: (1) initiate a citizen science project, Wildflower Watch GTNP, to train volunteer scientists to collect contemporary phenology data on these species (2) gather further historical records of plant phenology in the region, and (3) model continued phenological changes under future climate change scenarios using satellite derived climate data and on the ground observations. This project simultaneously increases public involvement in climate research, collaborates with the National Park Service to inform management strategies for at-risk species, and furthers scientific understanding of phenological response to climate change in the Rocky Mountains.

  8. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecosystem Services Evaluation and Its Spatial Characteristics in Central Asia’s Arid Regions: A Case Study in Altay Prefecture, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Fu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are important foundations to realize the sustainable development of economy and society. The question of how to quantitatively evaluate ecosystem services in a scientific way is a hot topic among international researchers. Studying the spatial characteristics of ecosystem services in arid regions can provide the theoretical and practical basis for coordinating a sustainable man-land relationship. Altay Prefecture of China, a typical arid region in Central Asia, was taken as the study area. It is on the Silk Road economic belt, which is a key region in the program of developing Western China. Three ecosystem services: water yield, soil conservation, and net primary productivity were quantitatively evaluated. The results show that (1 the spatial distribution pattern has a distinct characteristic of zonality; (2 mountain zone and mountain-oasis ecotone are the hotspots of ecosystem services; and (3 the correlation between water yield and net primary productivity shows a gradual increasing trend as altitude decreases. Objective analysis from the aspect of mechanism is given by discussing the causes of this particular pattern. It is found that altitude and slope have great influence on spatial distributions of ecosystem services, zones with the most amount of services are distributed in 1.5–2 km-altitude and 15–25°-slope. Different human activities in different regions and spatial distance decay of ecosystem services also contribute to the formation of spatial pattern. Thus, overgrazing, logging and mining are prohibited in mountain zones and mountain-oasis ecotones. Scholars are encouraged to focus on desert-ecosystem services in the future.

  10. Integrating chemical and biological status assessment: Assembling lines of evidence for the evaluation of river ecosystem risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gracia, Isabel; Sabater, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes various approaches to evaluating ecological risk in rivers affected by multiple chemical stressors, with emphasis on biofilm and invertebrate community responses. Metrics should be considered as different lines of evidence that, when weighted, form an advanced weight of evidence approach to establishing the environmental risk on a basin scale. Combination of field surveys to obtain observational data of communities, in situ experiments, toxicological sediment tests and a good chemical description of the medium (water and sediment) helps give an integrative view of the chemical and biological state of a river ecosystem. The greater and more distinct the variables used, the greater is our ability to identify the effects of major stressors impairing communities. Weight of evidence is an integrative methodology for tackling the challenge of determining causal relations and applying this knowledge in the decision-making processes of river management.

  11. Leaf Phenology of Amazonian Canopy Trees as Revealed by Spectral and Physiochemical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, C.; Gerard, F. F.; Malhi, Y.; Enquist, B. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The phenological dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems reflect the response of the Earth's biosphere to inter- and intra-annual dynamics of climatic and hydrological regimes. Some Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (GDVMs) have predicted that by 2050 the Amazon rainforest will begin to dieback (Cox et al. 2000, Nature) or that the ecosystem will become unsustainable (Salazar et al. 2007, GRL). One major component in DGVMs is the simulation of vegetation phenology, however, modelers are challenged with the estimation of tropical phenology which is highly complex. Current modeled phenology is based on observations of temperate vegetation and accurate representation of tropical phenology is long overdue. Remote sensing (RS) data are a key tool in monitoring vegetation dynamics at regional and global scales. Of the many RS techniques available, time-series analysis of vegetation indices (VIs) has become the most common approach in monitoring vegetation phenology (Samanta et al. 2010, GRL; Bradley et al. 2011, GCB). Our research focuses on investigating the influence that age related variation in the spectral reflectance and physiochemical properties of leaves may have on VIs of tropical canopies. In order to do this, we collected a unique leaf and canopy phenological dataset at two different Amazonian sites: Inselberg, French Guyana (FG) and Tambopata, Peru (PE). Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were collected from 4,102 individual leaves sampled to represent different leaf ages and vertical canopy positions (top, mid and low canopy) from 20 different canopy tree species (8 in FG and 12 in PE). These leaf spectra were complemented with 1) leaf physical measurements: fresh and dry weight, area and thickness, LMA and LWC and 2) leaf chemical measurements: %N, %C, %P, C:N and d13C. Canopy level observations included top-of-canopy reflectance measurements obtained using a multispectral 16-band radiometer, leaf demography (tot. number and age distribution) and branch

  12. Validation of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (v.5.1) against eddy covariance data for 10 European forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collalti, A.; Marconi, S.; Ibrom, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM) in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. A new carbon allocation module, coupled with new both phenological...... over Europe without a site-related calibration, the model has been deliberately parametrized with a single set of species-specific parametrizations for each forest ecosystem. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites...... sites we evaluate whether a more accurate representation of forest structural characteristics (i.e. cohorts, forest layers) and species composition can improve model results. In two of the three sites results reveal that model slightly increases its performances although, statistically speaking...

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Fire on Semi-Arid Savanna Ecosystem Productivity Using Integrated Spectral and Gas Exchange Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, H. D.; Jimenez, J. R.; Gallery, R. E.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Smith, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands account for 40% of the land surface and have been identified as increasingly important in driving interannual variability of the land carbon sink. Yet, understanding of dryland seasonal ecosystem productivity dynamics - termed Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) - is limited due to complex interactions between vegetation health, seasonal drought dynamics, a paucity of long-term measurements across these under-studied regions, and unanticipated disturbances from varying fire regimes. For instance, fire disturbance has been found to either greatly reduce post-fire GPP through vegetation mortality or enhance post-fire GPP though increased resource availability (e.g., water, light, nutrients, etc.). Here, we explore post-fire ecosystem recovery by evaluating seasonal GPP dynamics for two Ameriflux eddy covariance flux tower sites within the Santa Rita Experimental Range of southeastern Arizona: 1) the US-SRG savanna site dominated by a mix of grass and woody mesquite vegetation that was burned in May 2017, and 2) the US-SRM savanna site dominated by similar vegetation but unburned for the full measurement record. For each site, we collected leaf-level spectral and gas exchange measurements, as well as leaf-level chemistry and soil chemistry to characterize differences in nutrient availability and microbial activity throughout the 2017 growing season. From spectral data, we derived and evaluated multiple common vegetation metrics, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectivity index (PRI), near-infrared reflectance (NIRv), and MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI). Early results suggest rates of photosynthesis were enhanced at the burned site, with productivity increasing immediately following the onset of monsoonal precipitation; whereas initial photosynthesis at the unburned site remained relatively low following first monsoonal rains. MTCI values for burned vegetation appear to track higher levels of leaf-level nitrogen

  14. High Arctic plant phenology is determined by snowmelt patterns but duration of phenological periods is fixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Gillespie, Mark A K; Rumpf, Sabine B.

    2016-01-01

    The duration of specific periods within a plant's life cycle are critical for plant growth and performance. In the High Arctic, the start of many of these phenological periods is determined by snowmelt date, which may change in a changing climate. It has been suggested that the end of these periods...

  15. A global synthesis of animal phenological responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy M.; Lajeunesse, Marc J.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2018-03-01

    Shifts in phenology are already resulting in disruptions to the timing of migration and breeding, and asynchronies between interacting species1-5. Recent syntheses have concluded that trophic level1, latitude6 and how phenological responses are measured7 are key to determining the strength of phenological responses to climate change. However, researchers still lack a comprehensive framework that can predict responses to climate change globally and across diverse taxa. Here, we synthesize hundreds of published time series of animal phenology from across the planet to show that temperature primarily drives phenological responses at mid-latitudes, with precipitation becoming important at lower latitudes, probably reflecting factors that drive seasonality in each region. Phylogeny and body size are associated with the strength of phenological shifts, suggesting emerging asynchronies between interacting species that differ in body size, such as hosts and parasites and predators and prey. Finally, although there are many compelling biological explanations for spring phenological delays, some examples of delays are associated with short annual records that are prone to sampling error. Our findings arm biologists with predictions concerning which climatic variables and organismal traits drive phenological shifts.

  16. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  17. Impact of some climatic and phenological parameters on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the first year, in control clones,climatic and phenological parameters explain 52.80% callogenesis variations, against 31.50% for SE. Therefore,climate and phenology significantly influence callogenesis, but not SE. For further industrial production of secondary metabolites such as butter, the obromin and chocolate aroma ...

  18. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  19. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  20. SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHANGES OF NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS RESPONSE TO PHENOLOGY IN NORTHEAST CHINA DURING 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP and phenological changes is of great significance to the study of regional ecosystem processes. In this study, firstly, NPP was estimated with the remote sensing model based on the SPOT-VGT NDVI dataset (2000–2015, meteorological data and the vegetation map in Northeast China. Then, using NDVI time series data which was reconstructed by polynomial fitting, phenology was extracted with the dynamic threshold method. Finally, the relationship between NPP and phenology was analyzed. The results showed that NPP mainly increased in the cropland, grassland, forestland and shrubland; however, vegetation NPP decreased in the ecotone among cropland, grassland and forestland. Correlation analysis suggested that the relationships between NPP and phenological metrics (i.e., the start of the growing season (SOS, the end of the growing season (EOS, the length of the growing season (LOS were different due to geographical location. On the whole, there was a positive correlation between NPP and the LOS in the forestland, and negative in the cropland and grassland, indicating that extended LOS can promote the accumulation of forestland NPP. By analyzing the monthly NDVI data during the vigorous growth period, the increase of NPP in the grassland and cropland was mainly due to the better growth from June to August, and shortened LOS did not lead to reduce the NPP. Generally, the response of NPP to phenology in Northeast China were more complex, showing obvious difference of vegetation types and spatial variability, we need to consider topography, community structure and other factors in the further studies.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Changes of Net Primary Productivity and its Response to Phenology in Northeast China during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Fan, D.

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and phenological changes is of great significance to the study of regional ecosystem processes. In this study, firstly, NPP was estimated with the remote sensing model based on the SPOT-VGT NDVI dataset (2000-2015), meteorological data and the vegetation map in Northeast China. Then, using NDVI time series data which was reconstructed by polynomial fitting, phenology was extracted with the dynamic threshold method. Finally, the relationship between NPP and phenology was analyzed. The results showed that NPP mainly increased in the cropland, grassland, forestland and shrubland; however, vegetation NPP decreased in the ecotone among cropland, grassland and forestland. Correlation analysis suggested that the relationships between NPP and phenological metrics (i.e., the start of the growing season (SOS), the end of the growing season (EOS), the length of the growing season (LOS)) were different due to geographical location. On the whole, there was a positive correlation between NPP and the LOS in the forestland, and negative in the cropland and grassland, indicating that extended LOS can promote the accumulation of forestland NPP. By analyzing the monthly NDVI data during the vigorous growth period, the increase of NPP in the grassland and cropland was mainly due to the better growth from June to August, and shortened LOS did not lead to reduce the NPP. Generally, the response of NPP to phenology in Northeast China were more complex, showing obvious difference of vegetation types and spatial variability, we need to consider topography, community structure and other factors in the further studies.

