WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluate bull trout

  1. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  2. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason B.; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2018-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  3. Evaluating trade-offs in bull trout reintroduction strategies using structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.; Dunham, Jason B.; Schaller, Howard A.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Structured decision making allows reintroduction decisions to be made despite uncertainty by linking reintroduction goals with alternative management actions through predictive models of ecological processes. We developed a decision model to evaluate the trade-offs between six bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) reintroduction decisions with the goal of maximizing the number of adults in the recipient population without reducing the donor population to an unacceptable level. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the decision identity and outcome were most influenced by survival parameters that result in increased adult abundance in the recipient population, increased juvenile survival in the donor and recipient populations, adult fecundity rates, and sex ratio. The decision was least sensitive to survival parameters associated with the captive-reared population, the effect of naivety on released individuals, and juvenile carrying capacity of the reintroduced population. The model and sensitivity analyses can serve as the foundation for formal adaptive management and improved effectiveness, efficiency, and transparency of bull trout reintroduction decisions.

  4. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  5. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  6. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  7. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  8. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  9. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  10. Demographic and habitat requirements for conservation of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; John D. Mclntyre

    1993-01-01

    Elements in bull trout biology, population dynamics, habitat, and biotic interactions important to conservation of the species are identified. Bull trout appear to have more specific habitat requirements than other salmonids, but no critical thresholds of acceptable habitat condition were found. Size, temporal variation, and spatial distribution are likely to influence...

  11. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  12. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  13. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  14. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  15. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  16. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (construction and selection of spawning sites with strong downwelling appear to enhance hyporheic flow rates and bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  17. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  18. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  19. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  20. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroney, Joseph R. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  1. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  2. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellerud, B.L.; Gunkel, S.; Hemmingsen, A.R.; Buchanan, D.V.; Howell, P.J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout

  3. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  4. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  5. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

  6. Sources and magnitude of sampling error in redd counts for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Bruce Rieman

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of salmonid populations often involves annual redd counts, but the validity of this method has seldom been evaluated. We conducted redd counts of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in two streams in northern Idaho to address four issues: (1) relationships between adult escapements and redd counts; (2) interobserver variability in redd...

  7. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus ) in a fire-prone landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A. Falke; Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Jason B. Dunham; Kristina M. McNyset; Paul F. Hessburg; Gordon H. Reeves; C. Tara Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River...

  8. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  9. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  10. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  11. Consequences of actively managing a small Bull Trout population in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Moran, Sean; McHugh, Peter; Bernall, Shana; Fredenberg, Wade; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, which affects many native salmonid species, is one of the major factors contributing to the declines in distribution and abundance of Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus. Increasingly, managers are considering options to maintain and enhance the persistence of isolated local populations through active management strategies. Understanding the ecological consequences of such actions is a necessary step in conservation planning. We used an individual-based model to evaluate the consequences of an ongoing management program aimed at mitigating the anthropogenic fragmentation of the lower Clark Fork River in Montana. Under this program juvenile Bull Trout are trapped and transported from small, headwater source populations to Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, for rearing, and adults are subsequently recaptured in their upstream migration and returned to the natal population for spawning. We examined one of these populations and integrated empirical estimates of demographic parameters to simulate different management scenarios where moderate (n = 4) and high (n = 8) numbers of age-2, age-3, or age-4 Bull Trout were removed for transport with variable return rates under both demographic stochasticity and environmental perturbations. Our results indicated the risks from removal with no returns increased substantially when removal totals and age of Bull Trout removed from the simulated population increased. Specifically, removing eight age-3 or age-4 individuals resulted in 26% and 62% reductions in average adult population size, respectively, across simulations. We found the risks of transport were not likely alleviated with low (3%) or moderate (6%) return rates, and there were considerable risks of declines for the source population even when return rates were extremely high (>12%). Our simulations indicated little risk of declines for the source population with removals of age-2 Bull Trout, and any risks were alleviated with low return rates. However, we

  12. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  13. Bull trout population assessment in the Columbia River Gorge/annual report fy2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-01-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were and lt;15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m(sup 2) in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m(sup 2) on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m(sup 2) in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  14. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason B.; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  15. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  16. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  17. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  18. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program: 2000 data report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00)

  19. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  20. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a fire-prone landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Dunham, Jason B.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River basin, Washington, USA, under current and future climate and fire scenarios. The BN was based on modeled estimates of wildfire, water temperature, and physical habitat prior to, and following, simulated fires throughout the basin. We found that bull trout population vulnerability depended on the extent to which climate effects can be at least partially offset by managing factors such as habitat connectivity and fire size. Moreover, our analysis showed that local management can significantly reduce the vulnerability of bull trout to climate change given appropriate management actions. Tools such as our BN that explicitly integrate the linked nature of climate and wildfire, and incorporate uncertainty in both input data and vulnerability estimates, will be vital in effective future management to conserve native coldwater fishes.

  1. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  2. Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek bull trout enumeration project 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing

  3. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  4. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  5. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting fact in central and northeast Oregon/1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; Gunckel, S.L.; Howell, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek

  6. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  7. Kootenai River fisheries investigations: rainbow and bull trout recruitment: annual progress report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher Charles

    2001-01-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I.= 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m(sup 2), respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline

  8. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  9. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  10. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  11. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program : 2001 data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0(sup+), 1(sup+) and 2(sup+) age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m(sup 2) (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m(sup 2)). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m(sup 2) (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0(sup+)) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are ecologically

  12. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-11-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000.

  13. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting fact in central and northeast Oregon, annual report 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.

    2001-01-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000

  14. Structured decision making for conservation of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Long Creek, Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Dunham, Jason B.; Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.

    2017-06-21

    With the decline of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), managers face multiple, and sometimes contradictory, management alternatives for species recovery. Moreover, effective decision-making involves all stakeholders influenced by the decisions (such as Tribal, State, Federal, private, and non-governmental organizations) because they represent diverse objectives, jurisdictions, policy mandates, and opinions of the best management strategy. The process of structured decision making is explicitly designed to address these elements of the decision making process. Here we report on an application of structured decision making to a population of bull trout believed threatened by high densities of nonnative brook trout (S. fontinalis) and habitat fragmentation in Long Creek, a tributary to the Sycan River in the Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon. This involved engaging stakeholders to identify (1) their fundamental objectives for the conservation of bull trout, (2) feasible management alternatives to achieve their objectives, and (3) biological information and assumptions to incorporate in a decision model. Model simulations suggested an overarching theme among the top decision alternatives, which was a need to simultaneously control brook trout and ensure that the migratory tactic of bull trout can be expressed. More specifically, the optimal management decision, based on the estimated adult abundance at year 10, was to combine the eradication of brook trout from Long Creek with improvement of downstream conditions (for example, connectivity or habitat conditions). Other top decisions included these actions independently, as well as electrofishing removal of brook trout. In contrast, translocating bull trout to a different stream or installing a barrier to prevent upstream spread of brook trout had minimal or negative effects on the bull trout population. Moreover, sensitivity analyses suggested that these actions were consistently identified as optimal across

  15. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  16. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  17. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  18. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in central and northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; Buchanan, D.V.; Howell, P.J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured

  19. Using accelerated life testing procedures to compare the relative sensitivity of rainbow trout and the federally listed threatened bull trout to three commonly used rangeland herbicides (picloram, 2,4-D, and clopyralid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James F; Allert, Ann; Sappington, Linda S; Nelson, Karen J; Valle, Janet

    2008-03-01

    We conducted 96-h static acute toxicity studies to evaluate the relative sensitivity of juveniles of the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard cold-water surrogate rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) to three rangeland herbicides commonly used for controlling invasive weeds in the northwestern United States. Relative species sensitivity was compared using three procedures: standard acute toxicity testing, fractional estimates of lethal concentrations, and accelerated life testing chronic estimation procedures. The acutely lethal concentrations (ALC) resulting in 50% mortality at 96 h (96-h ALC50s) were determined using linear regression and indicated that the three herbicides were toxic in the order of picloram acid > 2,4-D acid > clopyralid acid. The 96-h ALC50 values for rainbow trout were as follows: picloram, 41 mg/L; 2.4-D, 707 mg/L; and clopyralid, 700 mg/L. The 96-h ALC50 values for bull trout were as follows: picloram, 24 mg/L; 2.4-D, 398 mg/L; and clopyralid, 802 mg/L. Fractional estimates of safe concentrations, based on 5% of the 96-h ALC50, were conservative (overestimated toxicity) of regression-derived 96-h ALC5 values by an order of magnitude. Accelerated life testing procedures were used to estimate chronic lethal concentrations (CLC) resulting in 1% mortality at 30 d (30-d CLC1) for the three herbicides: picloram (1 mg/L rainbow trout, 5 mg/L bull trout), 2,4-D (56 mg/L rainbow trout, 84 mg/L bull trout), and clopyralid (477 mg/L rainbow trout; 552 mg/L bull trout). Collectively, the results indicated that the standard surrogate rainbow trout is similar in sensitivity to bull trout. Accelerated life testing procedures provided cost-effective, statistically defensible methods for estimating safe chronic concentrations (30-d CLC1s) of herbicides from acute toxicity data because they use statistical models based on the entire mortality:concentration:time data matrix.

  20. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  1. Models to predict suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; G. L. Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in 2000 to develop models of suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Washington State. The research is associated with a cooperative agreement (Agreement #134100H001) between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research...

  2. Bull trout distribution and abundance in the waters on and bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Christopher V.; Dodson, Rebekah D.

    2002-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the fourth year (2001) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species were the lowest observed since surveys began in 1999. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout increased in Shitike Cr. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the third year. Mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in the 2.4 km control reach. However, the mean relative density of brook trout in the 2.4 km control reach was slightly higher than what was observed in within the index reaches. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout occupied pools more frequently than glides, riffles and rapids. However, pools accounted for only a small percentage

  3. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Whited, Diane C.; DeHaan, Patrick W.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4–7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = −0.77;P bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already depressed where climatic vulnerability is highest; it will likely erode further in the very places where diversity may be most needed for future persistence.

  4. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  5. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Bull trout population assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington; ANNUAL fiscal year 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesfield, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River

  7. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  8. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  9. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish near the floating surface collector in the North Fork Reservoir, Oregon, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Smith, Collin D.

    2017-06-26

    Acoustic cameras were used to assess the behavior and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish at the entrance to the North Fork Reservoir juvenile fish floating surface collector (FSC). The purpose of the FSC is to collect downriver migrating juvenile salmonids at the North Fork Dam, and safely route them around the hydroelectric projects. The objective of the acoustic camera component of this study was to assess the behaviors of bull trout-size fish observed near the FSC, and to determine if the presence of bull trout-size fish influenced the collection or abundance of juvenile salmonids. Acoustic cameras were deployed near the surface and floor of the entrance to the FSC. The acoustic camera technology was an informative tool for assessing abundance and spatial and temporal behaviors of bull trout-size fish near the entrance of the FSC. Bull trout-size fish were regularly observed near the entrance, with greater abundances on the deep camera than on the shallow camera. Additionally, greater abundances were observed during the hours of sunlight than were observed during the night. Behavioral differences also were observed at the two depths, with surface fish traveling faster and straighter with more directed movement, and fish observed on the deep camera generally showing more milling behavior. Modeling potential predator-prey interactions and influences using collected passive integrated transponder (PIT) -tagged juvenile salmonids proved largely unpredictable, although these fish provided relevant timing and collection information. Overall, the results indicate that bull trout-size fish are present near the entrance of the FSC, concomitant with juvenile salmonids, and their abundances and behaviors indicate that they may be drawn to the entrance of the FSC because of the abundance of prey-sized fish.

  11. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  12. An expert panel approach to assessing potential effects of bull trout reintroduction on federally listed salmonids in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Chris S. Allen; Steve Morey; Dan Shively; Rollie. White

    2012-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is an apex predator in native fish communities in the western USA and is listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Restoration of this species has raised concerns over its potential predatory impacts on native fish fauna. We held a five-person expert panel to help determine potential...

  13. Influences of temperature and environmental variables on the distribution of bull trout within streams at the southern margin of its range

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunham; B. Rieman; G. Chandler

    2003-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is believed to be among the most thermally sensitive species in coldwater habitats in western North America. We conducted a comprehensive field assessment of thermal habitat associations throughout the southern margin of the species' range. We developed models of thermal habitat associations using two data sets representing a...

  14. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  15. Combining inferences from models of capture efficiency, detectability, and suitable habitat to classify landscapes for conservation of threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J.; Dunham, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective conservation efforts for at-risk species require knowledge of the locations of existing populations. Species presence can be estimated directly by conducting field-sampling surveys or alternatively by developing predictive models. Direct surveys can be expensive and inefficient, particularly for rare and difficult-to-sample species, and models of species presence may produce biased predictions. We present a Bayesian approach that combines sampling and model-based inferences for estimating species presence. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this approach were compared to those of sampling surveys and predictive models for estimating the presence of the threatened bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) via simulation with existing models and empirical sampling data. Simulations indicated that a sampling-only approach would be the most effective and would result in the lowest presence and absence misclassification error rates for three thresholds of detection probability. When sampling effort was considered, however, the combined approach resulted in the lowest error rates per unit of sampling effort. Hence, lower probability-of-detection thresholds can be specified with the combined approach, resulting in lower misclassification error rates and improved cost-effectiveness.

  16. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  17. Re-evaluating the Contribution and Legacy of Hedley Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Maione Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims, in the first instance, to make a detailed analysis of the work of Hedley Bull, approaching the main themes and concepts developed by him. Secondly, it aims to re-evaluate the potential of the author’s contribution, given the new conditions of the post-Cold War period. With this in mind, the article critically analyses the most recent interpretations of this work, which seek to highlight its critical and normative potential, as well as to dissociate it from the realist tradition in international relations. These two facts differentiate the new commentators from older ones and reaffirm the continuing relevance of Hedley Bull’s work, the latter being the article’s chief conclusion.

  18. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Lotto, A.G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0–12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  19. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, P.J.; Dunham, J.B.; Sankovich, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16-18 ??C and potentially as high as 21 ??C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18-25 ??C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7-14 ??C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11-18 ??C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. Published 2009. This article is a US Governmentwork and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  1. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  2. Correlation between hypoosmotic swelling test and breeding soundness evaluation of adult Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Miranda Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the relationship between physical and morphological semen features with the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS test in raw semen of adult Nelore bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Two hundred and six Nelore bulls aging from 3-10 years old were subjected to breeding soundness examination. After physical and morphological semen examination, HOS test was done. After the breeding soundness examination, 94.2% of the bulls were classified as sound for breeding. There was no difference between the average scrotal circumference of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was difference between all semen physical and morphological aspects of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was no difference in the mean percentage of reactive spermatozoa to HOS test results both for sound (38.4±17.9 and unsound animals (39.5±16.4; P>0.05, with no Pearson correlation between the HOS test and variables. According to these results HOS test can not be used alone to predict the reproductive potential of adult Nelore bulls.

  3. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  4. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  5. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  6. Evaluation of bull fertility in dairy and beef cattle using cow field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Mc Parland, S

    2011-01-01

    A successful outcome to a given service is a combination of both male and female fertility. Despite this, most national evaluations for fertility are generally confined to female fertility with evaluations for male fertility commonly undertaken by individual breeding organisations and generally not made public. The objective of this study was to define a pertinent male fertility trait for seasonal calving production systems, and to develop a multiple regression mixed model that may be used to evaluate male fertility at a national level. The data included in the study after editing consisted of 361,412 artificial inseminations from 206,683 cow-lactations (134,911 cows) in 2,843 commercial dairy and beef herds. Fixed effects associated with whether a successful pregnancy ensued (pregnant = 1) or not (pregnant = 0) from a given service were year by month of service, day of the week, days since calving, cow parity, level of calving difficulty experienced, whether or not the previous calving was associated with perinatal mortality, and age of the service bull at the date of insemination. Non-additive genetic effects such as heterosis and recombination loss as well as inbreeding level of the service bull, dam or mating were not associated with a successful pregnancy; there was no difference in pregnancy rate between fresh or frozen semen. Random effects included in the model were the additive genetic effect of the cow, as well as a within lactation and across lactation permanent environmental effect of the cow; pedigree group effects based on cow breed were also included via the relationship matrix. Temporal differences in the AI technician and service bull were also included as random effects. A difference in five percentage units in male fertility was evident between the average effects of different dairy and beef breeds. The correlation between raw pregnancy rates for bulls with more than 100 services (n = 431) and service bull solutions from the mixed model analysis

  7. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kapoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull, were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05 negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities.

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxic action of antihistamines desloratadine and loratadine using bulls spermatozoa as a test object

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, O.; Ostapiv, D.; Alekhina, T.

    2014-01-01

    Antihistamines with active ingredients of loratadine and desloratadine are produced by Ukrainian pharmaceutical industry. According to the law, ther are assessed for their potential danger to human health and the environment, including alternative test objects. Evaluation has been carried out with regard to cytotoxic effect of pharmacological substances (loratadine and desloratadine) using the bull sperm suspension as test objects, standardized and highly sensitive to toxic substances. Sperm ...

  9. Evaluation of dietary soy sensitivity in snake river cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchery-cultured cutthroat trout fed some commercially available rainbow trout feeds display slow growth and increased mortality. Feed characteristics such as buoyancy and texture alter feed acceptance in some fish species but their effects have not been adequately addressed in cutthroat trout. Th...

  10. Quantitative evaluation of regional blood flow in pulmonary sarcoidosis with Bull's eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaki, Shiro

    1991-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed in 23 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 11 normal volunteers. Bull's eye analysis was used to analyze regional pulmonary blood flow quantitatively. First, whole lung perfusion images were divided into three regions by three concentric circles. Then radial axes were projected from the center to define 36 x 10deg sectors. The counts for each sector were calculated and a Bull's eye image was displayed. The counts were compared with the lower limit of normal (mean -2SD), and as the indices of reduction in perfusion, extent score (ES) and severity score (SS) were calculated. ES and SS showed significant reduction in perfusion 16 patients (70%) with sarcoidosis. In stage II sarcoidosis, both ES and SS were significantly higher than in stage I sarcoidosis (p 67 Ga scintigraphy findings. In comparison with clinical data, ES had a positive correlation with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (p + /CD8 + ratio (p<0.05). The Bull's eye analysis was considered useful for the quantitative evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow in pulmonary sarcoidosis, and it was suggested that the mechanism of reduction in perfusion might result mainly in its alveolitis and angitis. Ventilation abnormality, which may happen prior to reduction in perfusion, may be an important factor of reduction in perfusion. (author)

  11. Production and evaluation of YY-male Brook Trout to eradicate nonnative wild brook trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick; Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Campbell, Matthew R.; Vu, Ninh V.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis were introduced throughout western North America in the early 1900s, resulting in widespread self-sustaining populations that are difficult to eradicate and often threaten native salmonid populations. A novel approach for their eradication involves use of YY male (MYY) Brook Trout (created in the hatchery by feminizing XY males and crossing them with normal XY males). If MYY Brook Trout survive after stocking, and reproduce successfully with wild females, in theory this could eventually drive the sex ratio of the wild population to 100% males, at which point the population would not be able to reproduce and would be eradicated. This study represents the first successful development of a FYY and MYY salmonid broodstock, which was produced in four years at relatively low cost. Field trials demonstrated that stocked hatchery MYY Brook Trout survived and produced viable MYY offspring in streams, although reproductive fitness appeared to have been lower than their wild conspecifics. Even if reduced fitness is the norm in both streams and alpine lakes, our population simulations suggest that eradication can be achieved in reasonable time periods under some MYY stocking scenarios, especially when wild Brook Trout are simultaneously suppressed in the population.

  12. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Paolo Carnier; Luigi Gallo Gallo; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID)  on official estimated breeding values (EBV) for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least on...

  13. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  14. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore...... that a fall stressor can reduce overwinter survival of juvenile brown trout, negatively impact growth of individuals that survive, and ultimately result in a reduction in the number of migratory trout. Carryover effects such as those documented here reveal the cryptic manner in which natural and anthropogenic...... influence their propensity to migrate as well as carry over into the winter resulting in mortality when fish face challenging environmental conditions. To evaluate this possibility, we artificially elevated cortisol levels in juvenile trout (via intracoelomic injection of cortisol in the fall) and used...

  15. Evaluation of catch-and-release regulations on Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; Wagner, Tyler; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission implemented catch-and-release (CR) regulations on headwater stream systems to determine if eliminating angler harvest would result in an increase in the number of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Under the CR regulations, angling was permitted on a year-round basis, no Brook Trout could be harvested at any time, and there were no tackle restrictions. A before-after–control-impact design was used to evaluate the experimental regulations. Brook Trout populations were monitored in 16 treatment (CR regulations) and 7 control streams (statewide regulations) using backpack electrofishing gear periodically for up to 15 years (from 1990 to 2003 or 2004) before the implementation of the CR regulations and over a 7–8-year period (from 2004 or 2005 to 2011) after implementation. We used Poisson mixed models to evaluate whether electrofishing catch per effort (CPE; catch/100 m2) of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout increased in treatment streams as a result of implementing CR regulations. Brook Trout CPE varied among sites and among years, and there was no significant effect (increase or decrease) of CR regulations on the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout. Results of our evaluation suggest that CR regulations were not effective at improving the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams. Low angler use, high voluntary catch and release, and slow growth rates in infertile headwater streams are likely the primary reasons for the lack of response.

  16. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  17. Evaluating stream trout habitat on large-scale aerial color photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace J. Greentree; Robert C. Aldrich

    1976-01-01

    Large-scale aerial color photographs were used to evaluate trout habitat by studying stream and streambank conditions. Ninety-two percent of these conditions could be identified correctly on the color photographs. Color photographs taken 1 year apart showed that rehabilitation efforts resulted in stream vegetation changes. Water depth was correlated with film density:...

  18. Bull trout in the Boundary System: managing connectivity and the feasibility of a reintroduction in the lower Pend Oreille River, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Taylor, Eric B.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the World’s rivers are influenced by large dams (>15 m high) most of which have fragmented formerly continuous habitats, and significantly altered fish passage, natural flow, temperature, and sediment fluxes (Nilsson and others, 2005; Arthington, 2012; Liermann and others, 2012). In the Pacific Northwest, dams on major rivers have been a major focus for fishery managers, primarily in regard to passage of anadromous salmonids (principally Pacific salmon and steelhead trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss], for example, Ferguson and others, 2011), but more recently other species, such as Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and resident (non-anadromous) salmonids, are receiving more attention (Neraas and Spruell, 2001; Moser and others, 2002; Muhlfeld and others, 2012). In the case of resident salmonids, fish can adopt a wide range of migratory behaviors that often bring them into mainstem rivers where they can come into direct contact with large dams. When this occurs, some of the most important direct effects of dams on salmonids include barriers to upstream and downstream movement and mortality associated with entrainment within the dam or spill over dams. Biologically, these direct impacts can lead to (1) disruption of natural historical (pre-dam) genetic and demographic connectivity among local populations, (2) loss of access to historically used migratory destinations, (3) loss of individuals to the population through mortality associated with entrainment.

  19. A haplotype regression approach for genetic evaluation using sequences from the 1000 bull genomes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhssassi, K.; González-Recio, O.

    2017-01-01

    Haplotypes from sequencing data may improve the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluations as haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci than markers from SNP chips. This study focuses first, on the creation of haplotypes in a population sample of 450 Holstein animals, with full-sequence data from the 1000 bull genomes project; and second, on incorporating them into the whole genome prediction model. In total, 38,319,258 SNPs (and indels) from Next Generation Sequencing were included in the analysis. After filtering variants with minor allele frequency (MAF< 0.025) 13,912,326 SNPs were available for the haplotypes extraction with findhap.f90. The number of SNPs in the haploblocks was on average 924 SNP (166,552 bp). Unique haplotypes were around 97% in all chromosomes and were ignored leaving 153,428 haplotypes. Estimated haplotypes had a large contribution to the total variance of genomic estimated breeding values for kilogram of protein, Global Type Index, Somatic Cell Score and Days Open (between 32 and 99.9%). Haploblocks containing haplotypes with large effects were selected by filtering for each trait, haplotypes whose effect was larger/lower than the mean plus/minus 3 times the standard deviation (SD) and 1 SD above the mean of the haplotypes effect distribution. Results showed that filtering by 3 SD would not be enough to capture a large proportion of genetic variance, whereas filtering by 1 SD could be useful but model convergence should be considered. Additionally, sequence haplotypes were able to capture additional genetic variance to the polygenic effect for traits undergoing lower selection intensity like fertility and health traits.

  20. A haplotype regression approach for genetic evaluation using sequences from the 1000 bull genomes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhssassi, K.; González-Recio, O.

    2017-07-01

    Haplotypes from sequencing data may improve the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluations as haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci than markers from SNP chips. This study focuses first, on the creation of haplotypes in a population sample of 450 Holstein animals, with full-sequence data from the 1000 bull genomes project; and second, on incorporating them into the whole genome prediction model. In total, 38,319,258 SNPs (and indels) from Next Generation Sequencing were included in the analysis. After filtering variants with minor allele frequency (MAF< 0.025) 13,912,326 SNPs were available for the haplotypes extraction with findhap.f90. The number of SNPs in the haploblocks was on average 924 SNP (166,552 bp). Unique haplotypes were around 97% in all chromosomes and were ignored leaving 153,428 haplotypes. Estimated haplotypes had a large contribution to the total variance of genomic estimated breeding values for kilogram of protein, Global Type Index, Somatic Cell Score and Days Open (between 32 and 99.9%). Haploblocks containing haplotypes with large effects were selected by filtering for each trait, haplotypes whose effect was larger/lower than the mean plus/minus 3 times the standard deviation (SD) and 1 SD above the mean of the haplotypes effect distribution. Results showed that filtering by 3 SD would not be enough to capture a large proportion of genetic variance, whereas filtering by 1 SD could be useful but model convergence should be considered. Additionally, sequence haplotypes were able to capture additional genetic variance to the polygenic effect for traits undergoing lower selection intensity like fertility and health traits.

  1. Evaluation of long-acting oxytetracycline and a commercial monovalent vaccine for the control of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nathan E N; Lanigan, Emily; Waugh, Taryn; Gesy, Karen; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    A blinded randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a multi-modal therapeutic regime for treatment of beef bulls infected with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) . Treatment included 2 doses of a commercially available monovalent vaccine and long-acting oxytetracycline applied twice at a 2-week interval with treatment completed 2 weeks before post-treatment observation. Fifteen confirmed Cfv infected bulls were randomly allocated to control ( n = 8) or treatment groups ( n = 7). Preputial scrapings were collected each week from before infection to 11 weeks following the last treatment. When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for both culture and preputial scrapings were interpreted in parallel, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated bulls. Regardless of the type of diagnostic testing considered, treatment with 2 label doses of this regime did not stop shedding of Cfv in all treated bulls and is, therefore, not recommended as an effective management strategy.

  2. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwood, Jonathan D; Larsen, Martin H; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore influence their propensity to migrate as well as carry over into the winter resulting in mortality when fish face challenging environmental conditions. To evaluate this possibility, we artificially elevated cortisol levels in juvenile trout (via intracoelomic injection of cortisol in the fall) and used passive integrated transponder tags to compare their overwinter and spring survival, growth, and migration success relative to a control group. Results suggest that overwinter mortality is high for individuals in this population regardless of treatment. However, survival rates were 2.5 times lower for cortisol-treated fish and they experienced significantly greater loss in mass. In addition, less than half as many cortisol-treated individuals made it downstream to a stationary antenna over the winter and also during the spring migration compared to the control treatment. These results suggest that a fall stressor can reduce overwinter survival of juvenile brown trout, negatively impact growth of individuals that survive, and ultimately result in a reduction in the number of migratory trout. Carryover effects such as those documented here reveal the cryptic manner in which natural and anthropogenic stressors can influence fish populations. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 645-654, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A New Furunculosis Challenge Method for Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy in Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Experimental infection of fish for vaccine efficacy studies is associated with several limitations. Administration of live bacteria with the purpose of causing disease in fish can be performed by co-habitation, immersion or injection. We have developed a new Aeromonas salmonicida challenge method...... for rainbow trout and have applied it for evaluation of furunculosis vaccine efficacy. The method reveals development of systemic immunity in fish as live bacteria are introduced in the tail fin epidermis distant from the vaccine injection site (peritoneal cavity). This method seeks to mimic natural infection...... in fish farms where tail biting and therefore bacterial expo- sure to tail fin ulcers is widespread. By use of a multi-needle device ten epidermal perforations were introduced in the dorsal part of the tail fin of anaesthetized rainbow trout (vaccinated or naive). Subsequently 100 μL (3.4 × 108 colony-forming...

  4. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  5. Brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River—Evaluation of causal hypotheses and potential interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Bair, Lucas S.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Valdez, Richard A.; Ellsworth, Craig; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Rogers, R. Scott; Trammell, Melissa A.; Young, Kirk L.

    2018-04-17

    Over the period 2014–2016, the number of nonnative brown trout (Salmo trutta) captured during routine monitoring in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River, downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, began increasing. Management agencies and stakeholders have questioned whether the increase in brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach represents a threat to the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery, or to other resources of concern. In this report, we evaluate the evidence for the expansion of brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach, consider a range of causal hypotheses for this expansion, examine the likely efficacy of several potential management interventions to reduce brown trout, and analyze the effects of those interventions on other resources of concern.The brown trout population at Lees Ferry historically consisted of a small number of large fish supported by low levels of immigration from downstream reaches. This population is now showing signs of sustained successful reproduction and is on the cusp of recruiting locally hatched fish into the spawning class, based on analysis with a new integrated population model. The proximate causes of this change in status are a large pulse of immigration in the fall of 2014 and higher reproductive rates in 2015–2017. The ultimate causes of this change are not clear. The pulse of immigrants from downstream reaches in fall 2014 may have been induced by three sequential high-flow releases from the dam in November of 2012–2014, but may also have been the result of a unique set of circumstances unrelated to dam operations. The increase in reproduction may have been the result of any number of changes, including an Allee effect, warmer water temperatures, a decrease in competition from rainbow trout, or fall high-flow releases. Correlations over space and time among predictor variables do not allow us to make a clear inference about the cause of the changes. Under a null causal

  6. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  7. Experimental evaluation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss predation on longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and in-stream enclosure experiments were used to determine whether rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss influence survival of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae. In the laboratory, adult rainbow trout preyed on longnose dace in 42% of trials and juvenile rainbow trout did not prey on longnose dace during the first 6 h after rainbow trout introduction. Survival of longnose dace did not differ in the presence of adult rainbow trout previously exposed to active prey and those not previously exposed to active prey ( = 0.28, P = 0.60). In field enclosures, the number of longnose dace decreased at a faster rate in the presence of rainbow trout relative to controls within the first 72 h, but did not differ between moderate and high densities of rainbow trout (F2,258.9 = 3.73, P = 0.03). Additionally, longnose dace were found in 7% of rainbow trout stomachs after 72 h in enclosures. Rainbow trout acclimated to the stream for longer periods had a greater initial influence on the number of longnose dace remaining in enclosures relative to those acclimated for shorter periods regardless of rainbow trout density treatment (F4,148.5 = 2.50, P = 0.04). More research is needed to determine how predation rates will change in natural environments, under differing amounts of habitat and food resources and in the context of whole assemblages. However, if rainbow trout are introduced into the habitat of longnose dace, some predation on longnose dace is expected, even when rainbow trout have no previous experience with active prey.

  8. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  9. Evaluation of glutamic acid and glycine as sources of nonessential amino acids for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    1. A semi-purified test diet which contained either glutamic acid or glycine as the major source of nonessential amino acids (NEAA) was fed to lake and rainbow trout.2. Trout fed the diet containing glutamic acid consistently showed better growth and feed conversion efficiencies than those fed the diets containing glycine.3. The data indicate that these trout utilize glutamic acid more efficiently than glycine when no other major sources of NEAA are present.

  10. Effects of toxicosis on bull growth, semen characteristics and breeding soundness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) possesses heat, drought, and pest resistance conferred to the plant by its mutualistic relationship with the ergot alkaloid producing fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ergot alkaloid consumption on...

  11. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  12. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  13. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  14. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At

  15. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At the

  16. Dipyridamole 201T1 myocardial perfusion tomography and bull's--eye analysis for quantitative evaluation of CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Maosong; Tang Xi

    1992-01-01

    To assess the ability of quantitative analysis of dipyridamole 201 T1 tomography for detecting and localizing coronary artery disease (CAD), 55 patients with angiographically proved CAD ( = 50% stenosis) were studied. All patients underwent dipyridamole 201 T1 myocardial perfusion tomography and coronary arteriography. The overall sensitivity for detection of CAD by Bull's-eye analysis was 89% (50 patients) and 92% (51 patients) with visual analysis. The sensitivity for detecting individual vessel involvement with the Bull'-eye analysis was 88% for LAD. 81% for RCA and 67% for LCX. With visual analysis, the results were 88%, 83% and 58% respectively. The overall rate of detection was 87% in lesions greater than or equal to 75% stenosis vs 59% in those under 75% stenosis (P 201 T1 tomography using Bull's-eye display is a highly accurate reproducible technique for the detection of patients with CAD and the localization of individual coronary vessel, and it offers the potential to quantify the percentage of the abnormally perfused myocardium

  17. Measurement of total Zn and Zn isotope ratios by quadrupole ICP-MS for evaluation of Zn uptake in gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential use of stable zinc isotopes in toxicity studies measuring zinc uptake by the gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The use of stable isotopes in such studies has several advantages over the use of radioisotopes, including cost, ease of handling, elimination of permit requirements, and waste disposal. A pilot study using brown trout was performed to evaluate sample preparation methods and the ability of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) system to successfully measure changes in the 67Zn/66Zn ratios for planned exposure levels and duration. After completion of the pilot study, a full-scale zinc exposure study using rainbow trout was performed. The results of these studies indicate that there are several factors that affect the precision of the measured 67Zn/66Zn ratios in the sample digests, including variations in sample size, endogenous zinc levels, and zinc uptake rates by individual fish. However, since these factors were incorporated in the calculation of the total zinc accumulated by the gills during the exposures, the data obtained were adequate for their intended use in calculating zinc binding and evaluating the influences of differences in water quality parameters.

