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Sample records for evaluate alara performance

  1. Using Weibull Distribution Analysis to Evaluate ALARA Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Watkins, J.P.; Hagemeyer, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is the underlying principle for protecting nuclear workers from potential health outcomes related to occupational radiation exposure. Radiation protection performance is currently evaluated by measures such as collective dose and average measurable dose, which do not indicate ALARA performance. The purpose of this work is to show how statistical modeling of individual doses using the Weibull distribution can provide objective supplemental performance indicators for comparing ALARA implementation among sites and for insights into ALARA practices within a site. Maximum likelihood methods were employed to estimate the Weibull shape and scale parameters used for performance indicators. The shape parameter reflects the effectiveness of maximizing the number of workers receiving lower doses and is represented as the slope of the fitted line on a Weibull probability plot. Additional performance indicators derived from the model parameters include the 99th percentile and the exceedance fraction. When grouping sites by collective total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and ranking by 99th percentile with confidence intervals, differences in performance among sites can be readily identified. Applying this methodology will enable more efficient and complete evaluation of the effectiveness of ALARA implementation.

  2. Computer code for quantitative ALARA evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer code has been developed to simplify the determination of whether dose reduction actions meet the as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) criterion. The calculations are based on the methodology developed for the Atomic Industrial Forum. The code is used for analyses of eight types of dose reduction actions, characterized as follows: reduce dose rate, reduce job frequency, reduce productive working time, reduce crew size, increase administrative dose limit for the task, and increase the workers' time utilization and dose utilization through (a) improved working conditions, (b) basic skill training, or (c) refresher training for special skills. For each type of action, two analysis modes are available. The first is a generic analysis in which the program computes potential benefits (in dollars) for a range of possible improvements, e.g., for a range of lower dose rates. Generic analyses are most useful in the planning stage and for evaluating the general feasibility of alternative approaches. The second is a specific analysis in which the potential annual benefits of a specific level of improvement and the annual implementation cost are compared. The potential benefits reflect savings in operational and societal costs that can be realized if occupational radiation doses are reduced. Because the potential benefits depend upon many variables which characterize the job, the workplace, and the workers, there is no unique relationship between the potential dollar savings and the dose savings. The computer code permits rapid quantitative analyses of alternatives and is a tool that supplements the health physicist's professional judgment. The program output provides a rational basis for decision-making and a record of the assumptions employed

  3. ALARA tools and performance indicators at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitu, C.; Popescu, V.; Simionov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Work efficiency is an area of high concern to nuclear power plant operators. Job planning has to be done so that there will be enough time for ALARA actions to be implemented. The control of the activities involving radiological risk is part of ALARA Process. An effective control supposes the implementation of a process to systematically identify the activities performed in radiological areas. Plant Performance Indicators related to ionizing radiation exposure have been established to improve station safe performance. They are assessed and reported periodically to reflect the safe operation objectives. If target values are exceeded 'abnormal condition reports' are generated. Corrective and preventive actions aim at work planning, technical aspects, and human performance. All the staff is informed about these events and corrective actions described through the training program are implemented. (authors)

  4. An evaluation of high-dose jobs for ALARA improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, J. H.; Kim, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that about 70 percent of occupational dose have incurred from maintenance jobs at outage period. To reduce occupational dose, first, the high-dose jobs at the outage period should be identified and evaluated. For this, the database program is used, which contains the ORE data of reference plants, Kori Units 3 and 4. As a result, it is found that the jobs related to steam generator are the highest dose jobs in terms of collective ORE dose. From the analysis of the job procedures of those jobs, the ALARA improvements are also derived

  5. The Evaluation of personnel radiation dose and society radiation on RSG-GAS around as proposal determination of ALARA value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Made Udiyani; Puradwi IW

    2007-01-01

    Each nuclear installation to achieve radiation safety has to meet the ALARA concepts. The ALARA value of a nuclear installation should be enacted by regulator body. ALARA value can be determined by evaluation radiation exposure and dose acceptance of nuclear installation operation. As case study in Indonesia, ALARA assessment in nuclear installation is done at RSG-GAS reactor. Intention of this research is to determine gyration reference assess ALARA by evaluate radiation dose acceptance by RSG-GAS radiation personnel and the influence of RSG-GAS operation to presentation of radiation accepted by society which living around its. ALARA of RSG-GAS determined based on evaluation of measurement data of the radiation doses which is accepted by personnel radiation. While evaluation of radiation doses which is accepted by society in the radius 5 km of the RSG-GAS conducted to data result of calculation using program package of CAP-88 and measurement result with method of carborne survey. Result of radiation dose evaluation obtained which not pass dose definition for the radiation worker that is 50 mSv/year, and for society around RSG-GAS that is 5 mSv/year. Based on the result of evaluation hence obtained value of ALARA for RSG-GAS in value of gyration 17 - 50 mSv/year. (author)

  6. Applying the ALARA concept to the evaluation of vesicoureteric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Richard S.; Diamond, David A. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a widely used study to define lower urinary tract anatomy and to diagnose vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in children. We examine the technical advances in the VCUG and other examinations for reflux that have reduced radiation exposure of children, and we give recommendations for the use of imaging studies in four groups of children: (1) children with urinary tract infection, (2) siblings of patients with VUR, (3) infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), and (4) children with a solitary functioning kidney. By performing examinations with little to no radiation, carefully selecting only the children who need imaging studies and judiciously timing follow-up examinations, we can reduce the radiation exposure of children being studied for reflux. (orig.)

  7. Applying the ALARA concept to the evaluation of vesicoureteric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Richard S.; Diamond, David A.; Chow, Jeanne S.

    2006-01-01

    The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a widely used study to define lower urinary tract anatomy and to diagnose vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in children. We examine the technical advances in the VCUG and other examinations for reflux that have reduced radiation exposure of children, and we give recommendations for the use of imaging studies in four groups of children: (1) children with urinary tract infection, (2) siblings of patients with VUR, (3) infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), and (4) children with a solitary functioning kidney. By performing examinations with little to no radiation, carefully selecting only the children who need imaging studies and judiciously timing follow-up examinations, we can reduce the radiation exposure of children being studied for reflux. (orig.)

  8. Strengthening ALARA approach in work management at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, Z.; Sirola, P.

    1999-01-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) occupational exposures at nuclear power plants should be included in work management as a concept. There are world-wide trends required by the utilities for improved design, operation and maintenance. Within the period of seventeen years of plant operation maintaining low radiation exposures requires additional efforts. The benefit of this effort should be reducing risks to nuclear workers, better work planning and performance. The Krsko Plant ALARA organisations has been revised recently and built on different levels of the hierarchy. The goal is to promote good industry practice and the management of work on primary systems. The established ALARA programme describes the objectives and defines the procedures and tools for its implementation. Brief presentation of the programme as well as organisational responsibilities of dedicated ALARA committee and working groups is the scope of this paper. The management tools and ALARA indicators are discussed to implement the programme and to evaluate the results.(author)

  9. Alara and radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Wall, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    Specific items of diagnostic radiology facing the application to the ALARA approach are described, there differentiating among workers and patients. The convenience of assessing monetary values for the person. Sv in both cases is emphasized. The paper analyses some of the different steps to be considered in the optimization of diagnostic radiology installations, namely, rooms design and equipment selection, possibly modifications in installations currently working, requesting of radiological examinations, performing examinations and information exploitation. Some practical matters related to workers and patients are discussed, quoting several specific examples of optimization. The paper suggests, as conclusion, some practical guidelines of the stages to be covered along with the application of the ALARA approach

  10. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  11. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  12. Alara in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews how the general frameworks of the ALARA procedures, ALARA Audits and Predictive ALARA Plans can be used in the non-nuclear power sector to give practical effect to the concept of optimization. The development of the use of ALARA Audits as an integral part of a Radiation Protection Adviser service and our experience of this structured approach is described. Particular attention is drawn to the use of site specific reference levels to trigger graded levels of response to increasing doses. Also several examples of the use of Cost Benefit Analysis within the ALARA Procedure are briefly described

  13. Radiation worker: the ALARA key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedon, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a simple concept that has come to be a complicated and expensive regulatory goal. There are essentially three factors that can be manipulated to achieve ALARA: (1) radionuclide inventory (source), (2) physical arrangement (primarily distance and shielding); (3) radiation worker performance (radiation safety responsibilities and functions). Of these three elements, item 3 is utilized the least and yet has the greatest potential for reducing exposure per dollar expended. By establishing a relationship with radiation workers consisting of credible leadership and expecting the radiation workers to be responsible for specific elements of radiological safety. Health Physics can gain a degree of cooperation and performance that will provide significant ALARA gains at a very small expense

  14. ALARA development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.A.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col Lomas de Barrilaco (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980`s, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section's Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance

  16. ALARA and radiation protection optimization status of Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, D.I.

    2000-01-01

    ALARA in Radiation Protection is specifically applied as a tool in lowering B the risk of high exposure when performing necessary activities by reducing the doses as much and as reasonably possible. Is ALARA also a matter of IMAGE? ALARA is one of the main aspects that contributes to forming the image of a certain facility. Many experiences in the world show a decrease in the collective dose per station after proper ALARA implementation. This trend is more relevant for 'adult' nuclear sites. At Cernavoda NPP the authorization process itself included implementation of an effective ALARA program. (author)

  17. Overview, what is ALARA? Are we there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) in radiation protection at nuclear power plants is a complex criterion involving decisions requiring both professional judgement and quantitation. Professional judgement has been emphasized in most plants to date. However, unless quantitative studies are made it will be difficult to judge if doses at US plants are ALARA. An ALARA assessment for each plant is suggested, which would include evaluations of both qualitative, e.g., organizational, and quantitative, e.g., cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness, efforts. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-03-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs.

  19. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-03-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs.

  20. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-03-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs

  1. VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning and communication tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeersch, F.

    2006-01-01

    Human operations are required in nuclear installation, during maintenance, outage, repair and decommissioning. This leads to the exposure of the worker to radiation. It is clear that these operations must be performed according to the ALARA principle (to reduce the dose As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The person responsible for planning the job needs to evaluate different scenarios based on the exposure of the worker. This involves the manipulation of a lot of information specific to the work place such as the geometry, materials, radiological and technical boundary conditions to assess the dose. A lot of communication between the ALARA stakeholders is needed during this pre-job study. A communication that can be cumbersome and tedious when based on written documents and paper plans. The use of 3D calculation and simulation tools provide a solution to this problem. They provide an excellent means to make the above mentioned process more efficient and effective by calculating and visualising the environment and the associated radiological risk. The VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool is developed and designed by SCK-CEN as a dose assessment tool enabling the user to calculate the dose in a 3D environment for work scenarios. This software is very successful in the ALARA field. At present 22 companies in Europe use the VISIPLAN software in the field of dose assessment in maintenance and decommissioning. Recent developments and applications are discussed

  2. What is ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.; Dickson, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy as it applies to personnel radiation exposure has been with us for a long time. The essential tenets of this philosophy surfaced quite early in the history of the Manhattan Project. Although the terminology has suffered through various translations and the application has seen many organizations and agencies come and go, the principles remain as valid today as ever. It is regretable that some regulatory agencies claim ALARA as their newfound miracle drug and that application according to their prescriptions will result in endless rounds of cyclical improvement in radiation protection practices. Others have taken advantage of the popularity of ALARA and have bastardized the philosophy to mean whatever is expedient for their purposes. In this paper, we review briefly the history of ALARA and what it seemingly means to different interest groups and offer a balanced viewpoint that health physicists should adopt

  3. The european ALARA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croueail, P.; Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s the European Commission sponsored projects on the understanding and practical implementation of the ALARA principle. These projects helped ensure that ALARA was integrated into many organisations radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry. However there was still much to be done in the non-nuclear sector, as well as for the management of internal exposure. Therefore, the European Commission decided to set up, as of the first January 1996, a European ALARA Network (EAN) whose main goals are to: Further promote ALARA within non nuclear industry, research and the nuclear cycle; Provide a means for feedback experience and the exchange and dissemination of good radiological protection practices in these areas; Initiate proposals for research projects and workshops on topics dealing with optimisation of radiological protection for all types of occupational exposure. The Network has a Steering Committee of experts from 11 countries, with CEPN being the co-ordinator. Twice yearly, the EAN products for the international community a European ALARA Newsletter that reaches several thousand individuals or institutions, mainly in Europe. Each year since 1997, the EAN has organised an ALARA workshop attended by 60 to 80 experts from about ten countries. The first three Workshops were devoted to: ALARA and Decommissioning (1997, Saclay, France), Good Radiation Practices in Industry and Research (1998, Chilton, United Kingdam), and ALARA and Internal Exposure (1999, Munich, Germany). Each of these Workshops gave rise to sets of recommendations to the European Commission which included proposals for further research, modification of regulations, and actions to support feedback experience within the member states. (author)

  4. Optimization (ALARA) of radiation protection at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weadock, A.A.; Jones, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Maintaining worker and public exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is a key objective of the Department of Energy (DOE). Responsibility for occupational ALARA program policy and guidance resides within the DOE Office of Health. Current Office of Health initiatives related to ALARA include the development of additional regulatory guidance related to ALARA program implementation at DOE contractor facilities, the review of ALARA program status at various facilities and the production of technical reports summarizing this status, and the support of various mechanisms to improve communication among the DOE ALARA community. The Office of Health also monitors revisions to radiogenic risk estimates and radiation protection recommendations to evaluate adequacy of current DOE limits and impacts of potentially revised limits. (author)

  5. ALARA and planning of interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocaboy, A. [Electricite de France, Avoine (France)

    1995-03-01

    The implementation of ALARA programs implies integration of radiation protection criterion at all stages of outage management. Within the framework of its ALARA policy, Electricide de France (EDF) has given an incentive to all of its nuclear power plants to develop {open_quotes}good practices{close_quotes} in this domain, and to exchange their experience by the way of a national feed back file. Among the developments in the field of outage organization, some plants have focused on the planning stage of activities because of its influence on the radiological conditions of interventions and on the good succession of tasks within the radiological controlled areas. This paper presents the experience of Chinon nuclear power plant. At Chinon, we are pursuing this goal through careful outage planning. We want the ALARA program during outages to be part of the overall maintenance task planning. This planning includes the provision of the availability of every safety-related component, and of the variations of water levels in hthereactor and steam generators to take advantage of the shield created by the water. We have developed a computerized data base with the exact position of all the components in the reactor building in order to avoid unnecessary interactions between different tasks performed in the same room. A common language between Operation and Maintenance had been established over the past years, using {open_quotes}Milestones and Corridors{close_quotes}. A real time dose rate counting system enables the Radiation Protection (RP) Department to do an accurate and efficient follow up during the outage for all the {open_quotes}ALARA{close_quotes} maintenance tasks.

  6. ALARA training at INSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Lefaure, C.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990 the CEPN, the National Radiological Protection Board and the INSTN organized for the first time in Europe one teaching specifically established to radioprotection optimization. This training has allowed to spread the experience of the best european specialists while guaranteeing a wide exchange between the participants coming from different countries. At the national level the training ALARA goes on at the INSTN-Saclay. Its aim is to give base notions, the methods and the tools allowing the implementation of the ALARA concept, and to privilege the exchange between the participants coming from different horizons. 2 refs., 2 figs

  7. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI's low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan

  8. ALARA for the practical person

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The increasing significance of ALARA in recent years has spawned numerous articles and complex technological means to achieve as low as reasonably achievable. The available body of literature on ALARA has grown so large and complex that it is an overwhelming and virtually impossible task for a single individual to remain abreast of it. Regulatory requirements and interpretations of ALARA further add to the difficulties of the operational radiation protection staff seeking ALARA. The practical person can, however, promote and provide ALARA by recalling and applying certain simple principles, including the following, which will be discussed in depth: (1) ALARA is basic and fundamental to any program of radiological protection, and as such the ALARA program or practices must be specifically identifiable. (2) ALARA is a never ending quest, and much like the speed of light or halving the distance to the goal, can really never be reached in a theoretical sense. (3) ALARA is not necessarily synonymous with dose reduction, and certainly does not involve ever continuous reduction in dose. (4) There is no single monetary value applicable to a unit of dose; rather each incremental unit of dose must be examined in the total context of the exposure situation. (5) ALARA involves professional opinion and judgment; responsible and qualified professional health physicists may differ in their opinions as to what constitutes ALARA

  9. Practical quantitative measures of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Larson, H.V.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty specific quantitative measures to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) programs are described along with their applicability, practicality, advantages, disadvantages, and potential for misinterpretation or dortion. Although no single index or combination of indices is suitable for all facilities, generally, these five: (1) mean individual dose equivalent (MIDE) to the total body from penetrating radiations; (2) statistical distribution of MIDE to the whole body from penetrating radiations; (3) cumulative penetrating whole body dose equivalent; (4) MIDE evaluated by job classification; and (5) MIDE evaluated by work location-apply to most programs. Evaluation of other programs may require other specific dose equivalent based indices, including extremity exposure data, cumulative dose equivalent to organs or to the general population, and nonpenetrating radiation dose equivalents. Certain nondose equivalent indices, such as the size of the radiation or contamination area, may also be used; an airborne activity index based on air concentration, room volume, and radiotoxicity is developed for application in some ALARA programs

  10. Maintaining occupational dose ALARA through work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Canadian philosophy in keeping occupational dose ALARA has been to train staff in radiation safety so that they can be fully responsible for participating in minimizing the risks associated with the hazardous work. Senior managers actively promote high standards of performance in dose reduction techniques as a means for integrating ALARA into the operation and maintenance of the station by all personnel. Minimizing radiation dose is accomplished by applying cost effective work management techniques such as Job Safety Analysis, pre-job briefings and establishing and achieving radiation dose goals. Radiation dose goals are used as a management tool for involving all work groups in reducing doses as well as providing a means of assessing the effectiveness of dose reduction actions. ALARA, along with conventional safety, is used as a lever to raise the standard of quality of work and to overall build a safety culture. (author). 4 figs

  11. How reasonable is ALARA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear extrapolation of the established dose-effect relation at higher doses was accepted as a simple working hypothesis to determine dose limits for professional radiation personnel. It has been misused, however, for calculations of population risks in the very low dose region. This lead to an overestimation of radiation hazards by the public, followed by an overregulation of radiation protection. The ALARA recommendations of ICRP - justification of radiation application, optimisation of protection, and protection of the individual, - was aimed at counterpoising this trend and elucidate the aims of radiation protection. But even the ALARA principle will only be successful if it is applied with reason. The lend more weight to reason in radiation protection, an award for FS members is proposed, as well as an anti-award for the most nonsensical action in radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  12. ALARA: Progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper has two main topics. The first part describes the establishment and work of the ALARA Center; the second part presents some results of studies at the Center with international data on doses at PWR plants. This data then is used to reach a preliminary understanding of some of the factors that are causing high doses at PWRs. This approach should help in reducing occupational exposures in a more effective manner

  13. ALARA/ALARP distinguished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the term ALARA, ''as low as reasonably achievable'' and the term ALARP ''as low as reasonably practicable'' are used in regulations, in conditions in licenses, in assessment principles and in guidance notes used in the nuclear industry. In fact the ALARA principle is a cornerstone on which much of radiation protection regulation is based. The words ''reasonably practicable'' in ALARP have an established meaning in UK law and are used extensively in statutes and regulations, in particular The Health and Safety Act 1974. The Select Committee of the House of Lords on the European Communities in 1986 concluded that public opinion will play a much larger part in deciding the future of nuclear power than is usual with questions of science and technology. Under the circumstances it is important to industry and the general public for the terms used in legislation to be clear and unambiguous. This paper by distinguishing the terms ALARA/ALARP, sets the scene for a more disciplined use of the terms. (author)

  14. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners

  15. Steam generator replacement from ALARA aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, I.; Breznik, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is going to consider radiological related parameters important for steam generator replacement (SGR) implementation. These parameters are identified as ALARA related parameters, owner-contractor relationship, planning, health physics with logistic services, and time required for the replacement. ALARA related parameters such as source or initial dose rate and plant system configuration define the initial conditions for the planning. There is room to optimise work planning. managerial procedures and also the staff during the implementation phase. The overview of these general considerations is based on the following background: using internationally available data and the experience of one of the vendors, i.e. Siemens-Framatome, and management experience of SG replacement which took place at Krsko NPP in the spring of 2000. Generally plant decisions on maintenance or repair procedures under radiation conditions take into account ALARA considerations. But in the main it is difficult to adjudge the results of an ALARA study, usually in the form of a collective dose estimate, because a comparison standard is missing. That is, very often the planned work is of a one-off nature so comparisons are not possible or the scopes are not the same. In such a case the collective doses for other types of work are looked at and a qualitative evaluation is made. In the case of steam generator replacement this is not the case. Over years of steam generator replacements world-wide a standard has been developed gradually. The first part of the following displays an overview of SGR and sets the Krsko SGR in perspective by applying dose analysis. The second part concentrates on the Krsko SGR itself and its ALARA aspects. (authors)

  16. What is Alara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Lochard, J.; Lombard, J.; Croft, J.; Fleishman, A.; Webb, G.