  2. Changes in the structure and function of northern Alaskan ecosystems when considering variable leaf-out times across groupings of species in a dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; Carman, T.B.; McGuire, Anthony David

    2013-01-01

    The phenology of arctic ecosystems is driven primarily by abiotic forces, with temperature acting as the main determinant of growing season onset and leaf budburst in the spring. However, while the plant species in arctic ecosystems require differing amounts of accumulated heat for leaf-out, dynamic vegetation models simulated over regional to global scales typically assume some average leaf-out for all of the species within an ecosystem. Here, we make use of air temperature records and observations of spring leaf phenology collected across dominant groupings of species (dwarf birch shrubs, willow shrubs, other deciduous shrubs, grasses, sedges, and forbs) in arctic and boreal ecosystems in Alaska. We then parameterize a dynamic vegetation model based on these data for four types of tundra ecosystems (heath tundra, shrub tundra, wet sedge tundra, and tussock tundra), as well as ecotonal boreal white spruce forest, and perform model simulations for the years 1970 -2100. Over the course of the model simulations, we found changes in ecosystem composition under this new phenology algorithm compared to simulations with the previous phenology algorithm. These changes were the result of the differential timing of leaf-out, as well as the ability for the groupings of species to compete for nitrogen and light availability. Regionally, there were differences in the trends of the carbon pools and fluxes between the new phenology algorithm and the previous phenology algorithm, although these differences depended on the future climate scenario. These findings indicate the importance of leaf phenology data collection by species and across the various ecosystem types within the highly heterogeneous Arctic landscape, and that dynamic vegetation models should consider variation in leaf-out by groupings of species within these ecosystems to make more accurate projections of future plant distributions and carbon cycling in Arctic regions.

  3. Herbarium records are reliable sources of phenological change driven by climate and provide novel insights into species' phenological cueing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Willis, Charles G; Connolly, Bryan; Kelly, Courtland; Ellison, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology of some species but not others. Long-term field observational records provide the best assessment of these changes, but geographic and taxonomic biases limit their utility. Plant specimens in herbaria have been hypothesized to provide a wealth of additional data for studying phenological responses to climatic change. However, no study to our knowledge has comprehensively addressed whether herbarium data are accurate measures of phenological response and thus applicable to addressing such questions. We compared flowering phenology determined from field observations (years 1852-1858, 1875, 1878-1908, 2003-2006, 2011-2013) and herbarium records (1852-2013) of 20 species from New England, United States. Earliest flowering date estimated from herbarium records faithfully reflected field observations of first flowering date and substantially increased the sampling range across climatic conditions. Additionally, although most species demonstrated a response to interannual temperature variation, long-term temporal changes in phenological response were not detectable. Our findings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and also importantly establish a new use of herbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species (e.g., temperature, winter chilling, photoperiod). These latter data are lacking from most investigations of phenological change, but are vital for understanding differential responses of individual species to ongoing climate change. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of

  5. Direct and indirect effects of climatic variations on the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange across terrestrial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiong Shao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variables not only directly affect the interannual variability (IAV in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE but also indirectly drive it by changing the physiological parameters. Identifying these direct and indirect paths can reveal the underlying mechanisms of carbon (C dynamics. In this study, we applied a path analysis using flux data from 65 sites to quantify the direct and indirect climatic effects on IAV in NEE and to evaluate the potential relationships among the climatic variables and physiological parameters that represent physiology and phenology of ecosystems. We found that the maximum photosynthetic rate was the most important factor for the IAV in gross primary productivity (GPP, which was mainly induced by the variation in vapour pressure deficit. For ecosystem respiration (RE, the most important drivers were GPP and the reference respiratory rate. The biome type regulated the direct and indirect paths, with distinctive differences between forests and non-forests, evergreen needleleaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests, and between grasslands and croplands. Different paths were also found among wet, moist and dry ecosystems. However, the climatic variables can only partly explain the IAV in physiological parameters, suggesting that the latter may also result from other biotic and disturbance factors. In addition, the climatic variables related to NEE were not necessarily the same as those related to GPP and RE, indicating the emerging difficulty encountered when studying the IAV in NEE. Overall, our results highlight the contribution of certain physiological parameters to the IAV in C fluxes and the importance of biome type and multi-year water conditions, which should receive more attention in future experimental and modelling research.

  6. Evaluation Of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary Ecosystem And Management Strategy Affected By Climate Change In Mahakam Watershed Kutai Kartanegara Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lariman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Bumbun Sanctuary Middle Mahakam Lake is very important for the fishermen community and Mahakam Irrawaddy Dolphin life concerned to its function as the source of fish and as the feeding ground of Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris. The changes in the forest function and the climate such as rainfall and water surfaces are predicted to have caused suppression in the ecosystem of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current ecosystem changes of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary and suggest a suitable management strategy as a way to conserve its function. The research was conducted during the dry season April June and rainy season November December 2014 by using survey methods. The measured parameters were including water quality DO pH temperature TSS TDS alkalinity and clarity vegetation composition rainfall water surface elevation and sediment. The data of fish community were analysed by using Shanon-Wiener index. The result showed that 1 The current condition of Batu Bumbun biophysical ecosystem has been experiencing a heavy degradation showed by a high fluctuation of the water surface in two extreme seasons such as the flood in rainy seasons and silt up in the dry season. 2 The vegetation composition in the riverbanks was composed of five species including Bungur Lagerstroemia speciosa Rambai Punai Chaetocarpus Castano carpus Kendikara Dillenia excelsa Kademba Mytragina speciosa and Rengas Gluta renghas. The dominant tree species was Putat Barringtonia asiatica and Perupuk Lophopetalum javanicum. 3 Batu Bumbun Sanctuary has been experiencing a heavy siltation caused by silt material that piles up the weeds during the rainy season. Since 1985 Batu Bumbun was predicted to have rates of silting around 8 cmyear. From those result it can be concluded that Batu Bumbun has been experiencing a heavy degradation showed by a high fluctuation of water surface vegetation composition and heavy siltation. Then the most suitable

  7. Evaluating the contribution of Sustainable Land Management to climate change adaptation and mitigation, and its impacts on Mediterranean ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Joris; Zagaria, Cecilia; Pérez-Cutillas, Pedro; Almagro, Maria; Martínez-Mena, Maria; Baartman, Jantiene; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    Changing climate and land management have strong implications for soil and water resources and for many essential ecosystem services (ES), such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. Large impacts of climate change are expected in the Mediterranean, characterized by a high dependence on scarce soil and water resources. On the other hand, well designed Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies can reduce the risks associated with climate change, but their design requires knowledge of their multiple effects on ecosystem services under present and future climate scenarios and of possible tradeoffs. Moreover, strategies are only viable if suited to local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions, so stakeholder engagement is crucial during their selection, evaluation and implementation. We present preliminary results of a catchment wide assessment of the expected impacts of climate change on water availability in the Segura basin (18800 km2) southeastern Spain. Furthermore, we evaluated the impacts of past land use changes and the benefits of catchment wide implementation of SLM practices to protect soil and water resources, prevent sedimentation of reservoirs and increase carbon sequestration in soil and vegetation. We used the InVEST modeling framework to simulate the water availability and sediment export under different climate, land use and land management scenarios, and quantified carbon stocks in soil and vegetation. Realistic scenarios of implementation of SLM practices were prepared based on an extensive process of stakeholder engagement and using latest climate change predictions from Regional Climate Models for different emission scenarios. Results indicate a strong decrease in water availability in the Segura catchment under expected climate change, with average reductions of upto 60% and large spatial variability. Land use changes (1990 - 2006) resulted in a slight increase in water

  8. Evaluating an ecosystem management approach for improving water quality in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    detection of catchment-scale effects of mitigation measures typically requires high resolution, resource-intensive, long term data sets, we found that simple approaches can be effective in bridging the gap between fine-scale ecosystem functioning and catchment-scale processes. Here, the new macro-invertebrate bio-monitoring index PSI (Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates) has been shown to be more closely related to a physical measure of sedimentation (% fine bed sediment cover) (P = 0.002) than existing non-pressure specific macro-invertebrate metrics such as the Lotic Index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE) and % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera & Trichoptera abundance (% EPT abundance) (P = 0.014)(Glendell et al., 2014a). Thus PSI and % fine bed sediment cover have the potential to become a sensitive tool for the setting and monitoring of twin sedimentation targets to inform the delivery of WFD objectives. Finally, whilst upland ditch management has not had any discernible effect on water quality in the semi-natural upland catchment one year after restoration, future monitoring will evaluate the effectiveness of the recent and soon to be implemented land management changes on delivering water quality improvements in the lowland agricultural catchment. GLENDELL, M. & BRAZIER, R. E. (in review) Accelerated export of sediment and carbon from a landscape under intensive agriculture. Science of the Total Environment. GLENDELL, M., EXTENCE, C. A., CHADD, R. P. & BRAZIER, R. E. (2014a) Testing the pressure-specific invertebrate index (PSI) as a tool for determining ecologically relevant targets for reducing sedimentation in streams. Freshwater Biology, 59, 353-367. GLENDELL, M., GRANGER, S., BOL, R. & BRAZIER, R. E. (2014b) Quantifying the spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties in relation to mitigation of diffuse water pollution. Geoderma, 214-215, 25-41.

  9. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  10. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  11. PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GENOTYPES FROM CATTLEY GUAVA AND GUAVA TREES SUBMITTED TO FRUCTIFICATION PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CINTIA APARECIDA BREMENKAMP

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Psidium cattleianum Sabine is a species from the Myrtaceae family that serves as an option for the native fruits cultivation, besides being considered a source of resistance to the Meloidogyne enterolobii nematode. Although cattley guava trees from this species produce flower buds in young branches, there are no reports of response to fructification pruning or phenological synchronism with the guava tree. The objective of this paper was the comparative evaluation of the genotype response of strawberry guava trees and guava cultivars to fructification pruning, thus, describing the phenology of both species under the same cultivation conditions. The experiment was conducted under an entirely randomized outline, in 7x2 factorial scheme, being evaluated seven genotypes (three from strawberry guava and four from guava trees, and with pruning performed in two seasons (May 2012 and March 2013, with three repetitions. Fructification pruning was executed by a lopping on all mature branches, from the last growth flow in the woody branch region. Were evaluated budding characteristics and fruit harvesting, as well as number of days from pruning to the observation of the phenological event. Cattley guava tree pruning stimulated fructification of all three genotypes after pruning done on May and two genotypes after the March’s pruning. There has been a sync between the guava cultivars’ flowering and both strawberry guava trees genotypes, when those were pruned on May.

  12. [Evaluation of ecosystem service value and strategies for ecological design in land consolidation: a case of land consolidation project in Da'an City, Jilin Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yan, Shen-Chun; Yu, Li; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2014-04-01

    Land consolidation, as one of the major driving forces for the changes of land use/cover, has significant impacts on landscape patterns, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. In this paper, a land consolidation project conducted in Da'an City, Jinlin Province, China, was selected to evaluate the ecosystem service values before and after land consolidation at three spatial scales, i. e., village, town, and county. The results indicated that the land consolidation with the goal to increase the area of cultivated land might cause the decrease of the saline and alkaline land, grassland, and wetland. In addition, land consolidation resulted in the reduction of the total ecosystem service values at varying degree at the three scales. Compared to the pre-consolidation status, the total post-consolidation ecosystem service values at the village, town and county scales were 7.96, 843.01 and 1205.86 million yuan, and reduced by 10.5%, 14.2% and 33.1%, respectively. Based on the evaluation of ecosystem service value, strategies of landscape ecological design were discussed to improve the ecological functions and to provide the guidance for the sustainable development of land consolidation.