  18. AN EVALUATION OF WATER QALITY OF AKPINAR STREAM (DENİZLİ WHERE TROUT PRODUCTION TAKES PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengül KÖSE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 20 physicochemical parameters were measured mountly in 2007 and seasonaly in 2008 and 2009 on Akpınar Stream, which is located within the borders of Denizli and has 13 trout production facility. The data obtained were evaluated according to the fresh water fish directive which was agreed by the Commision of European Union (EC Directives and Water Pollution Control Regulation Criteria. We determined that, the measured parameters on the first station do not constitute any risk for Salmonids and Cyprinids according to EC Directives and in the second station, the valuesof biological oxygen demand and nitrite were high enough to adversely affect the health of fish. There is not a significant difference between two stations for the parameters of oxygen, nitrate, totalnitrogen, pH, chemical oxygen demand, acid binding capacity, total hardness and chlorine. The parametes of total suspended solids, ammonium, nitrite, secondary phosphate, total phosphorus, organicmatter, ammonia, biological oxygen demand, turbidity, temperature and flow rate were significantly high in second station (p<0.05. The reason of high levels of the parameters especially origin of organic pollution in the secod station is fish feces and feed wastes which directly given into the water. Settling ponds should be used properly and controls should be provided to increase for more healtyproduction.

  19. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  20. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  1. Evaluation of potential sources of proteins in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, E; Henrichfreise, B

    1994-01-01

    7 diets were prepared containing as their only source of protein one of the following feeds: fish meal, casein, hydrolyzed feather meal, grieves, wheat gluten, maize gluten, soybean meal. Crystalline amino acids were supplemented except in cases of fish meal and casein to prevent specific amino acid deficiencies. Concentrations of N x 6.25 ranged between 436 and 457 g/kg dry matter (DM). Cr2O3 was added to each diet for indirect determination of digestibilities. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 rainbow trout of an average initial weight of 60 g. After 66 feeding days, all trout were killed and used for whole body analyses. Due to severely reduced intake, trout fed the casein based diet gained only about half as much weight as trout fed the fish meal based diet, though at the same fed conversion ratio of 1.0 kg gain per kg dietary DM. Gains on the other diets ranged between these two treatments with poorer feed conversion ratios. Digestibilities of crude protein of fish meal, casein, hydrolyzed feather meal, grieves, wheat gluten, maize gluten and soybean meal were: 86, 98, 67, 81, 97, 87, and 94%, respectively. The corresponding contents of digestible energy were: 21.2, 21.8, 15.4, 16.5, 19.6, 18.3, and 14.4 Mj/kg DM. Efficiency of utilization of digestible energy ranged between 43 and 54%, that of digestible crude protein between 32 and 41%.

  2. A novel challenge method with aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout for evaluation of furunculosis vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge methods used to induce furunculosis in rainbow trout when testing the potency of vaccines may include exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal injection, cohabitation or bath immersion. Intraperitoneal injection is effective but will not reflect systemic immunity because...... inflammatory cells at the vaccine injection site may combat injected bacteria fast. The cohabitation and bath immersion methods both mimic the natural infection route but are less effective in inducing the disease. We have tested a new challenge method mimicking that rainbow trout in fish farms might...... to be efficient in inducing a more natural disease progression in fish and a stable mortality. The method could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines with regard to adjuvant formulations and content of antigen....

  3. On-farm welfare and estimated daily carcass gain of slaughtered bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herva, T.; Virtala, A.M.; Huuskonen, A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Peltoniemi, O.

    2009-01-01

    Welfare of growing bulls was evaluated using on-farm scoring modified by well-described test theory methods. Production parameters of the bulls were collected at slaughter. A positive relationship was observed between on-farm welfare, using the full A-Index score, and daily carcass gain of bulls.

  4. Weighting Performance Evaluation Criteria Base in Balanced Score Card Approach with Use of Combination Method Shapley value & Bull\\'s-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Kamfiroozi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation as a control tool was considered by managers in the organizations and manufactures. In this paper we decide to present a new model for performance evaluation and industrial companies ranking at uncertain conditions. Based on this, we implemented performance evaluation based on balance score card (BSC method. Beside, we tried to use three parameter interval grey numbers in lieu of linguistic variables. Then evaluation and weighting of fourth indicators is done with use of Bulls-eye-Shapley combination method that is counted as new approach in this article. Reason of utilization of three parameter interval grey numbers and combination method was decreasing of environmental uncertainty on data and model. This combination weighting method can be used as a new method in decision making Science. At final of this paper case study was implemented on industrial companies (nail makers that ranking of these companies is obtained by use of grey-TOPSIS method (that is a generalization of classic TOPSIS for three parameter interval grey numbers.

  5. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Evaluation of Limiting Factors for Stocked Kokanee and Rainbow Trout in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Casey; Polacek, Matt

    2009-03-01

    Hatchery supplementation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka and rainbow trout O. mykiss has been the primary mitigation provided by Bonneville Power Administration for loss of anadromous fish to the waters above Grand Coulee Dam (GCD). The hatchery program for rainbow trout has consistently met management goals and provided a substantial contribution to the fishery; however, spawner returns and creel survey results for kokanee have been below management goals. Our objective was to identify factors that limit limnetic fish production in Lake Roosevelt by evaluating abiotic conditions, food limitations, piscivory, and entrainment. Dissolved oxygen concentration was adequate throughout most of the year; however, levels dropped to near 6 mg/L in late July. For kokanee, warm water temperatures during mid-late summer limited their nocturnal distribution to 80-100 m in the lower section of the reservoir. Kokanee spawner length was consistently several centimeters longer than in other Pacific Northwest systems, and the relative weights of rainbow trout and large kokanee were comparable to national averages. Large bodied daphnia (> 1.7 mm) were present in the zooplankton community during all seasons indicating that top down effects were not limiting secondary productivity. Walleye Stizostedion vitreum were the primary piscivore of salmonids in 1998 and 1999. Burbot Lota lota smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis preyed on salmonids to a lesser degree. Age 3 and 4 walleye were responsible for the majority (65%) of the total walleye consumption of salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling indicated that reservoir wide consumption by walleye could account for a 31-39% loss of stocked kokanee but only 6-12% of rainbow trout. Size at release was the primary reason for differential mortality rates due to predation. Entrainment ranged from 2% to 16% of the monthly abundance estimates of limnetic fish, and could account for 30% of total

  6. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from the...

  7. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Yeast Biomass (Candida utilis in a Practical Diet for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Goddard

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A yeast, Candida utilis, cultured on a substrate derived from a mixture of peat moss and fish processing waste, was substituted for fish meal in a practical diet for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The formulated diets were isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isoealoric (gross energy 20 kJ per g dry matter. During a 50-day feeding trial fish tripled in weight, and there were no significant differences in the mean final weights of groups of fish fed diets in which 0%, 25% and 35% of fishmeal had been replaced by yeast biomass. Diets containing yeast were palatable, as determined by food intake, and were highly digestible for protein. Carcass analysis revealed that the fish fed with yeast biomass had slightly higher crude protein and ash contents, and lower lipid levels than those of the control group. Significant reductions were recorded in food conversion efficiency as the yeast content of the diets increased. The results indicate the potential for partial replacement of fish meal (between 25-35% by Candida utilis biomass in feeds formulated for rainbow trout.

  9. Evaluation of architectural and histopathological biomarkers in the intestine of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) challenged with environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Josip; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Mijošek, Tatjana; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Kružlicová, Dáša; Erk, Marijana

    2018-06-14

    In the present study novel histopathological approach, using fish intestine as a sensitive bioindicator organ of pollution impact in the freshwater ecosystem, was proposed. Histopathological alterations were compared between native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) from the reference (Krka River spring) and pollution impacted location (influence of technological/municipal wastewaters and agricultural runoff near the Town of Knin) of the karst Krka River in Croatia. In brown trout from both locations, severe parasitic infestation with acanthocephalan species Dentitruncus trutae was found, enabling evaluation of acanthocephalan infestation histopathology, which indicated parasite tissue reaction in a form of inflammatory, necrotic and hyperplastic response that extended throughout lamina epithelialis mucosae, lamina propria, and lamina muscularis mucosae. New semi-quantitative histological approach was proposed in order to foresee alterations classified in three reaction patterns: control tissue appearance, moderate (progressive) tissue impairment and severe (regressive and inflammatory) tissue damage. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium on the reference site, whereas the most frequent regressive alterations were atrophy and necrosis seen on the polluted site. Furthermore, histopathological approach was combined with micromorphological and macromorphological assessment as an additional indicator of pollution impact. Among 15 observed intestinal measures, two biomarkers of intestinal tissue damage were indicated as significant, height of supranuclear space (hSN) and number of mucous cells over 100 μm fold distance of intestinal mucosa (nM), which measures were significantly lower in fish from polluted area compared to the reference site. Obtained results indicated that combined histological and morphological approach on fish intestinal tissue might be used as a valuable biological tool for assessing pollution impact on

  10. Brook trout use of thermal refugia and foraging habitat influenced by brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snook, Erin; Massie, Danielle L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in eastern North America is often limited by temperature and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), the relative importance of which is poorly understood but critical for conservation and restoration planning. We evaluated effects of brown trout on brook trout behavior and habitat use in experimental streams across increasing temperatures (14–23 °C) with simulated groundwater upwelling zones providing thermal refugia (6–9 °C below ambient temperatures). Allopatric and sympatric trout populations increased their use of upwelling zones as ambient temperatures increased, demonstrating the importance of groundwater as thermal refugia in warming streams. Allopatric brook trout showed greater movement rates and more even spatial distributions within streams than sympatric brook trout, suggesting interference competition by brown trout for access to forage habitats located outside thermal refugia. Our results indicate that removal of introduced brown trout may facilitate native brook trout expansion and population viability in downstream reaches depending in part on the spatial configuration of groundwater upwelling zones.

  11. Evaluation of the net energy value of glucose (cerelose) and maize starch in diets for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, J W; Atkinson, J L; Slinger, S J

    1987-11-01

    1. Quadruplicate groups of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) (mean body-weight 24.9 g) were reared on six dietary treatments (practical-type diets) in a modified paired-feeding experiment for 12 weeks at 15 degrees to determine the net energy (NE) value of starch and glucose to rainbow trout. 2. Three test diets were prepared to contain (g/kg): 0 supplemented carbohydrate (diet 1), 250 maize starch (diet 2) and 250 glucose (diet 3) and were given ad lib. to the trout with the feeding rate of the glucose- and starch-fed groups being monitored after each feeding. The remaining three treatments involved controlled feeding of the trout with diet 1 at 75% of the feed intake of trout reared on diets 2 and 3, so as to provide the same levels of protein and lipids without carbohydrate, and with diet 2 at 100% of the feed intake of trout reared on diet 3. 3. The difference in the final carcass energy of the ad lib.-fed group and the respective controlled-fed group divided by the amount of dietary glucose or starch energy consumed by the trout is the NE value for that carbohydrate. 4. The determined NE value of glucose was 3.99 kJ/g and starch 2.17 kJ/g, which is 24.6 and 12.6% respectively of the gross energy values of these carbohydrates in rainbow trout. 5. The results indicate that digestible energy and calculated metabolizable energy values for carbohydrates in rainbow trout overestimate the utilizable energy content of the diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Comparison of sperm subpopulation structures in first and second ejaculated semen from Japanese black bulls by a cluster analysis of sperm motility evaluated by a CASA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-08-04

    In the present study, bull sperm in the first and second ejaculates were divided into subpopulations based on their motility characteristics using a cluster analysis of data from computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA). Semen samples were collected from 4 Japanese black bulls. Data from 9,228 motile sperm were classified into 4 clusters; 1) very rapid and progressively motile sperm, 2) rapid and circularly motile sperm with widely moving heads, 3) moderately motile sperm with heads moving frequently in a short length, and 4) poorly motile sperm. The percentage of cluster 1 varied between bulls. The first ejaculates had a higher proportion of cluster 2 and lower proportion of cluster 3 than the second ejaculates.

  13. Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of restructured trout and hake mince during cold gelation and chilled storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, H.M.; Javier Borderias, A.; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Cold gelation was carried out on trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or on hake (Merluccius mertuccius) mince with or without addition of fish oil and using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). Products were stored at 4 QC for 6 days and lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, texture, water binding capacity......, and colour were followed. Results indicated that MTGase was able to generate gels with good properties for both trout and hake. Gels prepared with trout were oxidised whilst gels prepared with hake were stable toward oxidation even in the presence of 5% fish oil. However, in the presence of oil...

  14. Development and evaluation of 200 novel SNP assays for population genetic studies of westslope cutthroat trout and genetic identification of related taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. R. Campbell; S. J. Amish; V. L. Prichard; K. M. McKelvey; M. K. Young; M. K. Schwartz; J. C. Garza; G. Luikart; S. R. Narum

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequence data were collected and screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and also for substitutions that could be used to genetically discriminate rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and cutthroat trout, as well as several cutthroat trout subspecies. In total, 260 expressed sequence tag-derived loci were...

  15. Evaluation of oxidative DNA damage promoted by storage in sperm from sex-reversed rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cerezales, S; Martínez-Páramo, S; Cabrita, E; Martínez-Pastor, F; de Paz, P; Herráez, M P

    2009-03-01

    Short-term storage and cryopreservation of sperm are two common procedures in aquaculture, used for routine practices in artificial insemination reproduction and gene banking, respectively. Nevertheless, both procedures cause injuries affecting sperm motility, viability, cell structure and DNA stability, which diminish reproductive success. DNA modification is considered extremely important, especially when sperm storage is carried out with gene banking purposes. DNA damage caused by sperm storage is not well characterized and previous studies have reported simple and double strand breaks that have been attributed to oxidative events promoted by the generation of free radicals during storage. The objective of this study was to reveal DNA fragmentation and to explore the presence of oxidized bases that could be produced by oxidative events during short-term storage and cryopreservation in sex-reversed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) spermatozoa. Sperm from six males was analyzed separately. Different aliquots of the samples were stored 2h (fresh) or 5 days at 4 degrees C or were cryopreserved. Then spermatozoa were analyzed using the Comet assay, as well as combining this method with digestion with two endonucleases from Escherichia coli (Endonuclease III, that cut in oxidized cytosines, and FPG, cutting in oxidized guanosines). Both storage procedures yielded DNA fragmentation, but only short-term storage oxidative events were clearly detected, showing that oxidative processes affect guanosines rather than cytosines. Cryopreservation increases DNA fragmentation but the presence of oxidized bases was not noticed, suggesting that mechanisms other than oxidative stress could be involved in DNA fragmentation promoted by freezing.

  16. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  17. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  18. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  19. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaraknath, P.K.; Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Dixit, N.K.; Sharma, I.J.

    1984-01-01

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T 4 and T 3 . In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T 4 and T 3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T 4 and T 3 . Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  20. Movement and survival of brown trout and rainbow trout in an ozark tailwater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.W.; Kwak, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the movement of adult brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to a catch-andrelease area in the White River downstream from Beaver Dam, Arkansas. Nine fish of each species were implanted with radio transmitters and monitored from July 1996 to July 1997. The 1.5- km river length of a catch-and-release area (closed to angler harvest) was greater than the total linear range of 72% of the trout (13 of 18 fish), but it did not include two brown trout spawning riffles, suggesting that it effectively protects resident fish within the catch-and-release area except during spawning. The total detected linear range of movement varied from 172 to 3,559 m for brown trout and from 205 to 3,023mfor rainbow trout. The movements of both species appeared to be generally similar to that in unregulated river systems. The annual apparent survival of both trout species was less than 0.40, and exploitation was 44%.Management to protect fish on spawning riffles may be considered if management for wild brown trout becomes a priority. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  1. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M.

    2015-01-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting...

  2. Comparative evaluation of administration methods for a vaccine protecting rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Deshmukh, Sidhartha; Holten-Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    (using a commercial vaccine AquaVac® RELERA™) does not provide full protection. We elucidated by a controlled duplicated experiment if different vaccine administration methods can improve level and extent of protection. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss were vaccinated by: (1) a single immersion...

  3. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  4. Pemanfaatan kulit kodok (bull frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Lutfie

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the tensile strength and the elongation of finished leather made from Bull Frog skin, so that the utilization of that leather can be specified. The samples used were twenty pieces of wet salted Bull Frog skin from East Java which have been processed to finished leather using chromosal B. and Irgatan LV as the tanning agents. Laboratory tests shawed that the average tensile strength was 177,675 Kg/Cm2 and the average elongation was 89,9%. Based on those results, it can be concluded that Bull Frog leather was suitable for leather goods such as bag, wallet, etc. so it can be used as substitute for Glace leather.

  5. Adrenal involvement in the biostimulatory effect of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardinelli James G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate if cortisol concentrations are associated with the resumption of luteal activity in postpartum, primiparous cows exposed to bulls. The hypotheses were that 1 interval from start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity; 2 proportions of cows that resumed luteal function during the exposure period; and 3 cortisol concentrations do not differ among cows exposed or not exposed to bulls (Exp. 1, and cows continuously exposed to bull or steer urine (Exp. 2. Methods In Exp. 1, 28 anovular cows were exposed (BE; n = 13 or not exposed (NE; n = 15 to bulls for 30 d at 58 d after calving. In Exp. 2, 38 anovular cows were fitted with a controlled urine delivery device at 45 d after calving and exposed continuously (24 h/d to bull (BUE; n = 19 or steer (SUE; n = 19 urine. Length of exposure was ~64 d. Blood samples were collected from each cow on D 0 and every 3 d throughout exposure periods in both experiments and assayed for progesterone. Cortisol was assayed in samples collected on D 0, 8, 16, and 24 in Exp. 1; and, D 0, 19, 38, and 57 in Exp. 2. Results In Exp. 1, interval from the start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity was shorter (P Conclusion We conclude that the physical presence of bulls stimulates resumption of luteal activity and is coincident with increased cortisol concentrations, and hypothesize a possible association between adrenal activation and the biostimulatory effect of bulls.

  6. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  7. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  8. The 1000 bull genome project

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet growing global demands for high value protein from milk and meat, rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle must be accelerated. At the same time, animal health and welfare must be considered. The 1000 bull genomes project supports these goals by providing annotated sequence variants and ge...

  9. Evaluation of an experimental and commercial state-of-the-art vaccine against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout by waterborne challenge with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer

    strain obtained from an ERM disease outbreak in a Danish trout farm. This waterborne infection model gives us the opportunity to test and evaluate the effect of commercial and experimental vaccines against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2. An experimental vaccine containing equal amounts of Y. ruckeri O1 biotype...... has been compared to a state-of-the-art commercial ERM immersion vaccine (AquaVac® ReleraTM). Un-vaccinated and sham vaccinated rainbow trout were included as controls. Two months post vaccination the rainbow trout were challenged in duplicate with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2 by bath. No effect...... of the experimental immersion or bath vaccine was observed in the present study. However, full protection was achieved with i.p. injection of the experimental vaccine (pVac® ReleraTM induced a significant, partial protection relative to the control groups (p=0.002, RPS=58...

  10. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P > 0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7 ± 2.6 versus 81.8 ± 2.1, P  0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8 ± 0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P thermal comfort during the hotter periods but are able to efficiently activate thermoregulatory mechanisms and maintain homeothermy, hence preserving their physiological and seminal parameters at normal levels.

  11. Autumn feeding cycle of the bull-dog fish, Gnathonemus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rhythm may vary considerably due to habitat circumstances and generalizations must therefore be made with great caution. In order to evaluate the influence on the feeding cycle of the bull-dog fish, Gnathonemus macrolepidotus, a 24-hour study was undertaken in Loskop Dam, Transvaal, starting on 1 April 1970.

  12. Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces sperm quality in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; McAuliffe, P; Rodgers, R J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

    2016-08-01

    Breeding bulls are commonly fed high-energy diets, which may induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this experiment, 8 Santa Gertrudis bulls (age 20 ± 6 mo) were used to evaluate the extent and duration of effects of SARA on semen quality and the associated changes in circulating hormones and metabolites. The bulls were relocated and fed in yards with unrestricted access to hay and daily individual concentrate feeding for 125 d before SARA challenge. Semen was collected and assessed at 14-d intervals before the challenge to ensure acclimatization and the attainment of a stable spermiogram. The challenge treatments consisted of either a single oral dose of oligofructose (OFF; 6.5 g/kg BW) or an equivalent sham dose of water (Control). Locomotion, behavior, respiratory rate, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal function were intensively monitored during the 24-h challenge period. Rumen fluid samples were retained for VFA, ammonia, and lactate analysis. After the challenge, semen was then collected every third day for a period of 7 wk and then once weekly until 12 wk, with associated blood collection for FSH, testosterone, inhibin, and cortisol assay. Percent normal sperm decreased in bulls dosed with OFF after the challenge period ( < 0.05) and continued to remain lower on completion of the study at 88 d after challenge. There was a corresponding increase in sperm defects commencing from 16 d after challenge. These included proximal cytoplasmic droplets ( < 0.001), distal reflex midpieces ( = 0.01), and vacuole and teratoid heads ( < 0.001). Changes in semen quality after challenge were associated with lower serum testosterone ( < 0.001) and FSH ( < 0.05). Serum cortisol in OFF bulls tended to be greater ( = 0.07) at 7 d after challenge. This study shows that SARA challenge causes a reduction in sperm quality sufficient to preclude bulls from sale as single sire breeding animals 3 mo after the event occurred.

  13. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  14. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  15. An Evaluation of Molybdenum Toxicity to the Oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex, and Early-Life Stages of Brown Trout, Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Brett T; Quinteros, Claudio; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Elphick, James R

    2017-06-01

    Limited data are available describing the aquatic toxicity of molybdenum in freshwater environments, making it difficult to assess the aquatic risk to freshwater organisms. In order to increase available information on the aquatic toxicity of molybdenum, a 96-h LC50 test with the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and an 85-day development test using brown trout, Salmo trutta, were conducted. The T. tubifex test resulted in an LC50 value of 2782 mg/L. No adverse effects were observed on brown trout survival or length in the concentrations tested, however an IC10 value for growth (wet weight) was determined to be 202 mg/L. Whole body fish tissue concentrations for molybdenum increased in all treatment concentrations tested, although bioconcentration factors decreased at greater exposure concentrations, and ranged from 0.13 at an exposure concentration of 20 mg/L to 0.04 at an exposure of 1247 mg/L. A body burden of 26.0 mg/kg was associated with reduced wet weight.

  16. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  17. Continuous progeny testing, use and selection of proven bulls in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bar-Anan

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The breeding policy of the Israeli Holstein-type dairy cattle is reviewed. The bulls are progeny tested on their daughters’ first three lactations. The traits evaluated are the following: milk, fat, yield persistency, fertility, incidence of mastitis, and % cullings for three most important reasons. The test analysis takes into account the genetic level of daughters’ contemporaries and maternal grandsires. The paper describes a general outline of the selection decisions in AI bulls. Considerable amount of imported semen is used for breeding young bulls. Breeding goals are discussed against the estimated genetic parameters for and between the given traits.

  18. Evaluation of the antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarium, and Eucalyptus camaldolensis essential oils on Saprolegnia parasitica-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Sharifrohani, Mostafa; Mousavi, Hosseinali Ebrahimzadeh; Moosavi, Zahra

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and assess the capability of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarium, and Eucalyptus camaldolensis essential oils in treating Saprolegnia parasitica-infected rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout eggs. A total of 150 infected eggs were collected and plated on glucose-pepton agar at 24°C for 2 weeks. The antifungal assay of essential oils against S. parasitica was determined by a macrodilution broth technique. The eggs were treated with essential oils at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm daily with three repetitions until the eyed eggs stage. Of 150 eggs examined, S. parasitica (54.3%), Saprolegnia spp. (45%), and Fusarium solani (0.7%) were isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Z. multiflora, E. camaldolensis, and G. herbarium essential oils against S. parasitica were 0.9, 2.3, and 4.8 ppm, respectively. Zataria multiflora and E. camaldolensis at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ppm, and G. herbarium at concentration of 100 ppm had significant differences in comparison with negative control (pherbarium treated eggs had remained the most number of final eyed eggs after treatment. The highest final larvae rates belonged to malachite green, E. camaldolensis, Z. multiflora, and G. herbarium, respectively. The most hatching rates were recorded with malachite green (22%), and then Z. multiflora (11%), E. camaldolensis (7%), G. herbarium (3%), and negative control (1%). Zataria multiflora and E. camaldolensis were more effective than G. herbarium for the treatment of S. parasitica-infected rainbow trout eggs in aquaculture environment.

  19. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  20. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horká Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  1. Landsat satellite evidence of the decline of northern California bull kelp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, A.; Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana), a species of canopy-forming brown macroalga dominant in the Pacific Northwest of North America, provides critical ecological services such as habitat for a diverse array of marine species, nutrient regulation, photosynthesis, and regional marine carbon cycling. Starting around 2014, annual aerial surveys of bull kelp forests along California's northern coastline conducted by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) have reported a sudden 93% reduction in bull kelp canopy area. Remote sensing using satellite imagery is a robust, highly accurate tool for detecting and quantifying the abundance of the canopy-forming giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera; however, it has not been successfully applied to measuring northern bull kelp forests. One of the main difficulties associated with bull kelp detection via satellite is the small surface area of bull kelp canopies. As a result, bull kelp beds often only constitute part of a satellite pixel, making it difficult to obtain a kelp reflectance signal significantly different than water's reflectance signal. As part of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), we test a novel method for assessing bull kelp canopy using a multiple endmember spectral mixing analysis (MESMA) applied to Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 imagery from 2003-2016. Water and kelp spectral endmembers are selected along the northern California coastline from Havens Neck cape to Point Arena. MESMA results are ground truthed with the CDFW aerial multispectral imagery data. This project will present a satellite-based time series of bull kelp canopy area and evaluate canopy change in a northern California kelp ecosystem.

  2. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  3. Spatial and temporal consumption dynamics of trout in catch-and-release areas in Arkansas tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, John M.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictive angling regulations in tailwater trout fisheries may be unsuccessful if food availability limits energy for fish to grow. We examined spatial and temporal variation in energy intake and growth in populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within three catch-and-release (C-R) areas in Arkansas tailwaters to evaluate food availability compared with consumption. Based on bioenergetic simulations, Rainbow Trout fed at submaintenance levels in both size-classes (≤400 mm TL, >400 mm TL) throughout most seasons. A particular bottleneck in food availability occurred in the winter for Rainbow Trout when the daily ration was substantially below the minimum required for maintenance, despite reduced metabolic costs associated with lower water temperatures. Rainbow Trout growth rates followed a similar pattern to consumption with negative growth rates during the winter periods. All three size-classes (400 mm TL) of Brown Trout experienced high growth rates and limited temporal bottlenecks in food availability. We observed higher mean densities for Rainbow Trout (47–342 fish/ha) than for Brown Trout (3–84 fish/ha) in all C-R areas. Lower densities of Brown Trout coupled with an ontogenetic shift towards piscivory may have allowed for higher growth rates and sufficient consumption rates to meet energetic demands. Brown Trout at current densities were more effective in maintaining adequate growth rates and larger sizes in C-R areas than were Rainbow Trout. Bioenergetic simulations suggest that reducing stocking levels of Rainbow Trout in the tailwaters may be necessary in order to achieve increased catch rates of larger trout in the C-R areas.

  4. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  5. Ice processes affect habitat use and movements of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in a Wyoming foothills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, J.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and movements of 25 adult cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and 25 adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from fall through winter 2002-2003 were assessed by means of radiotelemetry in a 7-km reach of a Rocky Mountains foothills stream. Temporal dynamics of winter habitat conditions were evaluated by regularly measuring the features of 30 pools and 5 beaver Castor canadensis ponds in the study reach. Groundwater inputs at three locations raised mean daily water temperatures in the stream channel during winter to 0.2-0.6??C and kept at least 250 m of the downstream channel free of ice, but the lack of surface ice further downstream led to the occurrence of frazil ice and anchor ice in pools and unstable habitat conditions for trout. Pools in segments that were not affected by groundwater inputs and beaver ponds tended to be stable and snow accumulated on the surface ice. Pools throughout the study reach tended to become more stable as snow accumulated. Both cutthroat trout and brook trout selected beaver ponds as winter progressed but tended to use lateral scour pools in proportion to their availability. Tagged fish not in beaver ponds selected lateral scour pools that were deeper than average and stable during winter. Movement frequencies by tagged fish decreased from fall through winter, but some individuals of both species moved during winter. Ice processes affected both the habitat use and movement patterns of cutthroat trout and brook trout in this foothills stream.

  6. Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetics differences between breeds may determine the tolerance to high temperature, effect dry matter intake and consequently cattle performance. The effect of temperature and humidity index (THI on diurnal, nocturnal and daily intake, water intake, physiologic parameters and behavior of Nellore (B. indicus and Angus (B. taurus bulls were evaluated. Eight Angus and eight Nellore young bulls (337±7.4 kg and 16 months of age were allocated in two climate-controlled rooms for 32 days. In the period 1, all bulls were housed in thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 72.6 for 10 days. In period 2 (10 days, four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to low heat stress (LHS, THI = 76.4 in daytime, and four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to high heat stress (HHS, THI = 81.5 in daytime. The diurnal and daily dry matter intake (DMI of Nellore were not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. However, Angus bulls decreased diurnal DMI by 24% and daily DMI decreased (P<0.05 by 15% on HHS. In TN Angus bulls had higher (P<0.05 daily DMI (36.2 g/kg of BW than Nellore (29.1 g/kg of BW, but in HHS they had similar (P>0.05 daily DMI (31.6 and 30.2 g/kg of BW, respectively. We observed an increase (P<0.05 in respiratory frequency, but water intake was not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. The heart rate decreased (P<0.05 with heat stress. No differences were found (P>0.05 in feeding behavior. Therefore, THI stress threshold should distinct for Angus and Nellore bulls. The use of feed intake information may improve the prediction of thermic discomfort on specific climate condition. 

  7. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  8. High salt inclusion reduces concentrate intake without major effects on renal function in young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef producers prefer to feed concentrates on an ad libitum basis to increase the flexibility of their work. Including salt, which is a self-limiting supplement, could control or reduce concentrate intake without increasing the workforce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of including 10%NaCl in the concentrate on intake, growth, blood ions (sodium, potassium and chlorine, renal function (through creatinine and urea concentrations in blood, and daytime behaviour of bulls over 6 weeks. Bulls consuming the control concentrate (Control bulls had greater weight gain (P<0.05 and concentrate intake (P<0.001 than those consuming the concentrate with 10%NaCl (10%NaCl bulls. Lower plasma sodium concentration was found in Control bulls after 6 weeks (P<0.05, while potassium concentration was lower after 4 (P<0.05 and 6 weeks (P<0.01. Blood urea did not differ between the groups, and creatinine only differed at week 4 (P<0.01. Control bulls spent less time eating hay (P<0.001 and more time idling (P<0.01 during daylight hours. In conclusion, the inclusion of 10%NaCl in the concentrate for short periods could be used to reduce concentrate intake without major effects on renal function; however, a concomitant decrease in weight gain should be expected.

  9. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor; Ionuţ Bogdan Pagu; Emanuel Magdici; Benone Pasarin

    2014-01-01

    Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by...

  10. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA integrity percentage among breeds. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls. PMID:27047028

  11. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    under laboratory conditions extend the protection period. The present field study investigated the applicability of the method under practical farming conditions (freshwater earth ponds supplied by stream water). Primary immersion vaccination of trout (3–4 g) for 30 s in Y. ruckeri bacterin (diluted 1......Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can......:10) in April 2015 was followed 3 months later (July 2015) by 1 h bathing of rainbow trout in bacterin (diluted 1:650 or 1:1700) in order to evaluate if this time saving vaccination methodology can improve immunity and protection. Trout were subjected in farms to natural Y. ruckeri exposure in June and July...

  12. Chromosome rearrangements, recombination suppression, and limited segregation distortion in hybrids between Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process that can lead to the creation of novel genome structures and thus potentially new genetic variation for selection to act upon. On the other hand, hybridization with introduced species can threaten native species, such as cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) following the introduction of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Neither the evolutionary consequences nor conservation implications of rainbow trout introgression in cutthroat trout is well understood. Therefore, we generated a genetic linkage map for rainbow-Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri) hybrids to evaluate genome processes that may help explain how introgression affects hybrid genome evolution. Results The hybrid map closely aligned with the rainbow trout map (a cutthroat trout map does not exist), sharing all but one linkage group. This linkage group (RYHyb20) represented a fusion between an acrocentric (Omy28) and a metacentric chromosome (Omy20) in rainbow trout. Additional mapping in Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicated the two rainbow trout homologues were fused in the Yellowstone genome. Variation in the number of hybrid linkage groups (28 or 29) likely depended on a Robertsonian rearrangement polymorphism within the rainbow trout stock. Comparison between the female-merged F1 map and a female consensus rainbow trout map revealed that introgression suppressed recombination across large genomic regions in 5 hybrid linkage groups. Two of these linkage groups (RYHyb20 and RYHyb25_29) contained confirmed chromosome rearrangements between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicating that rearrangements may suppress recombination. The frequency of allelic and genotypic segregation distortion varied among parents and families, suggesting few incompatibilities exist between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout genomes. Conclusions Chromosome rearrangements suppressed recombination in the hybrids. This result

  13. Factors influencing retention of visible implant tags by westslope cutthroat trout inhabiting headwater streams of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley B. Shepard; Jim Robison-Cox; Susan C. Ireland; Robert G. White

    1996-01-01

    Retention of visible implant (VI) tags by westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi inhabiting 20 reaches of 13 isolated headwater tributary drainages in Montana was evaluated during 1993 and 1994. In 1993, 2,071 VI tags were implanted in westslope cutthroat trout (100-324 mm fork length) and adipose tins were removed as a secondary mark to evaluate tag...