    1986-09-01

    The system of dose limitation recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection formulates three radiation protection principles: 1) the so-called justification principle which states that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit; 2) the so-called optimisation principle which states that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; 3) the limitation of individual dose which insures that the dose equivalent to an individual shall not exceed the limits recommended by the ICRP. Acknowledging the fact that these requirements are interrelated, this report is devoted to a presentation of the second principle, assuming that the two other ones are satisfied. As defined by ICRP, the optimisation principle is strictly equivalent with the commonly known ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). ALARA may be considered altogether as a guiding principle for radiological protection management, as well as a procedure allowing the implementation of this principle

  17. EAN - The European ALARA Network; EAN - Le Reseau ALARA Europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hanning, A. [Office federal de la radioprotection (BfS) (Germany); Crouail, P.; Drouet, F. [Centre d' etude sur l' evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire (CEPN) (France); Shaw, P. [Agence de protection sanitaire (HPA) (United Kingdom); Vermeersch, F. [EAN, Centre d' etude de l' energie nucleaire (SCK-CEN) (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    The optimisation of radiation protection, or ALARA principle, which requires that exposures to ionising radiation be kept as low as reasonably achievable taking into account economic and societal factors, is the cornerstone of the radiation protection system since the late eighties. For many years now, cooperation of experts from different professional backgrounds and different organisations in the European ALARA Network (EAN) has significantly contributed to the development of the ALARA principle and its practical implementation in a range of radiation protection areas in Europe. This contribution presents the evolution and key activities of EAN as well as its mode of operation aiming at sharing experience and disseminating the ALARA culture in all relevant domains. It also describes the new challenges facing EAN and the strategic objectives of the Network for the forthcoming years. (author)

  18. Alara and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstrom, B.

    1989-01-01

    All occupational radiation doses come out as a product of dose rates and exposure time, ie man-hours. In most cases there is not very much to be done about the dose rates, but by means of work management a lot can still be achieved. Non-technical factors which have an influence on the radiation doses are, for instance, work planning and co-ordination, training and know-how, optimization of the work force, health physics practice and time scheduling. These work management factors can be put to use at any nuclear power plant, regardless modern and clean or old and hot. As ALARA through work management in most cases means minimization of man-hours, it is worth while in two senses: One can save radiation doses and one can save money at the same time

  19. Environmental ALARA Program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) follows the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) philosophy of keeping radiation doses to the general public as low as practical by minimizing radioactive releases to the environment. SRS accomplishes this goal by establishing challenging sitewide and area-specific Environmental ALARA Release Guides and trending radioactive releases against these guides on a monthly basis. The SRS Environmental ALARA Program, mandated by DOE Order 5400.5, is a dose-based program that has gone through many changes and improvements in recent years. A description of the SRS Environmental ALARA Program and its performance is presented in this paper. Recent SRS studies of the ''Zero Release'' option also are described

  20. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials

  1. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, W.M.

    1995-06-06

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials.

  2. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.; Pfeffer, W.; Zeevaert, T.

    1995-01-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe

  3. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  4. Evaluating remote control and robotics actions in NPPs in an ALARA perspective: lessons from the evolution of steam generator tube plugging technique in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Lochard, J.; Blain, A.

    1989-01-01

    Introducing remote tooling and robotics in NPPs raises many questions. Is it better to develop specific robotic tools for each type of operation, or to conceive more generic multipurpose tool carriers. Does the introduction of remote control and robotics always reduce human involvement and collective doses. What are the impacts on individual doses distribution for the most exposed operators. Under what conditions is robotics justified from an economical point of view. Even if robotics and remote tooling actions can reduce significantly individual and collective exposures, because of their high costs of development, they will be adopted only if simultaneously the potential for operational cost savings is also clearly demonstrated. Integrating operational cost savings in the cost evaluation of the ALARA procedure is important to compare and select among different robotics and remote control actions. This paper presents how to evaluate in a systematic way dose reductions, operational costs savings as well as the conditions under which robotics and remote control actions can effectively improve occupational radiation protection in NPPs. The demonstration is based on an analysis of the evolution of the steam generator tube plugging technique developed in French PWRs

  5. The Alara principle in backfitting Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurs, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive backfitting program, the Modifications Project, was carried out at the Borssele Nuclear Power Station. It involved sixteen modifications to technical systems. The scope of activities, and the dose rates encountered in places where work was to be performed, made it obvious from the outset that a high collective dose had to be anticipated. As a consequence, radiation protection within the project was organized in such a way that applicable radiation protection principles were applied in all phases of the project. From the point of view of radiation protection, the Modifications Project had to be subdivided into three phases, i.e., a conceptual design phase in which mainly the justification principle was applied; the engineering phase in which the Alara principle was employed; the execution phase in which management of the (internal) dose limits had to be observed in addition to the Alara principle. Throughout all project phases, radiation protection considerations and results were documented in so-called Alara reports and radiation protection checklists. As a result of the strictest possible observance of radiation protection principles in all phases of the project, a collective dose of 2505 mSv was achieved, which stands for a reduction by a factor of 4 compared to the very first estimate. In view of the scope and complex nature of the activities involved, and the radiation levels in the Borssele Nuclear Power Station, this is an excellent result. (orig.) [de

  6. ALARA application in Spanish NPP's. New approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnel, P.; Labarta, T.; Amor, I.

    1996-01-01

    One main objective of all nuclear installations is to underlie the principle of optimization. The focus in the application of this principle varies considerably, from cost-benefit techniques in the design phases to commitment, attitude and motivation in operation. The ALARA principle should permeate the entire organisation of the company during operation. Management should be the first link of a chain originating with explicit corporate commitment, leading to increasingly specific decisions, finally to reach those who are responsible for actual performance of each task. The safety culture is an element integrating the mentality that is to prevail throughout the organisation. The organisation shall contribute to incorporating the principle of optimization in all plant operations and all phases of activity. Management's commitment and motivation are transferred to all the workers and organisations involved. The ALARA commitment naturally extends to all outside organisations. The ultimate objective is to reduce collective doses through the promotion and enforcing of an ALARA culture and compliance with the operating collective dose objectives. (author)

  7. ALARA for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is outlined in connection with nuclear power plant operations. The basis of the concept is reviewed and a specific example of ALARA action is presented. (author)

  8. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  9. Gentilly - 2 NGS ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheaume, Michel R.

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide-based oral presentation given to the COG/IAEA: Fifth technical committee meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors' held in Mangalia, Romania on 7-10 September 1998. The operation experience of Gentilly -1 and Gentilly - 2 nuclear power stations is summarized. The radiation protection philosophy is addressed, the orange/yellow/green RP qualifications are explained and the ALARA Program objectives are described. The criteria used to develop the Gentilly - 2 station ALARA Program are presented. The program is based on: strong Hydro Quebec commitments, organization (responsibilities well defined); ALARA Committee; tools; procedures; good documentation. Description of the program is given then in details. Measures for dose and radioactive sources reduction are presented. Collective doses recorded at Gentilly - 2 between 1984 and 1997 are plotted and figures are given in a table

  10. Report on the PWR-radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, D.J. [Consumers Power Co., Covert, MI (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, representatives from several utilities with operational Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) formed the PWR-Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee. The mission of the Committee is to facilitate open communications between member utilities relative to radiation protection and ALARA issues such that cost effective dose reduction and radiation protection measures may be instituted. While industry deregulation appears inevitable and inter-utility competition is on the rise, Committee members are fully committed to sharing both positive and negative experiences for the benefit of the health and safety of the radiation worker. Committee meetings provide current operational experiences through members providing Plant status reports, and information relative to programmatic improvements through member presentations and topic specific workshops. The most recent Committee workshop was facilitated to provide members with defined experiences that provide cost effective ALARA performance.

  11. ALARA and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Perin, M.; Saumon, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the request of Electricite de France (EDF) and Framatome, the Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) developed a three-year research project, between 1991 and 1993, to evaluate the impact of various work management factors that can influence occupational exposures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to assess the effectiveness of protective actions implemented to reduce them. Three different categories of factors have been delineated: those linked to working conditions (such as ergonomic of work areas and protective suits), those characterizing the operators (qualification, experience level, motivation, etc.). In order to quantify the impact of these factors, a detailed survey was carried out in five French NPPs, focusing on three types of operations: primary valves maintenance, decontamination of reactor cavity, and specialized maintenance operations on the steam generator. This survey was augmented by a literature review on the influence of open-quotes hostileclose quotes environment on working conditions. Finally, a specific study was performed in order to quantify the impact of various types of protective suits used in French nuclear installations according to the type of work to be done. All of these factors have been included in a model aiming at quantifying the effectiveness of protection actions, both from dosimetric and economic point of views

  12. ALARA and work management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C. [Centre d`etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Perin, M. [Environmental Radiation Protection and Security Dept., Saint-Denis (France); Saumon, P. [Framatome, Lyon (France)

    1995-03-01

    At the request of Electricite de France (EDF) and Framatome, the Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) developed a three-year research project, between 1991 and 1993, to evaluate the impact of various work management factors that can influence occupational exposures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to assess the effectiveness of protective actions implemented to reduce them. Three different categories of factors have been delineated: those linked to working conditions (such as ergonomic of work areas and protective suits), those characterizing the operators (qualification, experience level, motivation, etc.). In order to quantify the impact of these factors, a detailed survey was carried out in five French NPPs, focusing on three types of operations: primary valves maintenance, decontamination of reactor cavity, and specialized maintenance operations on the steam generator. This survey was augmented by a literature review on the influence of {open_quotes}hostile{close_quotes} environment on working conditions. Finally, a specific study was performed in order to quantify the impact of various types of protective suits used in French nuclear installations according to the type of work to be done. All of these factors have been included in a model aiming at quantifying the effectiveness of protection actions, both from dosimetric and economic point of views.

  13. Catawba nuclear station preoperational ALARA review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the particular emphasis placed on preoperational as los as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations at Duke Power's Catawba Nuclear Station. A strong station commitment to the ALARA philosophy, and review of existing capabilities, led to development of an aggressive two-part ALARA program. Capabilities consisted of sufficient numbers of available personnel, lengthy lead time during construction, a very detailed plastic model, and a sister plant of similar design. The program, as developed, consisted of a preoperational program, which looked at design and construction aspects of ALARA, and the operational program, dealing with the ALARA committee and operational problems. MAnagement's philosophy of holding everyone responsible for ALARA provided the motivation to organize the preoperational program to use that resource. The Health Physics group accepted responsibility for development, coordination, and reviewer training. The problem provided a base to build on as station personnel gained experience in their own crafts and radiation protection in general

  14. ALARA and radiation protection optimization status of Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) in Radiation Protection is specifically applied as a tool in lowering the risk of exposure when performing necessary activities, leading to a reduction of individual and collective doses of workers as much and as reasonable possible. (authors)

  15. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA

  16. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA.

  17. Integrating ALARA into work planning and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Robb, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents various organizational structures and systematic approaches that can be of benefit in integrating ALARA into work planning and organization. It is possible to have elegant policy statements, procedures and organizations and yet fail to implement ALARA effectively. The real key to success in ALARA work management is to recognize that ALARA is primarily a way of thinking and to secure the commitment of individuals at all levels within the organization, from senior management to workers carrying out specific tasks. The authors explain that the recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 will have an impact and will maintain the downward pressure on individual doses. 6 figs

  18. The preliminary success of ALARA implementation in Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Maochun; Chen Degan

    2000-01-01

    Based on the practical condition of the plant and in reference to advanced management experiences worldwide, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant has established its own peculiar management system for radiation protection management and ALARA implementation. The characteristics of the system are: radiation protection training to all workers, active involvement of all managers and staffs, and whole process safety control to maintenance activities. The management philosophy of 'workers are responsible for their own radiation safety' is adopted in the plant. A strict, formalized and systematic whole staff radiation protection training, evaluation, authorization and periodically refreshing mechanism had been established and executed in the plant. In the organizational point of view, the responsibilities of line managers were specified in plant procedures, ALARA coordination organization on plant level and for specific activities were established. Meanwhile, the plant highlighted the defining, following up, controlling and advertising of radiation protection targets. All these measures made radiation protection management be the responsibilities of a safety network in which whole staffs are involved. In the practical radiation protection activities, the plant focuses on works of high radiation risk and performs whole process control. In addition, professional radiation protection staff played an important and active role in technical advisory and control of radiation protection. Satisfactory results have been achieved in Daya Bay NPP in radiation protection in the past years. The collective dose including that of contractors per unit and year have been declining from 0.99 man·Sv/Unit·Year in 1995 to 0.667 man·Sv/Unit·Year in 1998, which were consistently lower than the best quartile result of PWR plants in WANO reports each year. Individual dose was also controlled at a very low level, no one was overexposed in the past years

  19. Chernobyl information: The ALARA backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, C.

    2000-01-01

    The risk information to the public failed after the Chernobyl accident, also in countries where radiation protection authorities and experts initially enjoyed public confidence. In contrast to many other large accidents, the responsibility for the information failure stays mainly with the authorities and experts themselves, not with the mass media. Many factors together caused the radiation risk information from SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute), and its sister authorities in many other countries, to be confusing and inadequate, despite the best of intentions. The two major malefactors were the handling of food contamination restrictions and the short-sighted risk optimisation by applying the ALARA principle. In addition, the assurance that the Chernobyl contamination was fairly harmless made no sense to the layman, as a massive array of controlling procedures was enforced simultaneously. The food regulations became unfortunately focused on becquerel per kilogram limits instead of the primary goal, a dose reduction per year, corresponding to an yearly intake of Cs-137. The lesson learned is that the risk significant long-term intake ambition must be understood and digested by laymen and media, before any secondary limits, e.g. the activity concentration of foodstuffs expressed as becquerel per kg, for controlling or trading purposes, are introduced. As it were, the experts and authorities lost credibility, due to what people considered as ambiguities. The concept of ALARA (As Low As Readily Achievable) is in the backbone of every ionising radiation expert, and a useful strategy for optimising dose burdens during controlled situations. In connection to the Chernobyl accident many advices to the public was given based on the ALARA principle. 'Rinse leafy vegetables' sounds at first very reasonable, cheap and innocent, but if the averted dose is low, such an advice should not be given. The individual dose-reduction should be weighted against all negative

  20. Alara - from theory towards practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Lombard, J.; Stokell, P.J.; Croft, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Alara principle states that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. It is a simple concept - the idea behind it is widely used in nearly all spheres of life, i.e. to do the best one can under the given circumstances. This book aims to help define what is meant by best in the context of radiation protection. It describes a procedure that is useful in structuring one's approach to any particular situation where a decision as to the best course of action is required. It also provides practical guidance on how the concept can be incorporated into radiation protection programmes. This book has been written as a reference manual on both the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. But it is especially targeted at those involved in radiation protection at the practical level

  1. Can practical ALARA be taught?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, R. Monty

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Outside of the nuclear industry, many users of sources of ionising radiation may be characterised as 'High Frequency/Low Dose' users. It is argued here that they have special training requirements in order to understand the ICRP concept ALARA, indeed all the fundamental concepts of radiological protection and their relevance to the workplace. It is not practicable to practise dose avoidance in many situations so dose reduction becomes even more important. For example, laboratory life sciences researchers often have to use very small quantities and activities of beta emitting radioisotopes which give small or minuscule external doses to well trained workers but can give extremely serious high doses if mishandled Similarly, dentists routinely use 60- 100 kV X-ray generators to diagnose abnormalities and disease which other techniques would fail to detect. By practising simple and effective dose reduction methods, they can reduce the dose to themselves and their patients to arguably trivial levels. Method: The paper will use examples from Radiation Protection Supervisors courses run over the past 6 years for UK pharmaceutical companies and research into courses for general dental practitioners run over the past 8 years in East Anglia, England. The latter courses must meet the requirements laid down in the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 and the requirements of the professional dental association, the British Dental Council, and the continuing professional development requirements of the dental registration body, the General Dental Council. Major Findings and Conclusions: The research findings show an urgent need to train dental practitioners in the concepts and practical aspects of dose avoidance and dose minimisation, social and economic factors being considered. Pharmaceutical company research Radiation Protection Supervisors are generally well trained but also need to know the practical implications of the ALARA principle

  2. Report on the BWR owners group radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, L.R. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiation protection programs at U.S. boiling water reactor (BWR) stations have evolved during the 1980s and early 1990s from a regulatory adherence-based endeavor to a proactive, risk-based radiation protection and prevention mission. The objectives are no longer to merely monitor and document exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The focus of the current programs is the optimization of radiation protection of occupational workers consistent with the purpose of producing cost-effective electric power. The newly revised 10 CFR 20 defines the term ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) to take into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of the technology, and the benefits to the public health and safety. The BWR Owners Group (BWROG) initially formed the Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee in January 1990 to evaluate methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure during refueling outages. Currently, twenty U.S. BWR owner/operators (representing 36 of the operational 37 domestic BWR units), as well as three foreign BWR operators (associate members), have broadened the scope to promote information exchange between BWR radiation protection professionals and develop good practices which will affect optimization of their radiation protection programs. In search of excellence and the challenge of becoming {open_quotes}World Class{close_quotes} performers in radiation protection, the BWROG Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee has recently accepted a role in assisting the member utilities in improving radiation protection performance in a cost-effective manner. This paper will summarize the recent activities of this Committee undertaken to execute their role of exchanging information in pursuit of optimizing the improvement of their collective radiation protection performance.

  3. Report on the BWR owners group radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation protection programs at U.S. boiling water reactor (BWR) stations have evolved during the 1980s and early 1990s from a regulatory adherence-based endeavor to a proactive, risk-based radiation protection and prevention mission. The objectives are no longer to merely monitor and document exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The focus of the current programs is the optimization of radiation protection of occupational workers consistent with the purpose of producing cost-effective electric power. The newly revised 10 CFR 20 defines the term ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) to take into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of the technology, and the benefits to the public health and safety. The BWR Owners Group (BWROG) initially formed the Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee in January 1990 to evaluate methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure during refueling outages. Currently, twenty U.S. BWR owner/operators (representing 36 of the operational 37 domestic BWR units), as well as three foreign BWR operators (associate members), have broadened the scope to promote information exchange between BWR radiation protection professionals and develop good practices which will affect optimization of their radiation protection programs. In search of excellence and the challenge of becoming open-quotes World Classclose quotes performers in radiation protection, the BWROG Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee has recently accepted a role in assisting the member utilities in improving radiation protection performance in a cost-effective manner. This paper will summarize the recent activities of this Committee undertaken to execute their role of exchanging information in pursuit of optimizing the improvement of their collective radiation protection performance

  4. ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology

  5. Application of the ALARA principle to the bleed condenser relief valve replacement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.; Kraft, J.

    1997-01-01

    Darlington Nuclear Generating Division's achievements in radiation dose performance can be attributed, in part, to adherence to the ALARA principle. The station's ALARA program, which is an integral part of the safety culture, derives its strength from a strong and unwavering commitment by the site Vice President. This commitment is supported by performance standards and an accountability system which holds managers and supervisors responsible for dose performance. A LAN-based hazard and dose information system with site-wide accessibility was established to facilitate work planning and exposure control. The principle of dose optimization is fully integrated into the work management process and includes work planning, progress monitoring and post-job review. An integrated performance assessment and reporting system also provides timely feedback to management on dose performance. An example of the ALARA program was the bleed condenser relieve valve replacement project. Pre-job ALARA review meetings for the project were held with supervisory staff and technicians to discuss job details and dose reduction measures. All work groups were required to prepare a detailed step be step task safety analysis (TSA). The trades and engineering staff were requested to critique the TSA and suggest ways of reducing dose. Over 30 practical ALARA suggestions were received and adopted for implementation. Daily meetings were held to review job progress and the effectiveness exposure control. A post-job ALARA review was held at the conclusion of each project to obtain feedback and lessons learned. All improvement suggestions were reviewed for implementation during subsequent installations. As a result of the ALARA initiatives, significant dose savings were achieved. The normalized dose expenditure has been reduced from 9.6 rem for the first installation to 6.9 rem for the fourth and last installation. (author)

  6. ALARA approach on Qinshan unit I lower internals recovery project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meijing; Xu Hongming; Jiang Jianqi; Chen Zhongyu

    2000-01-01

    Qinshan unit-1 is a 300 Mwe prototype PWR. It has been successfully operating for 4 fuel cycles about 10 years. Some loose parts by the failure of the guide tube of the reactor core neutron flux measurement thimble were observed on the lower structure of Core Barrel during periodical inspection after unloading all fuel assemblies. Qinshan Nuclear Power Company selected Westinghouse Electric Company as contractor to perform the reactor core barrel recovery service after negotiated with 4 world big company. QNPC and Westinghouse worked together to approach the ALARA by increasing water shielding, adding additional steel shielding, fuel pool cleaning and using the long hand tools, remote camera system. The training, mock-up exercise, good personal behavior was greatly contributed to the ALARA approaching. The collective dose and personal exposure of this job were successful controlled by implementing the preset ALARA program. The job was done by the cost of 70 man.mSv collective dose and 3.5 mSv maximum personal exposure despite of the high dose-rate which hot spot in some place is up to several hundred Sv per hour. (author)

  7. Effective use of metrics in an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include; external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific ''indicators''. To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. This required the end users to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that customers can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer's most frequently asked questions. It is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, ''user friendly'', software and contains information from RIR's, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics

  8. Improvement of ALARA in Taiwan Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, H. M.; Chang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The ALARA(as low as reasonable achievable ) principle is a basic spirit of radiation safety culture and the most important element of a successful radiation safety program. In recent years, the ALARA principle and practices have been widely applied to the three operating nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Through the effective communication and fully cooperation between the authority and utility, the performance goals of improving radiation safety program have been set, and the implementation plans have been proposed and followed. Taking Chinshan nuclear power station as an example, in 2004, the occupational individual dose was 1.13mSv/ person in average,no one exceeded 20mSv ,and the collective dose was 1.03man-Sv/unit which achieved the best record of BWR plant in Taiwan. The radiation reduction approaches and tools adopted by the plants include removing radiation sources, setting radiation shieding, optimizing and controlling the schedule of radiation practices, considering the occupancy factors, and better administrative management to keep exposure ALARA will be discussed in this paper

  9. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  10. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  11. The organization of ALARA program at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setaro, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The organization of an ALARA Program at a DOE Facility (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), it's relationship with laboratory management, facility operators, and the radiation protection program is described. The use of chartered ALARA committees at two distinct levels is discussed

  12. ALARA beyond dollars per person-rem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.; Harper, W.

    1983-01-01

    The trend in radiological assessments over the past decade is to extract more and more information from each bit of data. In the 1960's it was sufficient to calculate doses to the maximum individual and populations from exposure to critical nuclides in critical pathways. The 1970's brought the UNSCEAR and BEIR Reports and made the extension of calculated doses to predicted health effects fashionable. The 1980's may see data analysis extended still further to the use of an index of lost productivity. Advantages of these types of uses of dose calculations include the derivation of further insight into the system being analyzed and the attainment of a greater measure of comparability with impacts from agents other than radiological. The question is, where does the uncertainty in the analytical result overwhelm any possibility of its usefulness. This presentation addresses this question in the context of a performance analysis of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Estimates of uncertainty in dose calculations, health effects predictions and loss of productivity predictions are derived from examination of the open literature and the use of propagation of uncertainty techniques. The expected values and uncertainties are compounded as they would be in an ALARA analysis and the outcomes are analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of truncating the analysis at each stage of extension are discussed. 21 references, 3 tables

  13. ALARA implementation throughout project life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, M.J. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    A strength of radiation protection programs generally has been endorsement and application of the ALARA principle. In Ontario Hydro, which currently operates 20 commercial size nuclear units, great strides have been made in the last three decades in reducing occupational radiation exposure per unit of electricity generated. This paper will discuss specific applications of elements of the overall ALARA program which have most contributed to dose reduction as the nuclear program has expanded. This includes such things as management commitment, ALARA application in the design phase and major rehabilitation work, the benefits of the self protection concept, a specific example of elimination (or reduction) of the source term and the importance of dose targets. Finally, it is concluded that the major opportunities for further improvements may lie in the area of information management.