  13. Modelling carbon fluxes of forest and grassland ecosystems in Western Europe using the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model: evaluation against eddy covariance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; François, Louis; Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Jacquemin, Ingrid; Minet, Julien; Tychon, Bernard; Heinesch, Bernard; Horemans, Joanna; Deckmyn, Gaby

    2015-04-01

    Eddy covariance measurements are an essential resource to understand how ecosystem carbon fluxes react in response to climate change, and to help to evaluate and validate the performance of land surface and vegetation models at regional and global scale. In the framework of the MASC project (« Modelling and Assessing Surface Change impacts on Belgian and Western European climate »), vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes of forest and grassland ecosystems simulated by the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) are evaluated and validated by comparison of the model predictions with eddy covariance data. Here carbon fluxes (e.g. net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (RECO)) and evapotranspiration (ET) simulated with the CARAIB model are compared with the fluxes measured at several eddy covariance flux tower sites in Belgium and Western Europe, chosen from the FLUXNET global network (http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/). CARAIB is forced either with surface atmospheric variables derived from the global CRU climatology, or with in situ meteorological data. Several tree (e.g. Pinus sylvestris, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies) and grass species (e.g. Poaceae, Asteraceae) are simulated, depending on the species encountered on the studied sites. The aim of our work is to assess the model ability to reproduce the daily, seasonal and interannual variablility of carbon fluxes and the carbon dynamics of forest and grassland ecosystems in Belgium and Western Europe.

  14. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2017-02-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  15. Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flow Model To Evaluate Regional Water Security: A Case Study In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater service, as the most important support ecosystem service, is essential to human survival and development. Many studies have evidenced the spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services and raised the concept of ecosystem service flow. However, rather few studies quantitatively characterize the freshwater service flow. This paper aims to quantify the effect of freshwater ecosystem service flow on downstream areas in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China over 2000, 2005 and 2010. We computed the freshwater ecosystem service provision with InVEST model. We calculated freshwater ecosystem service consumption with water quota method. We simulated the freshwater ecosystem service flow using our simplified flow model and assessed the regional water security with the improved freshwater security index. The freshwater provision service mainly depends on climatic factors that cannot be influenced by management, while the freshwater consumption service is constrained by human activities. Furthermore, the decrease of water quota for agricultural, domestic and industrial water counteracts the impact of increasing freshwater demand. The analysis of freshwater ecosystem service flow reveals that the majority area of the BTH (69.2%) is affected by upstream freshwater. If freshwater ecosystem service flow is considered, the water safety areas of the whole BTH account for 66.9%, 66.1%, 71.3%, which increase 6.4%, 6.8% and 5.7% in 2000, 2005 and 2010, respectively. These results highlight the need to understand the teleconnections between distant freshwater ecosystem service provision and local freshwater ecosystem service use. This approach therefore helps managers choose specific management and investment strategies for critical upstream freshwater provisions across different regions.

  16. Characterizing phenological vegetation dynamics amidst extreme climate variability in Australia with MODIS VI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Huete, A. R.; Xuanlon, M.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Ratana, P.

    2012-12-01

    Australia's climate is extremely variable with inter-annual rainfall at any given site varying by 5- or 6-fold or more, across the continent. In addition to such inter-annual variability, there can be significant intra-annual variability, especially in monsoonal Australia (e.g. the wet tropical savannas) and Mediterranean climates in SW Australia where prolonged dry seasons occur each year. This presents unique challenges to the characterization of seasonal dynamics with satellite datasets. In contrast to annual reoccurring temperature-driven phenology of northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, vegetation dynamics of the vast and dry Australian interior are poorly quantified by existing remote sensing products. For example, in the current global-based MODIS phenology product, central Australia is covered by ~30% fill values for any given year. Two challenges are specific to Australian landscapes: first, the difficulty of characterizing seasonality of rainfall-driven ecosystems in interior Australia where duration and magnitude of green-up and brown down cycles show high inter annual variability; second, modeling two phenologic layers, the trees and the grass in savannas were the trees are evergreen but the herbaceous understory varies with rainfall. Savannas cover >50% of Australia. Australia's vegetation and climate are different from other continents. A MODIS phenology product capable of characterizing vegetation dynamics across the continent is being developed in this research as part of the AusCover national expert network aiming to provide Australian biophysical remote sensing data time-series and continental-scale map products. These products aim to support the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) serving ecosystem research in Australia. The MODIS land surface product for Australia first searches the entire time series of each Climate Modeling Grid pixel for low-high-low extreme point sequences. A double logistic function is then fit to each of these

  17. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  18. The phenology of Rubus fruticosus in Ireland: herbarium specimens provide evidence for the response of phenophases to temperature, with implications for climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, E.; Proctor, H.; Jebb, M.; Sparks, T.; Donnelly, A.

    2012-11-01

    To date, phenological research has provided evidence that climate warming is impacting both animals and plants, evidenced by the altered timing of phenophases. Much of the evidence supporting these findings has been provided by analysis of historic records and present-day fieldwork; herbaria have been identified recently as an alternative source of phenological data. Here, we used Rubus specimens to evaluate herbaria as potential sources of phenological data for use in climate change research and to develop the methodology for using herbaria specimens in phenological studies. Data relevant to phenology (collection date) were recorded from the information cards of over 600 herbarium specimens at Ireland's National Herbarium in Dublin. Each specimen was assigned a score (0-5) corresponding to its phenophase. Temperature data for the study period (1852 - 2007) were obtained from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU); relationships between temperature and the dates of first flower, full flower, first fruit and full fruit were assessed using weighted linear regression. Of the five species of Rubus examined in this study, specimens of only one ( R. fruticosus) were sufficiently abundant to yield statistically significant relationships with temperature. The results revealed a trend towards earlier dates of first flower, full flower and first fruit phenophases with increasing temperature. Through its multi-phenophase approach, this research serves to extend the most recent work—which validated the use of herbaria through use of a single phenophase—to confirm herbarium-based research as a robust methodology for use in future phenological studies.

  19. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. The ORD/NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002, which emphasizes collabora...

  20. Drought impacts on ecosystem functions of the U.S. National Forests and Grasslands: Part I evaluation of a water and carbon balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanlei Sun; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Erika Cohen; Jingfeng Xiao; Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and quantitatively evaluating the regional impacts of climate change and variability (e.g., droughts) on forest ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield, evapotranspiration, and productivity) and services (e.g., fresh water supply and carbon sequestration) is of great importance for developing climate change adaptation strategies for National Forests and...

  1. A methodology for evaluation of parent-mutant competition using a generalized non-linear ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1973-01-01

    A generalized, non-linear population dynamics model of an ecosystem is used to investigate the direction of selective pressures upon a mutant by studying the competition between parent and mutant populations. The model has the advantages of considering selection as operating on the phenotype, of retaining the interaction of the mutant population with the ecosystem as a...

  2. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest...... Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive......The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose...

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  4. Temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Weiqi; Ren, Shilong; Lang, Weiguang; Liang, Boyi; Liu, Guohua

    2017-10-01

    Using woody plant phenological data in the Beijing Botanical Garden from 1979 to 2013, we revealed three levels of phenology rhythms and examined their coherence with temperature rhythms. First, the sequential and correlative rhythm shows that occurrence dates of various phenological events obey a certain time sequence within a year and synchronously advance or postpone among years. The positive correlation between spring phenophase dates is much stronger than that between autumn phenophase dates and attenuates as the time interval between two spring phenophases increases. This phenological rhythm can be explained by positive correlation between above 0 °C mean temperatures corresponding to different phenophase dates. Second, the circannual rhythm indicates that recurrence interval of a phenophase in the same species in two adjacent years is about 365 days, which can be explained by the 365-day recurrence interval in the first and last dates of threshold temperatures. Moreover, an earlier phenophase date in the current year may lead to a later phenophase date in the next year through extending recurrence interval. Thus, the plant phenology sequential and correlative rhythm and circannual rhythm are interacted, which mirrors the interaction between seasonal variation and annual periodicity of temperature. Finally, the multi-year rhythm implies that phenophase dates display quasi-periodicity more than 1 year. The same 12-year periodicity in phenophase and threshold temperature dates confirmed temperature controls of the phenology multi-year rhythm. Our findings provide new perspectives for examining phenological response to climate change and developing comprehensive phenology models considering temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity.

  5. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was investigated by conducting a rainfall exclusion experiment. Timing of key phenological dates (onset, maximum rate, end, duration) of growth processes were compared among species at the rain-sheltered and control plot during 2011 and 2012. Shoot and needle elongation were monitored on lateral branches in the canopy at c . 16 m height and radial growth was recorded by automatic dendrometers at c . 1.3 m height of > 120 yr old trees. Different sequences in aboveground growth phenology were detected among the three species under the same growing conditions. While onset of radial growth in April through early May was considerably preceded by onset of needle growth in Larix decidua (5 - 6 weeks) and shoot growth in Pinus sylvestris ( c . 3 weeks), it occurred quite simultaneously with onset of shoot growth in Picea abies . Low water availability had a minor impact on onset of aboveground growth, which is related to utilization of stored water, but caused premature cessation of aboveground growth. At the control plot mean growing season length was 130 days in Pinus sylvestris , 95 days in Larix decidua and 73 days in Picea abies supporting the hypothesis that early successional species are resource expenders, while late successional species are more efficient in utilizing resources and develop safer life strategies. High synchronicity found in culmination of radial growth in late spring (mid-May through early June) prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions in summer

  6. A Comparative Study on Satellite- and Model-Based Crop Phenology in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Vintrou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop phenology is essential for evaluating crop production in the food insecure regions of West Africa. The aim of the paper is to study whether satellite observation of plant phenology are consistent with ground knowledge of crop cycles as expressed in agro-simulations. We used phenological variables from a MODIS Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2 product and examined whether they reproduced the spatio-temporal variability of crop phenological stages in Southern Mali. Furthermore, a validated cereal crop growth model for this region, SARRA-H (System for Regional Analysis of Agro-Climatic Risks, provided precise agronomic information. Remotely-sensed green-up, maturity, senescence and dormancy MODIS dates were extracted for areas previously identified as crops and were compared with simulated leaf area indices (LAI temporal profiles generated using the SARRA-H crop model, which considered the main cropping practices. We studied both spatial (eight sites throughout South Mali during 2007 and temporal (two sites from 2002 to 2008 differences between simulated crop cycles and determined how the differences were indicated in satellite-derived phenometrics. The spatial comparison of the phenological indicator observations and simulations showed mainly that (i the satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS was detected approximately 30 days before the model-derived SOS; and (ii the satellite-derived end-of-season (EOS was typically detected 40 days after the model-derived EOS. Studying the inter-annual difference, we verified that the mean bias was globally consistent for different climatic conditions. Therefore, the land cover dynamics derived from the MODIS time series can reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of different start-of-season and end-of-season crop species. In particular, we recommend simultaneously using start-of-season phenometrics with crop models for yield forecasting to complement commonly used climate data and provide a better

  7. PHENOLOGY OF Copernicia prunifera (ARECACEAE IN A CAATINGA AREA OF RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Geovanna Fernandes Rocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and reproductive phenology of Copernicia prunifera (carnauba wax in natural populations correlated with climate variables. The study was conducted in a native area, located in the Campus of Academic Unit Specialized in Agricultural Sciences of UFRN in the municipality of Macaíba, RN. The evaluations were made between May 2010 and December 2012, totaling 67 fortnightly observations of vegetative phenophases and reproductive. The relationship between the occurrence of each phenophase and climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and radiation were tested by Spearman correlation, performed with the climate data of the first (rS1, second (rS2, third (rS3 and fourth (rS4 phenological fortnight prior to the event. Individuals of C. prunifera are asynchronous with leaf loss and emission of new leaves all the time. Flowering is subanual, i.e. occurs more than once a year. There is a positive relationship between the intensity of unripe fruits and higher temperature with delay of three (rS3 = 0.261; P < 0.005 to four fortnights (rS4 = 0.276; P < 0.005 to the phenological event. We observed also significant positive correlations between temperature and number of trees with ripe fruits. Thus, it is assumed that the species studied was influenced by aspects of morphology and physiology, with environmental factors interfering secondarily.