  14. Testicular Cell Indices and Peripheral Blood Testosterone Concentrations in Relation to Age and Semen Quality in Crossbred (Holstein Friesian×Tharparkar Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rajak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study analyzed the changes in peripheral blood testosterone concentrations and testicular cytogram in relation to age and semen quality in crossbred males. Three different age groups of crossbred males viz. bull calves (6 months, n = 5, young bulls (15 months, n = 5 and adult bulls (4 to 6 years, n = 8 were utilized for the study. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology technique was used to quantify testicular cytology and their indices. Peripheral blood testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Semen samples collected from adult bulls were microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Mean peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves, young bulls and adult bulls were 2.28±0.09 ng/mL, 1.42±0.22 ng/mL and 5.66±1.08 ng/mL respectively, and that in adult bulls were significantly different (p<0.01 from young bulls and bull calves. There was no significant difference between the proportion of different testicular cells in bull calves and young bulls. Between young and adult bulls, significant differences (p<0.01 were observed in the proportion of spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and sperm: Sertoli cell ratio. The proportions of Sertoli cells showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the three age groups. The number of primary spermatocytes had a positive correlation with peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves (r = 0.719, p<0.01. Number of Sertoli cells per 100 germ cells was negatively correlated with blood testosterone concentration in young bulls (r = −0.713, p<0.01. Among different semen parameters in adult bulls, ejaculate volume (r = 0.790, p<0.05 had positive relationship, and sperm motility had significant negative correlation (r = −0.711, p<0.05 with testosterone concentrations. The number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index had a positive correlation with various semen quality parameters (p<0.001. Results of the present study

  15. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (Pbehaviour (rumination, lying down and drinking water) and respiration rate, however. The lack of a significant improvement of bulls' growth response should not discourage beef farmers from using ceiling fans in indoor systems, considering the likely increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves in the planet

  16. Determination of the effects of fine-grained sediment and other limiting variables on trout habitat for selected streams in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Selbig, J.W.; Waschbusch, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Two Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were used to evaluate the effects of fine-grained (less than 2 millimeters) sediment on brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis, Mitchill) and brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus) in 11 streams in west-central and southwestern Wisconsin. Our results indicated that fine-grained sediment limited brook trout habitat in 8 of 11 streams and brown trout habitat in only one stream. Lack of winter and escape cover for fry was the primary limiting variable for brown trout at 61 percent of the sites, and this factor also limited brook trout at several stations. Pool area or quality, in stream cover, streambank vegetation for erosion control, minimum flow, thalweg depth maximum, water temperature, spawning substrate, riffle dominant substrate, and dissolved oxygen also were limiting to trout in the study streams. Brook trout appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of fine-grained sediment than brown trout. The models for brook trout and brown trout appeared to be useful and objective screening tools for identifying variables limiting trout habitat in these streams. The models predicted that reduction in the amount of fine-grained sediment would improve brook trout habitat. These models may be valuable for establishing instream sediment-reduction goals; however, the decrease in sediment delivery needed to meet these goals cannot be estimated without quantitative data on land use practices and their effects on sediment delivery and retention by streams.

  17. Evaluation of the ability of barley genotypes containing different amounts of ß-glucan to alter growth and disease resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was performed to screen three barley genotypes containing different levels of '-glucan for their ability to influence growth, immune function, and disease resistance of rainbow trout. Three experimental diets were prepared by substituting each of three barely genotypes containing dif...

  18. Bull's-eye map of myocardial perfusion MR imaging. Comparison with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yukihiro; Nanjo, Shuji; Yamazaki, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Inoue, Yusuke

    2003-01-01

    When diagnosing heart disease, chest roentgenograms, ultrasonography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and coronary arteriography are usually performed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is not widely used for evaluating heart disease. Recent technological progress has allowed high quality images of the heart to be reliably obtained. A routine MR study taking about 30-40 minutes can provide a large amount of diagnostic information, such as cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and myocardial viability. The analysis software that can offer Bull's-eye maps from myocardial perfusion images has recently become commercially available. In this study, the characteristics of Bull's-eye mapping of MR imaging is compared with that of Bull's-eye mapping of SPECT using the same heart phantom. The difference in the image quality of the Bull's-eye maps was evaluated among the receiver coils of MR imaging. On Bull's-eye maps from both MR imaging and SPECT, decreased signal intensity was noted in the posterolateral wall. The degree of decrease in the signal of the MR imaging was more prominent than of SPECT. The decrease was severe for the general-purpose receive-only flexible (GPFLEX) coil, moderate for the cardiac and TORSO coil, and slight for the body coil. In the selection of a coil, it is necessary to take into consideration the trade-off between the distribution of signal intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). (author)

  19. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  20. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  1. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  2. Assessment of metabolic stability using the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9 fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard protocols are given for assessing metabolic stability in rainbow trout using the liver S9 fraction. These protocols describe the isolation of S9 fractions from trout livers, evaluation of metabolic stability using a substrate depletion approach, and expression of the res...

  3. Trout in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  4. Influence of season of birth on growth and reproductive development of Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatman, Shawn R; Neuendorff, Don A; Wilson, Timothy W; Randel, Ronald D

    2004-07-01

    Seasonal effects on reproduction are more dramatic in Bos indicus than Bos taurus cattle. This experiment evaluated reproductive development of fall- (n=7) versus spring- (n = 10) born Brahman bulls to determine if season of birth affects reproductive development. Measurements of growth and reproductive development began after weaning and continued at bi-weekly intervals until each bull reached sexual maturity. Different stages of sexual development were classified according to characteristics of the ejaculate and included first sperm in the ejaculate, puberty (> 50 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate), and sexual maturity (two ejaculates with > 500 = 10(6) sperm/ejaculate). Average daily increases in all measured traits were similar in fall- and spring-born bulls and there were no differences in age, body weight, scrotal circumference, or paired testis volume between groups at first sperm or puberty. However, fall-born bulls were older (P days versus 481 days, respectively) as the interval between puberty and sexual maturity was longer (P days versus 54 days, respectively). The prolonged interval between puberty and sexual maturity in fall-born calves coincided with a short photoperiod (winter) whereas the short interval between puberty and sexual maturity in spring-born calves coincided with a long photoperiod (summer). In conclusion, season of birth affected sexual development; photoperiod might be involved in regulating testicular function immediately after puberty in Brahman bulls.

  5. Polymyxin B effects on motility parameters of cryopreserved bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rashedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of adding different values of polymyxin B (PMB to bull semen on various motility parameters of post-thawed semen such as total motility, progressive motility and velocity parameters using kinetic parameters of sperm by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis.Methods: Gram negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide, which induces the apoptotic pathway. Antibiotics are added to semen in order to prevent bacterial contaminations in bovine semen. These antibiotics kill the bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. Therefore, their endotoxins are released during bacteriolysis and bind to the head region and midpiece of sperm. PMB is a bactericidal antibiotic against multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria and is able to neutralize the toxic effects of the released endotoxin. This study was performed on 3-year old Taleshi bulls.Results: The results showed both positive and negative significant effects of PMB on semen quality. Total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased (P<0.000 1 by 100 μg per mL of PMB (55.2% and 48.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly decreased (P<0.000 1 by 1 000 μg per mL of PMB (35.2% and 28.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7% respectively in above-mentioned parameters. In Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer, parameter VAP was significantly decreased (P<0.04 in 1 000 μg (69.6 μm/s against the control group (78.7 μm/s. Finally, using PMB in processing cryopreserved bull semen is advised, but before using it, the rate of endotoxins must be measured.Conclusions: We advise using PMB after measuring endotoxin concentration; In vitro, in vivo and in field fertilization, adding other sperm evaluation factors such as acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function to PMB treated semen.

  6. Relying on fin erosion to identify hatchery-reared brown trout in a Tennessee river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerbeek, Jonathan R.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced fin erosion can be used to identify recently stocked catchable-size brown trout Salmo trutta during annual surveys to qualitatively estimate contributions to a fishery. However, little is known about the longevity of this mark and its effectiveness as a short-term (≤ 1 year) mass-marking technique. We evaluated hatchery-induced pectoral fin erosion as a mass-marking technique for short-term stocking evaluations by stocking microtagged brown trout in a tailwater and repeatedly sampling those fish to observe and measure their pectoral fins. At Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery, 99.1% (228 of 230) of microtagged brown trout in outdoor concrete raceways had eroded pectoral fins 1 d prior to stocking. Between 34 and 68 microtagged and 26-35 wild brown trout were collected during eight subsequent electrofishing samples. In a blind test based on visual examination of pectoral fins at up to 322 d poststocking, one observer correctly identified 91.7% to 100.0% (mean of 96.9%) of microtagged brown trout prior to checking for microtags. In the laboratory, pectoral fin length and width measurements were recorded to statistically compare the fin measurements of wild and microtagged hatchery brown trout. With only one exception, all pectoral fin measurements on each date averaged significantly larger for wild trout than for microtagged brown trout. Based on the number of pectoral fin measurements falling below 95% prediction intervals, 93.7% (148 of 158) of microtagged trout were correctly identified as hatchery fish based on regression models up to 160 d poststocking. Only 72.2% (70 of 97) of microtagged trout were identified correctly after 160 d based on pectoral fin measurements and the regression models. We concluded that visual examination of pectoral fin erosion was a very effective way to identify stocked brown trout for up to 322 d poststocking.

  7. Plump Cutthroat Trout and Thin Rainbow Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Abbott, Jessica; Schmidt, Kerri; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interbreeding and outcompeting cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, the specific mechanisms by which rainbow trout and their hybrids outcompete cutthroat trout have not been thoroughly explored, and the published data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Materials and Methods: Samples of rainbow trout and cutthroat trout were obtained from a lentic ecosystem by angling. The total length and weight of...

  8. Intervals between observations for ingestive behavior evaluation of young bulls in feedlot/ Intervalo de tempo entre observações para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo de tourinhos em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Gonçalves do Nascimento

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the intervals of time for observing the ingestive behavior of 36 young crossbred bulls in feedlot. The animals were housed in individual stalls, in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (sorghum silage with 1.0 % concentrate, sugar cane with 1.0 % concentrate and sugar cane with 1.2 % concentrate. Five different intervals between observations were studied. The evaluated parameters were: feeding, rumination and idle, time and frequency, dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake, total chewing time, feeding and rumination efficiency of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, as well as, the percentage of the time in that the animals were laying during rumination or idle. The intervals of time did not differ (P > 0.05 for analyzed variable of the time and efficiency. The percentage of time in that the animals were laid while ruminating, was 91 %. The frequencies of feeding, rumination and idle, differed (P Objetivou-se com o experimento estudar intervalos de tempo para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo de tourinhos confinados. Foram utilizados 36 animais, alojados em baias individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (silagem de sorgo com 1,0 % de concentrado, cana-deaçúcar com 1,0 % de concentrado e com 1,2 % de concentrado. Foram comparadas cinco escalas de intervalos de observações. Avaliou-se o tempo e freqüência de alimentação, ruminação e ócio, sendo que destes dois últimos itens calculou-se a percentagem do tempo que os animais permaneciam deitados, ingestão de matéria seca e de fibra em detergente neutro, tempo de mastigação total e eficiência de alimentação e de ruminação da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro. Não se observou diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre as escalas de tempo analisadas para as variáveis relacionadas a tempo e eficiência. A percentagem de tempo que os animais permaneceram

  9. Levels of natural resistance to Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in Carora breed bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy D. Meléndez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Boophilus microplus infestation is one of the most serious limitations to cattle industry in tropical regions, even though bovines show natural resistance to ticks. This resistance was evaluated in Cross-bred Carora Bulls (CCB a tropicalized dairy breed from Venezuela. Seven CCB were experimentally infested with B. microplus larvae, "Mozo" strain, they were considered tick-naive because they had never been infested with ticks. The mean inoculum size applied on each bull was 6 477 larvae. After life cycle was completed adult female body weight (BW, egg mass weight (EW, egg hatching rate (%EH, and reproductive index (RI were recorded. Results revealed a high variability in the levels of resistance to B. microplus. Thus, one animal showed greater resistance (Dunnett, p< 0.05 for the analyzed parameters in contrast with three non-resistant bulls. The others had moderate resistance. The trait "resistance" should be included togheter with other traits often used in genetic selection of cattle.

  10. Positive correlation between Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine antigen concentration and protection in vaccinated rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss evaluated by a tail fin infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are able to raise a protective immune response against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) following injection vaccination with commercial vaccines containing formalin-killed bacteria, but the protection is often suboptimal under Danish...... mariculture conditions. We elucidated whether protection can be improved by increasing the concentration of antigen (formalin-killed bacteria) in the vaccine. Rainbow trout juveniles were vaccinated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with a bacterin of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain 090710...... bacteria. The infection method proved to be efficient and could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines. It was shown that protection and antibody production in exposed fish were positively correlated to the AS antigen concentration in the vaccine....

  11. Efficacy of a polyvalent immersion vaccine against Flavobacterium psychrophilum and evaluation of immune response to vaccination in rainbow trout fry (Onchorynchus mykiss L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, R; Ngo, T P H; Bartie, K L; Adams, A

    2017-08-18

    Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, responsible for significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The diversity of F. psychrophilum isolates and the inherent difficulties in vaccinating juvenile fish has hampered the development of a vaccine for RTFS. Disease episodes tend to occur between 10-14 °C with necrotic lesions often seen on the skin surrounding the dorsal fin and tail. At present no commercial vaccines are available for RTFS in the UK, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to control disease outbreaks. The current work was performed as a pilot study to assess the efficacy of a polyvalent, whole cell vaccine containing formalin-inactivated F. psychrophilum, to induce protective immunity in rainbow trout fry. Duplicate groups of 30 trout (5 g) were immersed in 1 L of the vaccine for 30 s. Samples were taken 4 h, day 2 and 7 post-vaccination (pv) of skin mucus, tissues for histology and gene expression analysis; serum and histology samples were taken 6 weeks pv. A booster vaccination was given at 315 degree days (dd) also by immersion. Challenge was by immersion with a heterologous isolate of F. psychrophilum 630 dd post primary vaccination. The vaccine provided significant protection to the trout fry with a RPS of 84% (p < 0.0001). Detection of increased numbers of IgT positive cells in systemic organs, up-regulation of IgT expression in hind-gut and an increase in total IgT in serum was observed in vaccinated fish; however a functional role of IgT in the observed protection remains to be demonstrated.

  12. BREEDING SOUNDNESS EVALUATION OF TWO AND THREE YEAR OLD NELORE (BOS TAURUS INDICUS BULLS, RAISED UNDER PASTURE CONDITION CLASSIFICAÇÃO ANDROLÓGICA POR PONTOS (CAP DE TOUROS NELORE (Bos taurus indicus DE DOIS E TRÊS ANOS DE IDADE, CRIADOS SOB PASTEJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cesar Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Data from 583 Nelore bulls, aging from two and three years old, raised under pasture condition, were used to study andrologic traits (physical aspects: motility and vigor; and morphologic: major and total defects of the semen and testicular measurements (scrotal circumference - SC and testicular volume - TVOL to establish a profile of andrologic classification for fertility (BSE. The animals were divided in two groups: young bulls (N = 345, with ages from 18 to 30 months (2 years old, and adult (N = 238, with ages from 31 to 42 months (3 years old. Differences were observed (p < 0.05 for body weight, SC, physical and morphologic characteristics of the semen and TVOL in the two year olds with BSE above and below 60 points. In the three years old bulls differences were observed (p < 0.05 for SC and physical and morphologic characteristics of the semen in bulls with BSE above and below 60 points. The results suggested that body weight and SC affected the reproductive condition of young Nelore bulls. SC and seminal traits were the determining factors in the selection for a better reproductive condition, showing the importance of semen analysis when evaluating bulls raised under pasture conditions.

    KEY WORDS: Andrology, breeding soundness evaluation, scrotal circumference, semen, zebu. 

    Avaliaram-se 583 touros Nelore, de dois e três anos de idade, criados extensivamente, para estudar as características andrológicas (aspectos físicos: motilidade e vigor espermáticos; e morfológicos: defeitos espermáticos maiores e totais e de biometria testicular (circunferência escrotal – CE – e volume testicular – VOLT, permitindo classificá-los andrologicamente por pontos e estabelecer parâmetros andrológicos. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: touros jovens (N = 345, com idades de 18 a 30 meses (2 anos, e adultos (N = 238, com idades de 31 a 42 meses (3 anos. Observaram

  13. A definition of unknown parent groups based on bull usage patterns across herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Renand, G; Phocas, F

    2011-03-01

    In genetic evaluations, the definition of unknown parent groups (UPG) is usually based on time periods, selection path and flows of foreign founders. The definition of UPG may be more complex for populations presenting genetic heterogeneity due to both, large national expansion and coexistence of artificial insemination (AI) and natural service (NS). A UPG definition method accounting for beef bull flows was proposed and applied to the French Charolais cattle population. It assumed that, at a given time period, unknown parents belonged to the same UPG when their progeny were bred in herds that used bulls with similar origins (birth region and reproduction way). Thus, the birth period, region and AI rate of a herd were pointed out to be the three criteria reflecting genetic disparities at the national level in a beef cattle population. To deal with regional genetic disparities, 14 regions were identified using a factorial approach combining principal component analysis and Ward clustering. The selection nucleus of the French cattle population was dispersed over three main breeding areas. Flows of NS bulls were mainly carried out within each breeding area. On the contrary, the use and the selection of AI bulls were based on a national pool of candidates. Within a time period, herds of different regions were clustered together when they used bulls coming from the same origin and with an estimated difference of genetic level lower than 20% of genetic standard deviation (σg) for calf muscle and skeleton scores (SS) at weaning. This led to the definition of 16 UPG of sires, which were validated as robust and relevant in a sire model, meaning numerically stable and corresponding to distinct genetic subpopulations. The UPG genetic levels were estimated for muscle and SS under sire and animal models. Whatever the trait, differences between bull UPG estimates within a time period could reach 0.5 σg across regions. For a given time period, bull UPG estimates for muscle and

  14. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  15. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  16. Evaluación del empleo de hollejo fresco o conservado en dietas para la ceba de toros Evaluation of the use of fresh or preserved citrus pulp in diets for bull fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ojeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las ganancias de peso en toros que consumían hollejo de cítrico fresco o conservado, se realizó un estudio durante 120 días en dos cebaderos de la Empresa Citrícola «Victoria de Girón», en Jagüey Grande, Matanzas. Ambas unidades disponían de 400 animales y la raza predominante era Cebú comercial. El manejo consistió en pastoreo restringido (cuatro horas y estabulación (20 horas. La disponibilidad de pasto fue de 5 y 3 kg de MS/animal/día para la lluvia y la seca, respectivamente. Las dietas consistieron en forraje verde y hollejo de cítrico fresco o ensilado a voluntad. Además se suplementó con 0,5; 1,0; 1,1 y 0,05 kg/animal/día de heno, residuos fermentados de maíz, afrecho de trigo y sal mineral, respectivamente; la urea se ofreció según los balances alimentarios. Se midió el consumo de los alimentos voluminosos y la ganancia de peso vivo. Se efectuaron balances alimentarios previos y retrospectivos al finalizar el estudio. La mayor ingestión de forraje (8,1 vs 7,7 kg/animal/día se obtuvo en la dieta de hollejo fresco. Las ganancias fueron de 0,641 vs 0,633 kg/animal/día para los animales que consumían hollejo fresco y ensilaje, respectivamente. La conversión alimentaria fue alta (11,4 y 11,6 para los animales que disponían de hollejo fresco y ensilado, respectivamente. Esta evaluación demostró que en igualdad de condiciones, no hubo grandes diferencias productivas al emplear cualquiera de las dos formas de suministro.With the objective of evaluating the weight gains in bulls that consumed fresh or preserved citrus pulp, a study was conducted for 120 days in two fattening farms of the Citrus Fruit Firm «Victoria de Girón», in Jagüey Grande, Matanzas. Both units had 400 animals and the prevailing breed was commercial Zebu. The management consisted in restricted grazing (four hours and confinement (20 hours. Pasture availability was 5 and 3 kg DM/animal/day for the rainy and dry

  17. Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, G D; Kroetsch, T; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-07-01

    Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special reference to estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, R; Archunan, G

    2004-07-30

    The present investigation was carried out with a view to evaluate the frequency of Flehmen behaviour in bull in response to body fluids of cows in various stages of the estrous cycle, in the context of estrus detection. The study was performed on free moving bulls under natural conditions. Samples of vaginal mucus, saliva, faeces and milk of pro-estrus, estrus and di-estrus stages collected from donor cows were rubbed individually onto the genital regions of non-estrus animals (dummy cows) and the bulls were observed for 30 min for assessment of Flehmen behaviour. The duration of Flehmen behaviour shown by bulls was maximum towards the dummy cows receiving estrus sample. Such Flehmen behaviour, however, did not occur in bulls in response to the cows receiving samples of other stages. The statistical significance was higher (P mucus may act as an additional/secondary source along with urine in eliciting copulatary behaviour and executing coitus in bulls during estrus. The results further suggest that in addition to vaginal mucus, other body fluids like saliva, faeces and milk have estrus-related odours and are probably involved in bovine bio-communication.

  19. A new application of Bull's eye analysis to lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Kotaro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Akaki, Shiro; Hasegawa, Mari; Nakagawa, Tomio; Simizu, Mitsuharu; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Nagaya, Isao.

    1990-01-01

    Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed and evaluated semiquantitatively by Bull's eye analysis in 24, including 7 with central pulmonary carcinoma, 3 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), 3 with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) and 11 normal subjects. First, whole lung field was divided into three regions by three concentric circles. And then radial axes were projected from the center to define 36 sectors, 10 degree each. The counts of each sector was calculated and Bull's eye image and circumferential profile curve were displayed. The patient's map was compared with the lower limit of normal (mean-2 SD), and the extent score (ES) and the severity score (SS) were calculated. The ES was 0.25±0.12 in pulmonary carcinoma (n=7), 0.08±0.07 in HP (n=3), 0.06±0.04 in DPB (n=3). The SS was 26.39±15.17 in pulmonary carcinoma, 4.75±5.57 in HP, 4.29±3.67 in DPB. In one case of central pulmonary carcinoma, segmental perfusion defect was evaluated semiquantitatively by Bull's eye image and circumferential profile curve. And in one case of HP, the change of regional pulmonary blood flow could be followed easily using extent and severity map. This new application of Bull's eye analysis to lung perfusion scintigraphy might be useful to evaluate regional pulmonary blood flow. (author)

  20. Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. McGrath; W. M. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii frequently are displaced by nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, but the ecological mechanisms of displacement are not understood. Competition for food and predation between greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias and brook trout were investigated in montane streams of...

  1. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  2. Gyrodactylid Ectoparasites in a Population of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel L; Hansen, Adam G; Chan, Maia M; Sanders, George E

    2014-01-01

    A colony of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a decentralized aquatic animal facility was noted to have an increase in morbidity and mortality (from 4 or 5 fish each month to 3 or 4 fish daily) approximately 2 wk after experimental procedures began. The primary clinical signs were erratic swimming behavior and ‘flashing’ of fish against surfaces within housing enclosures. Moribund and normal rainbow trout were presented alive for diagnostic evaluation; samples of water from housing enclosures were provided for water quality assessment. The trout were determined to be infected with gyrodactylids, a common monogenean ectoparasite of the skin and gills in both marine and freshwater fish. This case report describes the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of gyrodactylids and husbandry modifications associated with the resolution of this clinical aquatic-animal case. PMID:24411786

  3. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  4. Quantifying long-term population growth rates of threatened bull trout: challenges, lessons learned, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Bowerman, Tracy; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Conner, Mary; Schaller, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Temporal symmetry models (TSM) represent advances in the analytical application of mark–recapture data to population status assessments. For a population of char, we employed 10 years of active and passive mark–recapture data to quantify population growth rates using different data sources and analytical approaches. Estimates of adult population growth rate were 1.01 (95% confidence interval = 0.84–1.20) using a temporal symmetry model (λTSM), 0.96 (0.68–1.34) based on logistic regressions of annual snorkel data (λA), and 0.92 (0.77–1.11) from redd counts (λR). Top-performing TSMs included an increasing time trend in recruitment (f) and changes in capture probability (p). There was only a 1% chance the population decreased ≥50%, and a 10% chance it decreased ≥30% (λMCMC; based on Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure). Size structure was stable; however, the adult population was dominated by small adults, and over the study period there was a decline in the contribution of large adults to total biomass. Juvenile condition decreased with increasing adult densities. Utilization of these different information sources provided a robust weight-of-evidence approach to identifying population status and potential mechanisms driving changes in population growth rates.

  5. Juvenile competitive bottleneck in the production of brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs due to intraspecific habitat segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegge, O.; Hesthagen, T.; Skurdal, J.

    1993-01-01

    Resource utilization and growth of brown trout were studied in four deep (mean depths 16.2 - 37.5 m) Norwegian hydroelectric reservoirs by benthic and pelagic gillnet sampling. In all the reservoirs supplementary stockings are carried out. The brown trout were spatially segregated according to size as the habitat use of small individuals (< 180-220 mm) was completely restricted to benthic habitats, whereas larger individuals mainly utilized the upper strata of pelagic waters. It is argued that the pelagic habitat is the more rewarding, and that small-sized brown trout are forced into the less favourable benthic habitat through social interactions with larger specimens. This is supported by an increase in growth of brown trout from their third to fifth year of life, which seems to be related to the shift from benthic to pelagic behaviour. It is also argued that the conditions for small-sized brown trout may be a bottleneck in the capacity to produce brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs with limited benthic feeding conditions, despite ample access to food in pelagic habitats. When evaluating the possibility of increasing the yield of brown trout through supplementary stockings, it is therefore important to consider food and growth conditions for all age and size groups of brown trout. In reservoirs with poor benthic feeding conditions it may be necessary to stock with brown trout of sizes that are large enough to utilize pelagic habitat, to avoid the limiting benthic living stage. (Author)

  6. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  7. Breed differences of bull frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntemka, A; Tsousis, G; Brozos, C; Kiossis, E; Boscos, C M; Tsakmakidis, I A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of frozen-thawed semen from different bull breeds. Commercial frozen-thawed bull semen samples (26 per breed, 130 totally) of five breeds (Holstein [Η], Brown Swiss [BS], Limousin [L], Belgian Blue [BB], Blonde d' Aquitaine [BA]) were used. After thawing, each semen sample was subjected to thermal resistance test (TR) for 0.5 and 1 hr at 38°C and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) for 1 hr at 150 mOsm at 37°C. Additionally, all samples were evaluated at times 0 hr (thawing), 0.5 hr (TR), 1 hr (TR) for kinetics by CASA [progressive, immotile, rapid, medium, slow moving spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), straight line velocity (VSL), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), beat cross-frequency (BCF), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), wobble (WOB)]. Moreover, directly after thawing, all semen samples were evaluated for morphometry, morphology, viability and DNA fragmentation. Statistical analysis was conducted using a mixed model for repeated measures. The results showed (a) higher VCL after thawing in H, L breeds compared to BB and BA, (b) higher VAP after thawing in L compared to BB, BA, (c) higher values of progressive spermatozoa after TR in H, BS compared to BB, BA, (d) higher values of rapid spermatozoa after thawing and 0.5 hr of TR in H, BS, L compared to BB, BA, (e) lower viability in BA after thawing compared to H, BS, BB, (f) lower morphological abnormalities in H compared to L, BB, (g) higher head length in Η compared to BB. No significant differences were observed in the results from HOST and DNA fragmentation between breeds. In conclusion, quality characteristics of frozen-thawed bull semen are dependent on the breed. Frozen semen from BB and BA breeds should be handled more carefully after thawing, as it is more sensitive to stress. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Identifying potential virulence determinants in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Scott; Collet, Bertrand; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2009-01-01

    of an isolate recovered in 2000 from a viral haemorrhagic septicaemia disease episode in a marine rainbow trout farm in Sweden (SE-SVA-1033) was evaluated in juvenile rainbow trout via intraperitoneal injection and immersion challenge alongside 3 isolates recovered from wild-caught marine fish (DK-4p37, DK-5e59...... and UKMLA98/6HE1) suspected of being of low pathogenicity to trout. Mortality data revealed that isolate SE-SVA-1033 caused VHSV-specific mortality in both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges (75.0 and 15.4%, respectively). The remaining Genotype Ib isolates caused significantly lower mortalities using...

  9. Zooplankton size selection relative to gill raker spacing in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, P.; Haddix, T.; Schneidervin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are one of the most widely stocked salmonids worldwide, often based on the assumption that they will effectively utilize abundant invertebrate food resources. We evaluated the potential for feeding morphology to affect prey selection by rainbow trout using a combination of laboratory feeding experiments and field observations in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. For rainbow trout collected from the reservoir, inter-gill raker spacing averaged 1.09 mm and there was low variation among fish overall (SD = 0.28). Ninety-seven percent of all zooplankton observed in the diets of rainbow trout collected in the reservoir were larger than the interraker spacing, while only 29% of the zooplankton found in the environment were larger than the interraker spacing. Over the size range of rainbow trout evaluated here (200-475 mm), interraker spacing increased moderately with increasing fish length; however, the size of zooplankton found in the diet did not increase with increasing fish length. In laboratory experiments, rainbow trout consumed the largest zooplankton available; the mean size of zooplankton observed in the diets was significantly larger than the mean size of zooplankton available. Electivity indices for both laboratory and field observations indicated strong selection for larger-sized zooplankton. The size threshold at which electivity switched from selection against smaller-sized zooplankton to selection for larger-sized zooplankton closely corresponded to the mean interraker spacing for both groups (???1-1.2 mm). The combination of results observed here indicates that rainbow trout morphology limits the retention of different-sized zooplankton prey and reinforces the importance of understanding how effectively rainbow trout can utilize the type and sizes of different prey available in a given system. These considerations may improve our ability to predict the potential for growth and survival of rainbow trout within and

  10. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  11. The role of kelp crabs as consumers in bull kelp forests—evidence from laboratory feeding trials and field enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Dobkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northern kelp crab (Pugettia producta and the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis are common primary consumers in bull kelp beds near the San Juan Islands (Salish Sea, NE Pacific. In this system, urchins (often considered the most voracious herbivores exerting top-down control on kelp beds tend to remain sedentary because of the high availability of detrital macroalgae, but the extent to which kelp crabs consume kelp (and other food options is largely unknown. I conducted four types of laboratory feeding experiments to evaluate kelp crab feeding patterns: (1 feeding electivity between bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and seven species of co-occurring local macroalgae; (2 feeding electivity on aged vs. fresh bull kelp; (3 feeding preference between N. luetkeana and small snails (Lacuna sp.; and (4 scaling of feeding rate with body size in P. producta and P. gracilis. In choice experiments, P. producta consumed greater mass of N. luetkeana than of other macroalgal species offered and elected to eat fresh bull kelp over aged. However, P. producta also consumed snails (Lacuna sp., indicating more generalized feeding than previously suspected. Feeding rates for P. producta exceeded the expected 3∕4 scaling rule of metabolic rates, indicating that larger P. producta may have a disproportionately large impact on bull kelp. A subtidal field experiment, designed to assess the influence of consumers on juvenile bull kelp net tissue gain, found that only fully enclosed (protected bull kelp increased in wet mass and blade length. Herbivory by kelp crabs, among other consumers, is likely to play a previously unrecognized role in mediating the growth and survival of this annual kelp species within the Salish Sea.