  14. ALARA in practice: How is it working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Lochard, J.

    1984-01-01

    At the first CEC scientific seminar on optimisation in 1979 (21) most of the papers were concerned with possible methodologies for quantification of the ALARA concept and difficulties in applying them. Very few gave even theoretical examples of how it could be applied in practice. In contrast, at this second seminar most of the papers are examples of how quantified techniques have been used to assist towards ALARA decisions. This rapporteurs paper examines the quantification frameworks available and how they are being used in practice on the basis of the papers presented at this meeting

  15. Methodology for making environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Speer, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall evaluation concept for use in making differential cost-benefit analyses in environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations is being implemented by Rockwell Hanford Operations. This evaluation includes consideration of seven categories: (1) capital costs; (2) operating costs; (3) state of the art; (4) safety; (5) accident or upset consequences; (6) reliability, operability, and maintainability; and (7) decommissionability. Appropriate weighting factors for each of these categories are under development so that ALARA determinations can be made by comparing scores of alternative proposals for facility design, operations, and upgrade. This method of evaluation circumvents the traditional basis of a stated monetary sum per person-rem of dose commitment. This alternative was generated by advice from legal counsel who advised against formally pursuing this avenue of approach to ALARA for environmental and occupational dose commitments

  16. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren, R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  17. ALARA efforts in nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Lundgren, K.; Elkert, J. [ABB Atom, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Some ALARA-related ABB Atom projects are currently under investigation. One of the projects has been ordered by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, and two others by the Nordic BWR utilities. The ultimate objective of the projects is to identify and develop methods to significantly decrease the future exposure levels in the Nordic BWRS. As 85% to 90% of the gamma radiation field in the Nordic BWRs originates from Co-60, the only way to significantly decrease the radiation doses is to effect Co and Co-60. The strategy to do this is to map the Co sources and estimate the source strength of Co from these sources, and to study the possibility to affect the release of Co-60 from the core surfaces and the uptake on system surfaces. Preliminary results indicate that corrosion/erosion of a relatively small number of Stellite-coated valves and/or dust from grinding of Stellite valves may significantly contribute to the Co input to the reactors. This can be seen from a high measured Co/Ni ratio in the feedwater and in the reactor water. If stainless steel is the only source of Co, the Co/Ni ratio would be less than 0.02 as the Co content in the steel is less than 0.2%. The Co/Ni ratio in the reactor water, however, is higher than 0.1, indicating that the major fraction of the Co originates from Stellite-coated valves. There are also other possible explanations for an increase of the radiation fields. The Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces increases approximately as the square of the burn-up level. If the burn-up is increased from 35 to 5 MWd/kgU, the Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces will be doubled. Also the effect on the behavior of Co-60 of different water chemistry and materials conditions is being investigated. Examples of areas studied are Fe and Zn injection, pH-control, and different forms of surface pre-treatments.

  18. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  19. Shippingport station decommissioning project ALARA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crimi, F.P. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Properly planned and implemented ALARA programs help to maintain nuclear worker radiation exposures {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the ALARA program developed and implemented for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The elements required for a successful ALARA program are discussed along with examples of good ALARA practices. The Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) was the first commercial nuclear power plant to be built in the United States. It was located 35 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, PA on the south bank of the Ohio river. The reactor plant achieved initial criticality in December 1959. During its 25-year life, it produced 7.5 billion kilowatts of electricity. The SAPS was shut down in October 1982 and was the first large-scale U.S. nuclear power plant to be totally decommissioned and the site released for unrestricted use. The Decommission Project was estimated to take 1,007 man-rem of radiation exposure and $.98.3 million to complete. Physical decommissioning commenced in September 1985 and was completed in September 1989. The actual man-rem of exposure was 155. The project was completed 6 months ahead of schedule at a cost of $91.3 million.

  20. ALARA in radioactive waste management- Summary and recommendations of the 11. European ALARA Network Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Crouail, P.; Drouet, F.

    2008-01-01

    The 11. European ALARA Network (E.A.N.) workshop on 'ALARA in radioactive waste management' took place in Athens (Greece) in April 2008. The aim of that workshop was to focus on the implementation of the ALARA principle with regard to occupational and public exposures arising from the management of radioactive waste in all sectors (nuclear, medical, industrial, etc.). This workshop consisted of invited oral presentations, which highlighted the main issues, and half of the programme was devoted to discussions within working groups on specific topics. Individual presentations (papers and slides) are available to download from the E.A.N. web site (http://www.eu-alara.net). Based on report backs from the groups and discussions with all the participants, five formal recommendations have been formulated. These recommendations, addressed to international organisations (International Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, Nuclear Energy Agency), national authorities, national and local stake holders and to E.A.N. itself, deal with the following themes: international guidance on ALARA in radioactive waste management, harmonization issues at the international level, ALARA approach in non-nuclear waste management, 'broader approach' in the radioactive waste management process, stake holder involvement. The objective of this paper is to present the main conclusions and the five recommendations produced during the workshop. (authors)

  1. Use of metrics in an effective ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting an processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific open-quotes indicators.close quotes To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. Justification is needed to defend the indicators selected and maybe even stronger justification is needed for those indicators that are available, but not chosen as a metric. Historically, the many different sources of information resided in a plethora of locations. Even the same type of metric had data located in different areas and could not be easily totaled for the entire Site. This required the end user to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that a customer can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer's most frequently asked questions. IL is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally, it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, open-quotes user friendly,close quotes software and contains information from RIR's, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics. These include quarterly performance indicator reports, monthly radiological incident reports, monthly external dose history and goals tracking reports, and the future use of performance indexing

  2. ALARA radiation protection applications at NPP A1 decommissioning using VISPLAN planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Kucharova, D.; Listjak, M.

    2005-01-01

    The SCK.CEN developed during the BR3 reactor decommissioning a graphical interfaced 3D dose assessment tool aimed at the above mentioned dose optimization problems. The tool was improved further and commercialized under the name VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. The use of VISIPLAN tool at NPP A1 decommissioning was advised by EDF within the IAEA TCP SLR/4008 project missions as a component of a 3D technological chain ensuring acquisition and evaluation of digitized information leading to ALARA optimisation of the developed decommissioning working procedures (see Fig. 1). VISIPLAN license was purchased by IAEA and granted to VUJE and NPP A1 within the IAEA TCP project SLR/4008, covering also the necessary basic and advanced training (at NPP A1 real decommissioning environment), and is currently used by VUJE analysts at NPP A1 decommissioning as an ALARA tool for intervention planning and optimisation. The VISIPLAN allows a fast dose assessment for work planned in a radioactive environment. The calculations are based on a 3D model of the work place. This PC-based tool is user friendly and calculates a detailed dose account for different work scenarios defined by the ALARA analyst, taking into account worker position, work duration and subsequent geometry and source distribution changes. The VISIPLAN methodology is described. The VISIPLAN tool was applied to several ALARA studies carried out by the VUJE within development and analysis of various Work Programs for NPP Al decommissioning tasks. The applications ranged from simpler to complex ALARA planning tasks covering simple shielding applications to selection of the most suitable order of complex working procedures. Removal of inner liners from underground reservoirs 6/1 and 6/2 as well as Dismantling of pipes and components from a (hostile) 60 m corridor are described. (authors)

  3. Cost basis for implementing ALARA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    A method of implementing effective ALARA programs is discussed. A basic element of the cost benefit methodology is the valuation of a man-rem. In the program, this is derived from an assessment of radiation exposure risk and societal valuation of harmful effects. The man-rem value is used as an element in the cost benefit analysis. The analysis includes an assessment of the differential man-rem resulting from the action, implementation cost, and operational savings

  4. ALARA in the radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Lefaure, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    This part treats especially the question of the training in radiation protection. The electro nuclear sector has given an ALARA principle culture and succeeded to sensitize each level of hierarchy, but for small industry, the research and the medical world the same method appears more difficult to use. It seems better to reinforce the importance of the competent person and to include a training in radiation protection on the initial formation in numerous professional categories. (N.C.)

  5. Management organization and administration for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamentals of organizational structure and administration as applied to the goal of keeping occupational radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable are discussed, including consideration of management commitment, organizational separation of health physics functions, reporting levels, designation of responsibility and authority and adequacy of personnel and funding. Examples of good and poor organizational structures are shown, and the role and implementation of ALARA committees, effective communications, and review and audit processes are discussed. (author)

  6. ALARA Review of the SHAARS Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekana, R.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The SHARS mobile hot cell was designed and manufactured by Necsa intended to address the problem of disused Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) from teletherapy units, gamma irradiators and brachytherapy units. This unit is to be used in countries with no remote infrastructure to handle SHARS. The hot cell was designed for a 3.7E+13Bq (1000Ci) activity although it was demonstrated that it can handle even more than 7.4E+13Bq (2000Ci). The unit has a biological shield which consists of river sand sandwiched between metal plates and a viewing window filled with 50% zinc bromide solution. The unit was designed to provide sufficient shielding to ensure that doses are kept ALARA (As low As Reasonably Achieved). This paper compares the modelled dose rates with the actual measured doses during operations conducted in Sudan, Tanzania and Uruguay. It also presents the key lessons learned in the application of the ALARA principle during the SHARS missions. The new working practices and additional methods are proposed in order to reduce doses in accordance with the ALARA principle. (author)

  7. Computer and computer graphics support for the ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, D.; Hall, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Computer programs have been developed which support three aspects of the ALARA program at Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO): 1) Setting annual dose and skin contamination goals, 2) Analyzing trends in operational organizations' dose, numbers of skin contaminations, or radiation occurrences, and 3) Presenting graphic displays to enhance worker safety awareness. Programs have been written which search dosemetry files and produce histograms of annual occupational exposure and skin contamination histories utilizing the DISSPLA software or a desk top color graphics terminal. These programs and associated graphics are used to assemble dose and skin contamination information in a summary format so that ALARA teams can assess the past year's performance and establish reduction goals for the coming year. In addition, the graphics provide a management tool for recognizing desirable or undesirable trends in an organization's occupational dose or number of skin contaminations. Desk top graphics capabilities have been used to display safety-related data to enhance management review and worker awareness of radiological and industrial safety conditions in the work area. The following graphs are prepared on a monthly basis: 1) Numbers of skin contaminations company wide and for specific operating organizations within the company, 2) Numbers of radiation occurrences, 3) Dose histories for specific operational organizations, 4) Numbers of OSHA recordable incidents, 5) OSHA recordable incident rates and severity levels and 6) Lost workday cases

  8. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately

  9. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. [comps.

    1992-12-31

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE`s field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health`s programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors` facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters` ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors` ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  10. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. (comps.)

    1992-01-01

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  11. BNL ALARA center's development of a computerized Radiological Assessment and Design System (RADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Connelly, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health Physics and Industrial Hygiene sponsored a study of Radiological Engineering Programs at selected DOE contractor facilities. This study was conducted to review, evaluate, and summarize techniques and practices that should be considered in the design phase that reduce dose and the spread of radioactive materials during subsequent construction and operation at DOE radiological facilities. As in a previous study on operational ALARA programs, a variety of open-quotes good-practice documentsclose quotes will be generated. It is envisioned that these documents will serve as a resource to assist radiological engineers in the process of designing radiological facilities, and in performing radiological safety/ALARA design reviews. This paper presents the features for three good-practice documents and related software applications that are being developed based on the findings of this study. The proposed software called open-quotes Radiological Assessment and Design Systemclose quotes (RADS) will be a menu-driven database and spreadsheet program. It will be designed to provide easy, consistent, and effective implementation of the methodologies described in the three good-practice documents. These documents and the associated RADS software will provide the user with the following three functions: (1) enter dose assessment information and data into computer worksheets and provide printed tables of the results which can then be inserted into safety analysis reports or cost-benefit analysis, (2) perform a wide variety of sorts of radiological design criteria from DOE Orders and produce a checklist of the desired design criteria, and (3) enter cost/benefit data and qualitative ratings of attributes for various design alternatives which reduce dose into computer worksheets and provide printed reports of cost-effectiveness results

  12. BNL ALARA Center's development of a computerized radiological assessment and design system (RADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Masciulli, S.; Connelly, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health Physics and Industrial Hygiene sponsored a study of Radiological Engineering Programs at selected DOE contractor facilities. This study was conducted to review, evaluate, and summarize techniques and practices that should be considered in the design phase that reduce dose and the spread of radioactive materials during subsequent construction and operation of DOE radiological facilities. As in a previous study on operational ALARA programs, a variety of good-practice documents will be generated. It is envisioned that these documents will serve as a resource to assist radiological engineers in the process of designing radiological facilities, and in performing radiological safety/ALARA design reviews. This paper presents the features for three good-practice documents and related software applications that are being developed based on the findings of this study. The proposed software called Radiological Assessment and Design System (RADS) will be a menu-driven database and spreadsheet program. It will be designed to provide easy, consistent, and effective implementation of the methodologies described in the three good-practice documents. These documents and the associated RADS software will provide the user with the following three functions: (1) enter dose assessment information and data into computer worksheets and provide printed tables of the results which can then be inserted into safety analysis reports or cost-benefit analyses, (2) perform a wide variety of sorts of radiological design criteria from DOE Orders and produce a checklist of the desired design criteria, and (3) enter cost/benefit data and qualitative rating of attributes for various design alternatives which reduce dose into computer worksheets and provide printed reports of cost-effectiveness results

  13. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-05-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, is the second in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a specific focus towards DOE facilities. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing; facility decommissioning; hot laboratories; tritium production; research, test and production reactors; weapons fabrication and testing; and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics has also been included. This volume (Volume 2 of the series) contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195, as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center

  14. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report is the second in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center on dose reduction at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography may be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center. These abstracts, which have a bearing on dose reduction, consolidates information from publications pertinent to Radiological Engineers and Operational Health Physicists. Volume 2 contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195 as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface

  15. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE's nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers'' and PNL-6577 ''Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.'' The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility

  16. ALARA at Tyco Health care-Mallinckrodt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijpkema, J.

    2002-01-01

    How to approach the ALARA requirement? That was one of the question in the beginning of the 1990's at the Mallinckrodt site for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This question was raised after the ICRP published their guidelines in the ICRP 60 publication, with the average effective dose limit that was changed from 50 to 20 mSv per year. In the early 1990's the individual effective dose at Mallinckrodt was up to 20 mSv7year and some of the people over this number. As a first result of the discussion Mallinckrodt adopted the 20 mSv/year as being the legal limit, although it finally took over a decade to incorporate this ICRP limit into legislation. A second action was to introduce a site internal limit: if a person would exceed 75% of the legal limit, the person would be restrained from radiation work. This restriction forced everybody to look for solutions to decrease dose and area dose rate. This was the beginning and resulted in nobody exceeding 15 mSv/year after a couple of years and a lower average dose than before, with no extra employees. The second stage in the process of ALARA was a systematic approach of the decrease in personal dose. This systematic approach consists of three phases. The first phase is dose assessment followed by routine measurements. The third phase is the ALARA step. First phase, dose assessment. Normally this could be done in a meeting or even behind the desk: assess the dose per department or per group or per activity. Make a decision on which party will get high priority, medium priority and low priority. Normally this means that the department with the highest dose will get the highest priority. (Author)

  17. Alara applied to iter design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzan-Elbez, Joelle; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Porfiri, Maria Teresa; Taylor, Neil; Gordon, Charles; Garin, Pascal; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the existing data on ITER and the safety options for licensing ITER in Cadarache, the present work assesses the application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principle, as it has been implemented in the design of ITER and will be applied during ITER operation, as well as the compliance of the design with EUR/96-29 directive and regulation applicable in France. The preliminary occupational radiation exposure estimate gives a value of about 250 man mSv/a, which is half the annual target for ITER and comes essentially from maintenance activities. Some examples of the approach are presented

  18. ALARA and an integrated approach to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.; Edwards, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Exposures of individuals to ionizing radiation have been restricted for many years by a number of guidelines and rules developed by various advisory and regulatory groups. Accompanying these restrictions has been an evolving principle that exposures to individuals and groups should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), consistent with provision of the benefits of radiation use to society. Although the ALARA concept is a laudable goal in principle, its implementation in a clinical facility has not been a straightforward process. Problems of implementing ALARA have been confounded further by the efforts of regulatory agencies to incorporate the ALARA concept into regulations governing radiation exposures. To facilitate the implementation of ALARA as a workable construct in a clinical facility, guidelines are needed for its application to both individual and collective exposures to radiation. The provision of such guidelines, including action and inaction levels for both individual and collective exposures, are presented here

  19. Application of the ALARA concept to the field situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, La Mar J.; Ahlquist, A. John

    1978-01-01

    It has been a long accepted practice in radiation protection that exposure to radiation should not only meet legal requirements but should be as far below these requirements as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The ALARA concept is difficult to define, thus, there is a tendency by regulatory agencies (often at the request of the regulated) to attach a number to ALARA for environmental considerations. Presently, there are proposals to apply numbers to ALARA for soils contaminated by transuranics. Our actual field experience is determining ALARA for a large-scale land decontamination project suggests ALARA for contaminated soils cannot be determined on the basis of a single number. This paper will focus on the factors that were considered in determining the land had been decontaminated to ALARA. Details of the paper will include difficulties in determining contamination levels in the soil, dollar and man-power costs to remove contaminated soil, time constraints on the analytical procedures, safety considerations, depth of contamination versus costs to remove that contamination, disposal costs and considerations, and likelihood of additional undiscovered contamination. This experience suggests that numbers ought to be developed but should be used as goals or as a basis for decisions and not as blanket rules for all situations. (author)

  20. Towards the development of an ALARA culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Thezee, C.

    2000-01-01

    The ALARA principle, which states, for each exposure situation, that doses must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable, taking into account economic and social factors' represents the basis of the > developed to manage the radiological risk in a responsible manner. The practical implementation of the ALARA principle is complex. It requires defining transaction mechanisms which enable a responsible management of the radiological risk, taking into account, among other things, possible risk transfers in groups and the allocation of protection resources. The players who can take part in radiological risk management are numerous and have different functions: from the authorities to exposed workers, together with company managers. They all possess specific knowledge and have objectives which are not necessarily compatible. The transactions and negotiations initiated between these players during decision-taking relative to exposure management will therefore only be efficient and productive if there exists both a mutual comprehension of individual objectives and a readiness to collaborate on a common objective: keeping the residual risk at a level both acceptable to, and accepted by, the various parties involved. A fundamental element of this process therefore lies in the development among the various players concerned of a common culture with respect to radiological risks and the methods used for their management, in order to facilitate transactions by the sharing of a common language and system of values. A possible definition of > could be: >. Based on this statement, the paper presents, illustrated by the experience of the French Utility Electricite de France, the main components which should enter into consideration for the development of an ALARA culture for the management of occupational exposures. It concludes on the necessity to construct and transmit a common patrimony of a radiological risk management system comprising the scientific and technical knowledge

  1. Comments on two American justice decisions founded on ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the ALARA principle in the American justice is considered as a very important part of the law in evolution. The first decision called 'James decision' was the case of a worker who received a dose under the dose limit and was agreed in his demand. The second one,'Three Miles Island decision', was to refuse the ALARA principle as a norm because it would consider that the justice is more able to pilot a nuclear power plant than competent authorities. These two examples show that the ALARA principle must stay an operational guide and not a legal norm of precautions susceptible to impose sanctions by justice. (N.C.)

  2. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  3. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  4. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis and ALARA Work Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Nelsen, D P

    2002-01-01

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygien...

  5. Dose reduction through an ALARA program at Almaraz NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, A.; Sustacha, D.; Aneiros, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation exposure is in keeping with the rate at which nuclear power production is increased. Therefore, it becomes more and more important that nuclear power producing plants develop an effective dose optimization and minimization [as-low-as-rasonably-achievable (ALARA)] program. Although radiation exposure suffered by the workers is carefully kept below administrative limits, there is a moral obligation to keep these exposures as low as possible. This requirement becomes apparent in the ALARA principle, supported and accepted by all countries with nuclear power plants in operation. Empresarios Agrupados (a Spanish architect engineer company) collaborates with nuclear power producing plants in an effort to maintain the collective ALARA doses through the efforts of a group of engineers specializing in dose minimization and optimization techniques. This group is organized as a radiation protection and maintenance team (ALARA team)

  6. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  7. Dose control and ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yihua; Li Xutong

    1999-01-01

    With the development of NPPs in China, paying attention to dose control and ALARA at NPPs is very important. The author briefly introduces two primary tasks for exposure control at NPPs, primary consideration of ALARA and the common technical methods. It points out that adoption of some quantitative indicators is useful, but it is important to bear it in mind that these ' values of dose avoided' are situation specific

  8. Supercapacitors Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, S; Pan, N

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a supercapacitor can be characterized by a series of key parameters, including the cell capacitance, operating voltage, equivalent series resistance, power density, energy density, and time constant. To accurately measure these parameters, a variety of methods have been proposed and are used in academia and industry. As a result, some confusion has been caused due to the inconsistencies between different evaluation methods and practices. Such confusion hinders effective com...