  8. Update on Plans to Establish a National Phenology Network in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J.; Schwartz, M.; Breshears, D.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Inouye, D.; Post, E.; Reed, B.; Gray, S.

    2005-12-01

    The passing of the seasons is the most pervasive source of climatic and biological variability on Earth, yet phenological monitoring has been spotty worldwide. Formal phenological networks were recently established in Europe and Canada, and we are now following their lead in organizing a National Phenology Network (NPN) for the U.S.A. With support from federal agencies (NSF, USGS, NPS, USDA-FS, EPA, NOAA, NASA), on Aug. 22-26 we organized a workshop in Tucson, Arizona to begin planning a national-scale, multi-tiered phenological network. A prototype for a web-based NPN and preliminary workshop results are available at http://www.npn.uwm.edu. The main goals of NPN will be to: (1) facilitate thorough understanding of phenological phenomena, including causes and effects; (2) provide ground truthing to make the most of heavy public investment in remote sensing data; (3) allow detection and prediction of environmental change for a wide of variety of applications; (4) harness the power of mass participation and engage tens of thousands of "citizen scientists" in meeting national needs in Education, Health, Commerce, Natural Resources and Agriculture; (5) develop a model system for substantive collaboration across different levels of government, academia and the private sector. Just as the national networks of weather stations and stream gauges are critical for providing weather, climate and water-related information, NPN will help safeguard and procure goods and services that ecosystems provide. We expect that NPN will consist of a four-tiered, expandable structure: 1) a backbone network linked to existing weather stations, run by recruited public observers; 2) A smaller, second tier of intensive observations, run by scientists at established research sites; 3) a much larger network of observations made by citizen scientists; and 4) remote sensing observations that can be validated with surface observations, thereby providing wall-to-wall coverage for the U.S.A. Key to

  9. Response of alpine vegetation growth dynamics to snow cover phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine vegetation plays a crucial role in global energy cycles with snow cover, an essential component of alpine land cover showing high sensitivity to climate change. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has a typical alpine vegetation ecosystem and is rich of snow resources. With global warming, the snow of the TP has undergone significant changes that will inevitably affect the growth of alpine vegetation, but observed evidence of such interaction is limited. In particular, a comprehensive understanding of the responses of alpine vegetation growth to snow cover variability is still not well characterized on TP region. To investigate this, we calculated three indicators, the start (SOS) and length (LOS) of growing season, and the maximum of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImax) as proxies of vegetation growth dynamics from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for 2000-2015. Snow cover duration (SCD) and melt (SCM) dates were also extracted during the same time frame from the combination of MODIS and the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) data. We found that the snow cover phenology had a strong control on alpine vegetation growth dynamics. Furthermore, the responses of SOS, LOS and NDVImax to snow cover phenology varied among plant functional types, eco-geographical zones, and temperature and precipitation gradients. The alpine steppes showed a much stronger negative correlation between SOS and SCD, and also a more evidently positive relationship between LOS and SCD than other types, indicating a longer SCD would lead to an earlier SOS and longer LOS. Most areas showed positive correlation between SOS and SCM, while a contrary response was also found in the warm but drier areas. Both SCD and SCM showed positive correlations with NDVImax, but the relationship became weaker with the increase of precipitation. Our findings provided strong evidences between vegetation growth and snow cover phenology, and changes in

  10. Incorporating Spatio-temporal Phenological Variation in Detecting Exotic Saltcedar Using Landsat Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, C.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The invasion of exotic species compromises ecosystem functions and causes substantial economic losses at the global scale. Over the past century, non-native saltcedar has expanded into most riparian zones in southwestern United States and posed significant threats to the native biotic communities. Repeated monitoring of saltcedar distribution is essential for conservation agencies to locate highly susceptible areas and develop corresponding control strategies. Throughout the phenological cycle, the leaf senescence stage has been found to be the most crucial in spectrally detecting saltcedar. However, due to climate variability and anthropogenic forcing, the timing of saltcedar leaf senescence may vary over space and time. This spatial and inter-annual variation need to be accommodated to pinpoint the appropriate remotely sensed imagery for saltcedar mapping. The objective of this study was to develop a Landsat-based Multiyear Spectral Angle Clustering (MSAC) model to monitor the inter-annual leaf senescence of exotic saltcedar. At the Landsat scale, the time series analysis of vegetation phenology is usually limited by the temporal resolution of images. The MSAC model can overcome this limit and take advantage of the Landsat images from multiple years to compensate the lack of images in a single year. Results indicated the MSAC model provided a Landsat-based solution to capture the inter-annual leaf senescence of saltcedar. Compared to traditional NDVI-based phenological approaches, the proposed model achieved a more accurate classification results of saltcedar across years. The MSAC model provides unique opportunities to guide the selection of appropriate remotely sensed image for repetitive saltcedar mapping.

  11. Morphological and Phenological characterization of Mediterranean species in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Alessandra; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of vegetation, in particular methodologies for phenological and biometrical monitoring, are widely implied for climate change studies and their importance for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. It is very likely that, during the next decades, the Mediterranean Regions will cope to the very negative effects of climatic changes. Consequently, due to the climate change impacts and the effects of anthropogenic pressures upon natural resources, these regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the effects of climate change. Therefore, appears to be of crucial importance to better understand the physiological strategies for cope to climate change adaptation for the Mediterranean maquis shrub species which are key information for developing adaptation strategies guidelines. In this work, the biological and reproductive cycle of some Mediterranean species growing in an experimental area located within a nature reserve in the peninsula of Capo Caccia, north-west Sardinia, Italy, was investigated for a period of two years. In particular, the research was focused on: (1) the study of the development processes and the description of phenological phases, and (2) the analysis of the growth processes performed through biometric and floristic composition measurements. Specific BBCH scales for each species were developed. Shoot growth and floristic composition analysis did not show a clear trend in the response of the different species to climatic manipulations but a downward trend in the number of species. The results obtained in this study add useful information on the phenological cycle and growth of the Mediterranean species, improving the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions of these species

  12. The role of research in evaluating conservation strategies in Tanzania: the case of the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Caro, Tim; Msago, Omari Ayubu

    2007-06-01

    Strict protectionism, resource extraction, protected-area community outreach, ecotourism, an integrated conservation and development program, comanagement schemes, and citizen-science initiatives are all being used to help conserve the remote Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem in western Tanzania. Biological and social research show that protectionism is successful in the conservation of large mammals but fails to capture diverse species communities; extractivism is appropriate for some resources but not for others; protected-area outreach can be effective for some communities; and devolved control over wildlife, in conjunction with ecotourism and citizen science, has considerable potential in the area. The long-term nature of the research provides the necessary time frame to evaluate outcomes of different conservation strategies, uncovers dynamics within communities that affect attitudes and responses to conservation initiatives, provides impartial recommendations because changing research personnel offers different viewpoints, and, probably most importantly, enhances trust among stakeholders. Currently, there are limited institutional mechanisms for ensuring the input of biological and social science in shaping conservation practice in Tanzania, and long-term research can help informally bridge the gap.

  13. Characterization and evaluation of agro-ecosystems on a farm scale a study case: The Paysandu farming center (Medellin. Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Camilo de los Rios Cardona; Andres Felipe Gallego Zapata; Leon Dario Velez Vargas; Agudelo Otalvaro, Jose Ignacio; Toro Restrepo, Luis Jairo; Lema Tapias, Alvaro de Jesus; Acevedo Agudelo, Luis Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    The state, condition, and tendencies of the agro-ecosystems (AE) of the Paysandu farming center of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellin were characterized and evaluated by means of parameterization and analysis of the various technological receptivity (RT, after the Spanish initials) and technological intensity (IT), based upon a methodological proposal of Velez and Gasto (1999), in terms of AE diversity and of the uses, management, and technological acceptance, techno-structural and hydro-structural endowment, potential productivity and services to the local, regional, and national society. The results showed that the greater part of the center (72%) has very low RT; which does not permit the establishment of mechanized advanced agro-technological management systems (SMA) however, 69.8% of the area is managed with SMA adequate for the restrictions imposed by the RT sixty-two percent of the area of the center, principally under pasture cover for dairy cattle production, is managed with advanced SMA. As a result of the interaction between RT and the SMA employed, six AE were identified, of which three, that represent 69.8% of the area (100.2 ha.), are managed with technologies adequate for their biophysical conditions or with technological receptivity (adequate IT), and the other three, that represent 28,57% of the are (43.1 ha.) ore managed with technologies that do not correspond to their RT conditions (tradition IT) which leads to a deterioration of their biophysical and ecological conditions

  14. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988–1990 and 2009–2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:25878552

  15. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988-1990 and 2009-2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  16. Electrical Resistance Imaging for Evaluation of Soil-Water Behavior in Desert Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Perkins, K. S.; Schmidt, K. M.; Miller, D. M.; Stock, J. D.; Singha, K.

    2009-05-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate habitat types in the Mojave National Preserve, we conducted infiltration/redistribution experiments to investigate unsaturated hydraulic properties and soil-water dynamics. Two investigated locations contrasted sharply in degree of pedogenic development: (1) recently deposited sediments in an active wash and (2) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. Water flow through these materials may be strongly influenced by such features as biotic crusts, vesicular horizons, textural variations, calcic horizons, preferential flow paths, and other forms of vertical and lateral spatial variability. In each location we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infiltration ring for 2.3 h, generating 1.93 m of infiltration in the active wash and 0.52 m in the Pleistocene soil. Combining input flux data with quantitative knowledge of water content and soil water pressure over space and time provides a basis for estimating soil hydraulic properties. TDR probes and tensiometers, placed outside but within a few m of the infiltration pond at depths to 1.5 m, provided subsurface hydraulic data. In addition to probe measurements, we conducted electrical resistance imaging (ERI) measurements during the infiltration period and for six days of redistribution. Electrodes were in two crossed lines at the surface, 24 in each, at 0.5 m spacing. On each line data were collected over an eight- minute period using a hybrid geometry, with 0 to 6 electrodes skipped between those used for the measurement. Relative change in the inverted resistivities relates to relative change in soil water content. Spatially exhaustive and minimally invasive characterization is valuable because of the extreme difficulty of quantifying soil-moisture distribution over a broad heterogeneous area using a set of individual probes. Soil moisture data directly under the ponded area are especially important, and ERI was our only means for such measurements because probe installation would

  17. Virological evaluation of avian influenza virus persistence in natural and anthropic ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, summer 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP avian influenza viruses (AIVs, congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems.In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118 tested virus isolation (VI-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5% were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%. Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative.We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches to virus molecular evolution and phylogenesis, will be

  18. A review and evaluation of stemflow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles of forested and agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F.; Frost, Ethan E.