  12. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  13. Thermoregulatory responses and reproductive traits in composite beef bulls raised in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Narian; de Brito Lourenço Junior, José; Barioni Junior, Waldomiro; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi; Marcondes, Cintia Righetti; Pezzopane, José Ricardo Macedo; de Andrade Pantoja, Messy Hannear; Botta, Daniela; Giro, Alessandro; Moura, Ana Beatriz Bossois; do Nascimento Barreto, Andréa; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that increased livestock production is limited by tropical climate. Thermal imbalance in bulls can lead to hyperthermia and alter testicular metabolism, causing subfertility or infertility. Therefore, the thermoregulation of composite Canchim bulls (5/8 Charolais × 3/8 Zebu) raised in tropical climate as well as their consequences in the physiological, hematological, hormonal, and andrological parameters were evaluated monthly. The bulls (n = 18; 30.0 ± 1.5 months; 503.8 ± 23.0 kg) were kept on pasture, in a single group, from August 2015 to March 2016, comprising the winter, spring, and summer seasons. Biometeorological variables were continuously monitored, and the Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) was calculated. A greater thermal challenge occurred in spring and summer (THI ≥ 72.0). Nevertheless, the bulls exhibited normothermia (38.6 to 38.9 °C) in these seasons. The cortisol did not vary between seasons (7.0 vs. 8.7 vs. 6.8 ng/mL; P > 0.05) and remained within the physiological patterns. Independent of the seasons, stress leukogram was also not observed, refuting the incidence of acute or chronic thermal stress. It is noteworthy that T3 and testosterone increased (P < 0.0001, P < 0.05) in spring and summer, the time that coincides with the breeding season, when there is increased metabolic requirement from the bulls. The progressive thermal challenge increase did not affect the scrotal thermoregulatory capacity, and in general, scrotal temperature remained at 5.2 °C below the internal body temperature. In summer, there was a 5% reduction in the minor sperm defects (P < 0.05) and DNA fragmentation in 2.4% of spermatozoa, a compatible value for high fertility bulls. The results show that the studied composite bulls can be considered as climatically adapted and constitute a viable alternative to be used in production systems in a tropical climate, even if the breeding seasons occur during the most critical thermal condition periods of

  14. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  15. Selection of performance-tested young bulls and indirect responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidan, Fernanda S S; Santos, Dalinne C C; Moraes, Mariana M; Araújo, Andresa E M; Ventura, Henrique T; Bergmann, José A G; Turra, Eduardo M; Toral, Fabio L B

    2016-11-09

    Central testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots. Records on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were estimated. Correlated responses for commercial animals when selection was applied on performance-tested young bulls were computed. The 90% highest posterior density (HPD90) intervals for heritabilities of final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG) and scrotal circumference (SC) ranged from 0.41 to 0.49, 0.23 to 0.30 and 0.47 to 0.57, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, from 0.45 to 0.60, 0.20 to 0.32 and 0.56 to 0.70, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots, from 0.29 to 0.33, 0.14 to 0.18 and 0.35 to 0.45, respectively, for commercial animals on pasture, and from 0.24 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.24 and 0.35 to 0.57 respectively, for commercial animals in feedlots. The HPD90 intervals for genetic correlations of FW, ADG and SC in performance-tested young bulls on pasture (feedlots) with FW, ADG and SC in commercial animals on pasture (feedlots) ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 (0.83 to 0.94), 0.78 to 0.90 (0.40 to 0.79) and from 0.92 to 0.97 (0.50 to 0.83), respectively. Age at first calving was genetically related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.48 to -0.06) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.41 to -0.05) for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, however it was not related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.29 to 0.10) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.35 to 0.13) for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots. Heritabilities for growth and SC are higher for performance-tested young bulls than for commercial animals. Evaluating and selecting for increased growth and SC on performance-tested young bulls is

  16. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  17. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  18. [Laminitis with a high degree of osteitis rarefaciens of the distal phalanx in a Fleckvieh bull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J; Stanek, C

    1990-06-01

    Chronic laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis was diagnosed in a nine month old Simmental fattening bull. The condition was observed in all eight weight bearing digits. Clinical, radiological and pathomorphological examinations revealed osteolysis and downward rotation of all the distal phalanges. The condition appears to resemble the several cases of laminitis in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors. In this case, however, the genetic background was unavailable for evaluation.

  19. Carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle of young bulls from four genetic groups finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Haruyoshi Ito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle of 32 young bulls from four genetic groups: Caracu; Canchin; Aberdeen Angus × Canchin; and Charolais × Caracu, finished in feedlot and slaughtered at 22 months old. Each group was composed of eight animals. There was no difference for moisture, ash, crude protein or total cholesterol between bulls from different genetic groups. However, total lipids percentage was higher for bulls from Caracu and Aberdeen Angus × Canchin and lower for Canchin and Charolais genetic groups. Polyunsaturated fattty acids and n-6 percentage was higher for Canchin and lower for Caracu, Aberdeen Angus × Canchin and Charolais genetic groups. Canchin and Charolais × Caracu genetic groups presented higher n-3 percentage than Caracu and Aberdeen Angus × Canchin. There was no difference for the n-6/n-3 ratio among the bulls from the four genetic groups.

  20. Qualitative Assessment: Evaluating the Impacts of Climate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South Fork Nooksack River (South Fork) is located in northwest Washington State and is home to nine species of Pacific salmon, including Nooksack early Chinook (aka, spring Chinook salmon), an iconic species for the Nooksack Indian Tribe. The quantity of salmon in the South Fork, especially spring Chinook salmon, has dramatically declined from historic levels, due primarily to habitat degradation from the legacy impacts of various land uses such as commercial forestry, agriculture, flood control, and transportation infrastructure. Segments of the South Fork and some of its tributaries exceed temperature criteria established for the protection of cold-water salmonid populations, and were listed on Washington State’s Clean Water Act (CWA) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies. High water temperatures in the South Fork are detrimental to fish and other native species that depend on cool, clean, well-oxygenated water. Of the nine salmon species, three have been listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are of high priority to restoration efforts in the South Fork—spring Chinook salmon, summer steelhead trout, and bull trout. Growing evidence shows that climate change will exacerbate legacy impacts. This qualitative assessment is a comprehensive analysis of climate change impacts on freshwater habitat and Pacific salmon in the South Fork. It also evaluates the effectiveness of restoration tools that address Pacific salmon recovery.

  1. Testicle size as indicator of fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male calves from the high value parents, bull fathers and bull dams, enter the selection for artificial insemination. After laboratory tests, the calves are taken to the center for artificial insemination, and after a stay in quarantine the are moved to a test station. At the age of twelve months they are measured for assessing the value of each calf exterior. One of the measures recorded was the testicle scope. On the basis of testicle size, it is possible to predict sperm production potential. For the determination of testicle size (testicular biometry, tapes or rulers were used. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of testicle size on sperm production in young bulls used for artificial insemination. For that purpose there were used the data on circumference of testicles of one year old bulls just starting production of sperm, and then compared with certain semen quality parameters such as: volume of ejaculate and concentration and percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa. The investigation included all young bulls that started production in the period from 2010. to 2012., that is 36 bulls of various breeds (Simmental, Holstein Friesian, Montafon. After the testicle scope measuring in these bulls, there were observed the parameters of the sperm quality during the following one year period. The obtained results showed that the increased testicle size was followed by the increased average ejaculate quantity, in other words: 3.7 ml in group of bulls with testicle circumference below 30 cm, to 6.7 ml in bulls whose testicle circumference was over 40 cm. Also, the results showed that there was a correlation between the increased testicle size and the increased spermatozoa concentration. The values grow to testicle scope of 36 cm, and above that they were still high but with some oscillations. When it came to relation between testicle scope and the percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa, the

  2. Growth, morphology, and developmental instability of rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout, and four hybrid generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Duda, J.J.; Graham, J.H.; Zhang, S.; Haywood, K. P.; Miller, B.; Lerud, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii with nonindigenous rainbow trout O. mykiss contributes to the decline of cutthroat trout subspecies throughout their native range. Introgression by rainbow trout can swamp the gene pools of cutthroat trout populations, especially if there is little selection against hybrids. We used rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarkii bouvieri, and rainbow trout × Yellowstone cutthroat trout F1 hybrids as parents to construct seven different line crosses: F1 hybrids (both reciprocal crosses), F2 hybrids, first-generation backcrosses (both rainbow trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout), and both parental taxa. We compared growth, morphology, and developmental instability among these seven crosses reared at two different temperatures. Growth was related to the proportion of rainbow trout genome present within the crosses. Meristic traits were influenced by maternal, additive, dominant, overdominant, and (probably) epistatic genetic effects. Developmental stability, however, was not disturbed in F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids, or backcrosses. Backcrosses were morphologically similar to their recurrent parent. The lack of developmental instability in hybrids suggests that there are few genetic incompatibilities preventing introgression. Our findings suggest that hybrids are not equal: that is, growth, development, character traits, and morphology differ depending on the genomic contribution from each parental species as well as the hybrid generation.

  3. Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.

  4. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, T.; Bodrogi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary). 1. Belklinika); Makray, S. (Mezoegazdasagi Foeiskola, Kaposvar (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormone level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration.

  5. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Tibor; Bodrogi, Lajos

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormon level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration. (author)

  6. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  7. PRODUCTION OF IN VITRO EMBRYO USING SEXED SPERM OF 5/8 GIROLANDO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pábola Santos Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the "in vitro" blastocyst rate production using bovine sexed semen. Semen from three bulls was used to verify the individual's semen variation, cleavage rates and embryo production. In this study, we employed reproductive biotechnologies, computer analysis of post-thawed semen and fluorescent probes for sperm cells integrity analysis (plasma membrane, acrosome membrane and mitochondrial potential. A total of 959 oocysts went through in vitro maturation steps for in vitro fertilization and cultivation, being 473 with sexed semen and 486 with conventional semen. The cleavage rate was observed in blastocysts on D2 and D7. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student's t-test was used to detect differences between groups, and chi-square analysis for in vitro production results (P <0.05 . The results differed between conventional (31.06% and sexed semen (21.10% in the obtainment of blastocyst. When the blastocyst production was individually compared in sexed semen samples (27.69%, 17.93% and 25.56%, bulls 1, 2 and 3, respectively we verified T2 bulls in curvilinear speed, linear speed and path velocity variables where T1 (117.7 ± 1.6 µm/s; 60.0 ± 0.3 µm/s, 73.6 ± 0.4 µm/s, respectively showed the highest values when compared to T2 bulls (80.2 ± 2.3 µm/s, 47.0 ± 2.0 µm/s, 57.7 ± 0, 9 µm/s, respectively and T3 (86.4 ± 5.7 µm/s, 46.2 ± 2.7 µm/s, 53.8 ± 2.8 µm/s, respectively. Analyses of sperm cell integrity did not differ among conventional semen samples, but in the sexed semen, membrane integrity was the variable that differ statistically among bulls once T1 (38 ± 2.7 differed from T3 (53 8 ± 1.8 (P = 0.009 but did not differ from T2 (44.1 ± 4.4. It is possible to conclude that sexed semen was less efficient in blastocyst production when compared with conventional semen

  8. John Pope - Failure at Second Battle of Bull Run

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morio, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Was the failure of the Army of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run a result of General John Pope being a failure as a leader or were there other circumstances that helped him in his loss? Conclusion...

  9. Bull Moose Tube Company - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  10. Antioxidative effects of melatonin on kinetics, microscopic and oxidative parameters of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Iraj; Kohram, Hamid; Ardabili, Farhad Farrokhi

    2013-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated during the freeze-thawing process may reduce sperm quality. This study evaluates the effects of melatonin supplementation as an antioxidant in the semen extender on post-thaw parameters of bull spermatozoa. Melatonin was added to the citrate-egg yolk extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3 and 4mM. Ejaculates were collected from six proven Holstein bulls. Semen was diluted in the extender packaged in straws, which was frozen with liquid nitrogen. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of melatonin increased (peffective concentration of melatonin in microscopic evaluations of the bull sperm freezing extender was 2mM. The highest (pconcentration of melatonin in the semen extender and the highest activity of catalase (0.7±0.1) was obtained by 2mM melatonin. Four millimolar concentration of melatonin were reduced (pconcentration of melatonin in the semen extender improved the quality of post-thawed semen, which may associate with a reduction in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in the total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  12. The effect of floor type on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality of dairy origin bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, V S; Lowe, D E; Lively, F O; Gordon, A W

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on their performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality. In total, 80 dairy origin young bulls (mean initial live weight 224 kg (SD=28.4 kg)) were divided into 20 blocks with four animals each according to live weight. The total duration of the experimental period was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period. Cattle were randomly assigned within blocks to one of four floor type treatments, which included fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS). Bulls were offered ad libitum grass silage supplemented with concentrates during the growing period. During the finishing period, bulls were offered concentrates supplemented with chopped barley straw. There was no significant effect of floor type on total dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion ratio, daily live weight gain or back fat depth during the growing and finishing periods. Compared with bulls accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a significantly lower straw DMI (Pcarcass characteristics or meat quality. However, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a tendency for less channel, cod and kidney fat (P=0.084) compared with those accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS. Overall, floor type had no effect on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics or meat quality of growing or finishing beef cattle.

  13. Usefulness of 99mTc-MIBI stress myocardial SPECT Bull's-eye quantification incoronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubello, D.; Zanco, P.; Borsato, N.; Chierichetti, F.; Saitta, B.; Ferlin, G.; Candelpergher, G.; Minello, S.

    1995-01-01

    99m Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) myocardial SPECT quantification performed using a Bull's-eye polar map, was evaluated and compared with visual analysis in 120 patients with proven or suspected CAD. The study series comprised 106 men and 14 women, age 37-75 years, 68 of whom had had a prior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography was taken as the gold standard. Forty age-matched subjecs, with less than a 5% chance of having CAD, were enrolled to establish the normal database for males and females. ROC analysis was used to calculate the optimal thresholds for the definition of the disease extension in each vascular territory of the Bull's-eye polar map. Bull's-eye analysis agreed with visual analysis in 296/360 vessels. Two and three-vessel disease were most frequently observed using the Bull's-eye approach. However, a greater number of false positive (FP) cases were found with Bull's-eye than with visual analysis (28 versus 3 cases): FP cases were detected principally (21/28) in patients with previous myocardial infarction. It is interesting to note that this phenomenon, commonly observed in the LCX or RCA territory, was almost always correctly interpreted as a FP case by visual analysis. In conclusion, it is found the sensitivity and specificity for CAD diagnosis with the Bull's-eye approach to be similar to that of visual analysis, but the former method seems to be somewhat more sensitive for the localization of LAD and LCX disease. However, particular attention should be paid to patients with previous myocardial infarction, as FP cases are not infrequently observed with quantitative analysis, especially in the LCX and RCA territories

  14. 22Na and 86Rb effluxes from bull spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.; Steffens, T.; Bernhardt, I.

    1986-01-01

    Active transport of sodium and potassium has been postulated for bull sperms by various authors. In the present paper the sodium and rubidium efflux was determined by tracer kinetics. For uninhibited sodium and rubidium efflux a rate constant of 8.9 +- 2.13/min and 13.9 +- 3.89 min, respectively, was found for a bull sperm suspension (20 vol.%, 310 K). After ouabain treatment (0.1 mM), a reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux to 5.1 +- 1.06/min was found. After cryopreserving (pelletizing process) the majority of samples investigated did not exhibit any inhibition of sodium and rubidium efflux as compared with fresh bull sperms. The inhibition of sodium efflux observed in some cases corresponds to the reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux caused by ouabain. At storage in seminal plasma (24 h, 278 K) the rate constant of sodium efflux is reduced to 2.7 +- 0.25/min. Both after ouabain treatment and after cryopreserving of sperms having a reduced rate constant the motility of bull sperms is reduced. It is concluded from the results that in bull sperms there exists an ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, the inhibition of which reduces the rate constant of sodium efflux by 42%. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux is related to the motility of the bull sperm cell. (author)

  15. RESEARCH ON A SIMPLIFIED MIXED MODEL VERSUS CONTEMPORARY COMPARISON USED IN BREEDING VALUE ESTIMATION AND BULLS CLASSIFICATION FOR MILK PRODUCTION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to set up a simplified BLUP model in order to estimate the bulls' breeding value for milk production characters and establish their hierarchy, Also, it aimed to compare the bulls' hierarchy set up by means of the simplified BLUP model with their hierarchy established by using the traditional contemporary comparison method. In this purpose, a number of 51 Romanian Friesian bulls were used for evaluating their breeding value for milk production characters: milk yield, fat percentage and fat yield during the 305 days of the 1st lactation of a number of 1,989 daughters in various dairy herds. The simplified BLUP model set up in this research work has demonstrated its high precision of breeding value, which varied between 55 and 92, and more than this it proved that in some cases, the position occupied by bulls could be similar with the one registered by using the contemporary comparison. The higher precision assured by the simplified BLUP model is the guarantee that the bulls' hierarchy in catalogues is a correct one. In this way, farmers could chose the best bulls for improving milk yield in their dairy herds.

  16. HABITAT USE BY NATIVE AND STOCKED TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN TWO NORTHEAST STREAMS, PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by stocked and native brown trout (Salmo trutta L. was assessed in two headwater streams of North-eastern Portugal. Underwater observations were made during the summer season in three successive years to evaluate the effect of supplemental trout stocking. Multivariate analysis techniques applied to data sets on microhabitat use were exploited to identify the focal elevation (distance of fish from the bottom, total depth and cover as the variables that contribute most to the discrimination between stocked and native trout. Preference curves computed for native and stocked trout of the same age (1+, showed a distinct pattern in their ability to explore the available microhabitat resources. Stocked trout tended to occupy deeper pools (total depth > 100 cm vs. 60-100 cm for native trout, holding higher focal elevations (140-160 cm vs. 22.5 cm and cover (combination of boulders and overhanging vegetation or undercut banks. Furthermore, a high poststocking movement of 80% hatchery-reared fish was verified just one month after their release, suggesting that stocking did not contribute to the sustainable populations in either stream, and is far from being an adequate management technique.

  17. Hybridization between Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout alters the expression of muscle growth-related genes and their relationships with growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  18. The effect of sperm concentration in the ejaculate on morphological traits of bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondracki, Stanisław; Banaszewska, Dorota; Wysokńjska, Anna; Iwanina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 75 ejaculates obtained from 19 bulls representing different cattle breeds used at the Masovian Centre for Animal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. Fresh ejaculates were measured in respect to their volume and sperm count in the ejaculates was determined. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into five groups. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each bull and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope using preparations made from fresh ejaculates. For each slide, morphometric measurements were taken of 15 randomly selected spermatozoa characterised by normal morphology and well visible under the microscope. Additionally, in each preparation morphometry of 500 spermatozoa was evaluated, numbers of spermatozoa with normal morphology and morphological abnormalities were recorded and these were categorized into spermatozoa with major and minor defects. An insignificant correlation was observed between the sperm concentration in the ejaculate and morphological traits, dimensions and shapes of bull spermatozoa. The less concentrated ejaculates contained spermatozoa with a slightly larger head circumference and a more elongated head shape in comparison with the spermatozoa in the more concentrated ejaculates. The highest frequency of morphologically malformed spermatozoa, both in the case of primary and secondary alterations, was observed in ejaculates with sperm concentration of no more than 1000 x 10(3)/mm3.

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant Effects of Water and Ethanolic Extracts of Iranian Pomegranate Seed on Lipid Quality of Trout Fillet and Determining the Level of Perishability at 2-4 ° C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Because of unsaturated fatty acid content, trout and fish products are highly perishable. For this reason, preservatives are used to prevent or delay spoiling during storage. The aim of this study was determination of antioxidant activities of pomegranate seeds extracts on lipid quality of trout fillet stored at 2-4°C. Materials and Methods Prepared fish fillets were divided into two groups. One group was trout fillet without extract (control and one in pomegranate seeds extracts that were stored in refrigerator for 6 days. Chemical tests such as Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N and Free Fatty Acids (FFA were used to determine perishability of trout fillet. Results The PV, TBA, TVB-N and FFA were significantly (P < 0.05 lowest in the samples treated with ethanolic extracts of pomegranate seeds as compared to control group. (PV = 2.62 meq o2/kg, TBA = 1.26 mg MDA/kg, TVB-N = 22.13 mg/100g and FFA = 1.2 percent Oleic acid. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrated that pomegranate seeds extracts were efficiency to prevent lipid oxidation in trout fillet stored at refrigerator temperature. * Corresponding Author: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, School of Public Health. Email: Salehia15@gmail.com

  20. Effect of shadow availability at pasture on reproductive traits of Nelore bulls (Bos indicus raised in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Fabián Bao Tarragó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is responsible for bull body temperature elevation. An alternative to minimize heat stress is to use artificial shade. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal stress reduction, through shade availability, on reproductive characteristics of Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. For this, ten bulls were divided in: Available artificial shade (AS, n = 5 and Unavailable shade (US, n = 5. Each group was kept in two hectare paddocks, in which shade availability for group AS was artificially created. Animals were submitted to a clinical-reproductive evaluation and seminal analyses. No interaction was observed between treatments (AS and US and time (8 collections for all analyzed variables (P>0.05. No significant effect (P > 0.05 of treatment was observed for all parameters analyzed. So, it can be concluded that the absence of shaded areas during summer does not negatively affect reproductive characteristics such as: scrotal circumference, testicular consistency, progressive motility, percentage of rapidly moving cells (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis - CASA, morphology or sperm viability in Nellore bulls raised in southeastern Brazil, considering that results could be different in other regions of the country where average temperature is higher.

  1. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  2. Hybridization dynamics between Colorado's native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Siegle, Matthew R; Martin, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    Newly formed hybrid populations provide an opportunity to examine the initial consequences of secondary contact between species and identify genetic patterns that may be important early in the evolution of hybrid inviability. Widespread introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) into watersheds with native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) have resulted in hybridization. These introductions have contributed to the decline of native cutthroat trout populations. Here, we examine the pattern of hybridization between introduced rainbow trout and 2 populations of cutthroat trout native to Colorado. For this study, we utilized 7 diagnostic, codominant nuclear markers and a diagnostic mitochondrial marker to investigate hybridization in a population of greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) and a population of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). We infer that cutthroat-rainbow trout hybrid swarms have formed in both populations. Although a mixture of hybrid genotypes was present, not all genotype combinations were detected at expected frequencies. We found evidence that mitochondrial DNA introgression in hybrids is asymmetric and more likely from rainbow trout than from cutthroat trout. A difference in spawning time of the 2 species or differences in the fitness between the reciprocal crosses may explain the asymmetry. Additionally, the presence of intraspecific cytonuclear associations found in both populations is concordant with current hypotheses regarding coevolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.

  3. Computerized electrocardiography in American pit bull terrier dogsEletrocardiografia computadorizada em cães da raça American pit bull terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro José Lahm Cardoso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG is an essential examination for evaluation of patient with heart disease is great importance the diagnosis of arrhythmias. The examination can determine source f rhythm and frequency depolarization heart, providing information in clinical status myocardium, since deflections P-QRS-T tracing can be altered by disease or physiological factor. With advancement of computer technology, computerized electrocardiography has been used in human medicine as auxiliary diagnostic method and currently is being increasingly used in veterinary medicine. The objectives this study were to study e computerized electrocardiographic parameters in dogs breed American Pit Bull Terrier, comparing them with patterns species. In present study, we evaluated electrocardiographic examinations 42 dogs the breed American Pit Bull clinically healthy, 22 males and 20 females, aged between 1 and 6 years. Sinus rhythm was observed in 57% of dogs showed sinus rhythm and only 26% were wandering pacemaker. The electrocardiographic values obtained from these dogs computerized ECG were within the normal range of species, except the duration of the P wave which had longer than 0.04 seconds in 24% of dogs. We conclude that the dogs of the breed American Pit Bull Terrier have the same electrocardiographic values obtained in other breeds by the computerized method, except for the increase in P-wave duration. A eletrocardiografia (ECG é um exame essencial para avaliação do paciente com doença cardíaca, sendo de grande importância para o diagnóstico das arritmias. O exame pode determinar a origem do ritmo e a freqüência de despolarização do coração, fornecendo informações do estado clínico do miocárdio, uma vez que as deflexões P-QRS-T do traçado podem ser alteradas por uma enfermidade ou fator fisiológico. Com o avanço da informática, a eletrocardiografia computadorizada tem sido utilizada na medicina humana e veterinária como método de

  4. Impaired protamination and sperm DNA damage in a Nellore bull with high percentages of morphological sperm defects in comparison to normospermic bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Carreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The routine semen evaluation assessing sperm concentration, motility and morphology, does not identify subtle defects in sperm chromatin architecture. Bulls appear to have stable chromatin, with low levels of DNA fragmentation. However, the nature of fragmentation and its impact on fertility remain unclear and there are no detailed reports characterizing the DNA organization and damage in this species. The intensive genetic selection, the use of artificial insemination and in vitro embryo production associated to the cryopreservation process can contribute to the chromatin damage and highlights the importance of sperm DNA integrity for the success of these technologies. Frozen-thawed semen samples from three ejaculates from a Nellore bull showed high levels of morphological sperm abnormalities (55.8±5.1%, and were selected for complementary tests. Damage of acrosomal (76.9±8.9% and plasma membranes (75.7±9.3% as well as sperm DNA strand breaks (13.8±9.5% and protamination deficiency (3.7±0.6% were significantly higher compared to the values measured in the semen of five Nellore bulls with normospermia (24.3±3.3%; 24.5±6.1%; 0.6±0.5%; 0.4±0.6% for acrosome, plasma membrane, DNA breaks and protamine deficiency, respectively (P<0.05. Motility and percentage of spermatozoa with low mitochondrial potential showed no differences between groups. This study shows how routine semen analyses (in this case morphology may point to the length and complexity of sperm cell damage emphasizing the importance of sperm function testing.

  5. Effect of different compound feeds on the fatty acid composition and other quality indicators in the meat of Lithuanian black-and-white bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrukonienė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    Aim and objectives – To evaluate the effect of compound feed on the milk and dairy Black-and white bulls grawing and beef quality, fatty acids composition in the meat and liver, to evaluate meat sensory and textere characteristics. Objectives of the study: 1. to analyze the chemical composition of rapeseed, linseed and sunflower cakes and accordingly that of compound feeds and to determine the content and ratio of fatty acids; 2. to evaluate the growth rate of bulls and carry out contro...

  6. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma Panhandle, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C.; Madden, Andrew S.; Carter, Brian J.; Simms, Alexander R.; Swindle, Andrew L.; Alexander, Hanna M.; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-01

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  7. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma panhandle, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C; Madden, Andrew S; Carter, Brian J; Simms, Alexander R; Swindle, Andrew L; Alexander, Hanna M; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-04

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  8. Effect of rib fat thickness on the quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Dallantonia,Erick Escobar; Lage,Josiane Fonseca; Simonetti,Laís Regina; Vito,Elias San; Delevatti,Lutti Maneck; Berchielli,Telma Teresinha

    2015-01-01

    This trial aimed to evaluate the quality of aged beef from Nellore young bulls under two yield grade (YG). Fourteen animals with approximately 450 ± 30 kg body weight were evaluated for backfat thickness (BFT) at the beginning of the experimental period. Seven animals had BFT of 0-3 mm and seven animals, 3.1-6 mm. Two groups were formed at the end of the experiment: animals finished with 3-6 mm BFT (seven animals) and animals finished with 6.1 to 10 mm BFT (seven animals). Every 28 days, we e...

  9. EVALUATION OF PILOT TREATMENT EFFLUENTS FROM SUMMITVILLE MINE, CO, USING CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA, FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS), AND RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) TOXICITY TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated a remediation technology at the Summitville Mine Superfund site in southern Colorado. The technology evaluated was a successive alkalinity producing system ...

  10. Fall and winter survival of brook trout and brown trout in a north-central Pennsylvania watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweka, John A.; Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Stream-dwelling salmonids that spawn in the fall generally experience their lowest survival during the fall and winter due to behavioral changes associated with spawning and energetic deficiencies during this time of year. We used data from Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta implanted with radio transmitters in tributaries of the Hunts Run watershed of north-central Pennsylvania to estimate survival from the fall into the winter seasons (September 2012–February 2013). We examined the effects that individual-level covariates (trout species, size, and movement rates) and stream-level covariates (individual stream and cumulative drainage area of a stream) have on survival. Brook Trout experienced significantly lower survival than Brown Trout, especially in the early fall during their peak spawning period. Besides a significant species effect, none of the other covariates examined influenced survival for either species. A difference in life history between these species, with Brook Trout having a shorter life expectancy than Brown Trout, is likely the primary reason for the lower survival of Brook Trout. However, Brook Trout also spawn earlier in the fall than Brown Trout and low flows during Brook Trout spawning may have resulted in a greater risk of predation for Brook Trout compared with Brown Trout, thereby also contributing to the observed differences in survival between these species. Our estimates of survival can aid parameterization of future population models for Brook Trout and Brown Trout through the spawning season and into winter.

  11. Improving Libido and Sperm Quality of Bali Bulls by Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Syarifuddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (Moringa leaves contain high levels of nutrition that can be utilized as a feed supplement to increase libido and semen quality. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Moringa leaves supplementation on libido and sperm quality of Bali bulls. This study used two-sample t-test on four Bali bulls were kept under individual pens for two periods of eight weeks. During the first period (control, the experimental Bali bulls were fed concentrates (1% of body weight and rice straw ad libitum. During the second period, the experimental Bali bulls were fed similar to the first period with an additional of Moringa leaves 15% of the weight of the concentrate (treatments. Libido and sperm quality were measured twice a week. Plasma samples were taken three times a day (06:00, 14:00, and 22:00h on the last day of each period. Plasma testosterone concentrations were analyzed by using ELISA techniques. Variables measured were compared using paired student's t-test. Supplementation of Moringa leaves increased testosterone levels (P<0.05 (4.57 vs 4.79, 0.45 vs 4.78, and 2.35 vs 5.63 ng/mL, respectively during 06.00; 14.00; and 22.00h, increased libido (P<0.05 (7.20±1.49 vs 3.49±0.40 min, and increased both the total motility (P<0.05 (63.99±3.37% vs 84.96±3.09% and the progressive motility (P<0.05 (52.77±1.76% vs 67.03±3.74% of sperm. Supplementation of Moringa leaves also increased (P<0.05 the velocity and the amplitude and decreased (P<0.05 the linearity of sperm. It can be concluded that the supplementation of Moringa leaves could increase plasma testosterone concentrations, libido, and sperm motility of Bali bulls.

  12. Relationship of nonreturn rates of dairy bulls to binding affinity of heparin to sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.L.; Ax, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of the glycosaminoglycan [ 3 H] heparin to bull spermatozoa was compared with nonreturn rates of dairy bulls. Semen samples from five bulls above and five below an average 71% nonreturn rate were used. Samples consisted of first and second ejaculates on a single day collected 1 d/wk for up to 5 consecutive wk. Saturation binding assays using [ 3 H] heparin were performed to quantitate the binding characteristics of each sample. Scatchard plot analyses indicated a significant difference in the binding affinity for [ 3 H] heparin between bulls of high and low fertility. Dissociation constants were 69.0 and 119.3 pmol for bulls of high and low fertility, respectively. In contrast, the number of binding sites for [ 3 H] heparin did not differ significantly among bulls. Differences in binding affinity of [ 3 H] heparin to bull sperm might be used to predict relative fertility of dairy bulls

  13. Animal Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim) Slaughtered at 16 and 22 Months Old, and Three Different Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Eiras, Carlos Emanuel; Fugita, Carlos Alberto; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Pinto, Adriana Aparecida; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-05-01

    Current study aimed to evaluate the performance of bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim) slaughtered at two ages and three different weights. One hundred and thirteen bulls were divided into two slaughter ages (16 and 22 months) and three different slaughter weights (light, 422 kg; medium, 470 kg; and heavy, 550 kg). The body weight was higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Daily gain, carcass weight and dressing were higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Feed intake was higher for bulls slaughtered at 22 months although feed efficiency was better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Carcass characteristics were better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. The percentages of muscle, fat and bone and meat characteristics were similar between two slaughter ages. Feed intake and animal performance was lower for lighter animals. Feed conversion and carcass dressing were similar in the three slaughter weights. Muscle percentage was higher for heavier animals but fat and bone percentages were lower. Slaughter weight had no effect on meat characteristics.

  14. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ceola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta. Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region, for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90 are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  15. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  16. Relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, certain routine sperm characteristics and testosterone in breeding Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to examine the relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, seminal quality, and testosterone concentration in Murrah buffalo bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 breeding Murrah buffalo bulls (either progeny tested or under progeny testing program were randomly selected from two government bull farms in Punjab. None of the bulls selected for this study had any preceding physical abnormality. A field fertility trial was conducted to determine the first service conception rate (FSCR. The number of females inseminated per bull semen was 10. All the bulls were inspected for structural soundness, measurement of scrotal circumference, testicular biometry, and internal pelvic area (IPA. Frozen-thawed semen was evaluated for total motility, progressive motility, viability, concentration, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST. Testosterone was estimated in blood plasma, seminal plasma as well as frozen-thawed semen extracts for establishing relationship. Results: The FSCR was 48% in the bulls having a scrotal circumference of ≥44 cm, although, there was no significant correlation between FSCR and scrotal circumference. Similarly, no consistent relationship existed between sperm concentration and scrotal circumference. A positive correlation was observed between IPA and FSCR (r=0.294. Of the six post-thaw seminal components (total motility, progressive motility, viability, HOST (%, total abnormality and concentration only total motility had a high significant (p<0.01 correlation with FSCR (r=0.694. Varied correlations existed between other seminal parameters and fertility. Using a simple regression analysis, the post-thaw motility, IPA, prepuce length and testosterone (independent variables combined to explain approximately 62% of the variation in the FSCR (dependent variable. Conclusion: The present study indicated that despite low to high correlations between seminal

  17. Evaluation of the immune response in rainbow trout fry, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), after waterborne exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum and/or hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The immune response in rainbow trout fry against Flavobacterium psychrophilum was elucidated using an immersion-based challenge with or without prior exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Samples were taken from the head kidney 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after immersion, and the regulation of several...

  18. Seasonal Variations in Relative Weight of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Rainbow Trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Midas, Madeline; Williams, Asia; Cooper, Cindy; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest body of water in Colorado and is located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 7520 feet. Blue Mesa Reservoir contains recreationally important populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). A management challenge in recent years has been the overpopulation of lake trout, which has led to a steep decline in abundance of kokan...