  9. Preoperational ALARA walk-down at the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant will enter commercial operation in 19987. During its design and construction a number of reviews were performed to ensure that personnel exposures in the completed plant would be ALARA. The final review in this process consisted of a comprehensive walk-down of plant radiation controlled areas by health physics, operations, maintenance, and engineering personnel. The walk-down project was conducted over a 12-month period using detailed criteria and checklists. This article describes the project, presents examples of the criteria that were used, and list the problems that were identified for resolution as well as the good ALARA design features that were incorporated into the plant

  10. Fluor Hanford ALARA Center is a D and D Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    2008-01-01

    The mission at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation changed when the last reactor plant was shut down in 1989 and work was started to place all the facilities in a safe condition and begin decontamination, deactivation, decommissioning, and demolition (D and D). These facilities consisted of old shutdown reactor plants, spent fuel pools, processing facilities, and 177 underground tanks containing 53 million gallons of highly radioactive and toxic liquids and sludge. New skills were needed by the workforce to accomplish this mission. By 1995, workers were in the process of getting the facilities in a safe condition and it became obvious improvements were needed in their tools, equipment and work practices. The Hanford ALARA Program looked good on paper, but did little to help contractors that were working in the field. The Radiological Control Director decided that the ALARA program needed to be upgraded and a significant improvement could be made if workers had a place they could visit that had samples of the latest technology and could talk to experienced personnel who have had success doing D and D work. Two senior health physics personnel who had many years experience in doing radiological work were chosen to obtain tools and equipment from vendors and find a location centrally located on the Hanford site. Vendors were asked to loan their latest tools and equipment for display. Most vendors responded and the Hanford ALARA Center of Technology opened on October 1, 1996. Today, the ALARA Center includes a classroom for conducting training and a mockup area with gloveboxes. Two large rooms have a containment tent, several glove bags, samples of fixatives/expandable foam, coating displays, protective clothing, heat stress technology, cutting tools, HEPA filtered vacuums, ventilation units, pumps, hydraulic wrenches, communications equipment, shears, nibblers, shrouded tooling, and several examples of innovative tools developed by the Hanford facilities. See Figures I and

  11. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals

  12. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  13. Incremental ALARA cost/benefit computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamby, P.

    1987-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company has developed and is testing an enhanced Fortran Computer Program to be used for cost/benefit analysis of Radiation Reduction Projects at its six nuclear power facilities and Corporate Technical Support Groups. This paper describes a Macro-Diven IBM Mainframe Program comprised of two different types of analyses-an Abbreviated Program with fixed costs and base values, and an extended Engineering Version for a detailed, more through and time-consuming approach. The extended engineering version breaks radiation exposure costs down into two components-Health-Related Costs and Replacement Labor Costs. According to user input, the program automatically adjust these two cost components and applies the derivation to company economic analyses such as replacement power costs, carrying charges, debt interest, and capital investment cost. The results from one of more program runs using different parameters may be compared in order to determine the most appropriate ALARA dose reduction technique. Benefits of this particular cost / benefit analysis technique includes flexibility to accommodate a wide range of user data and pre-job preparation, as well as the use of proven and standardized company economic equations

  14. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  15. Ten years of ALARA experience in commercial nuclear pharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.L.; Seifert, K.L.; Green, R.L.; McAnany, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review ten years of extremity exposure in a growing nuclear pharmacy company and determine those practices that have been most effective in keeping exposures ALARA. The focus of this study was specifically on extremity exposure since whole body exposures have not been as significant. Methods: More than 400 dispensing employees are monitored weekly for extremity exposure. Currently, these employees handle and dispense more than 9,000 Curies (333,000 GBq) of activity ready for use in nuclear medicine procedures each week. The quarterly and annual extremity exposure histories were examined and compared with the introduction of different initiatives to limit these exposures. Changes in the total activity per unit dose were considered as well as the introduction of different compounding practices during this time. An attempt was made to also determine specifically which activities contribute most to the extremity exposure of a dispenser. Procedural changes were reviewed as well as engineering controls such as new shielding materials and designs. Results: A significant conversion of cardiac doses occurred during the time period evaluated. Tc-99m heart agents became the preferred radiopharmaceutical replacing a significant portion of Tl-201 that had been used previously. Tl-201 is still used often in conjunction with a Tc-99m agent. The significance of the switch is the high percentage of dispensed doses for cardiac studies and the higher activities of the Tc-99m agents. A combination of procedural changes and engineering controls (primarily tungsten shielding devices) have been effective in preventing the extremity exposure increase one might expect based on higher activities dispensed per unit dose and the higher energy of Tc-99m compared to Tl-201. One procedural change, the mandatory use of tongs for handling unshielded syringes of radiopharmaceuticals, resulted in a 17% reduction in the average exposure to the extremities

  16. Fuel transfer system ALARA design review - Project A.15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KUEBERTH, L.R.

    2001-01-01

    One mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is to move the SNF from the K Basins in the Hanford 100K Area to an interim dry storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the Hanford 200 East Area. The Fuel Transfer System (FTS) is a subproject that will move the SNF from the 105K East (KE) Facility to the 105K West (KW) Facility. The SNF will be treated for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility at the KW Basin. The SNF canisters will be loaded underwater into a Shielded Transfer Cask (STC) in the KE Basin. The fully loaded STC will be brought out of the water and placed into a Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO) by the STC Straddle Carrier. As the STC is removed from the water, it will be washed down with demineralized water by an manual rinse system. The CTO with the STC inside will be placed on a transport trailer and transferred to the KW Basin as an intra-facility transfer. The CTO will be unloaded from the shipping trailer at the KW Basin and the STC will be removed from the CTO. The STC will then be lowered into the KW Basin water and the fuel will be removed. The SNF will then be processed for shipment to the CVD. As soon as all of the fuel has been removed from the STC, the cask will be removed from the KW Basin water and placed into the CTO. The CTO will again be placed on the trailer for transport back to the KE Basin where the entire cycle will be repeated approximately 400 times. This document records the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) findings and design recommendations/requirements by the SNF Project noted during the Final Design Review of the STC, CTO, STC Transfer System, Annexes and Roadways for support of FTS. This document is structured so that all statements that include the word ''shall'' represent design features that have been or will be implemented within the project scope. Statements that include the words ''should'' or ''recommend'' represent ALARA design features to be evaluated for future implementation

  17. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  18. The European ALARA network. Development, functioning and main activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    2009-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations (ICRP 103), and in particular the detailed treatment of optimisation in the ICRP Publication 101, define optimisation of protection as a source-related process aimed at keeping the likelihood of incurred exposures, the number of people exposed and the magnitude of their individual doses as low as reasonably achievable, also below constraints, taking into account economic and societal factors. Practical implementation and further development of the ALARA principle has been achieved for many years now by the successful cooperation of experts from different European organisations; first as pioneers by establishing the European ALARA Network and then by enthusiastically supporting the activities of the network itself. This contribution presents the evolution, operation and key activities of the European ALARA Network (EAN) in the last years; the successful cooperation of experts from different professional backgrounds, advocating the ALARA principle in a range of radiation protection areas, and contributing to its further development by trading experience and networking. The interaction between the EAN and international organisations, which support the ALARA principle by including relevant activities in their work programmes, is described. (orig.)

  19. An effective ALARA [As Low As Reasonably Achievable] Awareness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Hammond, D.A.

    1990-10-01

    Following the January 1, 1989 issue of the US Department of Energy (DOE) revised Order 5480.1, Chapter XI (DOE 1985), the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program Office (APO) began an aggressive ALARA Awareness Campaign. The revised DOE Order 5480.11 (DOE 1988) required the documentation and tracking of ALARA practices and principles. This major challenge for compliance to the new requirements necessitated an enhanced awareness of the goals and objectives of the APO. The Westinghouse Hanford APO began the expansion of the ALARA Program. The ''classic concept'' of radiological exposure minimization, which began in the early 1940's, increased in scope to include the new concept of exposure minimization for all hazardous materials and conditions commensurate with sound economics and operating practices. This expansion could only be implemented by bringing about a cultural change. Therefore, the attempt to introduce this change in thinking created a second major challenge for the Westinghouse Hanford APO. The direct result of the identification of these two major goals was the creation of an effective ALARA Awareness for Westinghouse Hanford. This paper describes this program. 3 refs

  20. Westinghouse Hanford Company ALARA year-end report, Calendar Year 1994: Revision 3A, Radiological engineering and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, O.D.

    1995-06-01

    It has long been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Policy that radiation doses should be maintained as far below the dose limits as is reasonably achievable. This policy, known as the ''ALARA Principle of radiation protection,'' maintains that radiation exposures should be maintained as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations. The ALARA Principle is based on the hypothesis that even very low radiation doses carry some risk. As a result, it is not enough to maintain doses at/or slightly below limits; the lower the doses, the lower the risks. Because it is not possible to reduce all doses at DOE facilities to zero, economic and social factors must be considered to determine the optimal level of radiation doses. According to the ALARA Principle, if doses are too high, resources should be well spent to reduce them. At some point, the resources being spent to maintain low doses are exactly balanced by the risks avoided. Reducing doses below this point results in a misallocation of resources; the resources could be spent elsewhere and have a greater positive impact on health and safety. The objective of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) ALARA/Contamination Control Improvement Project (CCIP) Program is to manage and control exposures (both individual and collective) to the work force, the general public, and the environment to levels as low as is reasonable using the aforementioned ALARA Principle

  1. Experiences in ALARA application: 7th parade of maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenta R, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The achieved experience with these activities, and all the carried out during the seventh stop but that they are not included here, carried to take a serie of decisions in the ALARA group, of which can be mentioned the following: 1. Definition of goals of collective dose and singular for works, to complete the ALARA commitment toward the occupational exposure personnel of the CLV. 2. To analyze the obtained information, as quick as possible, for using it in similar situations of work (to normalize the obtained results, when this is possible. 3. To coordinate the activities in those that participate different work groups with the end of not hindering the development of the same ones. 4. To establish ALARA responsibles of the works to fulfill functions of: pursuit of the work and information to the workers for their safety

  2. ANI/MAELU engineering inspection criteria 8.3 ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, L. [American Nuclear Insurers, West Hardford, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this criteria section is to provide guidelines for programs whose intent is to achieve occupational doses and doses to members of the public that are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The success that has been achieved by applying ALARA concepts at nuclear power plants is clearly illustrated by the major reductions in the annual cumulative dose to workers at many sites over the last few years. This success is the combined result of the general maturity of the nuclear industry, the intensive study of dose reduction practices by industry groups, and the successful sharing of experience and practices among plants. Source term reduction should be used as a primary ALARA mechanism. Methods which should be considered include: satellite and cobalt reduction, chemistry control, decontamination, submicron filters, zinc addition, hot spot reduction and permanent or temporary shielding.

  3. Elements for designing ALARA programmes for the maintenance and routine operations of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the three fundamental elements for designing ALARA programmes for the maintenance and routine operations of nuclear facilities. These are the need for commitment of all parties involved, the need for specific ALARA organizational structures and the systematic use of ALARA tools. (UK)

  4. Experiences in ALARA application: 7th parade of maintenance; Experiencias en la aplicacion del criterio ALARA: septima parada de mantenimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armenta R, M S [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1991-07-01

    The achieved experience with these activities, and all the carried out during the seventh stop but that they are not included here, carried to take a serie of decisions in the ALARA group, of which can be mentioned the following: 1. Definition of goals of collective dose and singular for works, to complete the ALARA commitment toward the occupational exposure personnel of the CLV. 2. To analyze the obtained information, as quick as possible, for using it in similar situations of work (to normalize the obtained results, when this is possible. 3. To coordinate the activities in those that participate different work groups with the end of not hindering the development of the same ones. 4. To establish ALARA responsibles of the works to fulfill functions of: pursuit of the work and information to the workers for their safety.

  5. TEACHER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Iván Martínez-Chairez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research report comes from a study that was developed during the school years 2013-2014, 2014-2015, in the southern state of Chihuahua central region, in the education sector 25 consisting of five school zones that provide services to Meoqui municipalities, Julimes and Delicias. The study is a mixed court, correlational comprehensive sequential procedure. Some of the results is that there is a correlation between the 578 years of service of teachers and the score assigned to students in teaching career, but there is no association between teacher performance and the context in which it works, in addition there is no relationship between the teacher performance and school performance of students on standardized tests. 2.4% of the representative sample presented an excellent teacher performance, 7.3% have a bad teacher performance, but it is noteworthy that 39% of teachers observed lies with good teaching performance.

  6. ALARA review for the 202-S plutonium loadout hood stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposures, control contamination levels, and control airborne radioactivity concentrations while conducting stabilization of the Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility plutonium loadout hood and associated piping, and the isolation of the ER-8 ventilation system

  7. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis and ALARA Work Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSEN, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygiene with the tools necessary to implement an integrated safety program. The establishment of tools and processes capable of sustaining a comprehensive safety program represents a key responsibility of industrial hygiene. Fluor Hanford has built integrated safety management around three programmatic attributes: (1) Integration of radiological, chemical and ergonomic issues under a single program. (2) Continuous improvement in routine communications among work planning/scheduling, job execution and management. (3) Rapid response to changing work conditions, formalized work planning and integrated worker involvement

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m 2 (4125 ft 2 ). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m 2 (56,947 ft 2 ). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m 2 (2863 ft 2 ). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m 3 (371 ft 3 ) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m 3 (14,949 ft 3 ) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment

  9. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  10. ALARA for cask MRS by remote operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.; Vick, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dose rates in a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility are high enough to warrant the evaluation of robotic systems to achieve personnel dose reductions. Robots with sufficient mobility and dexterity to perform Health Physics surveys and maintenance are currently in use. The addition of artificial intelligence computer methods to the robot removes the need for a human operator for normal surveillance activities. Use of an Expert System creates a robot with sufficient flexibility to recognize and respond to off-normal conditions such as radiation leaks

  11. ALARA and decommissioning: The Fort St. Vrain experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borst, T.; Niehoff, M. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Platteville, CO (United States); Zachary, M. [Scientific Ecology Group, Platteville, CO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station, the first and only commercial High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor to operate in the United States, completed initial fuel loading in late 1973 and initial startup in early 1974. Due to a series of non-nuclear technical problems, Fort St. Vrain never operated consistently, attaining a lifetime capacity factor of slightly less than 15%. In August of 1989, the decision was made to permanently shut down the plant due to control rod drive and steam generator ring header failures. Public Service Company of Colorado elected to proceed with early dismantlement (DECON) as opposed to SAFSTOR on the bases of perceived societal benefits, rad waste, and exposure considerations, regulatory uncertainties associated with SAFSTOR, and cost. The decommissioning of Fort St. Vrain began in August of 1992, and is scheduled to be completed in early 1996. Decommissioning is being conducted by a team consisting of Westinghouse, MK-Ferguson, and Scientific Ecology Group. Public Service Company of Colorado as the licensee provides contract management and oversight of contractor functions. An aggressive program to maintain project radiation exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) has been established, with the following program elements: temporary and permanent shielding contamination control; mockup training; engineering controls; worker awareness; integrated work package reviews communication; special instrumentation; video camera usage; robotics application; and project committees. To date, worker exposures have been less than project estimates. from the start of the project through Februrary of 1994, total exposure has been 98.666 person-rem, compared to the project estimate of 433 person-rem and goal of 347 person-rem. The presentation will discuss the site characterization efforts, the radiological performance indicator program, and the final site release survey plans.

  12. HLA RTI performance evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malinga, L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available size of the UDP packet of the network, namely 64 KB, when using the best effort mode. The performance analysis task of the different RTIs was undertaken for two reasons. The first is to re-establish a High Level Architecture (HLA) in our Research... exchange messages over the network with the RTI Gateway process, via TCP sockets or UDP in order to realise the services associated with the RTI. The allocation of CPU resources to the federate and the RTIA process is exclusively managed...

  13. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  14. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  15. A corporative ALARA engineering support for all EDF sites a major improvement: the generic work areas optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiot, A.; Lebeau, J.

    2005-01-01

    ALARA studies performed by EDF plants are quite simple and empirical. Most often, feedback experience and common sense, with the help of simple calculations allow reaching useful and efficient decisions. This is particularly the case when the exposure situations are not complex, within a simple environment and with a single source, or one major source. However, in more complex cases this is not enough to guarantee that actual ALARA solutions are implemented. EDF has then decided to use its national corporate engineering as a support for its sites. That engineering support is in charge of using very efficient tools such as PANTHER-RP. The objective of the presentation is to describe the engineering process and tools now available at EDF, to illustrate them with a few case studies and to describe the goals and procedures set up by EDF. (authors)

  16. A corporate ALARA engineering support for all EDF sites. A major improvement: the generic work areas optimisation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiot, Alain [EDF, SPT, UTO, Le Central, Bat. 420, BP 129, 93162 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Lebeau, Jacques [Electricite de France, ALARA Project, Site Cap Ampere, 1, place Pleyel, 93282 Saint Denis Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    ALARA studies performed by EDF plants are quite simple and empirical. Most often, feedback experience and common sense, with the help of simple calculations allow reaching useful and efficient decisions. This is particularly the case when the exposure situations are not complex, within a simple environment and with a single source, or one major source. However, in more complex cases this is not enough to guarantee that actual ALARA solutions are implemented. EDF has then decided to use its national corporate engineering as a support for its sites. That engineering support is in charge of using very efficient tools such as PANTHER-RP. The objective of the presentation is to describe the engineering process and tools now available at EDF, to illustrate them with a few case studies and to describe the goals and procedures set up by EDF. (authors)

  17. Designing plants for ALARA-revelation or evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The author traces the Duke Nuclear program from the late 1960s to today. He then looks at the future. The primary goal, he says, should be to continue to reduce individual exposure in order to reduce total station, industry exposure. In order to accomplish this goal in the design process, he recommends continued training of design personnel to reinforce the ALARA concepts and to provide new industry techniques and actual examples

  18. The uniform application of ALARA to all radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomroy, C.

    1988-05-01

    New information on the dosimetry and epidemiology of atomic bomb survivors suggests that risk estimates may have to be revised upwards. This has focussed increased attention on the ALARA principle. The ICRP believes that ALARA principle is the driving force in keeping average radiation doses low. In practice, the optimization process required for ALARA varies between different sectors of the nuclear industry. For instance, the power utilities have developed procedures for comparing different dose reduction options. Similarly, uranium mine operators have applied optimization techniques to questions concerning ventilation and shielding of ore trucks. Missing from this list however, is the use of a formal optimizing technique in medical and research uses of radioactivity or radiation. Nonetheless, average annual doses to these workers are quite low. An alternative approach to optimization calculation has been suggested, entailing the identification of sub-groups of workers with substantially higher doses to discover the reasons for the higher doses, and to develop means to reduce them to the overall average. Thus maintenance mechanics in nuclear reactors, by the very nature of their jobs, have more potential for higher dose. The utilities are developing procedures to reduce the maintenance mechanics' doses. If the same analysis is applied to medical workers, it is seen that isotope technicians and therapeutic radiology technicians have average doses well above the overall average. The feasibility of some form of optimization process for these categories of workers is discussed

  19. The application of the ALARA principle: a first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1984-01-01

    What can we learn from practical ALARA studies. On the methodological point of view the different works developed these last years rely upon the two basic ICRP assumptions, i.e.: the linearity of the dose-risk relationship and the optimal resource allocation principle. Furthermore, most authors seem now to assume the multidimensionality of radiological protection problems. This leads to envisage for decision-aiding techniques the enlargement of the cost-benefit method. As for the quantification process of ALARA principle, assessment techniques for both protection costs and levels of exposures of the various groups at risk are well established. Some differences can be however pointed out between authors concerning the monetary valuation of the detriment cost as well as the way to cope with time, probabilistic events and ''other factors'' not directly linked to protection costs and radiological detriment. Further consideration must be given to the exact role ALARA studies have to play in the decision-making process concerning conception and operation of installations. Particular efforts have to be put on the development of adequate data bases and also decision-aiding techniques able to take into account the multidimensionnality of factors involved in practical protection [fr

  20. LANL Environmental ALARA Program Status Report for CY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ensures that radiation exposures to members of the public and the environment from LANL operations, past and present, are below regulatory thresholds and are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) through compliance with DOE Order 458.1 Radiation Protection for the Public and the Environment, and LANL Policy 412 Environmental Radiation Protection (LANL2016a). In 2007, a finding (RL.2-F-1) and observation (RL.2-0-1) in the NNSA/ LASO report, September 2007, Release of Property (Land) Containing Residual Radioactive Material Self-Assessment Report, indicated that LANL had no policy or documented process in place for the release of property containing residual radioactive material. In response, LANL developed PD410, Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental ALARA Program. The most recent version of this document became effective in 2014 (LANL 2014a). The document provides program authorities, responsibilities, descriptions, processes, and thresholds for conducting qualitative and quantitative ALARA analyses for prospective and actual radiation exposures to the public and t o the environment resulting from DOE activities conducted on the LANL site.

  1. Performance Evaluations in Audit Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise Johansen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has only minimally examined the association between the behaviour and performance evaluations of individual auditors beyond the use of efficiency-focused evaluations. We examine the association between dysfunctional auditor behaviour and three evaluation foci: an efficiency focus......, a client focus and a quality focus. Our results, which are based on questionnaire responses from 196 auditors, demonstrate that an efficiency focus is not associated with dysfunctional behaviour. A client focus is found to be associated with dysfunctional behaviour. Finally, and perhaps most importantly......, our results show that it seems possible to limit dysfunctional behaviours through a quality focus in performance evaluations. Our results provide insights of use to practitioners and regulators on how performance evaluations may not only induce but also reduce dysfunctional auditor behaviours....