    2003-04-01

    Stemflow is a spatially localized point input of precipitation and solutes at the plant stem and is of hydrological and ecological significance in forested and agricultural ecosystems. The purpose of this review is to: (1) critically evaluate our current understanding of stemflow; (2) identify gaps in our present knowledge of stemflow; and (3) stimulate further research in areas where present knowledge is weak. The review begins by analyzing stemflow drainage and nutrient inputs under diverse vegetal cover. Stemflow inputs are then examined as a function of meteorological conditions, seasonality, interspecific and intraspecific differences among and within species, canopy structure, spatiality, and atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. Stemflow modeling studies are also reviewed and evaluated. Stemflow yield and chemistry are the result of the interaction of the many complex variables listed. By analyzing each separately, it may be possible to isolate their individual affects on stemflow production and chemistry. A comprehensive understanding of each influencing factor would enable the accurate modeling of stemflow water and nutrient inputs into agricultural and forest soils which may result in the optimization of timber and crop harvests. Some areas where present knowledge is particularly weak are: (1) stemflow production and nutrient transfers in northern boreal forests (aspen, birch, conifers) and desert cacti; (2) chemical enrichment of stemflow from live trees charred by forest fires; (3) stemflow yield and nutrient inputs during the winter season; (4) intraspecific variation in stemflow production and chemistry; (5) stemflow chemistry from standing dead trees; (6) influence of canopy structure on stemflow chemistry; (7) understory stemflow generation and nutrient transfer; and (8) stemflow enrichment associated with insect infestations.

  19. Phenology for science, resource management, decision making, and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, V.P.; Weltzin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  20. Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cano, Jose A; Karlsson, Bengt; Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

  1. The role of spring and autumn phenological switches on spatiotemporal variation in temperate and boreal forest C balance: A FLUXNET synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.; Reichstein, M.; Piao, S.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Stockli, R.; Friedl, M.; Gobron, N.; Fluxnet Site Pis, 21

    2009-04-01

    In temperate and boreal ecosystems, phenological transitions (particularly the timing of spring onset and autumn senescence) are thought to represent a major control on spatial and temporal variation in forest carbon sequestration. To investigate these patterns, we analyzed 153 site-years of data from the FLUXNET ‘La Thuile' database. Eddy covariance measurements of surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon and water from 21 research sites at latitudes from 36°N to 67°N were used in the synthesis. We defined a range of phenological indicators based on the first (spring) and last (autumn) dates of (1) C source/sink transitions (‘carbon uptake period'); (2) measurable photosynthetic uptake (‘physiologically active period'); (3) relative thresholds for latent heat (evapotranspiration) flux; (4) phenological thresholds derived from a range of remote sensing products (JRC fAPAR, MOD12Q2, and the PROGNOSTIC model with MODIS data assimilation); and (5) a climatological metric based on the date where soil temperature equals mean annual air temperature. We then tested whether site-level flux anomalies were significantly correlated with phenological anomalies across these metrics, and whether the slopes of these relationships (representing the sensitivity to phenological variation) differed between deciduous broadleaf (DBF) and evergreen needleleaf (ENF) forests. Within sites, interannual variation in most phenological metrics was about 5-10 d, compared to 10-30 d across sites. Both spatial and temporal phenological variation were consistently larger at ENF, compared to DBF, sites. Averaged across metrics, phenological variability was roughly comparable in spring and autumn, both across (17 d) and within (9 d) sites. However, patterns of interannual variation in fluxes were less well explained by the derived phenological metrics than were patterns of spatial variation in fluxes. Also, the observed pattern strongly depended on the metric used, with flux-derived metrics

  2. Use of bioclimatic indexes to characterize phenological phases of apple varieties in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, N; Me, G; Ferrero, R; Spanna, F

    2001-11-01

    The research was designed to characterize the phenological behaviour of different apple varieties and to compare different bioclimatic indexes in order to evaluate their adaptability in describing the phenological phases of fruit species. A field study on the requirement for chilling units (winter chilling requirement) and the accumulation of growing degree hours of 15 native apple cultivars was carried out in a fruit-growing area in North West Italy (Cuneo Province, Piedmont). From 1991 to 1993, climatic data were collected at meteorological stations installed in an experimental orchard (Verzuolo, Cuneo). Four methods were compared to determine the winter chilling requirement: Hutchins, Weinberger-Eggert, Utah and North Carolina. The Utah method was applied to determine the time when the chilling units accumulated become effective in meeting the rest requirements. A comparison of the different methods indicated that the Weinberger-Eggert method is the best: as it showed the lowest statistical variability during the 3 years of observations. The growing degree hour requirement (GDH) was estimated by the North Carolina method with two different base temperatures: 4.4 degrees C and 6.1 degrees C. More difficulties were met when the date of rest completion and the beginning of GDH accumulation was determined. The best base temperature for the estimation of GDH is 4.4 degrees C. Phenological and climatic characterizations are two basic tools for giving farmers and agricultural advisors important information about which varieties to choose and which are the best and the most correct cultivation practices to follow.

  3. Ungulate Reproductive Parameters Track Satellite Observations of Plant Phenology across Latitude and Climatological Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Stoner

    Full Text Available The effect of climatically-driven plant phenology on mammalian reproduction is one key to predicting species-specific demographic responses to climate change. Large ungulates face their greatest energetic demands from the later stages of pregnancy through weaning, and so in seasonal environments parturition dates should match periods of high primary productivity. Interannual variation in weather influences the quality and timing of forage availability, which can influence neonatal survival. Here, we evaluated macro-scale patterns in reproductive performance of a widely distributed ungulate (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus across contrasting climatological regimes using satellite-derived indices of primary productivity and plant phenology over eight degrees of latitude (890 km in the American Southwest. The dataset comprised > 180,000 animal observations taken from 54 populations over eight years (2004-2011. Regionally, both the start and peak of growing season ("Start" and "Peak", respectively are negatively and significantly correlated with latitude, an unusual pattern stemming from a change in the dominance of spring snowmelt in the north to the influence of the North American Monsoon in the south. Corresponding to the timing and variation in both the Start and Peak, mule deer reproduction was latest, lowest, and most variable at lower latitudes where plant phenology is timed to the onset of monsoonal moisture. Parturition dates closely tracked the growing season across space, lagging behind the Start and preceding the Peak by 27 and 23 days, respectively. Mean juvenile production increased, and variation decreased, with increasing latitude. Temporally, juvenile production was best predicted by primary productivity during summer, which encompassed late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. Our findings offer a parsimonious explanation of two key reproductive parameters in ungulate demography, timing of parturition and mean annual

  4. Phase-dependent outbreak dynamics of geometrid moth linked to host plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Jane U; Hagen, Snorre B; Karlsen, Stein-Rune; Ims, Rolf A

    2009-12-07

    Climatically driven Moran effects have often been invoked as the most likely cause of regionally synchronized outbreaks of insect herbivores without identifying the exact mechanism. However, the degree of match between host plant and larval phenology is crucial for the growth and survival of many spring-feeding pest insects, suggesting that a phenological match/mismatch-driven Moran effect may act as a synchronizing agent. We analyse the phase-dependent spatial dynamics of defoliation caused by cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in northern boreal birch forest in Fennoscandia through the most recent massive outbreak (2000-2008). We use satellite-derived time series of the prevalence of moth defoliation and the onset of the growing season for the entire region to investigate the link between the patterns of defoliation and outbreak spread. In addition, we examine whether a phase-dependent coherence in the pattern of spatial synchrony exists between defoliation and onset of the growing season, in order to evaluate if the degree of matching phenology between the moth and their host plant could be the mechanism behind a Moran effect. The strength of regional spatial synchrony in defoliation and the pattern of defoliation spread were both highly phase-dependent. The incipient phase of the outbreak was characterized by high regional synchrony in defoliation and long spread distances, compared with the epidemic and crash phase. Defoliation spread was best described using a two-scale stratified spread model, suggesting that defoliation spread is governed by two processes operating at different spatial scale. The pattern of phase-dependent spatial synchrony was coherent in both defoliation and onset of the growing season. This suggests that the timing of spring phenology plays a role in the large-scale synchronization of birch forest moth outbreaks.

  5. Phenological synchrony and seasonality of understory Rubiaceae in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Scarpati Liuth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.

  6. Fish biodiversity sampling in stream ecosystems: a process for evaluating the appropriate types and amount of gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph M.; Wells, Sarah P.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Because human impacts and climate change threaten aquatic ecosystems, a need exists to quantify catchment-scale biodiversity patterns and identify conservation actions that can mitigate adverse human impacts on aquatic biota.

  7. An integrated multi-criteria scenario evaluation web tool for participatory land-use planning in urbanized areas: The Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiosa, Bill; Forney, William M.; Hearn,, Paul P.; Hogan, Dianna M.; Strong, David R.; Swain, Eric D.; Esnard, Ann-Margaret; Mitsova-Boneva, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Pearlstine, Leonard; Gladwin, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Land-use land-cover change is one of the most important and direct drivers of changes in ecosystem functions and services. Given the complexity of the decision-making, there is a need for Internet-based decision support systems with scenario evaluation capabilities to help planners, resource managers and communities visualize, compare and consider trade-offs among the many values at stake in land use planning. This article presents details on an Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM) prototype that integrates ecological, socio-economic information and associated values of relevance to decision-makers and stakeholders. The EPM uses a multi-criteria scenario evaluation framework, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis and spatially-explicit land-use/land-cover change-sensitive models to characterize changes in important land-cover related ecosystem values related to ecosystem services and functions, land parcel prices, and community quality-of-life (QoL) metrics. Parameters in the underlying models can be modified through the interface, allowing users in a facilitated group setting to explore simultaneously issues of scientific uncertainty and divergence in the preferences of stakeholders. One application of the South Florida EPM prototype reported in this article shows the modeled changes (which are significant) in aggregate ecological value, landscape patterns and fragmentation, biodiversity potential and ecological restoration potential for current land uses compared to the 2050 land-use scenario. Ongoing refinements to EPM, and future work especially in regard to modifiable sea level rise scenarios are also discussed.

  8. Climate warming and interannual variability of phytoplankton phenology in the Northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Gittings, John

    2016-12-01

    In agreement with global patterns of climate change and increasing temperatures in the tropical oceans, the Northern Red Sea (NRS) has been warming over the last few decades. Using 18 years of remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a data (Chl-a, an index of phytoplankton biomass), we investigate the potential impacts of climate warming on phytoplankton abundance and phenology in the Northern Red Sea by exploring the mechanistic links with the regional physical environment. The results of the analysis reveal that, in accordance with other tropical ecosystems, phytoplankton biomass in the NRS will decrease in response to warmer climate scenarios. This is attributed to lower heat fluxes (heat loss to the atmosphere) during the bloom period, and enhanced vertical stratification, which prevents vertical mixing of nutrients into the euphotic layer. In addition, we show that during warmer conditions (when heat fluxes are weakened), the winter bloom initiates significantly later (by up to 10 weeks) and its duration is considerably reduced. The biological implications of alterations to phytoplankton phenology may include increased larval mortality of pelagic species, reduced recruitment, fisheries impacts and changes to community structure.