  19. Diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms for identifying westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, S T; Novak, B J; Drinan, D P; Jennings, R deM; Vu, N V

    2011-03-01

    We describe 12 diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for use in species identification among rainbow and cutthroat trout: five of these loci have alleles unique to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), three unique to westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) and four unique to Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri). These diagnostic assays were identified using a total of 489 individuals from 26 populations and five fish hatchery strains. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Outlining adequate protocols for Lidia bull epididymal storage and sperm cryopreservation: use of glycerol, dimethylformamide and N-acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Matilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lidia bovine breed is an important hallmark of the Spanish cattle industry. Bulls are selected based upon aggressiveness and epididymal sperm cryopreservation is the way to obtain and store their genetics. There are not specifically designed protocols yet to perform Lidia bull sperm cryopreservation. The present study aimed to determine if a tris-fructose-citrate-egg yolk (20% v/v; TFY extender supplemented with 7% glycerol (TFY1 or 3.5% glycerol plus 3.5% dimethylformamide (DMF; TFY2 are suitable media for cryopreservation of epididymal Lidia bull sperm. Moreover, the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a potent antioxidant, was evaluated. The epididymis were stored at 4°C for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, and both freezing media were tested as such or supplemented with 1 or 2.5 mM of NAC. Our data demonstrated that post-thaw viability was well maintained (TFY1: 50.8% ± 1.9 at 24 h and 52.4% ± 0.8 at 96 h and TFY2: 52.6% ± 1.6 at 24 h and 56.1% ± 1.8 at 96 h; mean % ± SEM; p>0.05 as also were total and progressive sperm motility, high mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, DNA status and acrosomal intactness of Lidia bull sperm up to 96 h of epididymal storage, all extender variations being similar (p>0.05. In conclusion, the use of TFY medium supplemented either with 7% glycerol alone or the combination of 3.5% glycerol and 3.5% DMF were equally safe choices for epididymal Lidia bull sperm cryopreservation, and NAC addition did not significantly improve sperm post-thaw quality.

  1. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes p...

  2. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Christopher J. [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Stevens, Jamie R. [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Hogstrand, Christer [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Bury, Nicolas R., E-mail: nic.bury@kcl.ac.uk [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: > River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. > Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). > Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. > The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  3. Movement patterns, habitat use, and survival of Lahontan cutthroat trout in the Truckee River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Alexander V.; Peacock, Mary M.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, hybridization, and competition with nonnative salmonids are viewed as major threats to Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi. Understanding Lahontan cutthroat trout behavior and survival is a necessary step in the reintroduction and establishment of naturally reproducing populations of Lahontan cutthroat trout. We used weekly radiotelemetry monitoring to examine movement patterns, habitat use, and apparent survival of 42 hatchery-reared Lahontan cutthroat trout in a 16.5-km stretch of the Truckee River, Nevada, across three reaches separated by barriers to upstream movement. We found differences in total movement distances and home range sizes of fish in different reaches within our study area. Fish used pool habitats more than fast water habitats in all reaches. Time of year, stream temperature, and fish standard length covariates had the strongest relationship with apparent survival. Monthly apparent survival was lowest in January, which coincided with the lowest flows and temperatures during the study period. Our results verify the mobility of Lahontan cutthroat trout and indicate that conditions during winter may limit the survival and reintroduction success in the portions of the Truckee River evaluated in this study.

  4. Toxicokinetics of PFOS in rainbow trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),...

  5. An evaluation of a diagnostic test to identify the sex of farmed rainbow trout, using sex-specific molecular markers Evaluación de un test diagnóstico para identificar el sexo en truchas arcoíris por medio de marcadores moleculares específicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In trout farming males exhibits lower growth rate and precocious sexual maturation in contrast to females. Since these traits are detrimental for intensive production, all females populations are most appreciated by fish farmers. Molecular markers sex-specific have been developed for rainbow trout that can be useful to diagnose the phenotypic sex of individuals. We evaluated the use of two SCAR markers (OmyP9 & Omy163, which show polymorphisms between males and females in rainbow trout as a diagnostic test for sexing farmed trout. Adult trout (n = 131 were genotyped to assess the association of the SCAR markers with phenotypic sex. To evaluate the correct performance of the SCAR marker in sex diagnosis, each marker and both were analyzed to estimate its specificity (the proportion of males that are correctly identified, sensitivity (the proportion of females that are correctly identified and predictive value (the probability of the correct positive or negative female identification. Significant associations with phenotypic sex of both SCAR markers with sex were found. The sensitivity and predictive (positive and negative indexes show higher values when both SCAR markers were considered (95.7, 77.4 and 94.4%, respectively. For joined SCAR markers a likelihood ratio (LR+ of 3.43 was obtained indicating its utility to establish a diagnostic test for sexing trout by use of marker-based analysis.En el cultivo de truchas los individuos del sexo masculino presentan menor tasa de crecimiento y maduración sexual precoz, características que no presentan las hembras. Debido a estos rasgos indeseables para el cultivo intensivo, el uso de poblaciones todo hembra es una práctica habitual en el cultivo de truchas. Para trucha arcoíris se han desarrollado marcadores moleculares sexo específico que pueden utilizarse en el diagnóstico temprano del sexo, en condiciones de cultivo. Se evaluó la aplicación de dos marcadores SCAR (OmyP9 y Omy163, que muestran

  6. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  7. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdelKhalek, A E; AboulEla, M B; Soheir, A Fawzy; Dandooush E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37degree C) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as well as sperm cell concentration pre-and post-filtration. Results show that among all physical semen characteristics, only ejaculate semen volume was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Holstein than buffalo bulls, but motility, livability, abnormality, sperm concentration and sperm with intact acrosome did not differ between both species. As a result of filtration, sperm motility and livability increased (P<0.05) by 16.4 and 11.8% in Holstein and by 16.9 and 10.1% in buffalo semen, respectively. Sperm abnormality and concentration reduced (P<0.05) by 2.6 and 3.3% in Holstein and by 2.4 and 3.5% in buffalo semen, respectively. Improvements of live sperm and the reduction in sperm concentration (proportional to the pre-filtration value) were better (P<0.05) in Holstein than buffalo semen (15.5% and %52.4 vs. 13.2 and -49.3%, respectively). Improvement of motility and abnormality did not differ in Holstein (25.4 and %57.8) and buffalo semen (26.6 and ,(%54.5respectively. The present results indicate that using sephadex column filter technique has beneficial effects on improving quality of spermatozoa in both species. (author)

  9. Bulls and bears: the stock market and clinical pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2009-09-01

    To analyse the level of funded research in clinical pathology in a recent bear and bull market to act as a predictor for future funding during the current global financial crisis. The level of funding for research published in three clinical pathology journals in 2005 and 2008 to coincide with the bear market of March 2000 to October 2002 and with the subsequent bull market to October 2007 was determined using a Medline query. Other parameters examined were the type of article, affiliation of the first author and the pathology subspecialty. Approximately 30% of publications were funded and did not differ between the 2 years studied. Original research papers were more likely to be funded than case reports or reviews. Research from university departments of pathology was more likely to be funded than from hospital pathology departments but there were more publications from hospital pathology departments. The proportion of research in the different subspecialties that was funded did not differ significantly between each other and between 2005 and 2008. Based on data from the previous bear market, which was the longest and deepest of the post 1950 era, and the subsequent bull market, which led to the all-time high in the Dow Jones Industrial Index, funding for clinical pathology research does not seem to be affected by bull or bear markets.

  10. Germ cell transplantation in an azoospermic Klinefelter bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerg, Hannes; Janett, Fredi; Schlatt, Stefan; Mueller, Simone; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Suwattana, Duangsmorn; Asai, Mika; Stranzinger, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Germ cell transplantation is a technique that transfers donor testicular cells into recipient testes. A population of germ cells can colonize the recipient testis, initiate spermatogenesis, and produce sperm capable of fertilization. In the present study, a nonmosaic Klinefelter bull was used as a germ cell recipient. The donor cell suspension was introduced into the rete testis using ultrasound-guided puncture. A pulsatile administration of GnRH was performed to stimulate spermatogenesis. The molecular approach to detect donor cells was done by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction with allele discrimination based on a genetic mutation between donor and recipient. Therefore, a known genetic mutation, associated with coat-color phenotype, was used to calculate the ratio of donor to recipient cells in the biopsy specimens and ejaculates for 10 mo. After slaughtering, meiotic preparations were performed. The injected germ cells did not undergo spermatogenesis. Six months after germ cell transplantation, the donor cells were rejected, which indicates that the donor cells could not incorporate in the testis. The hormone stimulation showed that the testosterone-producing Leydig cells were functionally intact. Despite subfertility therapy, neither the recipient nor the donor cells underwent spermatogenesis. Therefore, nonmosaic Klinefelter bulls are not suitable as germ cell recipients. Future germ cell recipients in cattle could be mosaic Klinefelters, interspecies hybrids, bulls with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, or bulls with disrupted germ cell migration caused by RNA interference.

  11. Record Litter Size for the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas (Muller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the morning of 25 September 2013, a large female bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, was landed in Port Victoria, Seychelles. It had been caught on an anchored long line set the previous evening, within 100 m of the main fishing quay. The female exhibited an unusually large girth for this heavy-set species. The shark ...

  12. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  13. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  14. Sensory characteristics and tenderness of meat from Ankole bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... Eating-quality attributes of meat from Ankole cattle and their Friesian and Boran crossbreds finished in different feeding ... palatable than steaks from supplemented and feedlot finished bulls. ... Phosphorus (g/kg DM). 4.2 ± 0.4.

  15. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  16. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  17. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Oliveira J.M.B., Batista Filho A.F.B., Borges J. de M., Soares L.B.F., Ortega-Mora L.M., Brandespim D.F., Mota R.A. & Pinheiro Júnior J.W. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. [Tritrichomonas foetus em touros no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:449-453, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sanidade e Reprodução de Ruminantes. Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Bom Pastor s/n, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, 55296-901, Brazil. E-mail: juniormariobaltazar@gmail.com The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 105 samples of preputial smegma were collected from bulls in service belonging to different herds (n=63 and slaughterhouses (n=42. Genomic DNA extraction from collected samples was carried out to identify the agent in the samples and they were also submitted to the polymerase chain reaction. A frequency of 6.6% (2.7 - 13.2%; C.I. 95% was found for T. foetus. None of the slaughterhouse samples were positive. With regards to the number of foci, 21.8% (7/32 of the properties contained animals that were positive for T. foetus. In conclusion, T. foetus infection occurred in bulls in this way, this agent should be included in the diagnosis in animal health control programs. Therefore, as the removal of infected bulls and their replacement by younger animals, should be implemented in order to avoid the dissemination of the agent in herds.

  18. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  19. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  20. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...... suggested that initiation of upstream migration was positively correlated with stream discharge. Individual sea trout performed repeated upstream migration 'initiations' (visits) to areas where they were detected by the automatic listening stations. The first and subsequent upstream migration 'initiations...

  1. Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA and overall suitability index (OSI of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation.

  2. Testicular echotexture and seminal quality of young Montana Tropical Compound bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Oliveira Pinho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between testicular echotexture and seminal quality, in addition to evaluate the testicular parenchyma echogenicity pattern in young Montana bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Fifty-two young Montana Tropical Compound bulls from 22 to 33 months of age were used. The animals were previously evaluated by breeding soundness evaluation and thereafter divided into two groups of breeding soundness classes: 1 = 16 animals sound for breeding; 2 = 36 animals unsound for breeding by means of physical and morphological analysis of semen. All animals underwent an ultrasound examination of the testes, and the images were analyzed with the software "Image J". ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, to determine the effect of groups in relation to testicular measurements, physical and morphological semen features and ultrasound pixel analysis. There was a difference between scrotal circumference between classes, with 39.7±2.1 cm and 37.3±3.1 cm for sound and unsound animals, respectively. Regarding testicular echotexture, mean values for the pixel intensity were 95.7 and 94.0 for sound and unsound animals for breeding, respectively, with no difference between the classes. None of the studied parameters were correlated with each other, indicating that the quantification of the pixel intensity in testicular echotexture was not effective in determining the degree of sexual maturity in Montana Tropical Compound bulls.

  3. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  4. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  5. Biology and management of threatened and endangered western trouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Behnke; Mark Zarn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses taxonomy, reasons for decline, life history and ecology, and suggestions for preservation and management of six closely related trouts native to western North America: Colorado River cutthroat, Salmo clarki pleuriticus; greenback trout, S. c. stomias; Lahontan cutthroat, S. c. henshawi; Paiute trout,...

  6. Instream cover and shade mediate avian predation on trout in semi-natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; David L. G. Noakes

    2015-01-01

    Piscivory by birds can be important, particularly on fish in small streams and during seasonal low flows when available cover from predators can be limited. We conducted an experiment at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to evaluate size-selective survival of Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Figure 8; Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) in replicated semi-...

  7. Generation-scale movement patterns of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) in a stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2011-01-01

    Movements by stream fishes have long been the subject of study and controversy. Although much discussion has focused on what proportion of fish adopt mobility within particular life stages, a larger issue involves the lifetime movements of individuals. I evaluated movements of different sizes and ages of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus...

  8. THE ESTIMATION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF BALI BULLS USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sri Rachma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to collect information on Bali bulls carcass traits estimation as one of theselection criteria using ultrasound. Ultrasonic estimation of carcass traits such as M. longissimusthoracis area (MLTA, Subcutaneous Fat Thickness (SFT, Inter Muscular Fat Thickness (IMFT, RibThickness (RT and Beef Marbling Score (BMS were obtained from 92 head of bulls at Barru districtand 74 head of bulls at Bone district, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The carcass traits estimation werescanned between the 6th - 7th ribs using ultrasound. The ultrasound is made of Fujihira Super-Eye FHK,Co. Meat. Ltd. with B-Mode and electronic linear probe, which used frequency of 2 MHz. The carcasstraits estimation photos were printed by video-copy machine (Aloka Co. Ltd., SSZ-300S. The dataobtained were analyzed using basic statistic and was discussed descriptively. The averages of all carcasstraits estimation of the Bali bull at Bone district at 12, 18 and 24 months of ages were higher than thoseat Barru district. The MLTA estimation of Bali bulls at Bone and Barru districts were 18.0 cm2, 24.3cm2, 23.8 cm2 Vs 16.6 cm2, 18.5 cm2, 23.3 cm2, respectively; the BMS estimated were 0.14, 0.24 and0.20 Vs 0.00, 0.15 and 0.17, respectively; the SFT estimation were 0.26 mm, 0.33 mm, 0.34 mm Vs0.28 mm, 0.26 mm, 0.34 mm, respectively; the IMFT estimation were 1.13 mm, 1.24 mm, 1.31 mm Vs0.97 mm, 1.06 mm, 1.14 mm, respectively; the RT estimation were 2.04 mm, 2.52 mm, 2.72 mm Vs1.19 mm, 2.12 mm, 2.30 mm, respectively. The growth of MLTA, SFT, IMFT, RT and BMS of thebulls of Bali cattle at the 12, 18 and 24 months of age were not reaching the optimally performances,yet. Therefore the selection process of the bulls of Bali cattle to be candidate of sire based on theestimation of carcass traits should be done after since 4 years of age.

  9. Microsomal biotransformation of chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): mechanistic insights into interspecific differences in toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout often serve as a surrogate species evaluating xenobiotic toxicity in cold-water species including other salmonids of the same genus, which are listed as threatened or endangered. Biotransformation tends to show species-specific patterns that influence susceptibility to xenobiotic toxicity, particularly organophoshpate insecticides (OPs). To evaluate the contribution of biotransformation in the mechanism of toxicity of three organophosphate (phosphorothionate) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion, microsomal bioactivation and detoxification pathways were measured in gills, liver and olfactory tissues in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Consistent with species differences in acute toxicity, significantly higher chlorpyrifos bioactivation was found in liver microsomes of rainbow trout (up to 2-fold) when compared with coho salmon. Although bioactivation to the oxon was observed, the catalytic efficiency towards chlorpyrifos dearylation (detoxification) was significantly higher in liver for both species (1.82 and 0.79 for trout and salmon, respectively) when compared to desulfuration (bioactivation). Bioactivation of parathion to paraoxon was significantly higher (up to 2.2-fold) than detoxification to p-nitrophenol in all tissues of both species with rates of conversion in rainbow trout, again significantly higher than coho salmon. Production of fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxides from fenthion was detected only in liver and gills of both species with activities in rainbow trout significantly higher than coho salmon. NADPH-Dependent hydrolysis of fenthion was observed in all tissues, and was the only activity detected in olfactory tissues. These results indicate rainbow trout are more sensitive than coho salmon to the acute toxicity of OP pesticides because trout have higher catalytic rates of oxon formation. Thus, rainbow trout may serve as a conservative surrogate

  10. Local Variability Mediates Vulnerability of Trout Populations to Land Use and Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Penaluna

    Full Text Available Land use and climate change occur simultaneously around the globe. Fully understanding their separate and combined effects requires a mechanistic understanding at the local scale where their effects are ultimately realized. Here we applied an individual-based model of fish population dynamics to evaluate the role of local stream variability in modifying responses of Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii to scenarios simulating identical changes in temperature and stream flows linked to forest harvest, climate change, and their combined effects over six decades. We parameterized the model for four neighboring streams located in a forested headwater catchment in northwestern Oregon, USA with multi-year, daily measurements of stream temperature, flow, and turbidity (2007-2011, and field measurements of both instream habitat structure and three years of annual trout population estimates. Model simulations revealed that variability in habitat conditions among streams (depth, available habitat mediated the effects of forest harvest and climate change. Net effects for most simulated trout responses were different from or less than the sum of their separate scenarios. In some cases, forest harvest countered the effects of climate change through increased summer flow. Climate change most strongly influenced trout (earlier fry emergence, reductions in biomass of older trout, increased biomass of young-of-year, but these changes did not consistently translate into reductions in biomass over time. Forest harvest, in contrast, produced fewer and less consistent responses in trout. Earlier fry emergence driven by climate change was the most consistent simulated response, whereas survival, growth, and biomass were inconsistent. Overall our findings indicate a host of local processes can strongly influence how populations respond to broad scale effects of land use and climate change.

  11. Effect of Vitamin E and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cryopreserved Sperm Quality in Bos taurus Bulls Under Testicular Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Rocha, Carolina C; Brito, Maíra M; Perez, Eduardo G A; Tsunoda, Roberta H; Góes, Paola A A; Mendes, Camilla M; Assumpção, Mayra E O A; Barnabe, Valquiria H; Nichi, Marcilio

    2018-04-03

    Taurine bulls are highly susceptible to heat stress, leading to increased oxidative stress (OS) and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation can be an alternative to improve semen quality, which also results in more sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Moreover, this deleterious effect can be exacerbated in animals affected by heat stress. Vitamin E is a key antioxidant that counteracts lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane caused by OS. Thus, combining PUFAs with vitamin E may improve sperm quality. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of interaction between PUFAs and vitamin E on sperm quality in Bos taurus bulls under testicular heat stress. Sixteen taurine bulls under testicular heat stress were randomly assigned in four groups: Control, Vitamin E, PUFA, and PUFA + Vitamin E. All groups lasted for 60 days. Samples were cryopreserved/thawed and analyzed for motility variables (CASA), membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, susceptibility to oxidative stress, DNA integrity, and sperm-binding capacity. Results showed that vitamin E had a beneficial effect on some sperm characteristics, whereas PUFA supplementation had an adverse effect when the two treatments were evaluated separately. Finally, the association between PUFAs and vitamin E did not improve sperm quality.

  12. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  14. The combination of kinetic and flow cytometric semen parameters as a tool to predict fertility in cryopreserved bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, T M; Turri, F; Manes, S; Cassinelli, C; Pizzi, F

    2017-11-01

    Within recent years, there has been growing interest in the prediction of bull fertility through in vitro assessment of semen quality. A model for fertility prediction based on early evaluation of semen quality parameters, to exclude sires with potentially low fertility from breeding programs, would therefore be useful. The aim of the present study was to identify the most suitable parameters that would provide reliable prediction of fertility. Frozen semen from 18 Italian Holstein-Friesian proven bulls was analyzed using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (motility and kinetic parameters) and flow cytometry (FCM) (viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, lipid peroxidation, plasma membrane stability and DNA integrity). Bulls were divided into two groups (low and high fertility) based on the estimated relative conception rate (ERCR). Significant differences were found between fertility groups for total motility, active cells, straightness, linearity, viability and percentage of DNA fragmented sperm. Correlations were observed between ERCR and some kinetic parameters, and membrane instability and some DNA integrity indicators. In order to define a model with high relation between semen quality parameters and ERCR, backward stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied. Thus, we obtained a prediction model that explained almost half (R 2=0.47, P<0.05) of the variation in the conception rate and included nine variables: five kinetic parameters measured by CASA (total motility, active cells, beat cross frequency, curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement) and four parameters related to DNA integrity evaluated by FCM (degree of chromatin structure abnormality Alpha-T, extent of chromatin structure abnormality (Alpha-T standard deviation), percentage of DNA fragmented sperm and percentage of sperm with high green fluorescence representative of immature cells). A significant relationship (R 2=0.84, P<0.05) was observed between

  15. Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01 positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding

  16. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...

  17. Avaliação do consumo alimentar residual em touros jovens da raça Nelore Mocho em prova de desempenho animal - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.6464 Evaluation of residual feed intake in young bulls of the Polled Nellore breed in a performance test - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.6464

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou as características: idade, peso, ganho de peso diário (GPD, ingestão de matéria seca (IMS, conversão alimentar (CA, eficiência alimentar (EA e consumo alimentar residual (CAR de tourinhos da raça Nelore Mocho em prova de desempenho animal (PDA. Foram utilizados 30 animais, inteiros, com idade inicial de 243,6±30,4 dias. Alimentos e sobras individuais foram quantificados diariamente. A classificação baseou-se no índice de prova de desempenho animal (IPDA. Para CAR não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre a média dos grupos. As variáveis peso e GPD não foram correlacionadas com CAR. Houve alta correlação entre CAR e CA. EA e CA apresentaram correlação com CAR. O IPDA apresentou alta correlação com a IMS (r = 0,75. Comparado o CAR médio entre os tourinhos, observou-se que animais menos eficientes apresentaram IMS 27,7% superior aos animais mais eficientes. A variável IPDA não identificou os mais eficientes na utilização de alimentos, pois houve baixas correlações com CA, EA e CAR. Pode-se concluir que a seleção de tourinhos pelo IPDA elege os que ganham mais peso, porém estes apresentam maior IMS. É possível aprimorar a metodologia de seleção com a inclusão do CAR.This study evaluated the characteristics: age, weight, daily weight gain (DWG, dry matter intake (DMI, feed conversion (FC, feed efficiency (FE and residual feed intake (RFI of young bulls of the Polled Nellore breed in a performance test. Thirty bulls, with initial age of 243.6±30.4 days were used. Dry Matter Intake (DMI was quantified daily for each animal. The animals were classified by the performance test index (PTI. RFI did not show differences (p > 0.05 among the averages of the groups. The variables weight and DWG were not correlated with RFI. There was high correlation between RFI and FC. FE and FC showed correlation with RFI. The PTI showed high correlation with DMI (r = 0.75. When comparing mean RFI among the bulls, it was

  18. Utilization of dietary urea in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S J; Dabrowski, K R; Dabrowska, H; Olah, E; Luquet, P

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the potential utilization of dietary urea by rainbow trout. A control diet and two diets supplemented with 1 and 3% of urea were fed to fish. Postprandial levels of urea and ammonia in blood plasma, and postprandial excretion of these metabolites were followed during 24 h. Apparent digestibility of urea in rainbow trout was very high (greater than 98%). Maximum values of urea levels in plasma were reached 6 h (32.3 +/- 10.2 micrograms/ml) after a meal in the control fish and respectively 6 h (83.4 +/- 18.4 micrograms/ml) and 8 h (250.3 +/- 96.1 micrograms/ml) after a meal in trout fed 1 and 3% urea diets. Peaks of urea excretion rates appeared 7-9 h after meal, coinciding with the highest circulating urea concentration. Total daily urea excretion amounted to 5.53, 10.43 and 33.80 mg urea N/100 mg N intake in trout fed the control, 1 and 3% urea diets, respectively. It is concluded that the dietary urea is readily absorbed in the digestive tract of trout but is totally excreted thus leading to no beneficial effect on nitrogen balance. This excretion of urea also takes place passively without any increase in energy demands.

  19. The trout fishery in Shenandoah National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    Populations of brook trout in streams of Shenandoah National Park were reduced drastically early in the past decade by a succession of unusually severe droughts and floods. The drying of stream beds, predation, and scouring were principal factors in the loss of fish. The park was closed to fishing in 1954 and 1955 to protect survivors. The small numbers of survivors quickly repopulated the streams after drought conditions abated. The stocking of hatchery-reared fingerling trout in selected waters failed to augment the recovery of populations. Survival and growth of young, wild trout were especially good. Their redistribution through miles of previously dry streams was rapid. The park was opened again to fishing in 1956 under regulations which restrict the take but afford an increase in sporting opportunity. Two streams were placed under fishing-for-fun-only regulations in 1961.The welfare of the trout populations is dependent mostly on the weather cycle . Fish may be abundant in wet years but very scarc e in dry ones. Thus, the stream must be managed a s marginal for trout.

  20. Symmetry breaking in a bull and bear financial market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Iryna; Tramontana, Fabio; Westerhoff, Frank; Avrutin, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigate bifurcation structures in the parameter space of a one-dimensional piecewise linear map with two discontinuity points. This map describes endogenous bull and bear market dynamics arising from a simple asset-pricing model. An important feature of our model is that some speculators only enter the market if the price is sufficiently distant to its fundamental value. Our analysis starts with the investigation of a particular case in which the map is symmetric with respect to the origin, associated with equal market entry thresholds in the bull and bear market. We then generalize our analysis by exploring how novel bifurcation structures may emerge when the map’s symmetry is broken.

  1. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  2. Inquisitorial bulls : Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Duarte Rust

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present two important medieval documents, the decretals Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199, in a bilingual edition, Latin-Portuguese. Usually described as "the founding texts of Inquisition", these bulls record the political scene at the end of the 12th century. Unpublished in Portuguese, the translation comes to public with a brief introductory text and some notes for historical information.

  3. Genetic variability of muscle biological characteristics of young limousin bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Renand, Gilles; Jurie, Catherine; Robelin, Jacques; Picard, Brigitte; Geay, Y.; Menissier, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Genetic parameters of 4 muscle biological characteristics (protein to DNA ratio (Pro/DNA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity and the proportion of type I myosin heavy chains (MHC I)), in the Semitendinosus and the Longissimus thoracis, were estimated simultaneously with average daily gain (ADG), 480-d final weight (FW), carcass lean and fat contents (CL% and CF% respectively) in a sample of young Limousin bulls tested in station. The data came f...

  4. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-11-25

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout.

  5. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout. PMID:24270019

  6. Status and conservation of interior Redband Trout in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Gunckel, Stephanie L; Writer, Benjamin J; Shepard, Bradley B.; May, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    predict the impacts of climate on populations, and (3) continuing to use this database to evaluate the status of Redband Trout and inform conservation efforts through time.

  7. The Influence of Fisheries Management on the Brown Trout Population in Moravice River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chalupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, an ichthyological investigation with focus on the population of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario in Moravice River above Slezská Harta dam reservoir in 6 localities of two salmonid fisheries was conducted (3 locations in fishery Moravice 7 and 3 locations in fishery Moravice 8. Ichthyological investigation in 2013 found abundance of brown trout in fishery Moravice 7 1,621 pcs/ha, in fishery Moravice 8 668 pcs/ha. These results were compared with the results of ichthyological investigations from 2004 (Spurný et al. 2006 and 2012 (unpublished data that were conducted in the same locations of salmonid fisheries of Moravice 7 and Moravice 8. Over 10 years the size structure of brown trout population has changed, which was shown as higher proportion of juvenile fish in size (TL to 15 cm. The average abundance of brown trout with TL up to 15 cm reached in fishery Moravice 7 in 2004 15 pcs/ha (Spurný et al. 2006, in 2013 1,039 pcs/ha, in fishery Moravice 8 in 2004 719 pcs/ha and in 2012 2,234 pcs/ha. Change in size structure of population of brown trout in monitored localities between 2004, 2012 and 2013 was evaluated as statistically significant (d. f. 10; F = 12.8; P < 0.05. Ichthyologic investigations in 2004 (Spurný et al. 2006, 2012 (unpublished data and 2013 determined also abundance of brown trout in fishing size (TL over 25 cm: 54 pcs/ha in 2004 (Spurný et al. 2006, in 2012 (unpublished data 41 pcs/ha, and in 2013 56 pcs/ha. These values were compared with catches of anglers, and according to the results we can say that the fishing pressure had no effect on the abundance of brown trout in fishing size. Abundance of brown trout in salmonid fisheries Moravice 7 and Moravice 8 is probably affected by drought and occurrence of piscivorous predators.

  8. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  9. Protothecal enteritis as a cause of protein-losing enteropathy in a bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterstock, Jason B; Mansell, Joanne L; Roussel, Allen J

    2005-11-01

    Prototheca spp are achlorophyllic saprophytic algae found in wastewater, sewage, agricultural waste, and possibly elsewhere in the environment. Infections with these organisms have been reported in cattle, humans, and dogs; affected cattle commonly develop mastitis. A 5-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated because of a history of diarrhea and weight loss. The history and physical examination and clinicopathologic findings were similar to those associated with granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), which is the most common protein-losing enteropathy of cattle. However, diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis yielded negative results. Biopsy specimens from the ileum, jejunum, and ileocecal lymph node were collected for histologic examination and preparation of tissue impression smears; Prototheca-like organisms were identified. Because of the poor prognosis associated with this infection and the lack of safe and economical therapeutic agents for cattle, the owner decided to euthanatize the bull. Infection with Prototheca organisms was confirmed postmortem. As this case illustrates, protothecosis may be a cause of granulomatous enteritis in cattle.

  10. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  11. Computed tomographic findings and treatment of a bull with pituitary gland abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Malbon, Alexandra; Kochan, Manon; Riond, Barbara; Janett, Fredi; Iten, Cornelia; Dennler, Matthias

    2017-01-13

    In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation revealed 2437 leukocytes/µl and severe pleocytosis. CT examination of the head showed a cavitary lesion consistent with an abscess in the hypophysis. Treatment consisted of gentamicin and flunixin meglumine for 3 days and amoxicillin for 40 days. The neurological signs resolved within 8 days of the start of treatment. The bull was slaughtered 11 months later because of infertility, and a postmortem examination was carried out. Histologically, a mild chronic non suppurative meningoencephalitis restricted to the ventral diencephalon was diagnosed. In addition, there was mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis with mild multifocal fibrosis. This case report stresses the significance of CT in confirming the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in cattle and for localising brain lesions. Treatment of the brain abscess resulted, with respect to the central nervous disorder, in a successful outcome and was encouraging considering that most cases have an unfavourable prognosis.

  12. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  13. The effects of overwinter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A.K.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: (ge)400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  14. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, N.G.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Madsen, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout...... into one of the rivers had little or no impact. At the same time, there were clear indications of remaining indigenous gene pools in the Funen populations. The management implications of these findings are discussed and changes in trout release activity are recommended to avoid further mixing of trout gene...

  15. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  16. Comparative analysis of innate immune responses to Streptococcus phocae strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Soraya; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. This fish pathogen shares subspecies status with Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. The present study compared innate immune system mechanisms in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout when challenged with different S. phocae, including two isolates from Atlantic salmon (LM-08-Sp and LM-13-Sp) and two from seal (ATCC 51973(T) and P23). Streptococcus phocae growth was evaluated in the mucus and serum of both species, with rainbow trout samples evidencing inhibitory effects. Lysozyme activity supported this observation, with significantly higher (p trout serum and mucus as compared to Atlantic salmon. No differences were found in phagocytic capacity between fish species when stimulated with ATCC 51973(T) and P23. Against all S. phocae strains, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed up to two-fold increased bactericidal activity, and rainbow trout demonstrated up to three-fold greater reactive oxygen species production in macrophages. In conclusion, the non-specific humoral and cellular barriers of Atlantic salmon were immunologically insufficient against S. phocae subsp. salmonis, thereby facilitating streptococcosis. Moreover, the more robust response of rainbow trout to S. phocae could not be attributed to any specific component of the innate immune system, but was rather the consequence of a combined response by the evaluated components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The study of myocardial ischemic quality with weighted-subtraction-bull's-eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wuduan; Tian Jiahe; Hou Qingtian

    1993-01-01

    Weighted-Subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis was studied in 33 normal subjects and 58 patients with coronary artery disease after dipyridamole 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging. Two kinds of Bull's-eye were produced: (1) subtract rest from 1.2 times dipyridamole from 1.2 times rest Bull's-eye; (2) subtract dipyridamole Bull's-eye. The results showed that the weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye could clearly displayed the location and puality of ischemic myocardium. And also 74% segments showed so called combined ischemic i.e the blood perfusion reduced, increased and sustained simultaneously after dipyridamole. Therefore weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis had provided a new method for determination of the quality of ischemia

  18. Diagnosis of lumbosacral diskospondylosis in a bucking bull assisted by high-definition thermal and nuclear scintigraphic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Marc; Passler, Thomas; Purohit, Ram C; Pascoe, David; Wolfe, Dwight F

    2017-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated for left hind limb lameness of 2 months' duration. The lameness was first noticed during a rodeo bucking performance, immediately after the bull appeared to land inappropriately on the affected limb. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination findings revealed left hind limb lameness, ataxia, and left-sided epaxial muscle atrophy. Palpation per rectum along the lumbar portion of the vertebral column revealed evidence of exostosis of the ventral aspect. High-definition infrared thermal imaging revealed a pattern of reduced skin temperature in the area of the left lumbar and gluteal regions suggestive of a disruption in the sympathetic control of peripheral blood flow. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed a focal area of increased radioisotope uptake on the left ventrolateral aspect of the L2-3 intervertebral joint. A presumptive diagnosis of ventrolateral vertebral spondylosis resulting in spinal nerve impingement was made. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 200 mg of methylprednisolone was epidurally injected at the site of the lesion, and treatment with polysulfated glycosaminoglycans was initiated (500 mg, IM, every 4 days for 7 treatments, then monthly thereafter). The lameness and ataxia observed in the left hind limb resolved within 1 week after treatment began. Subsequently, the bull was discharged from the hospital and was used successfully for semen collection and live-cover breeding. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of thermography for the bull of this report provided additional insight into neurovascular physiologic function that classical imaging modalities are unable to provide and, when combined with nuclear scintigraphy, aided in identifying the most critical lesion in a complex clinical case.