  2. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (C nH n) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  3. Revisiting Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidis, Timotheos; Giamouridis, Daniel; Tessaromatis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Mutual fund manager excess performance should be measured relative to their self-reported benchmark rather than the return of a passive portfolio with the same risk characteristics. Ignoring the self-reported benchmark introduces biases in the measurement of stock selection and timing components of excess performance. We revisit baseline empirical evidence in mutual fund performance evaluation utilizing stock selection and timing measures that address these biases. We introduce a new factor e...

  4. Licensee Performance Evaluation: Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoff, H.E.; Speaker, D.M.; Thompson, S.R.; Cohen, S.C.

    1979-08-01

    This report details work performed during the second phase of a two-phase contract to develop methodology for Licensee Performance Evaluation. The Phase I report, NUREG/CR-0110 details initial efforts on the contract. The model developed in Phase I was used to evaluate nine additional facilities for this report. Performance indicators from noncompliance data were also evaluated. Methodology was developed employing the noncompliance indicators and used for 12 case studies. It was found that licensee event report indicators could be more easily identified and utilized than noncompliance indicators based on presently available data systems. However, noncompliance data, appropriately related to cause, could provide real insight into why performance was what it was

  5. Clinical application of 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: "How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S; Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Lee, Edward Y

    2015-09-01

    Practice of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be protected from harmful radiation exposure if 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. This can save children from potential radiation risks including development of brain cancer and leukemia. Consecutive CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children's hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, 'Justification' of CT was evaluated and then 'Optimization' was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies avoided by applying 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. A total of 1302 consecutive CT request forms were received during the study period. Some of the request forms (n=86; 6.61%) had requests for more than one (multiple) anatomical regions, hence, a total of 1392 different anatomical CT requests were received. Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were protected from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure.The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient

  6. ALARA radiation considerations for the AP600 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The radiation design of the AP600 reactor plant is based on an average annual occupational radiation exposure (ORE) of 100 man-rem. As a design goal we have established a lower value of 70 man-rem per year. And, with our current design process, we expect to achieve annual exposures which are well below this goal. To accomplish our goal we have established a process that provides criteria, guidelines and customer involvement to achieve the desired result. The criteria and guidelines provide the shield designer, as well as the systems and plant layout designers with information that will lead to an integrated plant design that minimizes personnel exposure and yet is not burdened with complicated shielding or unnecessary component access limitations. Customer involvement is provided in the form of utility input, design reviews and information exchange. Cooperative programs with utilities in the development of specific systems or processes also provides for an ALARA design. The results are features which include ALARA radiation considerations as an integral part of the plant design and a lower plant ORE. It is anticipated that a further reduction in plant personnel exposures will result through good radiological practices by the plant operators. The information in place to support and direct the plant designers includes the Utility Requirements Document (URD), Federal Regulations, ALARA guidelines, radiation design information and radiation and shielding design criteria. This information, along with the utility input, design reviews and information feedback, will contribute to the reduction of plant radiation exposure levels such that they will be less than the stated goals.

  7. ALARA review for the deactivation of 105-N Lift Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    This ALARA review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations, while removing water, sludge, stabilizing surfaces, and all other associated work involved in the deactivation of the 105-N Lift Station. The lift station was used as a sump and received contaminated water from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin weirs and contaminated drains in the 105-N Building. During operation water from the lift station was pumped to the 1310-N and 1325-N cribs. Deactivation of the lift station is a critical step in completing the deactivation of N-Area

  8. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  9. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  10. Evaluation of EIT system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mamatjan; Böhm, Stephan; Gaggero, Pascal O; Adler, Andy

    2011-07-01

    An electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system images internal conductivity from surface electrical stimulation and measurement. Such systems necessarily comprise multiple design choices from cables and hardware design to calibration and image reconstruction. In order to compare EIT systems and study the consequences of changes in system performance, this paper describes a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of the EIT systems. The system to be tested is connected to a saline phantom in which calibrated contrasting test objects are systematically positioned using a position controller. A set of evaluation parameters are proposed which characterize (i) data and image noise, (ii) data accuracy, (iii) detectability of single contrasts and distinguishability of multiple contrasts, and (iv) accuracy of reconstructed image (amplitude, resolution, position and ringing). Using this approach, we evaluate three different EIT systems and illustrate the use of these tools to evaluate and compare performance. In order to facilitate the use of this approach, all details of the phantom, test objects and position controller design are made publicly available including the source code of the evaluation and reporting software.

  11. As low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) studies relative to the NWTS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, L.A.; Schlegel, R.L.; Sullivan, R.P.

    1977-10-01

    The history of development of the as-low-as-is-reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and ALARA criteria for radiation exposures as applied to both off-site (environmental) and on-site (occupational) exposures at nuclear power plants are reviewed. The current status of activities within the various federal agencies directed toward developing ALARA criteria for other areas of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. Based on the historical development, the present activities, and on discussions with numerous people involved in this area, the future development of ALARA criteria and implications for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is forecast. Environmental ALARA criteria which relate to minimizing radiation to the surrounding populaltion are discussed along with current occupational ALARA criteria and quidelines for risk-benefit assessments that are under development and recommendations to assure that evolving ALARA concepts are periodically brought up to date and that such concepts be made available to those subcontractors who have responsibility for design and operation of a repository. An annotated bibliography of some 83 sources giving information on ALARA criteria and its application is included

  12. ALARA Review of 233-S Process Hood D and D and Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document is an as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review of design packages for planned work at the 233-S Facility. The ALARA review was initiated in accordance with the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Integrated Environmental, Safety, and Health Management System (ISMS) workflow process

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higby, D.P.; Denovan, J.T.

    1982-12-01

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  14. As low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) studies relative to the NWTS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, L.A.; Schlegel, R.L.; Sullivan, R.P.

    1977-10-01

    The history of development of the as-low-as-is-reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and ALARA criteria for radiation exposures as applied to both off-site (environmental) and on-site (occupational) exposures at nuclear power plants are reviewed. The current status of activities within the various federal agencies directed toward developing ALARA criteria for other areas of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. Based on the historical development, the present activities, and on discussions with numerous people involved in this area, the future development of ALARA criteria and implications for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is forecast. Environmental ALARA criteria which relate to minimizing radiation to the surrounding populaltion are discussed along with current occupational ALARA criteria and quidelines for risk-benefit assessments that are under development and recommendations to assure that evolving ALARA concepts are periodically brought up to date and that such concepts be made available to those subcontractors who have responsibility for design and operation of a repository. An annotated bibliography of some 83 sources giving information on ALARA criteria and its application is included. (JRD)

  15. ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices - Summary and recommendations of the 12. European ALARA network workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Crouail, P.; Drouet, F.

    2010-01-01

    The 12. European ALARA Network (EAN) workshop on 'ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices' took place in Vienna (Austria) in October 2009. The aim of that workshop was to consider how the implementation of ALARA3, in terms of planned and emergency situations, involving worker and public doses, is affected by the introduction of security-related measures. In the case of new equipment and procedures, there was also the question of whether exposures arising from security screening devices can be justified and optimised. This workshop consisted of invited oral presentations, which highlighted the main issues, and half of the programme was devoted to discussions within working groups on specific topics. During their discussions, the working groups identified recommendations dealing with the following topics: the implementation of the Code of Conduct and HASS4 - ensuring ALARA; balancing security and safety - how to achieve an optimum solution; the management of an emergency exposure situation from an ALARA perspective; the justification and optimisation of the use of security devices. The objective of this paper is to present the main conclusions and recommendations produced during the workshop. Individual presentations (papers and slides) as well as the reports from the working groups are available to download on the EAN web site (http://www.eu-alara.net). (authors)

  16. The program of the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set up a Center to monitor dose-reduction efforts in the US and abroad and to focus the industry's attention on ALARA. The paper summarizes the main work of the ALARA Center between 1984 and 1992. The Center maintains nine data bases for the NRC and the Nuclear Power Industry. These databases are constantly updated and access to them is provided through a personal computer and a modem and by periodic publications in the form of a newsletter and NUREG reports. Also described briefly are eight other projects related to dose-reduction at nuclear power plants that the Center has carried out for the NRC. Among these are projects that analyze the cost-effectiveness of engineering modifications, look at worldwide activities at dose reduction and compare US and foreign dose experience, examine high-dose worker groups and high-dose jobs, develop optimum techniques to control contamination at nuclear plants, and look at the doses being received by men and women in all sectors of the nuclear industry

  17. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  18. Performability Modelling Tools, Evaluation Techniques and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with three aspects of quantitative evaluation of fault-tolerant and distributed computer and communication systems: performability evaluation techniques, performability modelling tools, and performability modelling applications. Performability modelling is a relatively new

  19. 1991 implementation of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) administrative radiation exposure levels: Experiences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Baumann, B.L.

    1993-06-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) radiation exposure levels were implemented on January 1, 1991, by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a prime US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor, located in Richland, Washington. This paper describes the radiation exposure levels which were implemented and the associated experiences and lessons learned. The issue of a report from the Committee on Biological Effectiveness of Ionizing Radiation in 1989 prompted DOE to re-evaluate its position on radiation exposure limits and the resulting doses received by occupational radiation workers. DOE requested that all it's contractors determine the impacts to operations from reduced radiation exposure levels

  20. Evaluate Data Center Network Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur

    through a data center network, which is usually built with layer 2 switches and layer 3 routers. The topology of the data center network is crucial for latency in the data communication to and from the data center and between servers in the data center. Tests can be conducted to measure latency and other...... Engineering, scientists evaluate data center network topologies with an SDN-based (Software-Defined Networking) control framework measuring network performance – primarily latency. This can be used to plan data center scaling by testing how a new topology will function before changes are made. Data center...... performance parameters for different data center network topologies. It is however important that tests can be repeated and reproduced to have comparable information from the tests. There are, of course, many topologies that can be used for data center networks. At DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics...

  1. Application of the ALARA process in the regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    In this report the historical and conceptual basis of the ALARA process has been reviewed. The application solely of a prescriptive approach, particularly a rigorous quantitative approach to the decision-making process, has been questioned. While the Committees recognize the value of quantitative techniques they strongly emphasize that application of the ALARA concept is a much broader process for the determination of acceptable levels of protection. An ALARA process should take into account social and economic factors that are not quantifiable and involve representation of all those having a legitimate interest in the results of the process

  2. Plant operator performance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuko; Kubota, Ryuji.

    1989-01-01

    A plant operator performance evaluation system to analyze plant operation records during accident training and to identify and classify operator errors has been developed for the purpose of supporting realization of a training and education system for plant operators. A knowledge engineering technique was applied to evaluation of operator behavior by both even-based and symptom-based procedures, in various situations including event transition due to multiple failures or operational errors. The system classifies the identified errors as to their single and double types based on Swain's error classification and the error levels reflecting Rasmussen's cognitive level, and it also evaluates the effect of errors on plant state and then classifies error influence, using 'knowledge for phenomena and operations', as represented by frames. It has additional functions for analysis of error statistics and knowledge acquisition support of 'knowledge for operations'. The system was applied to a training analysis for a scram event in a BWR plant, and its error analysis function was confirmed to be effective by operational experts. (author)

  3. The ALARA project of the EDF nuclear park exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potoczek, J.

    1998-01-01

    To bring the exploitation of the nuclear park of EDF at the level of the best exploiters in the world in matter of collective and individual dosimetry, the ALARA principle coordinates numerous actions: to associate the temporary societies, to define common language, methods and tools for the whole park to organize a level effect in this area, to optimize the maintenance that is expansive in radiation doses, to make the different levels of management responsible on dosimetric stakes, to reduce the singular sources of exposure, to assure the organisation and exploitation of the experience back in this field and adapt consequently the system of information. The results are cheerful and the objectives for 2000 are: less than 1.2 h.Sv by year and by reactor, no intervener whom annual radiation dose is upper than 20 mSv (out of exceptional case). (N.C.)

  4. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W.; Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose

  5. Cobalt reduction of NSSS valve hardfacings for ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Hak; Lee, Sang Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    This report informs NSSS designer that replacement of materials is one of the major means of ALARA implementation, and describes that NSSS valves with high-cobalt hardfacing are significant contributors to post-shutdown radiation fields caused by activation of cobalt-59 to cobalt-60. Generic procedures for implementing cobalt reduction programs for valves are presented. Discussions are presented of the general and specific design requirements for valve hardfacing in nuclear service. The nuclear safety issues involved with changing valve hardfacing materials are discussed. The common methods used to deposit hardfacing materials are described together with an explanation of the wear measurements. Wear resistance, corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, and mechanical properties of candidate hardfacing alloys are given. World-wide nuclear utility experience with cobalt-free hardfacing alloys is described. The use of low-cobalt or cobalt-free alloys in other nuclear plant components is described. 17 figs., 38 tabs., 18 refs. (Author).

  6. Application of the ALARA principle to individual occupational radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinikov, V.E.

    1998-01-01

    Routine individual occupational radiation monitoring is necessary to ensure that exposure are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and that the authorized dose limits are not exceeded. The type and extend of the monitoring depend on the nature and magnitude of occupational radiation exposure. Optimal choice of the wearing time for individual dosimeters, T, has important consequences for achievement of the individual monitoring objects. The choice of T depends on individual dose distribution, the lower detection limit for the detector used, the lost of an information during period of monitoring, the cost of the measurements and the benefits associated with the results. The paper describes the application of quantitative optimization techniques to optimize the wearing time for individual dosimeters. It was shown how optimal wearing time for individual dosimeters depends on dose distribution, the lower detection limit, dose limit, fading and cost of the measurements. (author)

  7. Cobalt reduction of NSSS valve hardfacings for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Hak; Lee, Sang Sub

    1994-07-01

    This report informs NSSS designer that replacement of materials is one of the major means of ALARA implementation, and describes that NSSS valves with high-cobalt hardfacing are significant contributors to post-shutdown radiation fields caused by activation of cobalt-59 to cobalt-60. Generic procedures for implementing cobalt reduction programs for valves are presented. Discussions are presented of the general and specific design requirements for valve hardfacing in nuclear service. The nuclear safety issues involved with changing valve hardfacing materials are discussed. The common methods used to deposit hardfacing materials are described together with an explanation of the wear measurements. Wear resistance, corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, and mechanical properties of candidate hardfacing alloys are given. World-wide nuclear utility experience with cobalt-free hardfacing alloys is described. The use of low-cobalt or cobalt-free alloys in other nuclear plant components is described. 17 figs., 38 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  8. 48 CFR 436.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Performance evaluation. Preparation of performance evaluation reports. (a) In addition to the requirements of FAR 36.604, performance evaluation reports shall be prepared for indefinite-delivery type contracts...

  9. Culture of safety. Indicators of culture of safety. Stage of culture of safety. Optimization of radiating protection. Principle of precaution. Principle ALARA. Procedure ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursa, E.

    2006-01-01

    Object of research: is the theory and practice of optimization of radiating protection according to recommendations of the international organizations, realization of principle ALARA and maintenance of culture of safety (SC) on the nuclear power plant. The purpose of work - to consider the general aspects of realization of principle ALARA, conceptual bases of culture of safety, as principle of management, and practice of their introduction on the nuclear power plant. The work has the experts' report character in which the following questions are presented: The recommendations materials of the IAEA and other international organizations have been assembled, systematized and analyzed. The definitions, characteristics and universal SC features, and also indicators as a problem of parameters and quantitative SC measurements are described in details advanced. The ALARA principles - principle of precaution; not acceptance of zero risk; choice of a principle ALARA; model of acceptable radiation risk are described. The methodology of an estimation of culture of safety level and practical realization of the ALARA principle in separate organization is shown on a practical example. The SC general estimation at a national level in Republic of Moldova have been done. Taking into consideration that now Safety Culture politics are introduced only in relation to APS, in this paper the attempt of application of Safety Culture methodology to Radiological Objects have been made (Oncological Institute of the Republic of Moldova and Special Objects No.5101 and 5102 for a long time Storage of the Radioactive Waste). (authors)

  10. ALARA Council: Sharing our resources and experiences to reduce doses at Commonwealth Edison Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescek, F. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company is an investor-owned utility company supplying electricity to over three million customers (eight million people) in Chicago and northern Illinois, USA. The company operates 16 generating stations which have the capacity to produce 22,522 megawatts of electricity. Six of these generating stations, containing 12 nuclear units, supply 51% of this capacity. The 12 nuclear units are comprised of four General Electric boiling water (BWR-3) reactors, two General Electric BWR-5 reactors, and six Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors (PWR). In August 1993, Commonwealth Edison created an ALARA Council with the responsibility to provide leadership and guidance that results in an effective ALARA Culture within the Nuclear Operations Division. Unlike its predecessor, the Corporate ALARA Committee, the ALARA Council is designed to bring together senior managers from the six nuclear stations and corporate to create a collaborative effort to reduce occupational doses at Commonwealth Edison`s stations.

  11. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedures for maintenance site: application to replacement of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Lefaure, C.

    1989-08-01

    This report proposes generic organization and ALARA procedures for preparing a maintenance site at a NPP. After a short description of the ALARA principle, it describes the proposition for French sites. They are grouped according to the following: motivation, organisation, means. They are illustrated by the example of steam generator replacement. Three special points concerning preparation of the site are developed: education; training of operators; review of the project

  12. ALARA Review for the Sediment Relocation and Removal from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) review revision provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure, control contamination levels, and airborne radioactivity concentrations during sediment relocation and removal in the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin. This document updates and supercedes the ALARA review of the sediment-related activities contained in 100-N Basin Stabilization Project As Low As Reasonably Achievable Plan (BHI 1995)

  13. An operating nuclear utility's experience with the ALARA design of a new nuclear unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This talk presents a review of how operating experience at Northeast Utilities has been factored into the design of a new nuclear unit and the development and management of the radiation protection program. Their operational experience has indicated that there are two facets to keeping radiation exposures ALARA. The first is the proper ALARA design of the unit. The other facet is the design of a comprehensive radiation protection program. The author discusses these facets in some detail

  14. 48 CFR 2936.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Performance evaluation. (a) The HCA must establish procedures to evaluate architect-engineer contractor... reports must be made using Standard Form 1421, Performance Evaluation (Architect-Engineer) as prescribed...

  15. 13 CFR 304.4 - Performance evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance evaluations. 304.4... ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.4 Performance evaluations. (a) EDA shall evaluate the management... of at least one (1) other District Organization in the performance evaluation on a cost-reimbursement...

  16. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. (a) Preparation of performance reports. Use DD Form 2631, Performance Evaluation (Architect-Engineer), instead of SF 1421. (2) Prepare a separate...

  17. Evaluation of emergency department performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter; Forberg, Jakob Lundager

    2013-01-01

    eligibility criteria includes: 1) the main purpose was to discuss, analyse, or promote performance measures best reflecting ED performance, 2) the article was a review article, and 3) the article reported macro-level performance measures, thus reflecting an overall departmental performance level. Results...... measures that related directly to the patient. Performance measures related to employees were only stated in two of the 14 included articles. Conclusions A total of 55 ED performance measures were identified. ED time intervals were the most recommended performance measures followed by patient centeredness...... and safety performance measures. ED employee related performance measures were rarely mentioned in the investigated literature. The study’s results allow for advancement towards improved performance measurement and standardised assessment across EDs....

  18. Energy performance evaluation of AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Hulya

    The U.S. building industry constitutes the largest consumer of energy (i.e., electricity, natural gas, petroleum) in the world. The building sector uses almost 41 percent of the primary energy and approximately 72 percent of the available electricity in the United States. As global energy-generating resources are being depleted at exponential rates, the amount of energy consumed and wasted cannot be ignored. Professionals concerned about the environment have placed a high priority on finding solutions that reduce energy consumption while maintaining occupant comfort. Sustainable design and the judicious combination of building materials comprise one solution to this problem. A future including sustainable energy may result from using energy simulation software to accurately estimate energy consumption and from applying building materials that achieve the potential results derived through simulation analysis. Energy-modeling tools assist professionals with making informed decisions about energy performance during the early planning phases of a design project, such as determining the most advantageous combination of building materials, choosing mechanical systems, and determining building orientation on the site. By implementing energy simulation software to estimate the effect of these factors on the energy consumption of a building, designers can make adjustments to their designs during the design phase when the effect on cost is minimal. The primary objective of this research consisted of identifying a method with which to properly select energy-efficient building materials and involved evaluating the potential of these materials to earn LEED credits when properly applied to a structure. In addition, this objective included establishing a framework that provides suggestions for improvements to currently available simulation software that enhance the viability of the estimates concerning energy efficiency and the achievements of LEED credits. The primary objective

  19. 48 CFR 36.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation. 36.604 Section 36.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... Performance evaluation. See 42.1502(f) for the requirements for preparing past performance evaluations for...

  20. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  1. ALARA and de minimis concepts in regulation of personnel exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ALARA process should not be limited by a de minimis level on either collective or individual dose, but should be limited or defined by an acceptable discount-rate on future costs and effects, and a monetary value for detriment, to be used in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit calculations at dose levels well below the regulatory limits. This approach would provide the desired benefit of simplifying the decision process, it makes it more cost effective, and would avoid the inconsistencies of limits on only one of the four parameters of importance in the optimization process. These are average individual effective dose equivalent rate, number of individuals to be included in the summation, years of exposure, and costs, which include costs of analysis to reduce the exposure. This approach emphasizes that these doses to an individual may not be considered trivial by society when given to a very large population, especially if they could easily be avoided. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Interpretation of ALARA in the Canadian regulatory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utting, R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is responsible for the regulation of all aspects of atomic energy in Canada. This includes the complete nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to long-term disposal of nuclear fuel, as well as the medical and industrial utilization of radioisotopes. Clearly, the regulatory approach will differ from practice to practice but, as far as possible, the AECB has attempted to minimize the degree of prescription of regulatory requirements. The traditional modus operandi of the AECB has been to have broad general principles enshrined in regulations with the requirement that licensees submit specific operating policies and procedures to the AECB for approval. In the large nuclear facilities with their sophisticated technical infrastructures, this policy has been largely successful although in a changing legal and political milieu the AECB is finding that a greater degree of proactive regulation is becoming necessary. With the smaller users, the AECB has for a long time found it necessary to have a greater degree of prescription in its regulatory function. Forthcoming General Amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations will, amongst other things, formally incorporate the concept of ALARA into the Canadian regulatory framework. Within the broad range of practices licensed by the AECB it is not practical to provide detailed guidance on optimization that will be relevant and appropriate to all licensees, however the following general principles are proposed.