  9. Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

  10. Changes in phenology and the influence on the carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest over 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas

    Observations of carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest over the last 20 years have shown a steady increase in NEE. Earlier studies (Pile- gaard et al. 2011) have shown, that about half of the increase can be attributed to an increase in the growing season length. The growing sea- son has...... 6 years using the R package Phenopix (Filippa et al. 2016). The new data is compared with CUP and LP to give more detailed information on the phenology. The information is used to examine the evolution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the 20 year period....

  11. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  12. Detecting inter-annual variability in the phenological characteristics of southern Africa’s vegetation using satellite imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available provides consistent measurements of vegetation greenness which captures phenological cycles and vegetation function. Understanding the inter-annual variability in phenology is imperative, as phenological changes will be one of the first signs of the impact...

  13. Plant Phenology Site Phenometrics + Accumulated Growing Degree Day Calculations for the continental United States (2009-2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This datafile consists of a subset of plant phenology observations drawn from the USA National Phenology Network’s National Phenology Database (www.usanpn.org). The...

  14. Effects of the urban heat island on the phenology of Odonata in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Jiménez, Giovanna; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation is one of the major drivers of ecosystem change and includes increased temperatures in cities leading to an urban heat island (UHI). This study quantified the phenological response of odonates across London, UK, from 1990 to 2012, using a database of 1,031,277 historical sightings. The ordinal flight dates of each species were used to calculate the leading edge, middle and trailing edge of the flight period (P5, P50 and P95, respectively). The results suggest that the phenology of odonates is affected by the UHI only at a community level: no significant changes in the P5 or P50 of the flight period were found, although the P95 shows a mean advance of 4.13 days compared to rural areas, thus suggesting a contraction of the flight period in urban areas. However, only one individual species ( Sympetrum striolatum) exhibited an advance in the P95 of the flight period in urban areas compared to rural areas. On the other hand, climate change (minimum temperature) had a much stronger impact on the phenology of odonates at the community level with a significant advance of 6.9 days °C-1 in the P5 of the flight period, 3.1 days °C-1 in the P50 and 3.3 days °C-1 in the P95 flight date. Similarly, a significant advance in P5 was found in 7 of the 15 species tested in response to minimum temperature, and 2 species showed a significant advance in P50 in response to minimum temperature, but no species showed a shift in the P95 flight date due to minimum temperature. As shown in previous studies, life history influences the phenological response of odonates, with spring species and those species lacking an egg diapause being the most responsive to increased temperatures, although summer species and species with obligate egg diapause also respond to the UHI by advancing the P95 by 3.8 and 4.5 days, respectively, compared to rural areas, thus contracting the flight period. The present study shows that the UHI has negligible impacts on emergence patterns of odonates

  15. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal patterns of vegetation phenology and their responses to climate change in mid-latitude grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S.; Chen, X.; Qin, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Grassland ecosystem is greatly sensitive to regional and global climate changes. In this study, the start (SOS) and end (EOS) date of growing season were extracted from NDVI data (1981 2014) across the mid-latitude (30°N 55°N) grasslands of Northern Hemisphere. We first validated their accuracy by ground observed phenological data and phenological metrics derived from gross primary production (GPP) data. And then, main climatic factors influencing the temporal patterns of SOS/EOS were explored by means of gridded meteorological data and partial correlation analysis. Based on the results of above statistical analysis, the similarities and differences of spring and autumn phenological responses to climate change among North American grasslands, Mid-West Asian grasslands, and Mongolian grasslands were analyzed. The main results and conclusions are as follows. First, a significant positive correlation was found between SOS/EOS and observed green-up/brown-off date (PSOS/EOS (PSOS/EOS can reflect temporal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation phenology. Second, SOS in Mid-West Asian grasslands showed a significant advancing trend (0.22 days/year, PSOS in North American grasslands and Mongolian grasslands was not significant. EOS in North American grasslands (0.31 dyas/year, PSOS/EOS inter-annual fluctuations and hydrothermal factors showed that a significant negative correlation was found between SOS and the pre-season temperature in 41.6% of pixels (PSOS and pre-season rainfall/snowfall in 14.6%/19.0% of pixels (PSOS and EOS are mainly affected by pre-season temperature and pre-season rainfall.

  17. Evaluation of the Modern State of Water Ecosystems and the Issues with Protecting Biological Resources During Development of the Kruzenshternskoye Gas Condensate Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Bogdanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the studies of the present state of freshwater ecosystems and their biotic components in the western part of the Yamal Peninsula are presented. Based on the evaluation of the structure of the communities of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and whitefishes, the range of the problems related to the protection of biological resources at the development of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field is defined. Data on species composition and quantitative indicators of hydrobionts of different types of waterbodies and watercourses in the lower reaches of the Mordyyakha and Naduyyakha rivers basins are the basis for environmental monitoring of water objects at development and exploitation of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field. According to the monitoring program, evaluation of the fish fauna state and their food base on the territory of the Kruzenshternskoye gas condensate field (GCF, is present. The zones of rivers deltas are the most important areas of the salmonid and whitefishes valuable fish species feeding at the territory of Kruzenshternskoye GCF. In the cases where complete demolish of waterbodies and watercourses for construction of facilities for GCF does not occur, changes of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of communities of hydrobionts after cease of works are reversible. River ecosystems are restored within a more short period of time in comparison to lacustrine ones. On the basis of conducted comprehensive studies, the proposals for the protection of fisheries resources and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems are reported. Recommendations for reducing the anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems in the development period are presented. The results of the investigation were used in the designing the environmental protection part of the Kruzenshternskoye deposit project. At present, the disturbances in the territory of Kruzenshternskoye deposit of gas does not impact the aquatic ecosystems

  18. Ecological Economic Evaluation Based on Emergy as Embodied Cosmic Exergy: A Historical Study for the Beijing Urban Ecosystem 1978–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Mei Ming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For ecological economic evaluation based on the unified biophysical matrix this research illustrates an updated emergy synthesis in terms of embodied cosmic exergy instead of embodied solar energy, which successes the foundation of systems ecological theory but changes the starting point for the estimation from simply the sun to the cosmos. According to the modified definition implicating explicit scarcity and strict additivity based on the fundamental thermodynamics laws, the updated emergy approach overcomes the confusable and intractable deficiencies of traditional one and shows firmer theoretical basis as well as better applicability. As a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem, a cosmic emergy based ecological economic evaluation of the Beijing urban ecosystem during the period 1978-2004 is presented. The local and external resources supporting the concerned ecosystem are accounted and analyzed in a common unit, i.e., cosmic Joule, according to which a series of indicators are applied to reveal its evolutional characteristics through five aspects as emergy structure, emergy intensity, emergy welfare, environmental impacts, and degree of exploitation and economic efficiency. During the analyzed period, the major emergy source sustaining the operation of the ecosystem had changed from the renewable resources exploited locally to the nonrenewable resources purchased from outside. Emergy intensity for the Beijing urban ecosystem kept rising owing to the continuous investment of resources, which not only improved the living standard but also intensified the environmental pressure. Moreover, the increase of exploitation degree was accompanied with the decline of economic efficiency, while the rising emergy investment ratio implicates that Beijing was at the risks of resources shortage and high dependence on external resources

  19. Time-Dependent Trapping of Pollinators Driven by the Alignment of Floral Phenology with Insect Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Y. Y. Lau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several evolutionary lineages in the early divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae possess flowers with a distinctive pollinator trapping mechanism, in which floral phenological events are very precisely timed in relation with pollinator activity patterns. This contrasts with previously described angiosperm pollinator traps, which predominantly function as pitfall traps. We assess the circadian rhythms of pollinators independently of their interactions with flowers, and correlate these data with detailed assessments of floral phenology. We reveal a close temporal alignment between patterns of pollinator activity and the floral phenology driving the trapping mechanism (termed ‘circadian trapping’ here. Non-trapping species with anthesis of standard duration (c. 48 h cannot be pollinated effectively by pollinators with a morning-unimodal activity pattern; non-trapping species with abbreviated anthesis (23–27 h face limitations in utilizing pollinators with a bimodal circadian activity; whereas species that trap pollinators (all with short anthesis can utilize a broader range of potential pollinators, including those with both unimodal and bimodal circadian rhythms. In addition to broadening the range of potential pollinators based on their activity patterns, circadian trapping endows other selective advantages, including the possibility of an extended staminate phase to promote pollen deposition, and enhanced interfloral movement of pollinators. The relevance of the alignment of floral phenological changes with peaks in pollinator activity is furthermore evaluated for pitfall trap pollination systems.

  20. Estimation and evaluation of the radioactive contamination through a food web in an aquatic ecosystem, (2). System analysis of the transfer of radionuclides through a food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Isao; Inoue, Yoriteru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-06-01

    In order to estimate and evaluate the radioactivity concentration in an aquatic ecosystem, the transfer of radioactivity through a food web should be considered. In this paper, systems analysis on the above problem was performed and a quantity of radioactivity in organisms concentrated through their diet was presented. It was found from numerical evaluation that whether the transfer of radioactivity through a diet is significant or not depended on such ecological factors as ration rates, assimilation rates, uptake rates, and turnover rates. The degree of the importance of these parameters on the concentration process of radioactivity was quantitatively evaluated by the mathematical technique of sensitivity analysis.

  1. Beyond leaf color: Comparing camera-based phenological metrics with leaf biochemical, biophysical, and spectral properties throughout the growing season of a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Tang, Jianwu; Mustard, John F.

    2014-03-01

    Plant phenology, a sensitive indicator of climate change, influences vegetation-atmosphere interactions by changing the carbon and water cycles from local to global scales. Camera-based phenological observations of the color changes of the vegetation canopy throughout the growing season have become popular in recent years. However, the linkages between camera phenological metrics and leaf biochemical, biophysical, and spectral properties are elusive. We measured key leaf properties including chlorophyll concentration and leaf reflectance on a weekly basis from June to November 2011 in a white oak forest on the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, USA. Concurrently, we used a digital camera to automatically acquire daily pictures of the tree canopies. We found that there was a mismatch between the camera-based phenological metric for the canopy greenness (green chromatic coordinate, gcc) and the total chlorophyll and carotenoids concentration and leaf mass per area during late spring/early summer. The seasonal peak of gcc is approximately 20 days earlier than the peak of the total chlorophyll concentration. During the fall, both canopy and leaf redness were significantly correlated with the vegetation index for anthocyanin concentration, opening a new window to quantify vegetation senescence remotely. Satellite- and camera-based vegetation indices agreed well, suggesting that camera-based observations can be used as the ground validation for satellites. Using the high-temporal resolution dataset of leaf biochemical, biophysical, and spectral properties, our results show the strengths and potential uncertainties to use canopy color as the proxy of ecosystem functioning.