  19. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24% and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole, for 98 days (77 days of data collection and 21 days of adaptation. The intakes and digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and nutrients were determined. There were no significant interaction effects of the BMB inclusion level and the form of corn used on the performance and digestibility variables. The intakes of DM, crude protein (CP, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF increased with the inclusion of BMB in the diets. However, the inclusion of BMB in the diets decreased the ether extract intake, the NDF apparent digestibility, and the feed efficiency of DM and CP. Dry matter and NDF intakes also increased with the use of ground corn in the diet, which promoted an increase in the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN, digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates, and average daily gain. However, the supply of ground corn reduced the feed efficiency of TDN. The remaining measured variables did not vary with the tested diets. The levels of plasma protein and albumin remained normal, but glucose concentrations were always high, irrespective of the tested diet. The form of corn supplied and the level of BMB inclusion had a significant interaction effect on the levels of triglycerides, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Babassu mesocarp bran can be included up to 41.24% in the diet of confined bulls without a negative effect on the animal weight gain. Corn should be supplied ground because this form improves the performance of crossbred bulls

  20. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  1. Influence of season, age and management on scrotal thermal profile in Murrah bulls using scrotal infrared digital thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Maneesh Kumar; Kataktalware, Mukund Amritrao; Ramesha, Kerekoppa Puttaiah; Pushpadass, Heartwin Amaladhas; Jeyakumar, Sakthivel; Revanasiddu, Deginal; Kour, Reen Jagish; Nath, Sapna; Nagaleekar, Anand Kumar; Nazar, Sayyad

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of non-genetic factors on scrotal thermographic profile viz., proximal pole temperature (PPT °C), mid pole temperature (MPT °C), distal pole temperature (DPT °C) and ocular temperature (OcT) of Murrah ( Bubalus bubalis) breeding bulls. A total of 109 buffalo bulls, maintained at three semen stations (SS), were monitored for scrotal surface and ocular temperatures using infrared thermography twice daily during rainy, winter and summer seasons using an FLIR i5 infrared camera and temperatures were measured. Thermograms were analysed by FLIR QuickReport v.1.2 SP2 software. Statistical analysis revealed that semen station, season, temperature humidity index (THI), housing system and timing of observations had significant ( P 80.88; system and timing of observations had a significant influence on scrotal surface temperature. The monitoring of scrotal surface temperature by infrared thermography was found to be useful in evaluating the effects of thermal stress on physiology and health of buffalo bulls.

  2. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  3. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Fixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.G.; Crawford, W.H.; Stone, W.C.; Frampton, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Salter-Harris type I fractures of the femoral capital physis were repaired in five Holstein bulls with three 7.0 mm cannulated screws placed in lag fashion. Radiographically at months 7 to 10, the fractures were healed and there was periarticular bone production on the femoral necks and the dorsal acetabular rims. Four bulls had normal gaits, and one bull had muscle atrophy and barely detectable lameness

  5. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg......) or migratory populations (44.5-121.9 mg), after accounting for differences in body size. In Jorlandaan, some resident females even had a larger absolute mean egg weight than any of the migratory females found in the stream Resident trout had low absolute fecundity, and our data suggest that resident females...... in Jorlandan produce large eggs at the expense of their fecundity The extremely large relative egg size in resident Jorlandaan females suggests that the production of large offspring enhances fitness, possibly through increased fry survival....

  6. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, Margaret F; Dale, Angie; Heath, Daniel D

    2003-12-01

    The frequency of hybridization between cutthroat (Onchorhynchus clarki clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss irideus) trout from coastal habitats in British Columbia, Canada, was examined in seven populations where the two species are sympatric with no history of rainbow trout stocking and compared with areas where native rainbow trout populations have been supplemented with hatchery fish (three populations). Four nuclear markers were used to identify each species and interspecific hybrids and one mitochondrial marker showed the direction of gene exchange between species. The frequency of hybrids was significantly higher (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001) in river systems where hatchery rainbow trout have been introduced (50.6% hybrids) than in populations where the two species naturally co-occur without supplementation (9.9% hybrids).

  7. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  8. Quick cytogenetic screening of breeding bulls using flow cytometric sperm DNA histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Szabolcs; Polgár, Péter J; Andersson, Magnus; Kovács, András

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the FXCycle PI/RNase kit for routine DNA analyses in order to detect breeding bulls and/or insemination doses carrying cytogenetic aberrations. In a series of experiments we first established basic DNA histogram parameters of cytogenetically healthy breeding bulls by measuring the intraspecific genome size variation of three animals, then we compared the histogram profiles of bulls carrying cytogenetic defects to the baseline values. With the exception of one case the test was able to identify bulls with cytogenetic defects. Therefore, we conclude that the assay could be incorporated into the laboratory routine where flow cytometry is applied for semen quality control.

  9. Temporal clumping of prey and coexistence of unequal interferers: experiments on social forager groups of brown trout feeding on invertebrate drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Mikael; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations have been proposed to enhance the coexistence of competing phenotypes. Evaluations are here presented on the effects of prey density and short-term temporal clumping of prey availability on the relative foraging success of unequal interferers in social forager groups...... of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta feeding on drifting invertebrate prey (frozen chironomids). Groups of three trout with established linear dominance hierarchies (dominant, intermediate and subordinate) were subjected to three different total numbers of prey, combined with three different levels...

  10. A mechanistic assessment of seasonal microhabitat selection by drift-feeding rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a southwestern headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Bradley W.; Huntsman, Brock M.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    The positioning of fishes within a riverscape is dependent on the proximity of complementary habitats. In this study, foraging and non-foraging habitat were quantified monthly over an entire year for a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in an isolated, headwater stream in southcentral New Mexico. The stream follows a seasonal thermal and hydrologic pattern typical for a Southwestern stream and was deemed suitable for re-introduction of the native and close relative, Rio Grande cutthroat trout (O. clarkii virginalis). However, uncertainty associated with limited habitat needed to be resolved if repatriation of the native fish was to be successful. Habitat was evaluated using resource selection functions with a mechanistic drift-foraging model to explain trout distributions. Macroinvertebrate drift was strongly season- and temperature-dependent (lower in winter and spring, higher in summer and fall). Models identified stream depth as the most limiting factor for habitat selection across seasons and size-classes. Additionally, positions closer to cover were selected during the winter by smaller size-classes (0, 1, 2), while net energy intake was important during the spring for most size-classes (0, 1, 2, 3). Drift-foraging models identified that 81% of observed trout selected positions that could meet maintenance levels throughout the year. Moreover, 40% of selected habitats could sustain maximum growth. Stream positions occupied by rainbow trout were more energetically profitable than random sites regardless of season or size-class. Larger size-classes (3, 4+) were energetically more limited throughout the year than were smaller size-classes. This research suggests that habitat in the form of deep pools is of paramount importance for rainbow trout or native cutthroat trout.

  11. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  12. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  13. Investigations into the temporal development of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Soto, M; Vidondo, B; Vaughan, L; Rubin, J-F; Segner, H; Samartin, S; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2017-06-01

    Epitheliocystis in Swiss brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a chlamydial infection, mainly caused by Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola. To gain a better understanding of the temporal development of infections in wild brown trout, we investigated epitheliocystis infections during the course of the summer and autumn months of a single year (2015), and compared this to sampling points over the span of the years 2012-2014. The survey focused on tributaries (Venoge and Boiron) of the Rhone flowing in to Lake Geneva. When evaluated histologically, epitheliocystis infections were found throughout the period of investigation with the exception of the month of June. Fifty to 86 animals per sampling were investigated. Highest prevalence and infection intensities were seen in September. A correlation between epitheliocystis infection and water temperatures was not evident. Interyear comparison revealed consistent levels of prevalence and infection intensities in late summer. The absence of infections in June, combined with the consistent interyear results, indicates seasonal fluctuation of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout with a reservoir persisting during winter months from which infections can re-initiate each year. This could either be at levels below detection limits within the brown trout population itself or in an alternative host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  15. Toxicity of quantum dots and cadmium to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in early ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Cibulskaitė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH quantum dots (QD and cadmium (Cd on biological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss in its early stages of development (embryos and larvae. It was found that short-term (24-, 96-hour exposure to sublethal concentrations of QD and Cd increased mortality of embryos and larvae, disturbed function of the cardio-respiratory system (gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and affected behavioural responses (individuals making nests in rainbow trout larvae. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout larvae depended on the type of chemical substance, affected stage of development and exposure duration. Comparative studies of the effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout in early stages of development showed that larvae were more sensitive to Cd and QD as compared to embryos. It was suggested that the chorion envelopes of eggs surround and protect the embryo from QD and Cd. Cadmium was more toxic to larvae than QD. Longer exposure (96-hour of QD and Cd induced more remarkable changes in test-parameters. This original study requires more investigations evaluating the mechanism of toxicity of QD to fish.

  16. PATHOGENECITY OF GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV: Megalocytivirus, FAMILY Iridoviridae TO CORAL TROUT GROUPER Plectrophomus leopardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV, a member of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae, has been known to cause large scale mortalities resulting in severe economic losses in grouper industries in south-east Asia including Indonesia. In this study, experimental infection of coral trout grouper Plectrophomus indicus with GSDIV was performed to evaluate the viral pathogenecity to this fish species. After virus exposure, the mortalities of coral trout grouper injected with primary and 10-1 dilution of spleen homogenates derived from tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were 100% and 90%, respectively. Histopathology revealed that moribund fish receiving GSDIV inoculum displayed massive formation of enlarged cells in the spleen and hematopoitic tissues. Under electron microscopy, the enlarged cells were observed as inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs and necrotic cells allowing virus propagation within an intracytoplasmic virus assembly site (VAS. GSDIV virions were 167-200 nm in size. These findings confirmed that GSDIV has severe pathogenicity to coral trout grouper and IBCs as well as necrotic cells were determined to be the pathognomonic sign of megalocytivirus-infected coral trout grouper.

  17. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal 263 ... Mir J. I., Ali S., Patiyal R. S. and Singh A. K. 2015 Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, ..... 5 × 106 MCMC repeats for final sampling of data. .... enhancing aquaculture productivity in the coldwater regions. ... simulation study.

  18. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O...

  19. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Online resources. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) stocks in India. Ashoktaru Barat Prabhati K. Sahoo Rohit Kumar Javaid I. Mir Shahnawaz Ali Rabindar S. Patiyal Atul K. Singh. Volume 94 Online resources 2015 pp e13- ...

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment alternatives for beef bulls with preputial prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, T R; McGrann, J M; Hooper, R N

    1997-10-01

    To develop an economic model for comparing cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical treatment versus replacement of beef bulls with preputial prolapse. Economic analysis. Estimates determined from medical records of bulls treated for preputial prolapse at our hospital and from information about treatment of bulls published elsewhere. Annual depreciation cost for treatment (ADC(T)) and replacement (ADC(R)) were calculated. Total investment for an injured bull equaled the sum of salvage value, maintenance cost, and expected cost of the treatment option under consideration. Total investment for a replacement bull was purchase price. Net present value of cost was calculated for each year of bull use. Sensitivity analyses were constructed to determine the value that would warrant treatment of an injured bull. The decision to treat was indicated when ADC(T) was less than ADC(R). In our example, it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. The ADC(R) was $97 less than ADC(T) for medical treatment ($365 vs $462) and $280 less than ADC(T) for surgical treatment ($365 vs $645). Likewise, net present value of cost values indicated that it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. Sensitivity analysis indicated treatment decisions were justified on the basis of replacement value or planned number of breeding seasons remaining for the bull. The model described here can be used by practitioners to provide an objective basis to guide decision making of owners who seek advice on whether to treat or replace bulls with preputial prolapse.

  1. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF SAHIWAL BULLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH GENETIC WORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, A. A. BHATTI, S. A. BHATTI1 AND M. ASHIQ2

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  2. Plasma IGF-I, INSL3, testosterone, inhibin concentrations and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls with normal and abnormal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, W W P N; Sakase, M; Kawate, N; Hannan, M A; Kohama, N; Tamada, H

    2018-07-01

    The relationships between semen abnormalities and peripheral concentrations of testicular and metabolic hormones in beef bulls are unclear. Here we compared plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), testosterone, inhibin concentrations, and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls (n = 66) with normal or abnormal semen. We collected blood samples and measured scrotal circumferences monthly from 4 to 24 months of age. Semen was collected weekly from 12 months until at least 18 months of age. Fresh semen was evaluated for semen volume, sperm motility, concentrations, and morphological defects. The normal fresh semen was frozen by a standard method and examined for post-thaw sperm motility and fertility. Bulls were classified as having either normal post-thaw semen (n = 45) or abnormal semen (n = 21, when at least one of the above test items was abnormal for 6 months). Abnormal semen was classified into abnormal fresh or low-fertility post-thaw which evaluated for rates of transferable embryos. The abnormal fresh was categorized as having sperm morphological defects, low motility, and morphological defects plus low motility. Scrotal circumferences were smaller for the abnormal-semen group vs. the normal-semen group at 20 and 24 months (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin concentrations in the abnormal-semen group were lower than those of the normal-semen group (p IGF-I; 6, 9, 11-14, 17, and 20-21 months for INSL3; 5, 8-13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 months for inhibin). The plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in the abnormal-semen bulls vs. normal-semen bulls only at 22 months (p IGF-I and inhibin concentrations for low-fertility post-thaw semen (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin surrounding puberty may be associated with semen aberration in beef bulls. Notably, the combined sperm abnormality of morphological defects and low motility in fresh semen could involve lowered INSL3, whereas the low

  3. Infectious pancreatic necrosis the trout farmers' dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.

    1965-01-01

    Induction of the innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-viral defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize viral molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 bind single-stranded RNA of viral origin and are activated by synthetic anti-viral imidazoquinoline compounds. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR7 and TLR8 gene orthologs and their mRNA expression. Two TLR7/8 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA fingerprinting and genetic linkage analyses. Direct sequencing of two representative BACs revealed intact omTLR7and omTLR8a1 open reading frames (ORFs) located on chromosome 3 and a second locus on chromosome 22 that contains an omTLR8a2 ORF and a putative TLR7pseudogene. We used the omTLR8a1/2 nomenclature for the two trout TLR8 genes as phylogenetic analysis revealed that they and all the other teleost TLR8 genes sequenced to date are similar to the zebrafish TLR8a, but are distinct from the zebrafish TLR8b. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes extending beyond the tandem of TLR7/8 genes. The trout TLR7 and 8a1/2 genes are composed of a single large exon similar to all other described TLR7/8 genes. The omTLR7 ORF is predicted to encode a 1049 amino acid (aa) protein with 84% similarity to the Fugu TLR7and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). The omTLR8a1 andomTLR8a2 are predicted to encode 1035- and 1034-aa proteins, respectively, and have 86% similarity to each other. omTLR8a1 is likely the ortholog of the only Atlantic salmonTLR8 gene described to date as they have 95% aa sequence similarity. The tissue expression profiles of omTLR7, omTLR8a1 and omTLR8a2 in healthy trout were highest in spleen tissue followed by anterior and then posterior kidney tissues. Rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes produced elevated levels of

  4. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  5. Domestic estimated breeding values and genomic enhanced breeding values of bulls in comparison with their foreign genomic enhanced breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibyl, J; Bauer, J; Čermák, V; Pešek, P; Přibylová, J; Šplíchal, J; Vostrá-Vydrová, H; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2015-10-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs) for milk production of young genotyped Holstein bulls were predicted using a conventional BLUP - Animal Model, a method fitting regression coefficients for loci (RRBLUP), a method utilizing the realized genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP), by a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) and by a one-step blending procedure. Information sources for prediction were the nation-wide database of domestic Czech production records in the first lactation combined with deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull files (August 2013) and domestic test-day (TD) records for the first three lactations. Data from 2627 genotyped bulls were used, of which 2189 were already proven under domestic conditions. Analyses were run that used Interbull values for genotyped bulls only or that used Interbull values for all available sires. Resultant predictions were compared with GEBV of 96 young foreign bulls evaluated abroad and whose proofs were from Interbull method GMACE (August 2013) on the Czech scale. Correlations of predictions with GMACE values of foreign bulls ranged from 0.33 to 0.75. Combining domestic data with Interbull EBVs improved prediction of both EBV and GEBV. Predictions by Animal Model (traditional EBV) using only domestic first lactation records and GMACE values were correlated by only 0.33. Combining the nation-wide domestic database with all available DRP for genotyped and un-genotyped sires from Interbull resulted in an EBV correlation of 0.60, compared with 0.47 when only Interbull data were used. In all cases, GEBVs had higher correlations than traditional EBVs, and the highest correlations were for predictions from the ssGBLUP procedure using combined data (0.75), or with all available DRP from Interbull records only (one-step blending approach, 0.69). The ssGBLUP predictions using the first three domestic lactation records in the TD model were correlated with GMACE predictions by 0.69, 0.64 and 0

  6. Avaliação nutricional, durante a amamentação, de tourinhos em pastejo recebendo suplementação proteica da amamentação à terminação Nutritional evaluation, during the nursing phase, of grazing young bulls that received supplementation with different protein profiles from nursing to finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jorge Fernandes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar as condições nutricionais de tourinhos em aleitamento, a pasto, recebendo suplementação com concentrados proteicos durante a época de transição águas-seca. Foram utilizados 52 bezerros mestiços com idade média inicial de 130 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro lotes, alojados em piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf junto com suas mães, onde receberam uma das quatro estratégias de suplementação: três suplementos concentrados, ou sal mineral (controle. Os suplementos concentrados diferiram quanto ao nível de proteína. Após 45 dias, realizou-se a avaliação nutricional dos animais, que incluiu a estimação do consumo e da digestão de nutrientes e das características do metabolismo proteico. A estimação do consumo e da digestibilidade foi feita utilizando-se os indicadores: LIPE®, dióxido de titânio e fibra em detergente neutro indigestível. Realizou-se ainda coleta de amostras de urina e de sangue. O efeito de suplementação e os efeitos linear e quadrático do nível de proteína no concentrado foram avaliados pela decomposição da soma de quadrados em contrastes ortogonais, adotando-se α = 0,10. O consumo de concentrado substituiu parte do pasto ingerido pelos bezerros e aumentou a ingestão de proteína, a digestibilidade da matéria seca e matéria orgânica, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e a excreção de nitrogênio na urina. O nível de proteína no suplemento tem efeito linear positivo sobre a ingestão diária de proteína, a digestibilidade de todos os nutrientes e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e efeito quadrático sobre a excreção de nitrogênio na forma de ureia na urina.The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of grazing nursing young bulls supplemented with concentrates with different protein levels during the rainy-dry season transition. Fifty two crossbred Nellore calves with initial mean age of 130 days

  7. "Buzz marketing" : estudo de caso da marca Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Miguel David

    2012-01-01

    Este relatório é baseado no estágio efetuado na agência de publicidade Ogilvy & Mather e é dedicado à temática do Buzz Marketing. De modo a poder explorar a fundo as dinâmicas deste tema foi feita uma análise à estratégia de marketing da marca Red Bull, considerada como um dos principais estudos de caso no âmbito do Buzz Marketing. Este tema pode ser definido como uma estratégia de marketing inovadora cujo objetivo principal é a criação de conversas entre os consumidores, colocando-os a falar...

  8. Mink predation on brown trout in a Black Hills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacob L.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000’s, declines in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery in Rapid Creek, South Dakota, caused concern for anglers and fisheries managers. We conducted a radio telemetry study in 2010 and 2011 to identify predation mortality associated with mink, using hatchery-reared (2010) or wild (2011) brown trout. Estimated predation rates by mink (Mustela vison) on radio-tagged brown trout were 30% for hatchery fish and 32% for wild fish. Size frequency analysis revealed that the size distribution of brown trout lost to predation was similar to that of other, radio-tagged brown trout. In both years, a higher proportion of predation mortality (83–92%) occurred during spring, consistent with seasonal fish consumption by mink. Predation by mink appeared to be a significant source of brown trout mortality in our study.

  9. Repeatability of number of progeny born to bulls used in group mating of cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The group mating of bulls in pasture situations is a management practice that might be more efficient if an individual bull’s ability to sire calves could be predicted. Retrospective data on numbers of progeny born to bulls from 4 populations (Angus and 3 composite breeds) in 4 consecutive years of...

  10. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  11. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  12. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  13. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  14. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow and...

  16. Productive characteristics of age-3 brood brown trout (Salmo trutta reared in the conditions industrial aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Haloyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study and analysis of productive and reproductive parameters of brood brown trout reared in the conditions of industrial aquaculture with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Methodology. Fish rearing was performed using a technology traditional for rainbow trout. Biological evaluation of fish was performed on live material according to the scheme developed by I.F. Pravdin (1966 for salmonids. Fish were anesthetized with “Propiscin”. Metric parameters were measured with the aid of a ruler and caliper. Fish weight was determined on electronic balances. Eggs were preserved in a 4% formalin solution, weight of individual eggs was determined with the aid of torsion balances, egg diameter with a caliper. The duration of spermatozoid motility in males was determined under a microscope under 10X40 magnification with the aid of a stopwatch, sperm concentration was determined in a Goriaev chamber. Multiple regression analysis was performed in JMP IN 4 (SAS Institute. The factor was considered significant if р <0.05. Findings. Brood brown trout reared on specialized artificial feeds had following productive parameters: mean body weight of age-3 fish was 458 g in males and 453 g in females. Mean working fecundity of age-3 fish as 1847 eggs, mean relative working fecundity was 3971 eggs, the mean qualitative parameters of which were: weight of 61.5 g, diameter of 74.7 mm. The reproductive characteristics of age-3 males was high – mean fecundity was 1391 million sperm cells, their motility was 35 sec. Originality. For the first time we reared a stock of brood brown trout in industrial conditions with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Practical value. The obtained results are a component of the development of a complex technology of salmonid fish rearing with an objective to broad the assortment of valuable gourmet products and to justify the measures on artificial reproduction of brown trout in rivers of

  17. Instream cover and shade mediate avian predation on trout in semi-natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Piscivory by birds can be significant, particularly on fish in small streams and during seasonal low flow when available cover from predators can be limited. Yet, how varying amounts of cover may change the extent of predation mortality from avian predators on fish is not clear. We evaluated size-selective survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) in replicated semi-natural stream sections. These sections provided high (0.01 m2 of cover per m2 of stream) or low (0.002 m2 of cover per m2 of stream) levels of instream cover available to trout and were closed to emigration. Each fish was individually tagged, allowing us to track retention of individuals during the course of the 36-day experiment, which we attributed to survival from predators, because fish had no other way to leave the streams. Although other avian predators may have been active in our system and not detected, the only predator observed was the belted kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon, which is known to prey heavily on fish. In both treatments, trout >20.4 cm were not preyed upon indicating an increased ability to prey upon on smaller individuals. Increased availability of cover improved survival of trout by 12% in high relative to low cover stream sections. Trout also survived better in stream sections with greater shade, a factor we could not control in our system. Collectively, these findings indicate that instream cover and shade from avian predators can play an important role in driving survival of fish in small streams or during periods of low flow.

  18. The production of fluorescent transgenic trout to study in vitro myogenic cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rescan Pierre-Yves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish skeletal muscle growth involves the activation of a resident myogenic stem cell population, referred to as satellite cells, that can fuse with pre-existing muscle fibers or among themselves to generate a new fiber. In order to monitor the regulation of myogenic cell differentiation and fusion by various extrinsic factors, we generated transgenic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss carrying a construct containing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by a fast myosin light chain 2 (MlC2f promoter, and cultivated genetically modified myogenic cells derived from these fish. Results In transgenic trout, green fluorescence appeared in fast muscle fibers as early as the somitogenesis stage and persisted throughout life. Using an in vitro myogenesis system we observed that satellite cells isolated from the myotomal muscle of transgenic trout expressed GFP about 5 days post-plating as they started to fuse. GFP fluorescence persisted subsequently in myosatellite cell-derived myotubes. Using this in vitro myogenesis system, we showed that the rate of muscle cell differentiation was strongly dependent on temperature, one of the most important environmental factors in the muscle growth of poikilotherms. Conclusions We produced MLC2f-gfp transgenic trout that exhibited fluorescence in their fast muscle fibers. The culture of muscle cells extracted from these trout enabled the real-time monitoring of myogenic differentiation. This in vitro myogenesis system could have numerous applications in fish physiology to evaluate the myogenic activity of circulating growth factors, to test interfering RNA and to assess the myogenic potential of fish mesenchymal stem cells. In ecotoxicology, this system could be useful to assess the impact of environmental factors and marine pollutants on fish muscle growth.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl reduction in lake trout by irradiation and broiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, R.F.; Zabik, M.E.; Weaver, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental contaminants surveys (1974-1975) have concluded that excessive concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in a specific species of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Over 30 ppM of PCBs have been detected in the edible fillet of this fat trout. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation combined with broiling on the levels of PCBs in lake trout fillets

  20. Technical note: Relationship between infrared thermography and heat production in young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, R A; Busato, K C; Ladeira, M M; Johnson, K A; Galvão, M C; Rodrigues, A C; Lourençoni, D; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-03-01

    The traditional techniques to measure heat production (HP) are calorimetry (direct and indirect) and comparative slaughter. Both methods are expensive and require extensive amounts of time and infrastructure. Infrared thermography (IRT) could be a faster and less expensive alternative to estimate cattle HP. The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the IRT technique as an indicator of HP in cattle. A total of 24 bulls (12 Nellore and 12 Black Angus) with initial BW of 380 ± 7 kg were used. Initially, 4 animals of each breed were harvested (baseline animals) and simple regressions were developed for each breed from these baseline animals to estimate the initial chemical composition of the remaining bulls. Eight animals of each breed were fed a silage/concentrate diet for ad libitum intake in individual stalls. On the 25th, 50th, and 75th experimental day, infrared thermal images (Fluke Ti 55ft; Fluke Corporation) were taken of each animal's face to access skin and ocular surface temperatures. A metabolism trial was conducted to estimate the ME intake (MEI). After 84 experimental days, the cattle were harvested and retained energy (RE) and HP were calculated. The data were analyzed using the MIXED and REG procedures of SAS adopting a significance level of 0.05. Angus cattle had a greater daily MEI, HP, and skin and eye temperatures than Nellore. We found significant correlations ( ≤ 0.005) between daily HP and maximum ( = 0.65) and average skin temperatures ( = 0.65) and maximum ( = 0.65) and average ocular surface ( = 0.69) temperatures recorded on d 50. Infrared thermography has potential to be used to evaluate HP in cattle.

  1. Effects of increased discharge on spawning and age-0 recruitment of rainbow trout in the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Luke A.; Korman, Josh; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative interactions of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha pose challenges to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) to manage for both species in the Colorado River. Operations to enhance the Rainbow Trout tailwater fishery may lead to an increase in downstream movement of the trout to areas where they are likely to interact with Humpback Chub. We evaluated the effects of dam operations on age-0 Rainbow Trout in the tailwater fishery to inform managers about how GCD operations could benefit a tailwater fishery for Rainbow Trout; although this could affect a Humpback Chub population farther downstream. A near year-long increase in discharge at GCD in 2011 enabled us to evaluate whether high and stable flows led to increased spawning and production of age-0 Rainbow Trout compared with other years. Rainbow Trout spawning was monitored by fitting a model to observed redd counts to estimate the number of redds created over a spawning season. Data collected during electrofishing trips in July–September and November were used to acquire age-0 trout population and mortality rate estimates. We found that high and stable flows in 2011 resulted in 3,062 redds (1.7 times the mean of all survey years) and a population estimate of 686,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout (second highest on record). Despite high initial abundance, mortality remained low through the year (0.0043%/d) resulting in significant recruitment with a record high November population estimate of 214,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout. Recent monitoring indicates this recruitment event was followed by an increase in downstream migration, which may lead to increased interactions with downstream populations of Humpback Chub. Consequently, while our results indicate that manipulating flow at GCD can be used to manage Rainbow Trout spawning and recruitment, fisheries managers should use flow manipulation in moderation to minimize downstream migration in order to reduce negative

  2. Reversible bull's-eye maculopathy associated with intravitreal fomivirsen therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T W; Jaffe, G J

    2000-08-01

    To report two cases in which a bull's eye maculopathy developed after intravitreal injection of fomivirsen. Case reports. A 50-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and refractory cytomegalovirus retinitis developed bull's-eye pigmentary changes in the macula of the right eye after initiating therapy with fomivirsen (Vitravene; CIBA Vision, Atlanta, Georgia) intravitreal injections. These pigmentary changes resolved upon cessation of treatment. A 36-year-old man with AIDS and refractory bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis developed bull's-eye pigmentary changes in both eyes during bilateral intravitreal treatment with fomivirsen. Vision was not affected. These changes resolved after treatment with fomivirsen was stopped. Fomivirsen, a new medication for the treatment of refractory cytomegalovirus retinitis, may cause a bull's-eye maculopathy in some patients. The bull's-eye maculopathy is reversible and does not appear to affect vision.

  3. Ureaplasma diversum in bull semen in Australia: its detection and potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, N; Chousalkar, K K; Chenoweth, P J

    2013-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to confirm the infection status of Ureaplasma diversum in Australian bulls and to identify morphological changes of sperm from U. diversum-positive bulls. Fresh semen samples were taken from 29 sexually active beef bulls from suspect herds in the Riverina/Upper Murray region. U. diversum was identified using PCR analyses and culture of the organism. Nine of the bulls were PCR-positive for U. diversum but none of these had genital lesions. Sperm from infected bulls showed increased incidence of abnormal tails (bent and coiled), as well as surface abnormalities (i.e. small protuberances or lumps). The results suggest impairment of sperm function and possibly fertility. Further investigations into the potential role of U. diversum as a pathogen for Australian cattle are warranted. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Toxicity of potassium cyanide to trout. [Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Merkens, J C

    1952-01-01

    The toxicity of KCN was tested on 50 rainbow trout using a flow through bioassay system. The system was designed to allow water conditions to remain constant throughout the test rather than change through metabolic activities of the fish. Results show: cyanide causes fish to loose equilibrium; cyanide resistance increases if the trout are allowed to acclimate to test temperatures before cyanides is added; young trout are more resistant to cyanide; and the distribution of trout survival times to cyanide concentration approximates a normal distribution. (14 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-04-15

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth. Bulls were administered 80 μg of a GnRH agonist, and blood was collected before and after injection to monitor serum hormone concentrations. The same bulls were injected with saline 2 weeks before each GnRH challenge and monitored using the same blood collection protocol. All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH (1.76 ± 0.19 ng/mL; P elephants. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal testosterone production, leading to the physiological and behavioral changes associated with musth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma kinetics of 14C-uric acid in bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma kinetics of uric acid were followed by 14C labelled uric acid to measure the effects of feed intake upon kinetic parameters. Two bulls (average L W 346±79 kg) were given an intravenous administration of a tracer (8-14C-uric acid, 250μCi/50 ml) by single injection via a jugular catheter. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed as 95 and 60 % of the voluntary intake. Voluntary intakes were 8 kg/d as fed for two bulls. Blood samples, were collected at 0, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h after tracer administration. Fractional rates of clearance from the blood and pool size of compartments in the blood were estimated using plasma 8-14C-counts, following the method proposed by Chen and Franklin. The mean values of fractional rates (K 2,1 , K 1,2 ) and compartments pool size (V 1 , V 2 ) and the total pool size of compartments I and 2 at 60% and 95% feeding level were 1.97 and 1.44, 1.06 and 0.78; 76.9 L and 94.5 L, 137.01 L and 163.51 L; 214.0 L and 250.3 L respectively. Plasma kinetic parameters of 14C-uric acid were not affected at different feed intakes

  7. Demographic changes following mechanical removal of exotic brown trout in an Intermountain West (USA), high-elevation stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, W. Carl; Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species present a great threat to native fish conservation; however, eradicating exotics is expensive and often impractical. Mechanical removal can be ineffective for eradication, but nonetheless may increase management effectiveness by identifying portions of a watershed that are strong sources of exotics. We used mechanical removal to understand processes driving exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Logan River, Utah. Our goals were to: (i) evaluate the demographic response of brown trout to mechanical removal, (ii) identify sources of brown trout recruitment at a watershed scale and (iii) evaluate whether mechanical removal can reduce brown trout densities. We removed brown trout from 2 km of the Logan River (4174 fish), and 5.6 km of Right Hand Fork (RHF, 15,245 fish), a low-elevation tributary, using single-pass electrofishing. We compared fish abundance and size distributions prior to, and after 2 years of mechanical removal. In the Logan River, immigration to the removal reach and high natural variability in fish abundances limited the response to mechanical removal. In contrast, mechanical removal in RHF resulted in a strong recruitment pulse, shifting the size distribution towards smaller fish. These results suggest that, before removal, density-dependent mortality or emigration of juvenile fish stabilised adult populations and may have provided a source of juveniles to the main stem. Overall, in sites demonstrating strong density-dependent population regulation, or near sources of exotics, short-term mechanical removal has limited effects on brown trout populations but may help identify factors governing populations and inform large-scale management of exotic species.