  3. 40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354 Section 63.2354 Protection of Environment... tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1) For each performance test... procedures specified in subpart SS of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

  4. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL's reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included

  5. Medicare Administrative Contractor Performance Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has compiled a summary of overall Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) performance information as measured...

  6. Ecological aspects of the radiation-migration equivalence principle in a closed fuel cycle and its comparative assessment with the ALARA principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluektov, P.P.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Nikipelov, B.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Voloshin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The errors and uncertainties arising in the determination of radionuclide escape from the RW burial require the use of extremely conservative estimates. In the limit, the nuclide concentrations in the waste may be used as estimates of their concentrations in underground waters. On this basis, it is possible to evaluate the corresponding radio-toxicities (by normalizing to the interference levels) of individual components and radioactive waste as a whole or the effective radio-toxicities (by dividing the radionuclide radio-toxicities into the retardation factors for the nuclide transfer with underground waters). This completely coincides with the procedure of performing the limiting conservative estimate according to the traditional approach with the use of scenarios, escape models, and the corresponding codes. A comparison of radio-toxicities for waste with those for natural uranium consumed for producing a required fuel results in the notion of radiation-migration equivalence for individual waste components and radioactive waste as a whole. Therefore, the radiation-migration equivalence corresponds to the limiting conservative estimate in the traditional approach to the determination of RW disposal safety in comparison with the radiotoxicity of natural uranium. The amounts of radionuclides in fragments (and actinides) and the corresponding weight of heavy metal in the fuel are compared with due regard for the hazard (according to the NRB-99 standards), the nuclide mobility (through the sorption retardation factors), the retention of radioactive waste by the solid matrix, and the contribution from the chains of uranium fission products. It was noted above that the RME principle is aimed at ensuring the radiological safety of the present and future generations and the environment through the minimization of radioactive waste upon reprocessing. This is attended by reaching a reasonably achievable, low level of radiological action in the context of modern science, i

  7. Application of ALARA to transport of Radio-Isotopes for Medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, H. J.; Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Van Hienen, J. F. A.; Jansma, R.; Gelder, R.; Shaw, K. B.; Gulberg, O.; Josefsson, D.; Svahn, B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 a multi-national research project on transport safety commissioned by DG-TREN of the European Commission was completed and reported in The Evaluation of the Situation in the EC as regards Safety in the Transport of Radioactive Material and the Prospects for the Development of such Type of Transport (EC Contract No 4.1020/D/97-003. The result project was focussed on the radiological protection for routine (incident-free) shipments of radioactive material (RAM) in the public domain in four EU Member States Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. This information satisfies the requirements of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards, Article 14, which calls for reasonable steps taken by EU Member States to ensure and to substantiate that the contribution to exposure from practices including transport operations involving radioactive substances, is kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), economic and social factors being taken into account. The present paper, which has been partially based on the 1999 study for the European Commission, is focussed on the application of ALARA to the shipments by road in the four countries of radioactive material used for health care, research and industry. From the analysis of the data for these shipment it has been found that these shipments result in transport worker effective doses that vary from very low values which represent a major fraction of the applicable dose limit of 20 mSv/yr. From the primarily recorded worker radiation doses collected at the national level indicate, however, that the vast majority of transport workers, i. e. drivers and handlers, receive typically annual effective doses in the range of up to 10 mSv/yr with most values being in the low dose range. The maximum recorded occupational doses of workers involved primarily in manual handling, sorting and moving of high-T1 multiple-package radioisotope shipments at depots, re-distribution centres etc. were found to be from about 10-14 mSv/yr, From the

  8. Aging evaluation of active components by using performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. K.; Jin, T. E.; Kim, J. S.; Jung, I. S.; Kim, T. R.

    2003-01-01

    Risk analysis and performance evaluation methodology were applied to the aging evaluation of active components in the periodic safety review of Wolsung unit 1. We conclude that evaluation of performance is more effective to discriminate the aging degradation of active component than the evaluation of aging mechanism. It is essential to analyze the common cause failures of low performance components to evaluate the properness of present maintenance system. Past 10 years failure history is used for establishing the performance criteria. Past 2 years failure history is used for the evaluating the recent performance condition. We analyze the failure mode of the components to improve the maintenance system. Performance evaluation methodology is useful for the quantitative evaluation of aging degradation of active components. Analysis on the repeated failures can be useful for the feedback to maintenance plan and interval

  9. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivaramakrishnan, N.R.; Eswaran, G.; Gangamohan, M.; Sathish, A.V.; Ramasubramanian, K.V.; Gandhimathinathan, S.; Selvam, S.; Moolya, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    ALARA - acronym for As Low As Reasonably Achievable, which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical. ICRP has recommended ALARA to be implemented as a formal practice into the System of Dose Limitation, which contains three parts, 1) Justification of practice 2) Optimization 3) Dose Limits. As with the human endeavor, there is always room for improvement. Keeping this in mind, ALARA program is being practiced in our Nuclear Power Plants over the years. There has been a gradual reduction of collective dose in our Nuclear Power Plants due to successful implementation of the ALARA programs. This was possible due to the rigorous application of O and M experience, feedback and active participation of workforce towards ALARA. Furthermore, ALARA is an ongoing continual improvement programme towards collective dose reduction and has enough scope for improvement at any point of time. In order to substantiate the gains of ALARA programme and to improve it further, first time Mam-rem Audit was conducted at MAPS during the month of Sep-Oct 2010. This paper gives the brief outline about the method man-rem audit, its findings, corrective action implementation and the benefits derived from it. Man-rem audit similar to financial audit, serves as a tool for finding out grey areas where improvements is required so that station collective dose can be further optimized. It is one of the identified missions to achieve excellence in area of reducing station collective dose, unplanned exposures and RPP deviation. The scope of this audit is to bring further improvements in the reduction in station collective dose, create more awareness among the employees about ALARA principles and seek valuable suggestions for improvements. Audit team consisting of senior HP persons had one to one interaction with the individuals of the respective section in the field and tried to gather the information from the individual and

  10. Portfolio optimization and performance evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Based on an exclusive business-to-business database comprising nearly 1,000 customers, the applicability of portfolio analysis is documented, and it is examined how such an optimization analysis can be used to explore the growth potential of a company. As opposed to any previous analyses, optimal...... customer portfolios are determined, and it is shown how marketing decision-makers can use this information in their marketing strategies to optimize the revenue growth of the company. Finally, our analysis is the first analysis which applies portfolio based methods to measure customer performance......, and it is shown how these performance measures complement the optimization analysis....

  11. Department of Energy ALARA implementation guide. Response to the Health Physics Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, J.M. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In the August 1993 Health Physics Society (HPS) newsletter, the HPS Scientific and Public Issues Committee published a Position Statement entitled {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes}. In this article, this HPS committee made the statement that they were deeply concerned by the trend for agencies to incorporate the ALARA concept as a regulatory requirements, without providing specific guidance as to what it means and how to implement it consistently. The HPS position paper was in response to the DOE notice on proposed rulemaking for Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 834, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834). In the notice of proposed rulemaking for 10 CFR 834, the Department of Energy (DOE) defined ALARA as follows: {open_quotes}As used in this part, ALARA is not a dose limit, but rather a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below the applicable limit of this part as is reasonably achievable{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834.2, p. 16283 of the Federal Register). The HPS position paper continues, {open_quotes}The section goes on to elaborate on what is meant by a process without providing sufficient guidance to assure uniform applicability of the process.{close_quotes}. Although this concern is directed towards the ALARA process as it relates to the environment, the Office of Health, which is responsible for occupational workers, shares the same definition for ALARA.

  12. Evaluating judge performance in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A

    2004-01-01

    Many sports, such as, gymnastics, diving, ski jumping, and figure skating, use judges' scores to determine the winner of a competition. These judges use some type of rating scale when judging performances (e.g., figure skating: 0.0 - 6.0). Sport governing bodies have the responsibility of setting and enforcing quality control parameters for judge performance. Given the judging scandals in figure skating at the 1998 and 2002 Olympics, judge performance in sport is receiving greater scrutiny. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how results from Rasch analyses can be used to provide in-depth feedback to judges about their scoring patterns. Nine judges' scores for 20 pairs of figure skaters who competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics were analyzed using a four-faceted (skater pair ability, skating aspect difficulty, program difficulty, and judge severity) Rasch rating scale model that was not common to all judges. Fit statistics, the logical ordering of skating aspects, skating programs, and separation indices all indicated a good fit of the data to the model. The type of feedback that can be given to judges about their scoring pattern was illustrated for one judge (USA) whose performance was flagged as being unpredictable. Feedback included a detailed description of how the rating scale was used; for example, 10% of all marks given by the American judge were unexpected by the model (Z > |2|). Three figures illustrated differences between the judge's observed and expected marks arranged according to the pairs' skating order and final placement in the competition. Scores which may represent "nationalistic bias" or a skating order influence were flagged by looking at these figures. If sport governing bodies wish to improve the performance of their judges, they need to employ methods that monitor the internal consistency of each judge as a many-facet Rasch analysis does.

  13. Application of the ALARA principle to minimize the collective dose in NPP accident management within the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorad, V.; Slepchenko, O.; Kyrylenko, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on application of the ALARA principle to minimize the collective doses (both for NPP personnel and the public) related to admission of personnel to the containment for accident management activities and depending on operation of ventilation systems. Results from assessment of radiation consequences are applied to a small - break LOCA with failure of LPIS at VVER - 1000 reactors. The public doses are evaluated using up - to - date RODOS, MACCS and HotSpot software for assessment of radiation consequences. The personnel doses are evaluated with MicroShield and InterRAS codes. The time function and optimal value of the collective dose are defined. The developed approach can be applied for minimization of the collective dose for optimization of accident management strategies at NPPs

  14. Loudspeaker Design and Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkivirta, Aki Vihtori

    A loudspeaker comprises transducers converting an electrical driving signal into sound pressure, an enclosure working as a holder for transducers, front baffle and box to contain and eliminate the rear-radiating audio signal, and electronic components. Modeling of transducers as well as enclosures is treated in Chap. 32 of this handbook. The purpose of the present chapter is to shed light on the design choices and options for the electronic circuits conditioning the electrical signal fed into loudspeaker transducers in order to optimize the acoustic performance of the loudspeaker.

  15. Health physics experiences in achieving ALARA exposures to plant personnel at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, V.; Lal Chand

    2000-01-01

    Unit 1 of NAPS achieved first criticality on 12.3.1989 and Unit 2 achieved on 24.10.1991. Till the end of Feb-2000 these units have completed 1890 and 1811 full power days respectively. The performance of NAPS was expected to be better than the earlier Indian reactors in respect of safe production as well as cumulative radiation exposures. This is because of the major design improvements like: fully double containment system, elimination of 41 Ar by introducing light water in calandria vault, reduction of core based fuel failure rate, separation of high radiation equipment to no occupancy areas during normal operation, a separate purification building for the purification of both moderator and PHT systems, a better layout of equipment and plant areas, elimination of unnecessary equipment in various systems besides ensuring the reliability of equipment for safe operation, selection of materials with low corrosion and activation characteristics etc. In this paper, the operational health physics experiences at NAPS to achieve ALARA exposures to plant personnel are described briefly. (author)

  16. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  17. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) assesses the performance with which models predict time series data. The tool was developed Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)

  18. Performance evaluation of Louisiana superpave mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report documents the performance of Louisiana Superpave mixtures through laboratory mechanistic tests, mixture : volumetric properties, gradation analysis, and early field performance. Thirty Superpave mixtures were evaluated in this : study. Fo...

  19. Performance evaluation of ventilation radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhren, Jonn Are; Holmberg, Sture

    2013-01-01

    A ventilation radiator is a combined ventilation and heat emission unit currently of interest due to its potential for increasing energy efficiency in exhaust-ventilated buildings with warm water heating. This paper presents results of performance tests of several ventilation radiator models conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The purpose of the study was to validate results achieved by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in an earlier study and identify possible improvements in the performance of such systems. The main focus was on heat transfer from internal convection fins, but comfort and health aspects related to ventilation rates and air temperatures were also considered. The general results from the CFD simulations were confirmed; the heat output of ventilation radiators may be improved by at least 20% without sacrificing ventilation efficiency or thermal comfort. Improved thermal efficiency of ventilation radiators allows a lower supply water temperature and energy savings both for heating up and distribution of warm water in heat pumps or district heating systems. A secondary benefit is that a high ventilation rate can be maintained all year around without risk for cold draught. -- Highlights: ► Low temperature heat emitters are currently of interest due to their potential for increasing energy efficiency. ► A ventilation radiator is a combined ventilation and heat emission unit which can be adapted to low temperature heating systems. ► We examine how ventilation radiators can be made to be more efficient in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort. ► Current work focuses on heat transfer mechanisms and convection fin configuration of ventilation radiators

  20. New recommendations of the ICRP and the ALARA program of the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Nuevas recomendaciones del ICRP y el programa ALARA de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla C, I [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Laguna Verde (Mexico)

    1991-07-01

    In view of the events happened in it finishes it decade, in the nuclear environment, it is necessary that any he/she practices that it involves exhibition to the radiation, real or potential, be detailed and systematically analyzed by the light of the current knowledge, capitalizing the generated experience. They think about three fundamental aspects in the campaign of radiological cultivation: 1. New methods of evaluation of equivalent dose. 2. Limit of individual dose, base of the change and control implications, and 3. Analysis philosophies and the application of the system of dose limitation. The program ALARA of the Laguna Verde Central from its installation in 1987 observes and it implements actions trending to optimize it practice of situation of potential and planned exhibition with the purpose of fulfilling the commitment settled down in the declaration of political of this program.

  1. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  2. ALARA Review for the Deactivation of the 107-N Pump Well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used during the completion of deactivation work at the 107-N Building. This ALARA assessment focuses on the 107-N Building pump well. The level of contamination found in the pump well has been estimated to be approximately 830 mRad/hr beta and 680,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) alpha per large area wipe. As part of the characterization of the water and sediment, samples were taken to determine the isotopic distribution

  3. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roecklein, A.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.

    1981-01-01

    Of various approaches that might be taken to the diagnostic performance evaluation problem, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis holds great promise. Further development of the methodology for a unified, objective, and meaningful approach to evaluating the usefulness of medical imaging procedures is done by consideration of statistical significance testing, optimal sequencing of correlated studies, and analysis of observer performance

  5. New recommendations of the ICRP and the ALARA program of the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla C, I.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the events happened in it finishes it decade, in the nuclear environment, it is necessary that any he/she practices that it involves exhibition to the radiation, real or potential, be detailed and systematically analyzed by the light of the current knowledge, capitalizing the generated experience. They think about three fundamental aspects in the campaign of radiological cultivation: 1. New methods of evaluation of equivalent dose. 2. Limit of individual dose, base of the change and control implications, and 3. Analysis philosophies and the application of the system of dose limitation. The program ALARA of the Laguna Verde Central from its installation in 1987 observes and it implements actions trending to optimize it practice of situation of potential and planned exhibition with the purpose of fulfilling the commitment settled down in the declaration of political of this program

  6. ALARA (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) procedure applied to fuel assembly fabrication with enriched reprocessing uranium (ERU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos; Degrange, Jean Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The study introduced by this paper compose the first step to the implementation of ALARA (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) for a nuclear fuel assembly factory which one of its two production lines will be designed to work with Enriched Reprocessing Uranium (ERU). This step includes the reference situation analysis is based on previsional dosimetric evaluations for individual and collective exposures of each factory operator (117 in total) working on 7 work stations, considering 6 annual production scenarios (10, 50 75, 100 and 150 ERU tons), which corresponds to an annual production of 600 tons (ERU plus enriched natural uranium ENU). The exposure indicators evolution, expressed in terms of collective dose, annual individual dose and radiological detrimental cost for workers, is also used in a complimentary way to guide the analysis. (author)

  7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: LITERATURE REVIEW AND TIME EVOLUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of an economic entity requires approaching several criteria, such as industry and economic entity type, managerial and entrepreneurial strategy, competitive environment, human and material resources available, using a system of appropriate performance indicators for this purpose.The exigencies of communication occurred on the growing number of phenomena that marked the global economy in recent decades (internationalization and relocation of business crises and turmoil in financial markets, demand performance measurement to be made in a comprehensive way by financial and non-financial criteria. Indicators are measures of performance used by management to measure, report and improve performance of the economic entity. The relationship between indicators and management is ensured by the existence of performance measurement systems. Studies to date indicate that economic entities using balanced performance measurement systems as a key management tool registered superior performance compared to entities not using such systems. This study attempts to address the issue of performance evaluation by presenting opinions of different authors concerning the process of performance measurement and to present, after revising the literature, the evolution of the performance evaluation systems. We tried to do this literature review because sustainable development and, therefore, globalization require new standards of performance that exceeds the economic field, both for domestic companies as well as international ones. So, these standards should be integrated into corporate strategy development to ensure sustainability of activities undertaken by harmonizing the economic, social and environmental objectives. To assess the performance of economic entities it is required that performance evaluation to be done with a balanced multidimensional system, including both financial ratios and non-financial indicators in order to reduce the limits of

  8. NPP Krsko natural circulation performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segon, Velimir; Bajs, Tomislav; Frogheri, Monica

    1999-01-01

    The present document deals with an evaluation of the natural circulation performance of the Krsko nuclear power plant. Two calculation have been performed using the NPP Krsko nodalization (both similar to the LOBI A2-77 natural circulation experiment) - the first with the present steam generators at NPP Krsko (Westinghouse, 18% plugged), the second with the future steam generators (Siemens, 0% plugged). The results were evaluated using the natural circulation flow map derived in /1/, and were compared to evaluate the influence of the new steam generators on the natural circulation performance. (author)

  9. Radiation protection-culture. Culture improvement in radiation protection and ALARA behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    In order to that the optimization principle become an actual professional liable dynamical critter in the radiological protection topics, the hierarchic impulse and the personnel sensitiveness are determining. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) in the firm cultivation modify the behaviour and act philosophy. 7 refs., 2 figs

  10. ALARA cost/benefit analysis at Union Electric company using the ARP/AI methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a specific method for justification of expenditures associated with reducing occupational radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This methodology is based on the concepts of the Apparebt Reduction Potential (ARP) and Achievability index (AI) as described in NUREG/CR-0446, Union Eletric's corporate planning model and the EPRI Model for dose rate buildup with reactor operating life. The ARP provides a screening test to determine if there is a need for ALARA expenditures based on actual or predicted exposure rates and/or dose experience. The AI is a means of assessing all costs and all benefits, even though they are expressed in different units of measurement such as person-rem and dollars, to determine if ALARA expenditures are justified and their value. This method of cost/benefit analysis can be applied by any company or organization utilizing site-specific exposure and dose rate data, and incorporating consideration of administrative exposure controls which may vary from organization to organization. Specific example cases are presented and compared to other methodologies for ALARA cost/benefit analysis

  11. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Price, Harry E; Smedley, Eric M; Meals, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor's gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble's articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble's performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  12. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eMorrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor’s gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance, articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and nonmajors (N = 285 viewed sixteen 30-second performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble’s articulation, dynamics, technique and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble’s performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  13. Laboratory performance evaluation reports for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, P.C.; Hensley, J.E.; Bass, D.A.; Johnson, P.L.; Marr, J.J.; Streets, W.E.; Warren, S.W.; Newberry, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the US DOE's environmental restoration efforts, the Integrated Performance Evaluation Program (IPEP) was developed to produce laboratory performance evaluation reports for management. These reports will provide information necessary to allow DOE headquarters and field offices to determine whether or not contracted analytical laboratories have the capability to produce environmental data of the quality necessary for the remediation program. This document describes the management report

  14. Evaluation of high-performance computing software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, S.; Dongarra, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rowan, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The absence of unbiased and up to date comparative evaluations of high-performance computing software complicates a user`s search for the appropriate software package. The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is attacking this problem using an approach that includes independent evaluations of software, incorporation of author and user feedback into the evaluations, and Web access to the evaluations. We are applying this approach to the Parallel Tools Library (PTLIB), a new software repository for parallel systems software and tools, and HPC-Netlib, a high performance branch of the Netlib mathematical software repository. Updating the evaluations with feed-back and making it available via the Web helps ensure accuracy and timeliness, and using independent reviewers produces unbiased comparative evaluations difficult to find elsewhere.

  15. Performance-Based Evaluation and School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Audrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of instructional personnel is standard procedure in our Pre-K-12 public schools, and its purpose is to document educator effectiveness. With Race to the Top and No Child Left Behind waivers, states are required to implement performance-based evaluations that demonstrate student academic progress. This three-year study describes the…

  16. Building Leadership Talent through Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Most states and districts scramble to provide professional development to support principals, but "principal evaluation" is often lost amid competing priorities. Evaluation is an important method for supporting principal growth, communicating performance expectations to principals, and improving leadership practice. It provides leaders…

  17. Performance Evaluation Of Behavioral Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi , Fouad; Hemery , Baptiste; Giot , Romain; Pasquet , Marc; Rosenberger , Christophe

    2009-01-01

    We present in this chapter an overview of techniques for the performance evaluation of behavioral biometric systems. The BioAPI standard that defines the architecture of a biometric system is presented in the first part of the chapter... The general methodology for the evaluation of biometric systems is given including statistical metrics, definition of benchmark databases and subjective evaluation. These considerations rely with the ISO/IEC19795-1 standard describing the biometric performanc...

  18. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  19. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  20. Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oged, M.; Warner, D.; Gurbuz, E.