  2. Fodder Biomass Monitoring in Sahelian Rangelands Using Phenological Metrics from FAPAR Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Verger, Aleixandre

    2015-01-01

    Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship between satellite annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and in situ biomass data....... This study proposes a new methodology using multi-linear models between phenological metrics from the SPOT-VEGETATION time series of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and in situ biomass. A model with three variables—large seasonal integral (LINTG), length of growing season......, and end of season decreasing rate—performed best (MAE = 605 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.68) across Sahelian ecosystems in Senegal (data for the period 1999–2013). A model with annual maximum (PEAK) and start date of season showed similar performances (MAE = 625 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.64), allowing a timely estimation...

  3. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  4. Changes in phenology and frost risks of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kartschall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For a retrospective period of 110 years between 1901 and 2010 (observed data, and for the subsequent future period between 2011 and 2100 we calculated the phenological development (bud burst, harvest ripeness, and in particular the spring frost risk (frost after bud burst, as one important derived variable for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Riesling for the whole of Germany. For the future climate we included two different scenarios (RCP8.5, RCP2.6 each of them containing a triple set with minimum, medium and maximum temperature increase. The time period between 1981 and 2010 as the last three decades in the observed data was chosen as reference. In general we found an acceleration of the phenological development (all main phases mainly beginning in the late 1980s. For the three-decade period between 2031 and 2060 this acceleration will reach 11±3$11\\pm3$ days in the RCP8.5-scenario. The acceleration for the other stages behaved similarly and results in an earlier harvest ripeness of 13±1$13\\pm1$ days. Since a warmer spring in general leads to earlier bud burst, but does not reduce the risk of frost events during this period in the same manner, changes in the risk of spring frost damage were relatively small. For the coming decades this risk will not decrease for all traditional German viticultural regions in the RCP8.5-scenarios; on the contrary, our results suggest it is likely to increase. The results showed an increasing spring frost risk not only for the debated “upcoming” potential viticultural areas in eastern Germany, an effect which will partly also reach the southernmost viticultural areas. This effect in northern and eastern Germany is due to earlier bud burst together with the stronger continental influence, but for the southern and western regions of Germany is mainly due to the even earlier bud burst. This could modify the regionally nuanced character of German wines.

  5. Carbon and energy fluxes in cropland ecosystems: a model-data comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokupitiya, E.; Denning, A. S.; Schaefer, K.; Ricciuto, D.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Barr, A. G.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Cook, D. R.; Dietze, M.; El Maayar, M.; Fischer, M.; Grant, R.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, C.; Jain, A.; Kucharik, C.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Li, L.; Matamala, R.; Peylin, P.; Price, D.; Running, S. W.; Sahoo, A.; Sprintsin, M.; Suyker, A. E.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Torn, M.; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, S. B.; Xue, Y.

    2016-06-03

    Croplands are highly productive ecosystems that contribute to land–atmosphere exchange of carbon, energy, and water during their short growing seasons. We evaluated and compared net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent heat flux (LE), and sensible heat flux (H) simulated by a suite of ecosystem models at five agricultural eddy covariance flux tower sites in the central United States as part of the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis project. Most of the models overestimated H and underestimated LE during the growing season, leading to overall higher Bowen ratios compared to the observations. Most models systematically under predicted NEE, especially at rain-fed sites. Certain crop-specific models that were developed considering the high productivity and associated physiological changes in specific crops better predicted the NEE and LE at both rain-fed and irrigated sites. Models with specific parameterization for different crops better simulated the inter-annual variability of NEE for maize-soybean rotation compared to those models with a single generic crop type. Stratification according to basic model formulation and phenological methodology did not explain significant variation in model performance across these sites and crops. The under prediction of NEE and LE and over prediction of H by most of the models suggests that models developed and parameterized for natural ecosystems cannot accurately predict the more robust physiology of highly bred and intensively managed crop ecosystems. When coupled in Earth System Models, it is likely that the excessive physiological stress simulated in many land surface component models leads to overestimation of temperature and atmospheric boundary layer depth, and underestimation of humidity and CO2 seasonal uptake over agricultural regions.

  6. Carbon and energy fluxes in cropland ecosystems: a model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokupitiya, E.; Denning, A. Scott; Schaefer, K.; Ricciuto, D.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Barr, A. G.; Chen, G.; Chen, J.M.; Ciais, P.; Cook, D.R.; Dietze, M.C.; El Maayar, M.; Fischer, M.; Grant, R.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, C.; Jain, A.; Kucharik, C.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Li, L.; Matamala, R.; Peylin, P.; Price, D.; Running, S. W.; Sahoo, A.; Sprintsin, M.; Suyker, A.E.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, Christina; Torn, M.S.; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, S.B.; Xue, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Croplands are highly productive ecosystems that contribute to land–atmosphere exchange of carbon, energy, and water during their short growing seasons. We evaluated and compared net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent heat flux (LE), and sensible heat flux (H) simulated by a suite of ecosystem models at five agricultural eddy covariance flux tower sites in the central United States as part of the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis project. Most of the models overestimated H and underestimated LE during the growing season, leading to overall higher Bowen ratios compared to the observations. Most models systematically under predicted NEE, especially at rain-fed sites. Certain crop-specific models that were developed considering the high productivity and associated physiological changes in specific crops better predicted the NEE and LE at both rain-fed and irrigated sites. Models with specific parameterization for different crops better simulated the inter-annual variability of NEE for maize-soybean rotation compared to those models with a single generic crop type. Stratification according to basic model formulation and phenological methodology did not explain significant variation in model performance across these sites and crops. The under prediction of NEE and LE and over prediction of H by most of the models suggests that models developed and parameterized for natural ecosystems cannot accurately predict the more robust physiology of highly bred and intensively managed crop ecosystems. When coupled in Earth System Models, it is likely that the excessive physiological stress simulated in many land surface component models leads to overestimation of temperature and atmospheric boundary layer depth, and underestimation of humidity and CO2 seasonal uptake over agricultural regions.

  7. Transitions in Arctic ecosystems: Ecological implications of a changing hydrological regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Frederick J.; Johansson, Margareta; Culp, Joseph M.; Jenkins, Alan; Mârd, Johanna; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Prowse, Terry D.; Vincent, Warwick F.; Wookey, Philip A.

    2016-03-01

    Numerous international scientific assessments and related articles have, during the last decade, described the observed and potential impacts of climate change as well as other related environmental stressors on Arctic ecosystems. There is increasing recognition that observed and projected changes in freshwater sources, fluxes, and storage will have profound implications for the physical, biogeochemical, biological, and ecological processes and properties of Arctic terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. However, a significant level of uncertainty remains in relation to forecasting the impacts of an intensified hydrological regime and related cryospheric change on ecosystem structure and function. As the terrestrial and freshwater ecology component of the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis, we review these uncertainties and recommend enhanced coordinated circumpolar research and monitoring efforts to improve quantification and prediction of how an altered hydrological regime influences local, regional, and circumpolar-level responses in terrestrial and freshwater systems. Specifically, we evaluate (i) changes in ecosystem productivity; (ii) alterations in ecosystem-level biogeochemical cycling and chemical transport; (iii) altered landscapes, successional trajectories, and creation of new habitats; (iv) altered seasonality and phenological mismatches; and (v) gains or losses of species and associated trophic interactions. We emphasize the need for developing a process-based understanding of interecosystem interactions, along with improved predictive models. We recommend enhanced use of the catchment scale as an integrated unit of study, thereby more explicitly considering the physical, chemical, and ecological processes and fluxes across a full freshwater continuum in a geographic region and spatial range of hydroecological units (e.g., stream-pond-lake-river-near shore marine environments).

  8. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of the L-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Sharitz, R.R.; Gladden, J.B.

    1982-10-01

    This report summarizes the findings of slightly more than one year's study of the Steel Creek ecosystem. Generally, the findings have allowed us to refine our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the Steel Creek ecosystem which is an essential prerequisite for predicting the impacts associated with L-reactor restart. Reanalysis of the Steel Creek plant community relationships using 1981 aerial photography revealed that this component of the delta ecosystem continues to change as a result of natural successional processes. The major detectable changes have occurred on the more elevated portions of Steel Creek delta where coverage by woody species (especially willow) is continuing to increase. This successional woody community is invading areas previously dominated by persistent herbaceous species such as cut grass. Eleven vegetation associations were identified in the Steel Creek delta area, including two associations that were not apparently affected by the earlier reactor operations

  9. Urban ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvigneaud, P

    1974-01-01

    The author considers the town as an ecosystem. He examines its various subdivisions (climate, soil, structure, human and non-human communities, etc.) for which he chooses examples with particular reference to the city of Brussels.

  10. Formulating Phenological Equations for Rainfed Upland Rice in Bastar Plateau and Assessment of Genotype X Environment Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Sao, A.; Salam, J. L.; Kanwar, R. R.; Kumari, P.

    2016-01-01

    Upland rice encompasses 12 percent of global rice production area in the lowest yielding ecosystem, produced by poorest farmers with 0.5 ha average operational holdings. Due to subtle selection over long period of time, upland rice has become drought tolerant potential crop and harbors great genetic potential for future water limited rice. It has also precious traits like high pestilent insect resistant possibility and short growing season. In present investigation, 18 new genotypes were tested for upland ecology during Kharif 2013 and 2014, to identify promising genotypes and formulate phenological relationships at phenotypic and genotypic levels and estimate G x E interactions with uncertain weather parameters. The test populations exhibited enough variation to carry on crop breeding research however, genotypes responded differentially to water stress and late season drought with respect to morphological and yield traits. Considering secondary productivity factors (SPF), days to flowering, plant height, panicles per unit area, spikelet fertility and harvest index was observed to be major contributors for water scarce survivals. Biased selection for earliness cause reduction in grain yield due to shortened vegetative phase hence, research is to be focused to minimize the yield penalty associated with earliness. Among the genotypes evaluated, IR-83381-B-B-137-3 and IR-86857-46-1-1-2 was found to be promising for rainfed breeding programme as parent material. Based on results of farmer field and station trials, existing upland rice variety CR 40 is concluded as promising for upland ecology and will be crucial to uplift the economy of poor and marginal farmers of Chhattisgarh. (author)

  11. European-wide simulations of present cropland phenology, productivity and carbon fluxes using an improved terrestrial biosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. C.; Ciais, P.; de Noblet, N.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Bondeau, A.

    2009-04-01

    Aiming at producing improved estimates of carbon source/sink spatial and interannual patterns across Europe (35% croplands), this work combines the terrestrial biosphere model ORCHIDEE (for vegetation productivity, water balance, soil carbon dynamics) and the generic crop model STICS (for phenology, irrigation, nitrogen balance, harvest). The ORCHIDEE-STICS model, relying on three plant functional types for the representation of temperate agriculture, is evaluated over the last few decades at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The simulated Leaf Area Index seasonal cycle is largely improved relative to the original ORCHIDEE simulating grasslands, and compares favourably with remote-sensing observations (the Figure of Merit in Time doubles over Europe). Crop yield is derived from annual Net Primary Productivity and compared with wheat and grain maize harvest data for five European countries. Discrepancies between 30-year mean simulated and reported yields remain large in Mediterranean countries. Interannual variability amplitude expressed relative to the mean is reduced towards the observed variability (~10%) when using ORCHIDEE-STICS. The simulated 2003 anomalous carbon source from European ecosystems to the atmosphere due to the 2003 summer heat wave is in good agreement with atmospheric inversions (~0.2 GtC, from May to October). The anomaly is twice as large in the ORCHIDEE alone simulation, owing to the unrealistically high exposure of herbaceous plants to the extreme summer conditions. Overall, this study highlights the importance of accounting for the specific phonologies of crops sown both in winter and in spring and for irrigation applied to summer crops in regional/global models of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Limitations suggest accounting for temporal and spatial variability in agricultural practices for further simulation improvement.