  8. A trial of two trouts: Comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Stephenson, J.F.; Terreau, A.; Thailly, A.F.; Gajardo, G.; de Leaniz, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world's two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold-temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on populations of a native fish by quantifying three components of exotic species impact: range, abundance and effect. We surveyed 54 small streams on the island of Chilo?? in Chilean Patagonia and found that the rainbow trout has colonized significantly more streams and has a wider geographic range than brown trout. The two species had similar post-yearling abundances in allopatry and sympatry, and their abundances depended similarly on reach-level variation in the physical habitat. The species appeared to have dramatically different effects on native drift-feeding Aplochiton spp., which were virtually absent from streams invaded by brown trout but shared a broad sympatric range with rainbow trout. Within this range, the species' post-yearling abundances varied independently before and after controlling for variation in the physical habitat. In the north of the island, Aplochiton spp. inhabited streams uninvaded by exotic trouts. Our results provide a context for investigating the mechanisms responsible for apparent differences in rainbow and brown trout invasion biology and can help inform conservation strategies for native fishes in Chilo?? and elsewhere. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Zoological Society of London.

  9. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Christopher J.; Stevens, Jamie R.; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nicolas R.

    2011-01-01

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: → River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. → Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). → Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. → The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  10. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from Boletus edulis bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Aoxue; Luo, Aoshuang; Huang, Jiandong; Fan, Yijun

    2012-07-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP) was extracted from Boletus edulis Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw), IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  11. Comparison of silage and hay of dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) fed to Thai native beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha

    2018-03-23

    Both quantity and quality of forages are important in dry season feeding. Eight Thai native beef bulls were arranged in a Completely randomized design to evaluate dwarf Napier namely Sweet grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham) preserved as silage or hay on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The animals were fed with forage ad libitum supplemented with concentrate mixture at 1.0% of BW for 21 days; data were collected during the last 7 days. The results showed that there were differences (P  0.05) in animals fed silage and hay. Sweet grass is better preserved as hay rather than silage.

  12. Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2018-05-01

    This work aims to develop a rapid analytical technique to predict beef sensory attributes using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and to investigate correlations between sensory attributes using chemometric analysis. Beef samples (n = 72) were obtained from young dairy bulls (Holstein-Friesian and Jersey×Holstein-Friesian) slaughtered at 15 and 19 months old. Trained sensory panel evaluation and Raman spectral data acquisition were both carried out on the same longissimus thoracis muscles after ageing for 21 days. The best prediction results were obtained using a Raman frequency range of 1300-2800 cm -1 . Prediction performance of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models developed using all samples were moderate to high for all sensory attributes (R 2 CV values of 0.50-0.84 and RMSECV values of 1.31-9.07) and were particularly high for desirable flavour attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.80-0.84, RMSECVs of 4.21-4.65). For PLSR models developed on subsets of beef samples i.e. beef of an identical age or breed type, significant improvements on prediction performances were achieved for overall sensory attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.63-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.38-6.88 for each breed type; R 2 CVs of 0.52-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.96-6.36 for each age group). Chemometric analysis revealed strong correlations between sensory attributes. Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis was demonstrated to have high potential as a rapid and non-destructive technique to predict the sensory quality traits of young dairy bull beef. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts and glutathione antioxidants on bull semen quality after cryopreservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghigh-Kia, H.; Olfati-Karaji, R.; Hoseinkhani, A.; Ashrafi, I.

    2014-06-01

    The present study determined the effects of the addition of rosemary extract (ROM), glutathione (GSH), and their combination (ROM + GSH) to freezing extender on the quality of bull semen after cryopreservation. Before cryoperservation, the samples were diluted in a tris-egg yolk (TEY) extender containing 5 mM GSH (treatment I), 5 or 10 g L{sup -}1 ROM (treatments II and III), and ROM with GSH (5 mM GSH with 5 or 10 g L{sup -}1 of ROM) (treatments IV and V). An extender containing no antioxidants (non-ROM/GSH-treated) served as control group. Kinematic parameters were evaluated by means of a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). The viability and membrane integrity of the sperm were assessed using eosin-nigrosin stain and the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) at 0 and 2 h after freezethawing. Lipooxidative parameters, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were assessed after thawing. Treatment III showed positive effects for total motility (TM) (p < 0.01), average path velocity (VAP) (p < 0.001), viability (p < 0.01) and HOST (p < 0.01); however, lipid peroxidation (LPO) decreased (p < 0.05) and GPx activity increased (p < 0.05) immediately after thawing compared to the control. The TM (p < 0.01), VAP (p < 0.01), viability (p < 0.01), HOST (p < 0.01) decreased in LPO (p < 0.01) and GPx activity (p < 0.05) for treatment V and the viability and GPx activity (p < 0.05) for treatment I were significantly higher than for the control group at 2 h after thawing. It was concluded that the inclusion of ROM and its combination with GSH improves the post-thaw quality of bull semen. (Author)

  14. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  15. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan P Banish

    Full Text Available Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus, and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36 of brown trout, 34% (68/202 of bull trout, and 33% (20/61 of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE] are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6 or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8 and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  16. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  17. Performance, profitability and greenhouse gas emissions of alternative finishing strategies for Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B; Crosson, P; Kelly, A K; Prendiville, R

    2018-02-06

    Modifying finishing strategies within established production systems has the potential to increase beef output and farm profit while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of finishing duration on animal performance of Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls and steers and evaluate the profitability and GHG emissions of these finishing strategies. A total of 90 HF calves were assigned to a complete randomised block design; three bull and three steer finishing strategies. Calves were rotationally grazed in a paddock system for the first season at pasture, housed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for the first winter and returned to pasture for a second season. Bulls were slaughtered at 19 months of age and either finished indoors on concentrates ad libitum for 100 days (19AL), finished at pasture supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 100 (19SP) or 150 days (19LP). Steers were slaughtered at 21 months of age and finished at pasture, supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 60 (21SP) and 110 days (21LP) or slaughtered at 24 months of age and finished indoors over the second winter on grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily (24MO). The Grange Dairy Beef Systems Model and the Beef Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model were used to evaluate profitability and GHG emissions, respectively. Average daily gain during the finishing period (Pprofit.

  18. Nitrification in moving bed and fixed bed biofilters treating effluent water from a large commercial outdoor rainbow trout RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    The nitrification performance of two fixed bed (FB) biofilters and two moving bed (MB) biofilters was evaluated. They received the same cold (8 degrees C) influent water from a commercial outdoor RAS facility producing rainbow trout (average density 32 kg m(-3)). The filters were constructed as f...

  19. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout (Salmo trutta), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles...

  20. Validation of abundance estimates from mark-recapture and removal techniques for rainbow trout captured by electrofishing in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda E. Rosenberger; Jason B. Dunham

    2005-01-01

    Estimation of fish abundance in streams using the removal model or the Lincoln–Peterson mark–recapture model is a common practice in fisheries. These models produce misleading results if their assumptions are violated. We evaluated the assumptions of these two models via electrofishing of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in central Idaho streams....

  1. Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation in semen extender on tyrosine phosphorylation and apoptosis like changes in frozen thawed Hariana bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nadeem; Singh, Vijay; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad; Verma, Meena; Chauhan, Dharmendra Singh; Saxena, Atul; Yadav, Sarvajeet; Swain, Dilip Kumar

    2017-07-01

    To provide new insights into the mechanisms through which reduced glutathione (GSH) is able to protect spermatozoa, we tested the hypothesis that cryocapacitation and apoptosis like changes can contribute to the negative effect of freezing and thawing on bull spermatozoa, and that GSH prevent this damage. Having known protective effects of GSH in terms of a potent antioxidant, we evaluated capacitation, tyrosine phosphorylation and apoptosis like changes in bull spermatozoa after freezing and thawing in egg yolk tris glycerol extender containing (0.5m M-GSH-T1 & 1mM GSH-T2) and without GSH serving as the control (C). Forty ejaculates were collected from four Hariana bulls and were pooled due to non significant variations among the bull ejaculates for the evaluation of sperm attributes. Capacitation like changes, tyrosine phosphorylation, localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, apoptosis like changes in terms of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and DNA fragmentation after final dilution, 4h of equilibration at 4°C and 24h after freezing and thawing were evaluated. GSH supplementation at 0.5mM showed significant reduction in B- and AR- pattern spermatozoa during all stages of semen freezing and thawing. Immunoblot revealed six proteins which were tyrosine phosphorylated and protein of 30 and 75kDa (p30, p75) were the major tyrosine phosphorylted proteins. On further analysis, the p30 showed differential variation in intensity in all the three groups after freezing and thawing. Positive immune reactivity for tyrosine phosphorylated proteins was found in neck, middle piece and post-acrosomal regions of spermatozoa. Addition of 0.5mM GSH decreased percentage of spermatozoa showing fragmented DNA and increased the percentage of spermatozoa having high transmembrane mitochondrial potential (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that GSH favours survival of bull spermatozoa by interfering with apoptotic and cryocapacitation pathways, and thereby protects the

  2. Challenge models for RTFS in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    forms of stress have shown to be reproducible. Bath challenge is more appropriate for vaccine testing, since natural transmission of infection is imitated and is also more suitable due to the small size of the fry. A bath-model using H2O2 as a stressor is currently being tested on 1.4g rainbow trout fry...... in four experimental groups: 1) no H2O2/no bath infection, 2) H2O2/no bath infection, 3) no H2O2/ bath infection and 4) H2O2/ bath infection. Mortality will be evaluated over approximately 25 days. The project is currently in its preliminary phase and presently focused on development of a model...

  3. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  4. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  5. Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara bulls and heifers: quality attributes and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen samples of L. dorsi muscles were taken from western Baggara cattle, one sample from each of seven bulls and seven heifers randomly selected for slaughter at the end of an experimental feedlot feeding which lasted for 16 weeks at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan, to study sex effects on meat chemical composition and quality attributes. Moisture content of beef was higher in bulls meat than in heifers meat. Protein and ash content were significantly (P<0.001 higher in bulls meat, whereas fat content was significantly (P<0.001 higher in heifers meat than in bulls meat. Cooking loss of bulls meat was significantly (P<0.001 lower and water-holding capacity was also significantly (P<0.01 lower in the bulls meat than in heifers meat. Bull’s meat colour had low lightness (L and high redness (a and yellowness (b, as determined by Hunter Lab. Tristimulus colorimeter, as compared with heifers meat. Sensory panelist scores were higher for colour darkness and flavour intensity and lower for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of bulls meat as compared with heifers meat.

  6. Metallothionein in brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) as a biological indicator of inorganic chemical contaminant stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for quantifying metallothionein was evaluated with fish tissue. Adult brook trout were administered 3 mg 109 cadmium/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection over a 5 day period to induce metallothionein concentrations in liver and kidney tissues. The method was modified so cadmium bound to unsaturated metallothionein could be measured. The method gave precise measurements and was used to evaluate the toxicological significant of metallothionein in two 30-day chronic toxicity studies of cadmium on brook trout. In particular, metallothionein was evaluated as a biological indicator of inorganic chemical stress in brook trout. Pathological effects in animals resulting from exposure to inorganic chemicals is thought to occur when metallothionein's sequestering ability is exceeded; a phenomenon explained by the spillover hypothesis. The presence of free cadmium in tissues of fish from all exposures suggests metallothionein was not saturated with cadmium perhaps because of competition for binding sites on metallothionein between cadmium and other inorganic chemicals such as copper and zinc. Based on results of the two toxicity studies, the spillover hypothesis should be redefined to a continuum of toxic responses to varying balances between the relative abundance of inorganic chemicals present and their respective binding affinities for metallothionein

  7. Influence of waterfalls on patterns of association between trout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish whether waterfalls in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa, are seasonally important in conserving indigenous Natal cascade frog Hadromophryne natalensis tadpole populations from the threat of predation by alien rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo ...

  8. Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias): A technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2009-01-01

    Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) was once presumably distributed throughout the colder waters of the South Platte and Arkansas River basins in Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. Primarily a fluvial species, greenback cutthroat trout may have occupied 10,614 to 13,231 km of streams above 1,800 m in these basins. Nevertheless,...

  9. Mitochondrial genome of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Zaiqing; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is a large elasmobranch species widespread in tropical and warm oceans, rivers and lakes. We first determine the complete mitogenome of C. leucas in this article. It is 16,704 bp in length, consists 37 genes and one control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. The ND6 gene used the rare AGG as stop codon. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot form the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T and low G contents.

  10. A study on beverage MNCs’ entry mode decisions and determinant factors in internationalization in China: Case studies of Coca-Cola and Red bull

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsuwan, Pantitra

    2015-01-01

    The economic reform and liberalized government regulations toward business operations in 1980s make China a new target of international investments by multinational corporations (MNCs). How to enter this growth market and what entry mode should be implemented remain inconclusive. This paper analyses how two beverage companies- Coca-Cola and Red Bull that are operating in China, evaluate the influences and implications of the factors on their entry mode decisions since they initially came to C...

  11. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article studies time series dependence in the direction of stock prices by modeling the (instantaneous) probability that a bull or bear market terminates as a function of its age and a set of underlying state variables, such as interest rates. A random walk model is rejected both for bull...... and bear markets. Although it . ts the data better, a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is also found to be inconsistent with the very long bull markets observed in the data. The strongest effect of increasing interest rates is found to be a lower bear market hazard rate...

  12. Genomic Prediction from Whole Genome Sequence in Livestock: The 1000 Bull Genomes Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Benjamin J; MacLeod, Iona M; Daetwyler, Hans D

    Advantages of using whole genome sequence data to predict genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) include better persistence of accuracy of GEBV across generations and more accurate GEBV across breeds. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project provides a database of whole genome sequenced key ancestor bulls....... In a dairy data set, predictions using BayesRC and imputed sequence data from 1000 Bull Genomes were 2% more accurate than with 800k data. We could demonstrate the method identified causal mutations in some cases. Further improvements will come from more accurate imputation of sequence variant genotypes...

  13. Radiation damage to bull sperm motility. III. Further x-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikmenspoel, R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of previous radiation experiments, which indicated that the centriole serves as a control center for bull sperm motility, appear to be in conflict with experiments showing that the bull sperm flagellum is an autonomous oscillator. To resolve this conflict experiments were conducted to calibrate absolutely the dose-response curves for the radiation damage, and to measure the force production and the mechanochemical energy conversion after irradiation in bull sperm. The results indicate that the centriole acts as a mechanical anchor for the contractile fibers

  14. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2010-01-01

    , the potential effect of the waterborne phytoestrogens on endemic fish species is largely unknown. In the present investigation, the estrogenic effect of biochanin A was tested in brown trout through water exposure experiments. Juvenile brown trout of both sexes were exposed to different concentrations...... of biochanin A. In a ten day exposure experiments, NOEC and LOEC for plasma vitellogenin induction in brown trout were found to be 0.8µg biochanin A/L and 1.2µg biochanin A/L, respectively. A six hour pulse experiment resulted in NOEC and LOEC for induction of plasma vitellogenin in brown trout of 48µg...... biochanin A/L and 186µg biochanin A/L, respectively. Investigations of the ability of genistein to induce vitellogenin synthesis in brown trout are ongoing....

  15. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils, in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10: control (CON, propolis (PRO, or essential oils (OIL. CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM. The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal-1 d-1 of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal-1 d-1 of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm, pH (5.9, Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm², marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9, lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg-1 meat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%, ashes (1.1%, protein (23.8%, and lipids (1.7%, fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/ SFA, 0.13, and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9 on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in trout plasma using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.; Cook, R.F.; Eales, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) employing miniature G-25 Sephadex columns and a single isotope was evaluated for simultaneous measurement of T 3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine) and T 4 (L-thyroxine) in trout plasma. The method was judged reliable based on the characteristics of the standard curves, the high and consistent recoveries of T 3 (87.0 or 86.7 percent) and T 4 (103 or 98 percent) added either singly or in combination, low inter-( 3 and T 4 after plasma dilution, and acceptable correlations between hormone values obtained using either the simultaneous or single RIA methods (rsub(T3) = 0.89; rsub(T4) = 0.91). It is concluded that the simultaneous RIA with its savings in time, plasma volume, and reagents can be used to advantage to measure T 3 and T 4 in plasma of trout and presumably other vertebrates

  17. Organic vegetable proteins and oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jokumsen, Alfred

    The demand for organic trout is increasing, stressing the need for organic, vegetable feed ingredients as replacement for fish meal, as the principles of organic aquaculture encourage the development of feed that do not deplete global fish stocks. In addition, the organic code of practice does...... not allow addition of artificial amino acids to the feed, and optimization of the amino acid profile of organically based diets must therefore derive from the protein sources alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility and growth performance of organic vegetable dietary ingredients...... as replacement for fish meal and fish oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Six iso-energetic and iso- nitrogenous diets were prepared, comprising a fish meal and fish oil based control diet and three diets in which the inclusion of fish meal was gradually reduced from 59 to 35...

  18. Visual observations of historical lake trout spawning grounds in western Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1987-01-01

    Direct underwater video observations were made of the bottom substrates at 12 spawning grounds formerly used by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in western Lake Huron to evaluate their present suitability for successful reproduction by lake trout. Nine locations examined north of Saginaw Bay in the northwestern end of the lake are thought to provide the best spawning habitat. The substrate at these sites consisted of angular rough cobble and rubble with relatively deep interstitial spaces (a?Y 0.5 m), small amounts of fine sediments, and little or no periphytic growth. Conditions at the three other sampling locations south of Saginaw Bay seemed much less suitable for successful reproduction based on the reduced area of high-quality substrate, shallow interstitial spaces, high infiltration of fine sediments, and greater periphytic growth.

  19. Can VHS virus bypass the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination in rainbow trout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda, Dagoberto; Lorenzen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccines encoding viral glycoproteins have been very successful for induction of protective immunity against diseases caused by rhabdoviruses in cultured fish species. However, the vaccine concept is based on a single viral gene and since RNA viruses are known to possess high variability...... and adaptation capacity, this work aimed at evaluating whether viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), an RNA virus and member of Rhabdoviridae family, was able to evade the protective immune response induced by the DNA vaccination of rainbow trout. The experiments comprised repeated passages of a highly...... pathogenic VHSV isolate in a fish cell line in the presence of neutralizing fish serum (in vitro approach), and in rainbow trout immunized with the VHS DNA vaccine (in vivo approach). For the in vitro approach, the virus collected from the last passage (passaged virus) was as sensitive as the parental virus...

  20. Depletion of selected polychlorodibenzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans in farmed trout exposed to contaminated feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, G.; Dellatte, E.; Fochi, I.; Iacovella, N.; Domenico, A. di [Dept. Food Safety and Animal Health, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)]|[Dept. Environment and Primary Health Care, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Farmed fish can bioaccumulate persistent toxic substances when fed on animal-based fat feeds. This fact has recently prompted a re-evaluation of the overall toxicological risk associated with contamination levels recorded in farmed vs. wild salmons. The bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in farmed trout has recently been described nevertheless, poor information is available about their depletion under controlled conditions. In this paper, the results of a 90-day depletion study in groups of trout exposed to three different levels of feed contamination for 30 days are reported. As a follow-up of a PCB depletion study the present paper aims at giving indications for risk management in fish farming practices, to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the produce intended for human consumption.

  1. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference...... was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI's). The statistical confidence of HSI's was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22...... fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected...

  2. Cortisol regulates nitric oxide synthase in freshwater and seawater acclimated rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerber, Lucie; Madsen, Steffen S; Jensen, Frank B

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol and nitric oxide (NO) are regulators of ion transport and metabolic functions in fish. In the gill, they show opposite effects on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity: cortisol stimulates NKA activity while NO inhibits NKA activity. We hypothesized that cortisol may impact NO production...... in osmoregulatory tissues by regulating NO synthase (NOS) expression. We evaluated the influence of cortisol treatment on mRNA expression of Nos1 and Nos2 in gill, kidney and middle intestine of both freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) acclimated rainbow trout and found both tissue- and salinity-dependent effects....... Nos2 expression was down-regulated in the gill by cortisol injection in both FW and SW trout. This was substantiated by incubating gill tissue with cortisol ex vivo. Similarly, cortisol injection significantly down-regulated Nos2 expression in kidney of SW fish but not in FW fish. In the middle...

  3. Effect of rib fat thickness on the quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Escobar Dallantonia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the quality of aged beef from Nellore young bulls under two yield grade (YG. Fourteen animals with approximately 450 ± 30 kg body weight were evaluated for backfat thickness (BFT at the beginning of the experimental period. Seven animals had BFT of 0-3 mm and seven animals, 3.1-6 mm. Two groups were formed at the end of the experiment: animals finished with 3-6 mm BFT (seven animals and animals finished with 6.1 to 10 mm BFT (seven animals. Every 28 days, we evaluated by ultrasound the BFT between the 12nd 13rd ribs. There was no interaction between YG and aging for beef color, pH, cooking losses and shear force (p > 0.05. There was no effect of YG on sarcomere length (p = 0.11. However, there was interaction between YG and aging on water holding capacity (p < 0.01. The yield grades evaluated did not interfere with meat quality, but carcasses with 6.1 - 10 mm of backfat thickness showed highest water holding capacity. The aging of the longissimus muscle for up to 14 days improves beef tenderness.

  4. Mechanisms of fenthion activation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to hypersaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado, Ramon; Rimoldi, John M.; Schlenk, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in rainbow trout have shown that acclimation to hypersaline environments enhances the toxicity to thioether organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. In order to determine the role of biotransformation in this process, the metabolism of the thioether organophosphate biocide, fenthion was evaluated in microsomes from gills, liver and olfactory tissues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to freshwater and 17 per mille salinity. Hypersalinity acclimation increased the formation of fenoxon and fenoxon sulfoxide from fenthion in liver microsomes from rainbow trout, but not in gills or in olfactory tissues. NADPH-dependent and independent hydrolysis was observed in all tissues, but only NADPH-dependent fenthion cleavage was differentially modulated by hypersalinity in liver (inhibited) and gills (induced). Enantiomers of fenthion sulfoxide (65% and 35% R- and S-fenthion sulfoxide, respectively) were formed in liver and gills. The predominant pathway of fenthion activation in freshwater appears to be initiated through initial formation of fenoxon which may be subsequently converted to the most toxic metabolite fenoxon R-sulfoxide. However, in hypersaline conditions both fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxide formation may precede fenoxon sulfoxide formation. Stereochemical evaluation of sulfoxide formation, cytochrome P450 inhibition studies with ketoconazole and immunoblots indicated that CYP3A27 was primarily involved in the enhancement of fenthion activation in hypersaline-acclimated fish with limited contribution of FMO to initial sulfoxidation

  5. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  6. Diurnal stream habitat use of juvenile Atlantic salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Douglass, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal winter habitat of three species of juvenile salmonids was examined in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, NY to compare habitat differences among species and to determine if species/age classes were selecting specific habitats. A total of 792 observations were made on the depth, velocity, substrate and cover (amount and type) used by sympatric subyearling Atlantic salmon, subyearling brown trout and subyearling and yearling rainbow trout. Subyearling Atlantic salmon occurred in shallower areas with faster velocities and less cover than the other salmonid groups. Subyearling salmon was also the only group associated with substrate of a size larger than the average size substrate in the study reach during both winters. Subyearling brown trout exhibited a preference for vegetative cover. Compared with available habitat, yearling rainbow trout were the most selective in their habitat use. All salmonid groups were associated with more substrate cover in 2002 under high flow conditions. Differences in the winter habitat use of these salmonid groups have important management implications in terms of both habitat protection and habitat enhancement.

  7. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing...... a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals...... nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor...

  8. Tissue distribution and elimination of rotenone in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The fate of a single i.v. dose (120 μg/kg) of the piscicide [14C]rotenone was evaluated in rainbow trout for periods up to 72 h after dosing. Rotenone was rapidly cleared from the plasma; less than 2% of the dose remained in the plasma compartment after 20 min. The highest concentrations of rotenone residues (% dose/g tissue) were in the hepatobiliary system, bile, intestine, and in heart, lateral line swimming muscle, and posterior kidney; tissues that are highly dependent on oxidative metabolism. Although rotenone activity was present in all cell fractions examined, greater than 40% was associated with the mitochondrial fraction of liver, kidney, and muscle. More than 85% of the activity extracted from these tissues, except the liver, was parent rotenone. Elimination from whole body and major tissue depots conformed to simple first-order kinetics; the estimated half-life from whole body was 68.5 h. Branchial elimination accounted for 5% of the injected dose over a 4-h period, and urinary elimination was less than 2% over a 48-h period. Rotenone was eliminated essentially unchanged across the gills; however, parent rotenone was not found in either urine or bile. More than 80% of the activity in both urine and bile eluted from HPLC chromatographs as a highly polar fraction that was not hydrolyzed by incubation with either β-glucuronidase or sulfatase. The results imply that hepatobiliary excretion is the major route of elimination for rotenone residues in the trout and that metabolism to a more polar form is a prerequisite for elimination in both the bile and the urine

  9. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  10. Umatilla Basin natural production monitoring and evaluation. Annual progress report, 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contor, C.R.; Hoverson, E.; Kissner, P.; Volkman, J.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME) from September 30, 1994 to September 29, 1995. This program was funded by Bonneville Power Administration and was managed under the Fisheries Program, Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. An estimated 36.7 km (22.6 miles) of stream habitat were inventoried on the Umatilla River, Moonshine, Mission, Cottonwood and Coonskin Creeks. A total of 384 of 3,652 (10.5%) habitat units were electrofished. The number of juvenile fish captured follows: 2,953 natural summer steelhead (including resident rainbow trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss), one hatchery steelhead, 341 natural chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), 163 natural coho salmon (O. kisutch), five bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), 185 mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and six northern squawfish (Ptychoicheilus oregonensis). The expanded population estimate for the areas surveyed was 73,716 salmonids with a mean density of 0.38 fish/m 2 . Relative salmonid abundance, seasonal distribution and habitat utilization were monitored at index sites throughout the basin. During index site monitoring, the following species were collected in addition to those listed above: american shad (Alosa sapidissima), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and chiselmouth (Acrocheilus alutaceus). Thirty-nine sites were electrofished during the spring and summer seasons, while 36 sites were sampled in the fall season. A study of the migration movements and homing requirements of adult salmonids in the Umatilla River was conducted during the 1994-95 return years. Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the movements of adult salmonids past diversion dams in the lower Umatilla River and to determine migrational movements of salmonids following upstream transport

  11. Effect of mating between the donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on the in vitro production of bovine embryos

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    Ana Paula Toledo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on in vitro production (IVP parameters of bovine embryos comparing the mean number of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture, the rate of suitable oocytes, and cleavage and blastocyst rates. Data from 1,000 follicular aspiration sessions (OPU, including 500 in donor cows of the Holstein breed and 500 of the Gyr breed, were collected. The results were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test and chi-square test, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The mean number and standard deviation of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture were 15.1±13.0 and 8.7±7.6 for the Holstein breed and 15.5±11.9 and 9.1±7.9 for the Gyr breed. The rates of suitable oocytes were 57.7% and 58.5% for Holstein and Gyr breeds, respectively. A significant difference between breeds was observed for the number of oocytes suitable for culture (P<0.05, but not for the number of recovered oocytes or rates of suitable oocytes (P>0.05. Similarly, the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull influenced cleavage and blastocyst rates (P<0.05. The cleavage rates were 65.7, 60.3, 59.6 and 56.5% for the combinations (donor breed x bull breed Holstein x Holstein (G1, Holstein x Gyr (G2, Gyr x Holstein (G3 and Gyr x Gyr (G4, respectively, with G1>G2, G1>G3, G1>G4, G2=G3, G2>G4, and G3>G4. The blastocyst rates were 28.1, 33.3, 26.8 and 31.0%, respectively, with G1>G2, G1=G3, G1bull influenced IVP parameters, with a larger number of oocytes suitable for culture in the Gyr breed.

  12. Effects of maize maturity at harvest and dietary proportion of maize silage on intake and performance of growing/finishing bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaralis, K.; Nørgaard, P.; Helander, C.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-crop maize silage as forage in diets of finishing cattle can promote high intakes and thus, enhances animal performance. In the present study we evaluated the effect of whole-crop maize maturity at harvest and the proportion of maize-silage in diets of finishing bulls, on feed intake...... of treatments, involving two maturity stages of maize at harvest (i.e. dough stage or dent stage) and two maize silage proportions (i.e. 100% maize silage or 50% maize and 50% grass silage). The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) with inclusion of concentrates (i.e. rolled barley; dried...... distillers’ grain plus soluble; cold-pressed rapeseed cake) in a 40% proportion on DM basis. All animals were slaughtered at a target body weight of 630 kg. Bulls fed on diets containing maize silage as sole forage achieved higher live-weight gain (P

  13. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus outbreak reduced bulls' weight gain and feed conversion for eight months in a Norwegian beef herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Thea Blystad; Kjæstad, Hans Petter; Kummen, Eiliv; Holen, Hallstein; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-01-25

    Cost-benefit evaluation of measures against respiratory disease in cattle requires accounting with the associated production losses. Investigations of naturally occurring respiratory infections in a herd setting are an opportunity for accurate estimates of the consequences. This article presents estimates based on individual monitoring of weight and concentrate intake of several hundred bulls previous to, during and after a respiratory infection outbreak with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) as the main pathogen. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between exposure to BRSV, weight gain and feed conversion rate, quantify any change in these parameters, and estimate the duration of the change in production. A comparison of growth curves for the bulls that were present during the outbreak revealed that bulls with severe clinical signs had a clear and consistent trend of poorer growth rate than those with milder or no signs. The weight/age-ratio was 0.04-0.10 lower in the severely affected bulls, and evident throughout the study period of 8 months. A comparison of growth rates between apparently healthy bulls being present during the outbreak and a comparable group of bulls exactly 1 year later (n = 377) showed a reduced growth rate of 111 g/day in the first group. The difference amounted to 23 extra days needed to reach the reference weight. Feed conversion was also reduced by 79 g weight gain/kilogram concentrate consumed in the outbreak year. This study indicates significant negative effects on performance of animals that develop severe clinical signs in the acute stage, and that the growth and production is negatively affected many months after apparent recovery. In addition, the performance of apparently healthy animals that are exposed during an outbreak are severely negatively affected. The duration of this decrease in production in animals after recovery, or animals that have not shown disease at all, has not previously been

  14. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  15. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  16. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per

    1993-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  17. Body measurements and carcass characteristics correlation of Nellore young bulls finishidedED IN FEEDLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was aimed to evaluate Pearson correlations between body measurements, carcass characteristics and production of 35 Nellore bulls, confined for 96 days, with 402±14.90 kg and 18 months old. Weightings, ultrasound images and 14 measurements were obtained at the beginning of each experimental period and before slaughter, totaling four weight ratings of ultrasound images and measurements per animal. For the evaluation of body measurements and ultrasound images with carcass traits the values from the last measurement were considered. The images were made along with weighing animals through a Scanner, and measurements with a tape measure and a zoométrica cane, and these were correlated with each other and with productive and carcass characteristics. For measures of loin eye area evaluated by ultrasonography, it were found positive correlations with body length (0.32, rump (0.36 and thigh (0.20; withers height (0.20 and pelviano contour (0.38 (P<0.05. Variables of hip height and chest, chest width and pin bones, and heart girth showed positive correlations with two or more productive traits of economic interest, such as slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage (P<0.05. Significant correlations were found for most of the variables studied. Linear body measurements such as length and height emerge as a tool that can be useful in the formation of more homogenous lots and to predict the point of slaughter, along with the weight of the animals.

  18. Exposure-related effects of Zequanox on juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The environmental fate, persistence, and non-target animal impacts of traditional molluscicides for zebra, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga, D. bugensis, mussel control led to the development of the biomolluscicide Zequanox. Although previous research has demonstrated the specificity of Zequanox, one study indicated sensitivity of salmonids and lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, following non-label compliant exposures to Zequanox. This study was conducted to evaluate sublethal and lethal impacts of Zequanox exposure on juvenile lake sturgeon and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, following applications that were conducted in a manner consistent with the Zequanox product label. Fish were exposed to 50 or 100 mg/L of Zequanox as active ingredient for 8 h and then held for 33 d to evaluate latent impacts. No acute mortality was observed in either species; however, significant latent mortality (P < 0.01, df = 9; 46.2%) was observed in lake trout that were exposed to the highest dose of Zequanox. Statistically significant (P < 0.03, df = 9), but biologically minimal differences were observed in the weight (range 20.17 to 21.49 g) of surviving lake sturgeon at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05, df = 9) and biologically considerable differences were observed in the weight (range 6.19 to 9.55 g) of surviving lake trout at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Histologic evaluation of lake trout gastrointestinal tracts suggests that the mode of action in lake trout is different from the mode of action that induces zebra and quagga mussel mortality. Further research could determine the sensitivity of other salmonid species to Zequanox and determine if native fish will avoid Zequanox treated water.