    1993-03-01

    The SSCL Magnet Quality Assurance Department has implemented a Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS) to assess supplier performance throughout the development and production stages of the SSCL program. The main objectives of SPEARS are to promote teamwork and recognize performance. This paper examines the current implementation of SPEARS. MSD QA supports the development and production of SSCsuperconducting magnets while implementing the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C. The MSD QA program is based on the concept of continuous improvement in quality and productivity. The QA program requires that procurement of items and services be controlled to assure conformance to specification. SPEARS has been implemented to meet DOE requirements and to enhance overall confidence in supplier performance. Key elements of SPEARS include supplier evaluation and selection as well as evaluation of furnished quality through source inspection, audit, and receipt inspection. These elements are described in this paper

  1. Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oged, M.; Warner, D.G.; Gurbuz, E.

    1994-01-01

    The SSCL Magnet Quality Assurance Department has implemented a Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS) to assess supplier performance throughout the development and production stages of the SSCL program. The main objectives of SPEARS are to promote teamwork and recognize performance. This paper examines the current implementation of SPEARS. MSD QA supports the development and production of SSC superconducting magnets while implementing the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C. The MSD QA program is based on the concept of continuous improvement in quality and productivity. The QA program requires that procurement of items and services be controlled to assure conformance to specification. SPEARS has been implemented to meet DOE requirements and to enhance overall confidence in supplier performance. Key elements of SPEARS include supplier evaluation and selection as well as evaluation of furnished quality through source inspection, audit, and receipt inspection. These elements are described in this paper

  2. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shichang; Yang, Wu; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangchuan

    2016-01-01

    Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers). Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  3. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Xuan

    Full Text Available Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers. Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  4. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedures for maintenance site: application to replacement of steam generator; Propositions d'organisation et procedures ALARA pour la preparation des chantiers de maintenance: application au RGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J; Lefaure, C

    1989-08-01

    This report proposes generic organization and ALARA procedures for preparing a maintenance site at a NPP. After a short description of the ALARA principle, it describes the proposition for French sites. They are grouped according to the following: motivation, organisation, means. They are illustrated by the example of steam generator replacement. Three special points concerning preparation of the site are developed: education; training of operators; review of the project.

  5. Virginia power's human performance evaluation system (HPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) which was initially developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) using the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) as a guide. After a pilot program involving three utilities ended in 1983, the present day program was instituted. A methodology was developed, for specific application to nuclear power plant employees, to aid trained coordinators/evaluators in determining those factors that exert a negative influence on human behavior in the nuclear power plant environment. HPES is for anyone and everyone on site, from contractors to plant staff to plant management. No one is excluded from participation. Virginia Power's HPES program goal is to identify and correct the root causes of human performance problems. Evaluations are performed on reported real or perceived conditions that may have an adverse influence on members of the nuclear team. A report is provided to management identifying root cause and contributing factors along with recommended corrective actions

  6. Evaluating Nonclinical Performance of the Academic Pathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Blackburn Wiles MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic pathologists perform clinical duties, as well as valuable nonclinical activities. Nonclinical activities may consist of research, teaching, and administrative management among many other important tasks. While clinical duties have many clear metrics to measure productivity, like the relative value units of Medicare reimbursement, nonclinical performance is often difficult to measure. Despite the difficulty of evaluating nonclinical activities, nonclinical productivity is used to determine promotion, funding, and inform professional evaluations of performance. In order to better evaluate the important nonclinical performance of academic pathologists, we present an evaluation system for leadership use. This system uses a Microsoft Excel workbook to provide academic pathologist respondents and reviewing leadership a transparent, easy-to-complete system that is both flexible and scalable. This system provides real-time feedback to academic pathologist respondents and a clear executive summary that allows for focused guidance of the respondent. This system may be adapted to fit practices of varying size, measure performance differently based on years of experience, and can work with many different institutional values.

  7. Methods of Evaluating Performances for Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2005-01-01

    There are specific methods for assessing and improving the effectiveness of a marketing strategy. A marketer should state in the marketing plan what a marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. These statements should set forth performance standards, which usually are stated in terms of profits, sales, or costs. Actual performance must be measured in similar terms so that comparisons are possible. This paper describes sales analysis and cost analysis, two general ways of evaluating the act...

  8. A Proposed RTN Officer Performance Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Taa& No. WokI Unlit Acca ~def 11¶. TITLE (biclde Securiy ClassifiCation) A PROPOSED ROYAL THAI NAVY OFIICER PERFORM NCE EVALUATION SYSTEM 12. PERSONAL...all aspects of performance into account , the commanding officer uses his opinion to decide who is "the best." There are no standard guidelines for...ftequently used in orgunsadozn as a bais for adminiardstive decisions such as employee promotion., tuufer, and allocation of financial reward; employee

  9. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  11. A corporate ALARA engineering support for all EDF nuclear power plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiot, A.; Orjol, A. [Electricite de France (EDF/UTO), 93 - Noisy le Grand (France); Lafferriere, F.; Fraissinet, E. [Electricite de France (EDF-CNPE) du Blayais, 33 - Saint Ciers sur Gironde (France)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1991, EDF has established a national ALARA programme with a very effective result in terms of dose reduction. Of course, EDF management has decided to further improve occupational exposure management and dose reduction (both collective and individuals). Since 2002, one key element allowing reaching the new goals, is the set up of a national corporate engineering as a support for EDF sites for preparing maintenance interventions. Its objective is to reduce occupational exposure with the help of up to date tools and methods. That engineering support consists of a growing up team comprising at the moment about ten engineers, including CAD specialists and health physicists. It is in charge of using very efficient tools such as P.A.N.T.H.E.R. -R.P. to perform national modelling studies concerning the reactor and auxiliary buildings areas, which are the most costly in terms of doses. That tool has been developed initially for the first steam generator replacements by EDF S.E.P.T.E.N. engineering department. It uses friendly user 3D software to create a geometrical model of the concerned area with all existing materials (pipes, valves, concrete walls allowing visualizing on personal computers, each area from all perspectives. Other important inputs for P.A.N.T.H.E.R. R.P. are the quantities of radioisotopes present in each material. The code allows then estimating the dose rates at each location in the area, calculating the contribution of each equipment (i.e sources) in the area to the dose rate in each point; calculating also the contribution of each radio isotope to the dose rates. With the help of these models the engineering is then able to perform in depth generic work areas optimisation studies, taking into account the workload in each workstation. Up to recently these studies were performed only for huge operations such as steam generator replacements, they are now proposed to EDF sites for more usual interventions. The selection of these interventions takes

  12. A corporate ALARA engineering support for all EDF nuclear power plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiot, A.; Orjol, A.; Lafferriere, F.; Fraissinet, E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, EDF has established a national ALARA programme with a very effective result in terms of dose reduction. Of course, EDF management has decided to further improve occupational exposure management and dose reduction (both collective and individuals). Since 2002, one key element allowing reaching the new goals, is the set up of a national corporate engineering as a support for EDF sites for preparing maintenance interventions. Its objective is to reduce occupational exposure with the help of up to date tools and methods. That engineering support consists of a growing up team comprising at the moment about ten engineers, including CAD specialists and health physicists. It is in charge of using very efficient tools such as P.A.N.T.H.E.R. -R.P. to perform national modelling studies concerning the reactor and auxiliary buildings areas, which are the most costly in terms of doses. That tool has been developed initially for the first steam generator replacements by EDF S.E.P.T.E.N. engineering department. It uses friendly user 3D software to create a geometrical model of the concerned area with all existing materials (pipes, valves, concrete walls allowing visualizing on personal computers, each area from all perspectives. Other important inputs for P.A.N.T.H.E.R. R.P. are the quantities of radioisotopes present in each material. The code allows then estimating the dose rates at each location in the area, calculating the contribution of each equipment (i.e sources) in the area to the dose rate in each point; calculating also the contribution of each radio isotope to the dose rates. With the help of these models the engineering is then able to perform in depth generic work areas optimisation studies, taking into account the workload in each workstation. Up to recently these studies were performed only for huge operations such as steam generator replacements, they are now proposed to EDF sites for more usual interventions. The selection of these interventions takes

  13. Development and Performance Evaluation of Indigenously Made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to develop, construct and evaluate the performance of cooling chambers made from factory pressed burnt clay (structure-1), locally molded mud blocks (structure-2) and wood wall (structure-3) for extending the shelf life of mangoes and sweet oranges. It was observed that structure-1 significantly ...

  14. Subjective performance evaluation and gender discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Torres-Gonzalez, R.

    2011-01-01

    Gender discrimination continues to be a problem in organizations. It is therefore important that organizations use performance evaluation methods that ensure equal opportunities for men and women. This article reports the results of an experiment to investigate whether and, if so, how the gender of

  15. Lessons learned in planning ALARA/health physics support for major nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, T.R.; Lesinski, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)/health physics is viewed as necessary support for nuclear power plant outage work, it can be the last area to which attention is given in preparing for a large-scope outage. Inadequate lead times cause last-minute preparations resulting in delays in planned work. The Dresden Unit 3 Recirculation Piping Replacement Project is examined from a planning viewpoint. The attention that was given the various areas of a comprehensive ALARA/health physics program is examined, and approximate recommended lead times are discussed. The discussion will follow a chronological path from project inception to the beginning stages of outage work. Initially, the scope of work needs to be assessed by individuals familiar with similar projects of equivalent magnitude. Those individuals need to be health physics professionals who understand the particular utility and/or the site's way of doing business. They should also possess a good understanding of preferred industry practices

  16. Experience of ALARA in controlling radiocaesium discharges to the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiocaesium discharges to the Irish Sea, which primarily originate from corrosion of magnox fuel in the Sellafield storage ponds, are a source of public radiation exposure mainly through the fish and shellfish consumption pathway. Experience of ALARA in the context of reducing these discharges is described. The operators, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), in consultation with Government Departments, decided to install an ion exchange plant to remove radioactivity from pond effluents. This plant is scheduled for commissioning in 1984 and optimisation will play a major part in determining its operating regime. Meanwhile, measures have been taken to reduce discharges using skips of zeolite installed in the ponds. Experience of ALARA in determining the optimum replacement rate of skips is described. A major consideration was differential cost-benefit analysis. Following installation of skips at the rate thereby indicated, discharges are being reduced by about half. A further major reduction is expected when the ion exchange plant becomes available. (author)

  17. ALARA database value in future outage work planning and dose management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Green, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    ALARA database encompassing job-specific duration and man-rem plant specific information over three refueling outages represents an invaluable tool for the outage work planner and ALARA engineer. This paper describes dose-management trends emerging based on analysis of three refueling outages at Clinton Power Station. Conclusions reached based on hard data available from a relational database dose-tracking system is a valuable tool for planning of future outage work. The system's ability to identify key problem areas during a refueling outage is improving as more outage comparative data becomes available. Trends over a three outage period are identified in this paper in the categories of number and type of radiation work permits implemented, duration of jobs, projected vs. actual dose rates in work areas, and accuracy of outage person-rem projection. The value of the database in projecting 1 and 5 year station person-rem estimates is discussed

  18. ALARA database value in future outage work planning and dose management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.W.; Green, W.H. [Clinton Power Station Illinois Power Co., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    ALARA database encompassing job-specific duration and man-rem plant specific information over three refueling outages represents an invaluable tool for the outage work planner and ALARA engineer. This paper describes dose-management trends emerging based on analysis of three refueling outages at Clinton Power Station. Conclusions reached based on hard data available from a relational database dose-tracking system is a valuable tool for planning of future outage work. The system`s ability to identify key problem areas during a refueling outage is improving as more outage comparative data becomes available. Trends over a three outage period are identified in this paper in the categories of number and type of radiation work permits implemented, duration of jobs, projected vs. actual dose rates in work areas, and accuracy of outage person-rem projection. The value of the database in projecting 1 and 5 year station person-rem estimates is discussed.

  19. Radiation exposure usage accountability and impact with respect to ALAP (ALARA) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    A unique method has been developed for radiation exposure usage accounting at the N Reactor. This method accounts for exposure usage by specific job and working crafts. The accounting system provides information for use in job planning, exposure resource management, and ALAP (ALARA) analysis. It provides justification for ALAP expenditures, documentation of the effectiveness of exposure reduction efforts, and can be used to establish priorities for ALAP efforts

  20. CSER 95-002: ALARA shielding for IAEA SNM container movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    This CSER qualifies use of a 5% borated, lead foil lined polyethylene 1 inch annulus as a bucket and in a small carrier to move sealed containers of plutonium. The containers are Oversize Cans or smaller containing plutonium limited in mass and H/Pu ratio by PFP storage and transportation CPS's. These ALARA shielding units reduce personnel exposure to the radiation from the containers as they are moved for assay and other required activities

  1. Interpretation of the concepts of ALARA and bat for radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the important concepts of both ALARA and BAT associated with the characteristics of effluent releases from the existing nuclear installations and the abatement techniques for effluents, this paper elaborates the principle of controlling radioactive effluent concentration from nuclear installation, that is based on the BAT focusing on the abatement techniques for effluents, introduces the good practice in the projects, and optimize the effluent releases with account taken of external factors such as the site condition. (authors)

  2. Computer technique for evaluating collimator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to theoretically evaluate the overall performance of collimators used with radioisotope scanners and γ cameras. The first step of the program involves the determination of the line spread function (LSF) and geometrical efficiency from the fundamental parameters of the collimator being evaluated. The working equations can be applied to any plane of interest. The resulting LSF is applied to subroutine computer programs which compute corresponding modulation transfer function and contrast efficiency functions. The latter function is then combined with appropriate geometrical efficiency data to determine the performance index function. The overall computer program allows one to predict from the physical parameters of the collimator alone how well the collimator will reproduce various sized spherical voids of activity in the image plane. The collimator performance program can be used to compare the performance of various collimator types, to study the effects of source depth on collimator performance, and to assist in the design of collimators. The theory of the collimator performance equation is discussed, a comparison between the experimental and theoretical LSF values is made, and examples of the application of the technique are presented

  3. Application of the Alara principle to the occupationally exposed workers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Haider, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report sets down how the Alara (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is applied in radiation protection of the occupationally exposed personnel at light-water reactors in EC countries. In some instances the practices, experiences and results from EC countries are supplemented by the practice in other States (e.g. USA, Sweden). Commencing with a short summary of the legal situation in the Member States of the European Community with regard to Alara, the report describes the framework in which the optimization practice has been developed. The main chapters elaborate in detail how the Alara principle has been put into practice in design and operation in LWRs. The importance of qualification and training of power-plant personnel in relation to optimization of radiation protection is considered and some comparisons are drawn with the US practice. Recommendations are made where reason for modification or harmonization of practices is seen in the conclusions of the different chapters and the overall conclusions and summary of the report

  4. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  5. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  6. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory

  7. Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanxin; Mauerhofer, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the 'fitness for purpose' of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Investment (Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Vyšniauskas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an investment fund is one of the main components in evaluating the performance of the fund. This study seeks for introducing and comparing risk and performance evaluation ratios. The paper is aimed at testing the worked out ratios and at distinguishing between the best ones for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Lithuanian mutual funds. Scientific studies show that a standard deviation, alpha, beta, Sharpe and Treynor ratios are mostly employed for identifying the performance of mutual funds that are also compared with their benchmark index to establish if these funds are outperformed and if is it worth paying management fees to investment banks for managing mutual funds. Historical data were selected for the period from 2012-01-02 to 2013-10-15 analysing the prices of monthly funds. The paper points out the areas of a practical application of the proposed model for investment fund valuation, which may not only provide valuable outcomes for practitioners but also may inspire further research on this article.

  9. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  10. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  11. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  12. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Amendment 1 for Appendix B: Install flex-pipe on tank riser spools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This amendment to Appendix B contains the specific ALARA evaluations for installing flex-pipe on riser spools to accommodate ventilation duct connections to the north risers of each tank. The work will be a routine task that is part of the Equipment Installation and Mobilization phase of the project. The dose rates were estimated using the recent Radiological Surveillance Section radiological survey: SAAS-97-063S. Task B-6 has been added to the OHF Project ALARA review process to address a field decision to modify an approach to installing the tank ventilation system. The revised approach will incorporate 12-in. diameter, 36-in. long, stainless steel flex-pipe connected to each north riser spool to address the problem of pipe fitting multiple bends and turns expected with the 12-in. PVC duct. This improved approach will reduce the time necessary to install the duct system between the tanks and the ventilation skid. However, the task includes opening the 12-in. riser spool connections to replace the currently installed blind gaskets. Since a riser spool for each tank will be opened, there is a potential for significant personnel exposure and spread of contamination that will addressed through this ALARA review process

  13. Strategic performance evaluation in cancer centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rigoberto I; Langabeer, James R

    2009-01-01

    Most research in healthcare strategy has focused on formulating or implementing organizational plans and strategies, and little attention has been dedicated to the post-implementation control and evaluation of strategy, which we contend is the most critical aspect of achieving organizational goals. The objective of this study was to identify strategic control approaches used by major cancer centers in the country and to relate these practices to financial performance. Our intent was to expand the theory and practice of healthcare strategy to focused services, such as oncology. We designed a 17-question survey to capture elements of strategy and performance from our study sample, which comprised major cancer hospitals in the United States and shared similar mandates and resource constraints. The results suggest that high-performing cancer centers use more sophisticated analytical approaches, invest greater financial resources in performance analysis, and conduct more frequent performance reviews than do low-performing organizations. Our conclusions point to the need for a more robust approach to strategic assessment. In this article, we offer a number of recommendations for management to achieve strategic plans and goals on the basis of our research. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to concentrate on the area of strategic control.

  14. Evaluating the Performance of Rijndael Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan CIOBANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a a comparative analysis of the performance of the Rijndael algorithm, developed with the help of two programming languages, namely C and Matlab. The main goal is to get a full, detailed picture about the functioning of this algorithm. In order to evaluate the performances of the Rijndael algorithm for the two different implementations, we took into account establishing the variable factors within each type of implementation so as to avoid the reasons that might lead to running differences (for instance, the comparison of the two implementations will be performed for the situation in which the encryption key length is the same. We chose to use the traditional algorithm for both types of implementation, in which the input is transformed into 4 blocks of 4 bytes, followed by the handling of each byte from each individual column

  15. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  16. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  17. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P and A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented

  18. A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continues to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests

  19. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...... of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...

  20. Performance evaluation of computer and communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    … written by a scientist successful in performance evaluation, it is based on his experience and provides many ideas not only to laymen entering the field, but also to practitioners looking for inspiration. The work can be read systematically as a textbook on how to model and test the derived hypotheses on the basis of simulations. Also, separate parts can be studied, as the chapters are self-contained. … the book can be successfully used either for self-study or as a supplementary book for a lecture. I believe that different types of readers will like it: practicing engineers and resea

  1. Irradiation and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ki Kwang; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system for the experimental verification of DUPIC fuel. The scope and content for successful accomplishment of the phase 1 objectives is established as follows : irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at HANARO using a noninstrument capsule, study on the characteristics of DUPIC pellets, development of the analysis technology on the thermal behaviour of DUPIC fuel, basic design of a instrument capsule. The R and D results of the phase 1 are summarized as follows : - Performance analysis technology development of DUPIC fuel by model development for DUPIC fuel, review on the extendability of code(FEMAXI-IV, FRAPCON-3, ELESTRESS). - Study on physical properties of DUPIC fuel by design and fabrication of the equipment for measuring the thermal property. - HANARO irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel by the noninstrument capsule development. - PIE and result analysis

  2. Irradiation and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ki Kwang; Yang, M S; Song, K C [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system for the experimental verification of DUPIC fuel. The scope and content for successful accomplishment of the phase 1 objectives is established as follows : irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at HANARO using a noninstrument capsule, study on the characteristics of DUPIC pellets, development of the analysis technology on the thermal behaviour of DUPIC fuel, basic design of a instrument capsule. The R and D results of the phase 1 are summarized as follows : - Performance analysis technology development of DUPIC fuel by model development for DUPIC fuel, review on the extendability of code(FEMAXI-IV, FRAPCON-3, ELESTRESS). - Study on physical properties of DUPIC fuel by design and fabrication of the equipment for measuring the thermal property. - HANARO irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel by the noninstrument capsule development. - PIE and result analysis.

  3. ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, S.W.; Kaplan, E.; Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    This report is the first in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center on dose reduction at DOE facilities. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, and searches of the DOE Energy Data Base. The abstracts included in this report relate to operational health physics as well as other subjects which have a bearing on dose reduction. Facilities covered include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fabrication, unirradiated fissile materials storage, irradiated fissile material storage, reprocessing, decommissioning, recovery, hot laboratories, tritium production, reactors (research, test and production but not power reactors), and accelerators. We have also included material in improved design, materials selection, planning, and other topics which are related to dose-reduction efforts. The report contains 68 abstracts as well as subject and author indices

  4. Performance evaluation on vacuum pumps using nanolubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Yeou Feng; Hsu, Yu Chun; Teng, Tun Ping [Dept. of Industrial EducationNational Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-15

    This study produced alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanovacuum-pump lubricants (NVALs) by involving the dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in a vacuum-pump lubricant (VAL) with oleic as a dispersant. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the suspension performance, thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, tribological performance and vacuum-pump performance of the NVALs. The experimental results obtained from the vacuum-pump performance tests show that the NVALs with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.2 wt.% and oleic concentration of 0.025 wt.% yielded the lowest electricity consumption, conserving 2.39% of electricity compared with the VAL. No marked difference was observed between the temperatures of the vacuum pump using VAL and NVAL. Furthermore, evacuation (i.e., the minimal pressure of -99.5 kPa) was reached faster by the vacuum pump with the NVALs, and the evacuation time could be reduced by 4.91% under optimal conditions. In addition, the vacuum pump with the NVALs exhibited superior overall effectiveness under relatively lower ambient temperatures.