  12. Evaluating the effects of future climate change and elevated CO2 on the water use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Jiang, H.; Peng, C.; Liu, J.; Wei, X.; Fang, X.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Yu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important variable used in climate change and hydrological studies in relation to how it links ecosystem carbon cycles and hydrological cycles together. However, obtaining reliable WUE results based on site-level flux data remains a great challenge when scaling up to larger regional zones. Biophysical, process-based ecosystem models are powerful tools to study WUE at large spatial and temporal scales. The Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) was used to evaluate the effects of climate change and elevated CO2 concentrations on ecosystem-level WUE (defined as the ratio of gross primary production (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET)) in relation to terrestrial ecosystems in China for 2009–2099. Climate scenario data (IPCC SRES A2 and SRES B1) generated from the Third Generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) was used in the simulations. Seven simulations were implemented according to the assemblage of different elevated CO2 concentrations scenarios and different climate change scenarios. Analysis suggests that (1) further elevated CO2concentrations will significantly enhance the WUE over China by the end of the twenty-first century, especially in forest areas; (2) effects of climate change on WUE will vary for different geographical regions in China with negative effects occurring primarily in southern regions and positive effects occurring primarily in high latitude and altitude regions (Tibetan Plateau); (3) WUE will maintain the current levels for 2009–2099 under the constant climate scenario (i.e. using mean climate condition of 1951–2006 and CO2concentrations of the 2008 level); and (4) WUE will decrease with the increase of water resource restriction (expressed as evaporation ratio) among different ecosystems.

  13. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  14. Trends and Variability in Temperature Sensitivity of Lilac Flowering Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu; Rutishauser, This; Gonsamo, Alemu; Wu, Chaoyang; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-03-01

    The responses of plant phenology to temperature variability have many consequences for ecological processes, agriculture, forestry, and human health. Temperature sensitivity (ST) of phenology could measure how and to what degree plant could phenologically track climate change. The long-term trends and spatial patterns in ST have been well studied for vegetative phenology such as leaf unfolding, but trends to be expected for reproductive phenology in the future remain unknown. Here we investigate trends and factors driving the temporal variation of ST of first bloom date (FBD). Using the long-term FBD records during 1963-2013 for common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) from 613 stations in Europe, we compared changes in ST from the beginning to the end of the study period. The Spearman partial correlations were used to assess the importance of four influencing factors. The results showed that the temporal changes in ST of FBD varied considerably among time scales. Mean ST decreased significantly by 0.92 days °C-1 from 1963-1972 to 2004-2013 (P plant species in other climates and environments using similar methods to our study.

  15. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P.; Bennett, Micah G.; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A.; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable ( R 2 = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie ( Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  16. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P; Bennett, Micah G; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable (R (2) = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  17. Evaluación de métodos de propagación, fertilización nitrogenada y fenología de estevia en condiciones del Valle del Cauca Evaluation of propagation methods, nitrogen fertilization and phenology in stevia in the Cauca Valley, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R Bonilla C

    Full Text Available En el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira se evaluó el prendimiento de estacas apicales y basales de Stevia rebaudiana en tres sustratos de enraizamiento (carbonilla-arena, carbonilla-compost y arena-compost y tres fuentes de nitrógeno (urea 46%N, compost 1.5%N y gallinaza 1% N. El mejor método de propagación fue la estaca apical en sustrato carbonilla-arena 1:1, volumen; las fuentes de nitrógeno no presentaron diferencias significativas en la acumulación de materia seca de hojas. Se diferenciaron los siguientes periodos fenológicos: Emergencia: 6 días después de la siembra (dís, Estado vegetativo: 17 dias, Floración: 71 dís, Fructificación: 115 dís, Senescencia: 169 dís y Rebrote: 201 dísThis research was carried out at the Experimental Center of the National University of Colombia ( Palmira in order to know more about the cropping system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The research consisted of an evaluation of rooting process and growth of cuttings from basal and apical position of the stem. The results were obtained from three root sustrates (coal ship-sand, coal ship-compost and sand-compost and three different nitrogen sources (urea 46%N, compost 1.5% N and chicken manure 1% N. The results showed that the most productive sustrate was coal ship-sand 1:1 volume. The application of the nitrogen sources had no significant differences in accumulation of leaf dry matter. Phenological observation were as follows: emergence: 6 days after sowing (das, vegetative state: 17 das, flowering: 71 das, fructificatión: 115 das, senility: 169 das and shoot: 201 dís.

  18. Uncovering a Nuisance Influence of a Phenological Trait of Plants Using a Nonlinear Structural Equation: Application to Days to Heading and Culm Length in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Ideta, Osamu; Yoshioka, Takuma; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamasaki, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phenological traits of plants, such as flowering time, are linked to growth phase transition. Thus, phenological traits often influence other traits through the modification of the duration of growth period. This influence is a nuisance in plant breeding because it hampers genetic evaluation of the influenced traits. Genetic effects on the influenced traits have two components, one that directly affects the traits and one that indirectly affects the traits via the phenological trait. These cannot be distinguished by phenotypic evaluation and ordinary linear regression models. Consequently, if a phenological trait is modified by introgression or editing of the responsible genes, the phenotypes of the influenced traits can change unexpectedly. To uncover the influence of the phenological trait and evaluate the direct genetic effects on the influenced traits, we developed a nonlinear structural equation (NSE) incorporating a nonlinear influence of the phenological trait. We applied the NSE to real data for cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.): days to heading (DH) as a phenological trait and culm length (CL) as the influenced trait. This showed that CL of the cultivars that showed extremely early heading was shortened by the strong influence of DH. In a simulation study, it was shown that the NSE was able to infer the nonlinear influence and direct genetic effects with reasonable accuracy. However, the NSE failed to infer the linear influence in this study. When no influence was simulated, an ordinary bi-trait linear model (OLM) tended to infer the genetic effects more accurately. In such cases, however, by comparing the NSE and OLM using an information criterion, we could assess whether the nonlinear assumption of the NSE was appropriate for the data analyzed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the NSE in revealing the phenotypic influence of phenological traits.

  19. Intercomparison of phenological transition dates derived from the PhenoCam Dataset V1.0 and MODIS satellite remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D; Hufkens, Koen; Milliman, Tom; Frolking, Steve

    2018-04-09

    Phenology is a valuable diagnostic of ecosystem health, and has applications to environmental monitoring and management. Here, we conduct an intercomparison analysis using phenological transition dates derived from near-surface PhenoCam imagery and MODIS satellite remote sensing. We used approximately 600 site-years of data, from 128 camera sites covering a wide range of vegetation types and climate zones. During both "greenness rising" and "greenness falling" transition phases, we found generally good agreement between PhenoCam and MODIS transition dates for agricultural, deciduous forest, and grassland sites, provided that the vegetation in the camera field of view was representative of the broader landscape. The correlation between PhenoCam and MODIS transition dates was poor for evergreen forest sites. We discuss potential reasons (including sub-pixel spatial heterogeneity, flexibility of the transition date extraction method, vegetation index sensitivity in evergreen systems, and PhenoCam geolocation uncertainty) for varying agreement between time series of vegetation indices derived from PhenoCam and MODIS imagery. This analysis increases our confidence in the ability of satellite remote sensing to accurately characterize seasonal dynamics in a range of ecosystems, and provides a basis for interpreting those dynamics in the context of tangible phenological changes occurring on the ground.

  20. Webcam network and image database for studies of phenological changes of vegetation and snow cover in Finland, image time series from 2014 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, monitoring of the status of ecosystems using low-cost web (IP) or time lapse cameras has received wide interest. With broad spatial coverage and high temporal resolution, networked cameras can provide information about snow cover and vegetation status, serve as ground truths to Earth observations and be useful for gap-filling of cloudy areas in Earth observation time series. Networked cameras can also play an important role in supplementing laborious phenological field surveys and citizen science projects, which also suffer from observer-dependent observation bias. We established a network of digital surveillance cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation and snow cover in the boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted at 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. Here, we document the network, basic camera information and access to images in the permanent data repository (http://www.zenodo.org/communities/phenology_camera/). Individual DOI-referenced image time series consist of half-hourly images collected between 2014 and 2016 (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1066862). Additionally, we present an example of a colour index time series derived from images from two contrasting sites.

  1. Webcam network and image database for studies of phenological changes of vegetation and snow cover in Finland, image time series from 2014 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peltoniemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, monitoring of the status of ecosystems using low-cost web (IP or time lapse cameras has received wide interest. With broad spatial coverage and high temporal resolution, networked cameras can provide information about snow cover and vegetation status, serve as ground truths to Earth observations and be useful for gap-filling of cloudy areas in Earth observation time series. Networked cameras can also play an important role in supplementing laborious phenological field surveys and citizen science projects, which also suffer from observer-dependent observation bias. We established a network of digital surveillance cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation and snow cover in the boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted at 14 sites, each site having 1–3 cameras. Here, we document the network, basic camera information and access to images in the permanent data repository (http://www.zenodo.org/communities/phenology_camera/. Individual DOI-referenced image time series consist of half-hourly images collected between 2014 and 2016 (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1066862. Additionally, we present an example of a colour index time series derived from images from two contrasting sites.

  2. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  3. Evaluation of CH4 and N2O Budget of Natural Ecosystems and Croplands in Asia with a Process-based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are important sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) but significant sources of other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To resolve the role of terrestrial biosphere in the climate system, we need to quantify total greenhouse gas budget with an adequate accuracy. In addition to top-down evaluation on the basis of atmospheric measurements, model-based approach is required for integration and up-scaling of filed data and for prediction under changing environment and different management practices. Since the early 2000s, we have developed a process-based model of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles focusing on atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of trace gases: Vegetation Integrated SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The model includes simple and comprehensive schemes of carbon and nitrogen cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, allowing us to capture dynamic nature of greenhouse gas budget. Beginning from natural ecosystems such as temperate and tropical forests, the models is now applicable to croplands by including agricultural practices such as planting, harvest, and fertilizer input. Global simulation results have been published from several papers, but model validation and benchmarking using up-to-date observations are remained for works. The model is now applied to several practical issues such as evaluation of N2O emission from bio-fuel croplands, which are expected to accomplish the mitigation target of the Paris Agreement. We also show several topics about basic model development such as revised CH4 emission affected by dynamic water-table and refined N2O emission from nitrification.

  4. Topography-mediated controls on local vegetation phenology estimated from MODIS vegetation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taehee Hwang; Conghe Song; James Vose; Lawrence Band

    2011-01-01

    Forest canopy phenology is an important constraint on annual water and carbon budgets, and responds to regional interannual climate variation. In steep terrain, there are complex spatial variations in phenology due to topographic influences on microclimate, community composition, and available soil moisture. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of phenology...