  19. Avaliação econômica do confinamento de novilhos de origem leiteira, alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado e de cama de frango Economic evaluation of feedlot dairy crossbred bulls fed diets with different concentrate and broiler litter levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Rodrigues Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram confinados 24 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu, machos não-castrados, com peso médio inicial de 75 kg e final de 215 kg, com o objetivo de avaliar o custo de produção. Os animais foram alimentados com capim-elefante de 30 a 45 dias de idade, concentrado à base de farelo de soja, fubá de milho, farinha de carne, mistura mineral e cama de frango, sendo constituídos os tratamentos: 1 = 50% volumoso e 50% concentrado; 2 = 50% volumoso, 35% de concentrado e 15% de cama de frango; 3 = 25% de volumoso e 75% concentrado; e 4 = 25% de volumoso, 52,5% de concentrado e 22,5% de cama de frango, na base da matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualisados, com seis repetições. A análise da renda bruta, dos custos e do lucro indicou que o lucro foi negativo em todos os tratamentos, quando o preço de venda da carne produzida foi igual ao preço do boi gordo. Entretanto, quando foram mantidos os mesmos custos (custo operacional efetivo e custo operacional total e elevado em 10% o preço de venda do quilo de carne produzida, em relação ao preço do quilo de carne de boi gordo, todos os tratamentos apresentaram lucro, sendo destacados os tratamentos 2 e 3, com R$ 0,042 e R$ 0,03 por quilo de carne produzida e retorno sobre capital investido de 14,20 e 14,64%/ano, respectivamente. A variação no preço do concentrado, de R$ 0,26 a 0,20/kg, causou maior impacto no custo operacional efetivo do tratamento 3 e menor no tratamento 2, proporcionando lucro e retorno sobre capital o investido para todos os tratamentos, a partir da relação 7,62:1 entre preço do concentrado x preço da carne. As simulações mostraram que o tratamento 2 foi economicamente mais vantajoso, visto que gerou melhor relação custo/benefício para as condições do presente trabalho.Twenty-four Holstein crossbred young bulls, with 75 kg initial average weight and 215 kg final average weight, were confined in a feedlot. The objective of this experiment

  20. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  1. MEAT PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH SPOTTED CATTLE BULLS BRED IN MOUNTAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chosen indicators of meat performance of 98 bulls of Czech Spotted cattle bred in elevation above 720 m above sea-level in the mountain region of Šumava are presented in the article. The fattening was realized in a barn with a deep litter. The feed ration consisted of haylage throughout the year. The bulls were divided into three groups according to their genotype - C100, C75-85R (CxR and C75-85A (CxA. The highest live weight at slaughter was achieved in the group C100 with 650 kg with the average age of 726 days and the weight of the carcasses of 363.8 kg. On the other hand, the worst results were achieved in the group CxA. For comparison a group of 14 bulls of the Holstein breed was created (H100, which was fattened in the same conditions. The bulls achieved their highest live weight before slaughter (664.6 kg, but at the highest age (743 days. Statistically significant differences were proven in the meat performance after individual fathers – the best results were documented with the offspring of the bull BO-837. After the separation of the set of bulls according to live weight at the end of fattening, the highest results were achieved by the group above 700 kg. The best class using the SEUROP method was achieved by the group with slaughtering live weight between 650 kg and 700 kg.

  2. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  3. Effect of vitamin C on innate immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential micronutrient that influences a wide variety of physiological processes, including immunological functions. Although the positive effects of vitamin C supplementation on the immunological status of fish has been established in different species, the bases for these positive effects are still unknown. Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of vitamin C on several innate immune functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocyte populations. For this, we assessed the effects exerted on the established rainbow trout monocyte-macrophage cell line RTS11, and compared them to those observed in trout head kidney leukocytes. Our results demonstrate that vitamin C increases the production of reactive oxygen species and the percentage of phagocytic cells in both cell populations. On the other hand, vitamin C had no effect on the surface MHC II levels and only in the case of RTS11 cells increased the capacity of these cells to migrate towards the CK9 chemokine. Finally, vitamin C also increased the transcription of several pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial genes elicited by Escherichia coli, with some differences depending on the cell population studied. Our results contribute to further understand how vitamin C supplementation regulates the fish immune system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Persistence of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) in chronically infected brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Kumar, Gokhlesh; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-08-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a widespread disease of farmed and wild salmonid populations in Europe and North America, caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Limited studies have been performed on the epidemiological role in spread of the disease played by fish that survive infection with T. bryosalmonae. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the persistence of T. bryosalmonae developmental stages in chronically infected brown trout Salmo trutta up to 2 yr after initial exposure to laboratory-infected colonies of the parasite's alternate host, the bryozoan Fredericella sultana. Kidney, liver, spleen, intestine, brain, gills and blood were sampled 24, 52, 78 and 104 wk post-exposure (wpe) and tested for T. bryosalmonae by PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cohabitation trials with specific pathogen free (SPF) F. sultana colonies were conducted to test the viability of T. bryosalmonae. PCR detected T. bryosalmonae DNA in all tissue samples collected at the 4 time points. Developmental stages of T. bryosalmonae were demonstrated by IHC in most samples at the 4 time points. Cohabitation of SPF F. sultana with chronically infected brown trout resulted in successful transmission of T. bryosalmonae to the bryozoan. This study verified the persistence of T. bryosalmonae in chronically infected brown trout and their ability to infect the bryozoan F. sultana up to 104 wpe.

  5. Stocking strategy for the rehabilitation of a regulated brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aass, P.

    1993-01-01

    Regulation of the catchment area of the Norwegian river Gudbrandsdalslaagen began in 1919. The lowermost power station on the main river was completed in 1964 and is situated about 10 km above the large Norwegian lake, Mjoesa. The lake is the foraging area of the Hunderstrain of brown trout, the fastest growing of all Norwegian trout. The running of the power plant has led to a severe reduction in water flows below the dam, and the most important spawning and nursery areas of the Hunder strain has been affected. The natural smolt production has been permanently reduced. The rehabilitation programme has included the construction of a fish ladder through the dam and a fixed minimum flow. A hatchery was built and a stocking programme using the local strain was implemented. The effect of stocking has been the easiest of the relief measures to evaluate. Hatchery reared fish constitute a growing share of the spawning population. During the last three years their share has been close to 60%. Reared fish constitute 30-40% of the trout caught in Lake Mjoesa. The average and best returns of tagged groups have been 25 and 50%, respectively, but return rates are highly dependent on release length and time and place of stocking. (Author)

  6. Occurrence, size, and tag retention of sneaker male hatchery rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isely, J.J.; Grabowski, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    One alternative reproductive tactic involving early-maturing, cryptic males is referred to as "sneaking." Although sneakers tend to be easily detectable upon close inspection, little is known about the proportion of a fish population consisting of sneakers. We examined 15,400 age-1 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a hatchery. Total length (mm), wet weight (g), and sex (sneaker male or unknown) were recorded for each fish. We also individually tagged each sneaker male with soft visual implant alphanumeric (VIalpha) tags that were sequentially numbered and held the fish for 25 d before inspection. Sneakers constituted 2.8% of the hatchery rainbow trout population and were smaller in total length and weight than typical rainbow trout of the same age. Retention of the VIalpha tags in sneakers was 58.9%, significantly lower than has been reported under similar circumstances. We found that sneaker males may contribute substantially to hatchery populations. Reduced tag retention in sneakers may bias studies evaluating the effect of hatchery fish on wild populations. We believe that hatchery-produced sneaker males have the potential to contribute importantly to the genetic composition of wild populations.

  7. Immune responses to methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Bilen, Soner; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2017-08-01

    The immune stimulating effects of the methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated. Variable concentrations of black cumin methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg -1 of feed] were individually added to the basal diet and rainbow trout was fed for 30 days to assess the innate immune responses and growth performance. Feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in the group fed with 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract. Respiratory burst activity was observed to be the highest in the 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract fed group. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased in fish of experimental groups compared to control (P  0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of black cumin is a stimulator of some innate humoral immune responses, but it is ineffective for cytokine-related gene trancriptions in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17-30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival.

  9. Intracerebroventricular ghrelin treatment affects lipid metabolism in liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to elucidate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the effects of central ghrelin (GHRL) treatment on the regulation of liver lipid metabolism, and the possible modulatory effect of central GHRL treatment on the simultaneous effects of raised levels of oleate. Thus, we injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) rainbow trout GHRL in the presence or absence of oleate and evaluated in liver variables related to lipid metabolism. Oleate treatment elicited in liver of rainbow trout decreased lipogenesis and increased oxidative capacity in agreement with previous studies. Moreover, as demonstrated for the first time in fish in the present study, GHRL also acts centrally modulating lipid metabolism in liver, resulting in increased potential for lipogenesis and decreased potential for fatty acid oxidation, i.e. the converse effects to those elicited by central oleate treatment. The simultaneous treatment of GHRL and oleate confirmed these counteractive effects. Thus, the nutrient sensing mechanisms present in hypothalamus, particularly those involved in sensing of fatty acid, are involved in the control of liver energy metabolism in fish, and this control is modulated by the central action of GHRL. These results give support to the notion of hypothalamus as an integrative place for the regulation of peripheral energy metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brook trout distributional response to unconventional oil and gas development: Landscape context matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R.; Petty, J. Todd; Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Slonecker, Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Niles, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale assessment of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development effects on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution. We compiled 2231 brook trout collection records from the Upper Susquehanna River Watershed, USA. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict occurrence probability at the 1:24,000 stream-segment scale as a function of natural and anthropogenic landscape and climatic attributes. We then evaluated the importance of landscape context (i.e., pre-existing natural habitat quality and anthropogenic degradation) in modulating the effects of UOG on brook trout distribution under UOG development scenarios. BRT made use of 5 anthropogenic (28% relative influence) and 7 natural (72% relative influence) variables to model occurrence with a high degree of accuracy [Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) = 0.85 and cross-validated AUC = 0.81]. UOG development impacted 11% (n = 2784) of streams and resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 126 (4%). Most streams impacted by UOG had unsuitable underlying natural habitat quality (n = 1220; 44%). Brook trout were predicted to be absent from an additional 26% (n = 733) of streams due to pre-existing non-UOG land uses (i.e., agriculture, residential and commercial development, or historic mining). Streams with a predicted and observed (via existing pre- and post-disturbance fish sampling records) loss of occurrence due to UOG tended to have intermediate natural habitat quality and/or intermediate levels of non-UOG stress. Simulated development of permitted but undeveloped UOG wells (n = 943) resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 27 additional streams. Loss of occurrence was strongly dependent upon landscape context, suggesting effects of current and future UOG development are likely most relevant in streams near the probability threshold due to pre-existing habitat degradation.

  11. A comparative assessment of the adrenotoxic effects of cadmium in two teleost species, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, Alexandra; Hontela, Alice

    2004-03-30

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) have a different sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) in vivo (trouttrout and perch, to compare the sensitivity of adrenal steroidogenesis in these two teleosts. Adrenocortical cells were exposed to Cd for 60 min, then stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP or with pregnenolone, a cortisol precursor. Cd inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in a dose-dependent manner in both fish species, however, the EC50s (concentration resulting in 50% inhibition of cortisol secretion) was significantly lower in trout (EC50=0.09 mM) than perch (EC50=0.26 mM). To test the specificity of Cd to act as an endocrine disrupter, the LC50 (concentration that kills 50% of the cells) was also evaluated to determine the LC50/EC50 ratio (LC50/EC50{sub O.mykiss}=175.6>LC50/EC50{sub P.flavescens}=37.7). Adrenocortical cells of trout were more sensitive than those of perch and Cd had a higher endocrine-disrupting potential and specificity in trout than in perch. However, in both species, Cd had the same effect on ACTH, dbcAMP and pregnenolone-stimulated cortisol secretion, with pregnenolone maintaining cortisol secretion until cell viability was impaired. These results confirm that for both species, Cd interferes in the signalling pathway of cortisol synthesis in a step prior to the pregnenolone formation. Data provided by the present study revealed important differences in vulnerability of adrenal steroidogenesis between rainbow trout and yellow perch.

  12. Freezability of water buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa is improved with the addition of curcumin (diferuoyl methane) in semen extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S A H; Andrabi, S M H; Qureshi, I Z

    2017-10-01

    Effects of curcumin as antioxidant in extender were evaluated on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Semen from each of the five bulls (n = 3 replicates, six ejaculates/bull, a total of 30 ejaculates) was diluted in Tris-citric acid extender containing curcumin (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mM) or control. At pre-freezing and post-thawing, total antioxidant contents (μM/L) and lipid peroxidation levels (μM/ml) were higher (p curcumin and control. At post-thawing, progressive motility (PM, %) and rapid velocity (RV, %) were higher (p curcumin and control (except in case of RV, 1.5 was similar with 1.0 mM). Kinematics (average path velocity, μm/s; straight-line velocity, μm/s; curved-line velocity, μm/s; straightness, %; linearity, %), in vitro longevity (%, PM and RV) and DNA integrity (%) at post-thawing were higher (p curcumin and control. We concluded that freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa is improved with the addition of 1.5 mM curcumin in extender. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Growth of brown trout in acid and alkaline waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R N

    1961-01-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the factors affecting the growth and maturity of brown trout in lochs in the Highlands of Scotland. Evidence has been found which supports the view that the growth rate depends more on the relation between the trout population and the food supply than on any direct influence of the chemical composition of the water. Details are given of the growth rate of trout in nine lochs with a wide range of alkalinities where spawning facilities are either very good or poor or non-existent.

  14. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  15. Determination of digestible and metabolizable energy of fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allameh, Sayed Kamaleddin; Soofiani, Nasrollah Mahboobi; Pourreza, Javad

    2007-10-15

    The present research carried out to measure digestible (DE) and Metabolizable Energy (ME) for fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (120 and 220 g mean body weights). DE and ME are evaluation systems for feedstuffs and also, necessary for diet formulation. The fishes were maintained in metabolic chamber with single ingredient assay of feeding and chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was used as an external marker using total fecal collection method. Gross energy and chromic oxide values measured in feces, fishmeal and soybean meal. The results indicated that DE offishmeal was 3700 and 3591 kcal kg(-1) in 120 and 220 g body weight rainbow trout, respectively. Soybean meal had 3004 and 2889 kcal kg(-1) respectively. Calculated ME from DE were 3204 and 3110 kcal kg(-1) for fishmeal and 2601 and 2502 kcal kg(-1) for soybean meal in 120 and 220 g rainbow trout, respectively. The results showed that rainbow trout can utilize fishmeal more efficiently than soybean meal.

  16. Variability of kokanee and rainbow trout food habits, distribution, and population dynamics, in an ultraoligotrophic lake with no manipulative management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is a unique environment to evaluate the ecology of introduced kokanee and rainbow trout because of its otherwise pristine state, low productivity, absence of manipulative management, and lack of lotic systems for fish spawning. Between 1986 and 2004, kokanee displayed a great deal of variation in population demographics with a pattern that reoccurred in about 10 years. We believe that the reoccurring pattern resulted from density dependent growth, and associated changes in reproduction and abundance, driven by prey resource limitation that resulted from low lake productivity exacerbated by prey consumption when kokanee were abundant. Kokanee fed primarily on small-bodied prey from the mid-water column; whereas rainbow trout fed on large-bodied prey from the benthos and lake surface. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance may be regulated by kokanee. And kokanee growth and reproductive success may be influenced by the availability of Daphnia pulicaria, which was absent in zooplankton samples collected annually from 1990 to 1995, and after 1999. Distribution and diel migration of kokanee varied over the duration of the study and appeared to be most closely associated with prey availability, maximization of bioenergetic efficiency, and fish density. Rainbow trout were less abundant than were kokanee and exhibited less variation in population demographics, distribution, and food habits. There is some evidence that the population dynamics of rainbow trout were in-part related to the availability of kokanee as prey. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Impact of thiamine deficiency on T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody production in lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout.

  19. Impact of thiamine deficiency on T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody production in lake trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Christopher A; Honeyfield, Dale C; Densmore, Christine L; Iwanowicz, Luke R

    2012-12-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout.

  20. Clinical application of bull's eye map in 201Tl myocardial tomography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongchang

    1991-01-01

    Bull's eye map in thallium-201 myocardial tomography was performed in 50 patients, and compared with planar imaging. In 27 rest imaging, 6 AMI were abnormal both in plannar and bull's eye images, in 10 OMI, planar abnormal in 6 and doubtful in 4, while bull's eye abnormal in 8 and doubtful in 2; in 11 angina, planar abnormal in 2, doubtful in 5 and normal in 4; but bull's eye abnormal in 5, doubtful abnormal in 4 and normal in 2. In 3 cases of dipyridamole imaging 2 angina were positive, 1 hypertension was negetive, while bull's eye map were all positive. It was demonstrated that bull's eye map gives a direct and clean view and also easy for the anatomical localization of the hypoperfused area

  1. Quantification of leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo bulls and its correlation with antioxidant status, conventional and computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) semen variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H; Swami, Dheer Singh; Sharma, R K

    2016-03-01

    The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of myocardial 123I-BMIPP distribution abnormality in patients with ischemic heart disease based on normal data file in Bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Shigeo; Fukuoka, Syuji; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Visual interpretation of 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP) myocardial images has difficulties in detecting mild reduction in tracer uptake. We studied the significance of the objective assessment of myocardial BMIPP maldistributions at rest by using a Bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting ischemic heart disease. Twenty nine patients, 15 with prior myocardial infarction and 14 with effort angina were studied. The initial 15-min BMIPP image was evaluated by visual analysis and by generating the extent Bull's-eye map which exhibits regions with reduced % uptake under mean-2SD of 10 normal controls. The sensitivity for determining coronary lesions in non-infarcted myocardial regions with the extent map was superior to that with visual analysis (67% vs. 33%). In the regions supplied by the stenotic coronary artery, those which showed visually negative but positive in the map and which showed positive in both had higher incidence of wall motion abnormalities and severe coronary stenosis than those with normal findings in both. These results suggest that the objective assessment based on the normal data file in a Bull's-eye polar map is clinically important for improving the limitation or the visual interpretation in 123 I-BMIPP imaging. (author)

  3. Fertility-associated antigen on Nelore bull sperm and reproductive outcomes following first-service fixed-time AI of Nelore cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J C; Deragon, L; Vasconcelos, J L M; Lopes, C N; Peres, R F G; Ahmadzadeh, A

    2012-01-15

    The objective was to determine whether the presence of fertility-associated antigen (FAA) on sperm collected from Nelore (Bos indicus) bulls can be used to assess potential fertility of sperm for use at first-service fixed-time AI (TAI). Six Nelore bulls were selected based on FAA status (FAA-negative: N = 3; FAA-positive: N = 3) and the ability to produce neat semen with ≥ 70% morphologically normal sperm and 60% estimated progressive motility before cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, suckled multiparous Nelore cows (N = 835) were evaluated for body condition score (BCS) and received an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR) and 2.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (Day 0). On Day 9 the CIDR was removed, 12.5 mg of PGF(2α) and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, and calves were removed for 48 h. All cows received TAI on Day 11 (48 h after CIDR removal). Pregnancy per TAI (P/TAI) was not different between FAA-positive and FAA-negative bulls (41.5% vs. 39.3%, respectively). There was an effect of AI technician on P/TAI (36.0% vs. 43.9%; P cows with BCS ≥ 2.75 were 1.4 times more likely to become pregnant compared with cows with BCS fertility of sperm for use in TAI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved assay for measuring heparin binding to bull sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Ax, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of heparin to sperm has been used to study capacitation and to rank relative fertility of bulls. Previous binding assays were laborious, used 10 7 sperm per assay point, and required large amounts of radiolabeled heparin. A modified heparin-binding assay is described that used only 5 x 10 4 cells per incubation well and required reduced amounts of [ 3 H] heparin. The assay was performed in 96-well Millititer plates, enabling easy incubation and filtering. Dissociation constants and concentrations of binding sites did not differ if analyzed by Scatchard plots, Woolf plots, or by log-logit transformed weighted nonlinear least squares regression, except in the case of outliers. In such cases, Scatchard analysis was more sensitive to outliers. Nonspecific binding was insignificant using nonlinear logistic fit regression and a proportion graph. The effects were tested of multiple free-thawing of sperm in either a commercial egg yolk extender, 40 mM Tris buffer with 8% glycerol, or 40 mM Tris buffer without glycerol. Freeze-thawing in extender did not affect the dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites. However, freeze-thawing three times in 40 mM Tris reduced the concentration of binding sites and lowered the dissociation constant (raised the affinity). The inclusion of glycerol in the 40 mM Tris did not significantly affect the estimated dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites as compared to 40 mM Tris without glycerol

  5. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas . We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  6. Compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Cheng, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Ants use both terrestrial landmarks and celestial cues to navigate to and from their nest location. These cues persist even as light levels drop during the twilight/night. Here, we determined the compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas , in which the majority of individuals begin foraging during the evening twilight period. Myrmecia midas foragers with vectors of ≤5   m when displaced to unfamiliar locations did not follow the home vector, but instead showed random heading directions. Foragers with larger home vectors (≥10   m) oriented towards the fictive nest, indicating a possible increase in cue strength with vector length. When the ants were displaced locally to create a conflict between the home direction indicated by the path integrator and terrestrial landmarks, foragers oriented using landmark information exclusively and ignored any accumulated home vector regardless of vector length. When the visual landmarks at the local displacement site were blocked, foragers were unable to orient to the nest direction and their heading directions were randomly distributed. Myrmecia midas ants typically nest at the base of the tree and some individuals forage on the same tree. Foragers collected on the nest tree during evening twilight were unable to orient towards the nest after small lateral displacements away from the nest. This suggests the possibility of high tree fidelity and an inability to extrapolate landmark compass cues from information collected on the tree and at the nest site to close displacement sites. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.

    1988-01-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201 TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images requires gender-matched normal files

  8. Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-09-01

    The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

  9. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  10. Across the great divide: genetic forensics reveals misidentification of endangered cutthroat trout populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Pritchard, Victoria L; Silvestri, Sarah M; Jenkins, Jazzmin B; Wood, John S; Cowley, David E; Evans, R Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K; Martin, Andrew P

    2007-11-01

    Accurate assessment of species identity is fundamental for conservation biology. Using molecular markers from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, we discovered that many putatively native populations of greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) comprised another subspecies of cutthroat trout, Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). The error can be explained by the introduction of Colorado River cutthroat trout throughout the native range of greenback cutthroat trout in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by fish stocking activities. Our results suggest greenback cutthroat trout within its native range is at a higher risk of extinction than ever before despite conservation activities spanning more than two decades.

  11. Novel molecular markers differentiate Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) and the O. clarki (cutthroat trout) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 26 PCR-based markers was developed that differentiates rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). The markers also differentiated rainbow from other cutthroat trout subspecies (O. clarki), and several of the markers differentiated between cutthroat trout subspecies. This system has numerous positive attributes, including: nonlethal sampling, high species-specificity and products that are easily identified and scored using agarose gel electrophoresis. The methodology described for developing the markers can be applied to virtually any system in which numerous markers are desired for identifying or differentiating species or subspecies.

  12. Selection of performance-tested young bulls and indirect responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots

    OpenAIRE

    Raidan , Fernanda S. S.; Santos , Dalinne C. C.; Moraes , Mariana M.; Araújo , Andresa E. M.; Ventura , Henrique T.; Bergmann , José A. G.; Turra , Eduardo M.; Toral , Fabio L. B.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundCentral testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots.MethodsRecords on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were ...

  13. Prediction of beef carcass and meat traits from rearing factors in young bulls and cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulat, J; Picard, B; Léger, S; Monteils, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the beef carcass and LM (thoracis part) characteristics and the sensory properties of the LM from rearing factors applied during the fattening period. Individual data from 995 animals (688 young bulls and 307 cull cows) in 15 experiments were used to establish prediction models. The data concerned rearing factors (13 variables), carcass characteristics (5 variables), LM characteristics (2 variables), and LM sensory properties (3 variables). In this study, 8 prediction models were established: dressing percentage and the proportions of fat tissue and muscle in the carcass to characterize the beef carcass; cross-sectional area of fibers (mean fiber area) and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity to characterize the LM; and, finally, overall tenderness, juiciness, and flavor intensity scores to characterize the LM sensory properties. A random effect was considered in each model: the breed for the prediction models for the carcass and LM characteristics and the trained taste panel for the prediction of the meat sensory properties. To evaluate the quality of prediction models, 3 criteria were measured: robustness, accuracy, and precision. The model was robust when the root mean square errors of prediction of calibration and validation sub-data sets were near to one another. Except for the mean fiber area model, the obtained predicted models were robust. The prediction models were considered to have a high accuracy when the mean prediction error (MPE) was ≤0.10 and to have a high precision when the was the closest to 1. The prediction of the characteristics of the carcass from the rearing factors had a high precision ( > 0.70) and a high prediction accuracy (MPE 0.10). Only the flavor intensity of the beef score could be satisfactorily predicted from the rearing factors with high precision ( = 0.72) and accuracy (MPE = 0.10). All the prediction models displayed different effects of the rearing factors according to animal categories

  14. Protein degradation systems in the skeletal muscles of parr and smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantserova, Nadezda P; Lysenko, Liudmila A; Veselov, Alexey E; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-08-01

    Although protein degradation limits the rate of muscle growth in fish, the role of proteolytic systems responsible for degrading myofibrillar proteins in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The study herein aims to evaluate the role of calpains (calcium-activated proteases) and proteasomes (ATP-dependent proteases) in mediating muscle protein turnover at different life stages in wild salmonids. Protease activities were estimated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) parr and smolts from the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Calpain and proteasome activities in Atlantic salmon skeletal muscles were lower in smolts as compared with parr. Reduced muscle protein degradation accompanying Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation appeared to provide intense muscle growth essential for a minimum threshold size achievement that is required for smoltification. Calpain and proteasome activities in brown trout parr and smolts at age 3+ did not significantly differ. However, calpain activity was higher in smolts brown trout 4+ as compared with parr, while proteasome activity was lower. Results suggest that brown trout smoltification does not correspond with intense muscle growth and is more facultative and plastic in comparison with Atlantic salmon smoltification. Obtained data on muscle protein degradation capacity as well as length-weight parameters of fish reflect differences between salmon and trout in growth and smoltification strategies.

  15. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  16. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  17. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  18. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. A Practical Approach to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Seed Production

    OpenAIRE

    , Orhan Çakır

    2002-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) grows faster and has great disease resistance. Therefore this species has been preferred to culture for years. Fry production, feeding and management of broodstock are explained practically in order to increase profitability.

  20. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  1. Genetic variation in brown trout Salmo trutta across the Danube, Rhine, and Elbe headwaters: a failure of the phylogeographic paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Schliewen, Ulrich; Kopun, Theodora; Weiss, Steven

    2013-08-26

    Brown trout Salmo trutta have been described in terms of five major mtDNA lineages, four of which correspond to major ocean basins, and one, according to some authors, to a distinct taxon, marbled trout Salmo marmoratus. The Atlantic and Danubian lineages of brown trout meet in a poorly documented contact zone in Central Europe. The natural versus human mediated origin of the Atlantic lineage in the upper Danube is a question of both theoretical and practical importance with respect to conservation management. We provide a comprehensive population genetic analysis of brown trout in the region with the aim of evaluating the geographic distribution and genetic integrity of these two lineages in and around their contact zone. Genetic screening of 114 populations of brown trout across the Danube/Rhine/Elbe catchments revealed a counter-intuitive phylogeographic structure with near fixation of the Atlantic lineage in the sampled portions of the Bavarian Danube. Along the Austrian Danube, phylogeographic informative markers revealed increasing percentages of Danube-specific alleles with downstream distance. Pure Danube lineage populations were restricted to peri-alpine isolates within previously glaciated regions. Both empirical data and simulated hybrid comparisons support that trout in non-glaciated regions north and northeast of the Alps have an admixed origin largely based on natural colonization. In contrast, the presence of Atlantic basin alleles south and southeast of the Alps stems from hatchery introductions and subsequent introgression. Despite extensive stocking of the Atlantic lineage, little evidence of first generation stocked fish or F1 hybrids were found implying that admixture has been established over time. A purely phylogeographic paradigm fails to describe the distribution of genetic lineages of Salmo in Central Europe. The distribution pattern of the Atlantic and Danube lineages is extremely difficult to explain without invoking very strong

  2. Effects of cooking methods on electrophoretic patterns of rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemen Yanar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different cooking methods on the electrophoretic patterns of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fillets using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Raw rainbow trout were deep-fried, microwaved, grilled, and baked and then monitored for changes in the electrophoretic pattern. All cooking methods resulted in significant moisture loss when compared to the raw sample (P

  3. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  4. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  5. Interactive effects of dietary palm oil concentration and water temperature on lipid digestibility in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong; Campbell, Patrick J; Dick, James R; Bell, J Gordon

    2003-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary crude palm oil (CPO) concentration and water temperature on lipid and FA digestibility in rainbow trout. Four isolipidic diets with 0, 5, 10, or 20% (w/w) CPO, at the expense of fish oil, were formulated and fed to groups of trout maintained at water temperatures of 7, 10, or 15 degrees C. The apparent digestibility (AD) of the FA, measured using yttrium oxide as an inert marker, decreased with increasing chain length and increased with increasing unsaturation within each temperature regimen irrespective of CPO level fed to the fish. PUFA of the n-3 series were preferentially absorbed compared to n-6 PUFA in all diet and temperature treatments. Except for a few minor FA, a significant (P digestibility was found. Increasing dietary levels of CPO lead to significant reductions in the AD of saturates and, to a lesser extent, also of the other FA. Lowering water temperature reduced total saturated FA digestibility in trout regardless of CPO level. Based on the lipid class composition of trout feces, this reduction in AD of saturates was due in part to the increasing resistance of dietary TAG to digestion. Increasing CPO level and decreasing water temperature significantly increased TAG content in trout fecal lipids, with saturates constituting more than 60% of the FA composition. Total monoene and PUFA digestibilities were not significantly affected by water temperature in fish fed up to 10% CPO in their diet. The potential impact of reduced lipid and FA digestibility in cold-water fish fed diets supplemented with high levels of CPO on fish growth performance requires further research.

  6. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  7. Supplementation of Nellore young bulls on Marandu grass pastures in the dry period of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and daytime ingestive behavior of 84 Nellore young bulls in the post-weaning phase kept on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season. Treatments were protein mineral supplementation (1 g/kg body weight and protein+energy mineral supplementation (3 g/kg body weight. The experimental area comprised 12 paddocks in a total area of 27.36 ha, divided in two blocks of six paddocks each, having three replications per treatment in each block, with 42 animals/treatment. The data were subjected to variance analysis with repeated measures over time via procedure PROCMIXED of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.0 and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The initial average weight of animals was 204.8 kg; final weights were 260.9 and 276.9 kg for animals that received protein and protein+energy supplement, respectively. The forage availability, sward height and stocking rate values did not differ with supplementation, but they showed difference between the experimental periods. The average time spent grazing during daylight of animals fed protein+energy supplement was shorter as compared with those which consumed protein supplement. Animals kept under the same pasture conditions during the dry season show better performance when they receive protein+energy supplement than protein supplement.

  8. Qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed different levels of crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Machado Neto, O R; Lanna, D P D; Lopes, L S; Teixeira, P D; Ladeira, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed crude glycerin. Forty-four animals with an initial live weight of 368 ± 4 kg were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments: no glycerin or addition of 6, 12 or 18% glycerin. The animals were slaughtered with 519.5 ± 14.9 kg of live weight. The meat characteristics assessed were chemical composition, shear force, fatty acid concentration, color and lipid oxidation. The addition of glycerin increased the content of ether extract (P<0.05) in the muscle. A linear increase was observed (P<0.05) in the oleic acid contents (C18:1 cis 9). The saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents linearly decreased in the muscle as a function of glycerin addition. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) indices increased with the use of crude glycerin (P<0.05). The crude glycerin increased the intramuscular fat and oleic acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle. © 2013.

  9. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Miller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  10. Crude glycerine inclusion in Limousin bull diets: animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, M; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D; Villodre, C; Madrid, J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Hernández, F

    2014-12-01

    Three hundred and six Limousin young bulls (7±1months of age, initial body weight 273±43kg) were used to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine supplementation on animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. Animals were assigned to three different diets: Control (0% of crude glycerine), G2 and G4 (2 and 4% of crude glycerine, respectively). The diets were administrated ad libitum for 240days (final body weight 644±24kg). Average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, the gain:feed ratio, ultrasound measures in vivo, carcass characteristics, pH, water holding capacity, drip losses, and cooking losses were not affected (P>0.05) by diets. Diet decreased C16:0 (P<0.01) and C16:1 (P<0.05) contents in meat. The G4 meat showed lower C12:0, C14:0, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, c9,t11-c18:2, C20:0 and C20:4 levels (P<0.05) than control. Glycerine increased desirable fatty acid percentages (P<0.05) in intramuscular fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Overwintering of sea trout (Salmo trutta) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dennis; Koed, Anders; Nielsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta) show large phenotypic plasticity. Juveniles may reside in their native freshwater habitat until maturation or migrate into the ocean as 1- to 3-year-old smolts. Sea-going fish (sea trout) reside at sea for 2-3 years until migrating back to their native stream for reprod......Brown trout (Salmo trutta) show large phenotypic plasticity. Juveniles may reside in their native freshwater habitat until maturation or migrate into the ocean as 1- to 3-year-old smolts. Sea-going fish (sea trout) reside at sea for 2-3 years until migrating back to their native stream...... for reproduction. However, immature fish may leave the ocean during their first or second winter at sea and overwinter in freshwater. The question is why does this occur? We tested the hypothesis that hypo-osmoregulatory capacity is compromised by low temperature in two coastal sea trout populations, one...... representing high salinity and the other, low salinity. Immature sea-run trout were caught in lower parts of two rivers during winter and acclimated to laboratory conditions. Subgroups were challenged with high salinity or low water temperature or both, and their osmoregulatory performance was investigated...

  12. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus myki