  5. Evaluating cryostat performance for naval applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, David; Willen, Dag; Fesmire, James; Johnson, Wesley; Smith, Jonathan; Meneghelli, Barry; Demko, Jonathan; George, Daniel; Fowler, Brian; Huber, Patti

    2012-06-01

    The Navy intends to use High Temperature Superconducting Degaussing (HTSDG) coil systems on future Navy platforms. The Navy Metalworking Center (NMC) is leading a team that is addressing cryostat configuration and manufacturing issues associated with fabricating long lengths of flexible, vacuum-jacketed cryostats that meet Navy shipboard performance requirements. The project includes provisions to evaluate the reliability performance, as well as proofing of fabrication techniques. Navy cryostat performance specifications include less than 1 Wm-1 heat loss, 2 MPa working pressure, and a 25-year vacuum life. Cryostat multilayer insulation (MLI) systems developed on the project have been validated using a standardized cryogenic test facility and implemented on 5-meterlong test samples. Performance data from these test samples, which were characterized using both LN2 boiloff and flow-through measurement techniques, will be presented. NMC is working with an Integrated Project Team consisting of Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Surface Warfare Center-Carderock Division, Southwire Company, nkt cables, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ASRC Aerospace, and NASA Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) to complete these efforts. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This material is submitted with the understanding that right of reproduction for governmental purposes is reserved for the Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia 22203-1995.

  6. Monitoring and Evaluating Government Performance in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Botlhale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In an era characterised by fiscal stress in the post-global recession era, clichés such as ‘bang for the buck’ are commonplace. Governments are under increasing pressure to spend limited public resources in efficient and  effective ways. Efficient and  effective governments are a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for economic development. Hence, governments have adopted performance-improving interventions such as New Public Management. Botswana jumped into the bandwagon of public sector reforms in the 1990s through interventions such as Performance-based Management Systems. The focus was almost entirely on performance enhancement to the neglect of performance measurement through a result-based Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E framework. However, in 2009, the government decided to mainstream M&E into the development planning regime. Since the M&E tool is still in draft form, Botswana is very favourably circumstanced to learn from others. Meanwhile essentials to do are: attitudinal change, shared vision on M&E, stakeholder management and demand and use of M&E information by policy-makers such as Members of Parliament.

  7. Performance evaluations of a geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of an operational 7.5 MWe binary geothermal power plant in Tuzla-Turkey is performed, through energy and exergy, using actual plant data to assess its energetic and exergetic performances. Eight performance-related parameters, namely total exergy destruction ratio, component exergy destruction ratio, dimensionless exergy destruction, energetic renewability ratio, exergetic renewability ratio, energetic reinjection ratio, exergetic reinjection ratio and improvement potential are investigated. Energy and exergy losses/destructions for the plant and its units are determined and illustrated using energy and exergy flow diagrams. The largest energy and exergy losses occur in brine reinjection unit. The variation of the plant energy efficiency is found between 6% and 12%. Exergy efficiency values change between 35 and 49%. The annual average energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 9.47% and 45.2%, respectively. - Highlights: → Investigation of a geothermal system energetically and exergetically. → Performance assessment of the system through energy and exergy efficiencies. → Utilization of temperature distribution in exergy calculations. → Evaluation of eight energetic and exergetic parameters for the system.

  8. Irradiated fuel performance evaluation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Bang, J. G.; Kim, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Alpha version performance code for dual-cooled annular fuel under steady state operation, so called 'DUOS', has been developed applying performance models and proposed methodology. Furthermore, nonlinear finite element module which could be integrated into transient/accident fuel performance code was also developed and evaluated using commercial FE code. The first/second irradiation and PIE test of annular pellet for dual-cooled annular fuel in the world have been completed. In-pile irradiation test DB of annular pellet up to burnup of 10,000 MWd/MTU through the 1st test was established and cracking behavior of annular pellet and swelling rate at low temperature were studied. To do irradiation test of dual-cooled annular fuel under PWR's simulating steady-state conditions, irradiation test rig/rod design/manufacture of mock-up/performance test have been completed through international collaboration program with Halden reactor project. The irradiation test of large grain pellets has been continued from 2002 to 2011 and completed successfully. Burnup of 70,000 MWd/MTU which is the highest burnup among irradiation test pellets in domestic was achieved

  9. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, contains the third in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This report also contains abstracts from the two previous volumes. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics are also included

  10. Evaluation of Performance Indexes of Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of evaluating performance indicators in the emergency department, as one of the most important departments of hospital, is obvious to everyone. Therefore, in this study we aimed to appraise the five performance indicators, approved by the ministry of health, in Shohadaye Tajrish hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study based on the profiles of all the patients admitted to the emergency department, performance indicators in the emergency department were evaluated. The study was divided into 2 parts about the establishment of emergency medicine system and training the medical staff: the first 6 months of 1392 and the second. Then these 2 periods were compared using Mann-Whitney U test while P< 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: Of the studied indicators, mean triage time was 6.04 minutes in the first 6 months which was reduced to 1.5 minutes in the second 6 months (p=0.016. In addition, the percentage of patients who moved out of the department in 12 hours was lowered from 97.3% in the first period to 90.4% in the second (p=0.004. While, the percentage of patients who were decided upon in 6 hours (p=0.2, unsuccessful CPR percentage (p=0.34 and patients discharged against medical advice (p=0.42 showed no significant difference. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the establishment of the emergency medicine system in the emergency department could lead to more efficient triage. Due to the differences made after their establishment including: different pattern of the patients admitted, increased stay of the patients in the department due to their need for prolonged intensive care, a raise in patient referral to the hospital by pre-hospital services and a higher percentage of occupied hospital beds, other indicators have not shown a significant improvement.

  11. CATTLE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CONFINED SUBMITTED IMMUNOCASTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Maluf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle cross breeds ½ Aberdeen Angus x ½Nelore and Nelore confined submitted to immunocastration 218 male animals were used, feedlot, averaging 342 kg, divided into three experimental groups, T1: 117 steers ½ Angus x ½ Nelore no castrated (ANC, T2: 51 Nelore steers uncastrated (NNC and T3: 50 Nellore steers immunocastrated (NIC. The experiment lasted 144 days of confinement. The selection of animals for group formation was according to the individual weight, breed, sex condition and age. For immunocastration it wasused Bopriva® vaccine. The rating was finished according to the parameter used by the meatpacking industry ranging from 1 to 5. The experimental design was completely randomized in three groups. For the analyzes the variables studied statistics were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test both at the 5% level of significance. The results showed differences (p <0.01 at various features of productive performance and carcass between treatments. For slaughter weight, the ANC animals were higher (with 582.1 kg to Nelore, regardless of sexual condition, and the NNC were in turn heavier than the NIC, 527.4 and 503.7 respectively. Finally, it observed that the use of immunocastration in Nellore animals provided a decrease in productive performance of confined animals, but provided better finish carcass similar to crossbred (ANC.

  12. Characterization of workplaces in interventional radiology using active dosemeters ALARA OD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Mestrovic, T.; Suric-Mihic, M.; Vrtar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Because of progressive development and extended use of interventional radiology procedures it is highly recommended that all individuals involved in the process should be aware of the potential for both stochastic and deterministic effects due to occupational exposure. Interventional radiology procedures are essentially therapeutic and are performed by various medical specialists, not only by properly educated radiologists. As the procedures are performed in such a manner that certain number of medical staff are always needed near the patient, near the x- ray unit, ensuring 'safe' working environment in such radiation x-ray field geometry is a new challenge to regular radiation protection. In this work we are not primary concerned in relatively high doses delivered to patients undergoing interventional procedures. The patient is rather regarded as a secondary radiation source which emits scattered x-rays. The working staff, moving in mixed, primary and scattered x-ray field, is expected to be exposed to higher occupational doses due to combination of extended fluoroscopy times, elevated fluoroscopy currents and larger amount of radiographic images required. The protection of both patients and staff is to be upgraded. As passive dosemetes will give us clear knowledge only about the monthly integrated occupational dose, a reasonable doubt exists about the frequency and duration, of receiving the dose. Measuring dose rate is not a part of regular passive dosemeters monitoring systems. This is why we have developed active - electronic dosemeter device which provides us with additional dosimetry data about the frequency and duration of professional exposure burden. Digital dosemeter ALARA OD will record and integrate any occupational dose including the normal radiation background in the working area. It will record the time and duration of any fluoroscopic exposure done. This gives us the data about the dose rate of occupational radiation and frequency of

  13. 48 CFR 1252.216-72 - Performance evaluation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation....216-72 Performance evaluation plan. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1216.406(b), insert the following clause: Performance Evaluation Plan (OCT 1994) (a) A Performance Evaluation Plan shall be unilaterally...

  14. Backfitting of the nuclear power plant Borssele. A practical application of the ALARA-principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurs, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    In two articles an overview is given of the adjustments for the title plant and how the radiation load of employees is kept as low as possible according to the newest insights of the ALARA-principle. In this article attention is paid to the results of the project 'Modifications' which comprises 16 system engineering modifications. The maximum attention for radiation protection resulted in a collective dose of circa 2500 millisievert, which is a factor 4 lower than the first estimation of the radiation load. 7 refs

  15. Cone-beam computed tomography: Time to move from ALARA to ALADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaju, Prashant P.; Jaju, Sushma P. [Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopa(Indonesia)

    2015-12-15

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely recommended for dental diagnosis and treatment planning. CBCT exposes patients to less radiation than does conventional CT. Still, lack of proper education among dentists and specialists is resulting in improper referral for CBCT. In addition, aiming to generate high-quality images, operators may increase the radiation dose, which can expose the patient to unnecessary risk. This letter advocates appropriate radiation dosing during CBCT to the benefit of both patients and dentists, and supports moving from the concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) to 'as low as diagnostically acceptable' (ALADA.

  16. An ALARA-conscious hot particle control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, W.W.; Bredvad, R.S.; Bevelacqua, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 approximately twenty-five percent of the radiation dose received by the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (PBNP) Health Physics group was due to its hot particle control program. The Health Physics group initiated a review of the program with the objective of decreasing the dose expenditure for hot particle control while maintaining a high standard for hot particle detection and control. In this paper the methods and results of this evaluation are described. The components of the hot particle control program, rules of thumb, and radionuclide composition at PBNP are presented

  17. Barrier performance researches for the safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibori, Yuichi

    2004-01-01

    So far, many researches were conducted to propose a scientific evidence (a safety case) for the realization of geological disposal in Japan. In order to regulate the geological disposal system of radioactive wastes, on the other hand, we need also a holistic approach to integrate various data related for the performance evaluations of the engineered barrier system and the natural barrier system. However, the scientific bases are not sufficient to establish the safety regulation for such a natural system. For example, we often apply the specific probability density function (PDF) to the uncertainty of barrier system due to the essential heterogeneity. However, the applicability is not clear in the regulation point of view. A viewpoint to understand such an applicability of PDFs has been presented. (author)

  18. Performance Evaluation of the SPT-140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, David; Sarmiento, Charles; Sankovic, John; Haag, Tom

    1997-01-01

    As part of an on-going cooperative program with industry, an engineering model SPT-140 Hall thruster, which may be suitable for orbit insertion and station-keeping of geosynchronous communication satellites, was evaluated with respect to thrust and radiated electromagnetic interference at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Performance measurements were made using a laboratory model propellant feed system and commercial power supplies. The engine was operated in a space simulation chamber capable of providing background pressures of 4 x 10(exp -6) Torr or less during thruster operation. Thrust was measured at input powers ranging from 1.5 to 5 kilowatts with two different output filter configurations. The broadband electromagnetic emission spectra generated by the engine was also measured for a range of frequencies from 0.01 to 18,000 Mhz. These results are compared to the noise threshold of the measurement system and MIL-STD-461C where appropriate.

  19. Performance evaluation of a computed radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussilhe, J.; Fallet, E. [Carestream Health France, 71 - Chalon/Saone (France); Mango, St.A. [Carestream Health, Inc. Rochester, New York (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Computed radiography (CR) standards have been formalized and published in Europe and in the US. The CR system classification is defined in those standards by - minimum normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRN), and - maximum basic spatial resolution (SRb). Both the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast sensitivity of a CR system depend on the dose (exposure time and conditions) at the detector. Because of their wide dynamic range, the same storage phosphor imaging plate can qualify for all six CR system classes. The exposure characteristics from 30 to 450 kV, the contrast sensitivity, and the spatial resolution of the KODAK INDUSTREX CR Digital System have been thoroughly evaluated. This paper will present some of the factors that determine the system's spatial resolution performance. (authors)

  20. Transportation ALARA analysis for a nuclear waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, G. W.; Schneider, K.; Smith, R.I.; Ross, W.; Faletti, D.

    1988-01-01

    In planning for implementation of a safe and cost-effective transportation system, the Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop estimates of the radiation doses, both public and occupational, that would result from operation of a system postulated using current designs and practices. From that evaluation, PNL identified activities/operations that result in relatively high doses, proposed conceptual alternatives that would effectively reduce such exposures, and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such alternatives. This study contains an analysis of routine operations and estimates of the public and worker radiation doses that would occur in a postulated generic reference spent fuel transportation system using both truck and rail modes. Total risks are not estimated (i.e., consideration of nonradiological or accident risks that will be the subject of future studies in the transportation systems study plan 9TSSP) are not included). The system encompasses spent fuel loading at the reactor, transportation of the fuel to and from a receiving and handling facility and unloading of the fuel at a repository. The analysis provides cost/dose trade-offs of the postulated reference system as well as selected potential alternatives to the transportation system

  1. NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companies | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric Companies NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian performance and impacts of today's advanced solar inverters, as well as proprietary feedback to the inverter

  2. Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A request for technical collaboration between the UNEP and the US EPA resulted in the establishment of a MCRADA. The purpose of this agreement was to evaluate an air quality monitoring system (referred to as the UNEP pod) developed by the UNEP for use in environmental situations where more sophisticated monitoring instrumentation was not available. The US EPA has conducted numerous evaluations of other similar sensor pods at its Research Triangle Park, NC research campus and has trained staff as well as established research designs for such efforts. Under the terms of the MCRADA, the US EPA would operate the pod using UNEP provided operating procedures in a manner consistent with its planned intent of deployment. The US EPA would collect air quality monitoring data from the pod involving select environmental measures over a period of approximately one month. Reference monitoring data collected from collocated federal regulatory monitors would be used to establish a comparison between the two systems and thus establishment of performance characteristics. In addition, the US EPA would provide feedback information to the UNEP as to observed ease of use features of the pod that would be beneficial in its future evolution and deployment. The UNEP recently developed a multipollutant sensor pod called the UNEP Air Quality Monitoring Unit, herein simply defined as the UNEP pod (http://aqicn.org/faq/2015-10-28/unep-air-quality-monitoring-station/). First introduced in 20

  3. Air curtain incinerator equipment performance evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    About 50 tonnes of oil-contaminated debris and related wood products were successfully incinerated in a 10-h performance evaluation of a mobile air curtain incinerator. The test was conducted to evaluate the incinerator's ability to combust oil-contaminated trash and debris obtained from oil spill sites. The operating principle of the apparatus involves a diesel engine driving an air blower to deliver ca 20,000 scfm of air into a 5-m long manifold angled at a 30{degree} slope into an incineration tank. A bottomhole aerator is lowered to the bottom of the tank and compressed air is injected into the aerator to control burn efficiency. The blower is engaged once the debris in the tank is burning sufficiently after starting a fire in the debris. The air curtain effect created by the air deflecting off the opposite wall from the blower manifold and bouncing off the bottom and up the side of the incineration tank results in repeated combustion of the gases, thereby significantly reducing the degree of visible smoke emission. The unit is capable of incinerating ca 5 tonnes/h and of generating ca 16 m{sup 3}/h of hot water which can be used for flushing spill sites and cleaning shorelines. 12 figs.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Frequent Subgraph Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development of the Internet technology and new scientific advances, the number of applications that model the data as graphs increases, because graphs have highly expressive power to model a complicated structure. Graph mining is a well-explored area of research which is gaining popularity in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains such as cheminformatics, web information management system, computer network, and bioinformatics, to name a few. In graph mining the frequent subgraph discovery is a challenging task. Frequent subgraph mining is concerned with discovery of those subgraphs from graph dataset which have frequent or multiple instances within the given graph dataset. In the literature a large number of frequent subgraph mining algorithms have been proposed; these included FSG, AGM, gSpan, CloseGraph, SPIN, Gaston, and Mofa. The objective of this research work is to perform quantitative comparison of the above listed techniques. The performances of these techniques have been evaluated through a number of experiments based on three different state-of-the-art graph datasets. This novel work will provide base for anyone who is working to design a new frequent subgraph discovery technique.

  5. Performance evaluations of the ATST secondary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung K.; DeVries, Joseph; Hansen, Eric

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has a 4.24m off-axis primary mirror designed to deliver diffraction-limited images of the sun. Its baseline secondary mirror (M2) design uses a 0.65m diameter Silicon Carbide mirror mounted kinematically by a bi-pod flexure mechanism at three equally spaced locations. Unlike other common telescopes, the ATST M2 is to be exposed to a significant solar heat loading. A thermal management system will be developed to accommodate the solar loading and minimize "mirror seeing effect" by controlling the temperature difference between the M2 optical surface and the ambient air at the site. Thermo-elastic analyses for steady state thermal behaviors of the ATST secondary mirror was performed using finite element analysis by I-DEAS TM and PCFRINGE TM for the optical analysis. We examined extensive heat transfer simulation cases and their results are discussed. The goal of this study is to evaluate the optical performances of M2 using thermal models and mechanical models. Thermal responses from the models enable us to manipulate time dependent thermal loadings to synthesize the operational environment for the design and development of TMS.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snegirjovs A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW. In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  8. Performance Evaluation of an Experimental Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Selcuk; Sohret, Yasin; Coban, Kahraman; Altuntas, Onder; Karakoc, T. Hikmet

    2017-11-01

    An exergy analysis is presented including design parameters and performance assessment, by identifying the losses and efficiency of a gas turbine engine. The aim of this paper is to determine the performance of a small turbojet engine with an exergetic analysis based on test data. Experimental data from testing was collected at full-load of small turbojet engine. The turbojet engine exhaust data contains CO2, CO, CH4, H2, H2O, NO, NO2, N2 and O2 with a relative humidity of 35 % for the ambient air of the performed experiments. The evaluated main components of the turbojet engine are the air compressor, the combustion chamber and the gas turbine. As a result of the thermodynamic analysis, exergy efficiencies (based on product/fuel) of the air compressor, the combustion chamber and the gas turbine are 81.57 %, 50.13 % and 97.81 %, respectively. A major proportion of the total exergy destruction was found for the combustion chamber at 167.33 kW. The exergy destruction rates are 8.20 %, 90.70 % and 1.08 % in the compressor, the combustion chamber and the gas turbine, respectively. The rates of exergy destruction within the system components are compared on the basis of the exergy rate of the fuel provided to the engine. Eventually, the exergy rate of the fuel is calculated to be 4.50 % of unusable due to exergy destruction within the compressor, 49.76 % unusable due to exergy destruction within the combustion chamber and 0.59 % unusable due to exergy destruction within the gas turbine. It can be stated that approximately 55 % of the exergy rate of the fuel provided to the engine can not be used by the engine.

  9. Clinical application of ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: “How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K.; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Lee, Edward Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Practice of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be saved from harmful radiation exposure if ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. • A consecutive 1302 CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children’s hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, ‘Justification’ of CT was evaluated and then ‘Optimization’ was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies that was avoided by applying ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. • Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient departments (p < 0.05). • To conclude, a substantial number of pediatric patients, particularly coming from inpatients departments, can be saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure from CT imaging when ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA are applied

  10. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.; Meeuwsen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  11. ALARA principle - new philosophy in radiation therapy of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjieva, T.

    2003-01-01

    The papillary thyroid carcinoma is a model for a successful multidisciplinary oncological therapy with the early stage survival similar to that for normal population. The iodine radiotherapy is a part of the complex treatment leading to these results. The radiation protection principle ALARA is created for healthy people. The authors have formulated it for the purposes of radiotherapy and have built in, as a basic philosophy, in the new radiotherapy concept. It has increased the benefit:risk ratio for the patient. In this case ALARA means: reduction of the indications for treatment with 131 I in the early stages of papillary carcinoma; achievement of tumor control with minimal possible activity in advanced cases; medicamentous, dietary and other measures, reducing the dose burden during and after the treatment, extension of the overall treatment period through a control of the tumor marker thyroglobulin; special treatment and diagnostic regime for children and adolescents, a minimum radiation invasive and economically and socially adequate algorithm for the long-time follow-up of the patients. This ensures a high life quality for the healed patients, comparable with that of the other people

  12. BNL ALARA Center experience with an information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Khan, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The essential elements of an international information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants are summarized. Information was collected from literature abstracting services, by attending technical meetings, by circulating data collection forms, and through personal contacts. Data are assembled in various databases and periodically disseminated to several hundred interested participants through a variety of publications and at technical meetings. Immediate on-line access to the data is available to participants with modems, commercially available communications software, and a password that is provided by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center to authorized users of the system. Since January 1992, rapid access also has been provided to persons with fax machines. Some information is available for ''polling'' the BNL system at any time, and other data can be installed for polling on request. Most information disseminated to data has been through publications; however, new protocols, simplified by the ALARA Center staff, and the convenience of fax machines are likely to make the earlier availability of information through these mechanisms increasingly important

  13. FORECASTING OF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NEW VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Krasheninin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research work focuses on forecasting of performance evaluation of the tractive and non-tractive vehicles that will satisfy and meet the needs and requirements of the railway industry, which is constantly evolving. Methodology. Analysis of the technical condition of the existing fleet of rolling stock (tractive and non-tractive of Ukrainian Railways shows a substantial reduction that occurs in connection with its moral and physical wear and tear, as well as insufficient and limited purchase of new units of the tractive and non-tractive rolling stock in the desired quantity. In this situation there is a necessity of search of the methods for determination of rolling stock technical characteristics. One of such urgent and effective measures is to conduct forecasting of the defining characteristics of the vehicles based on the processes of their reproduction in conditions of limited resources using a continuous exponential function. The function of the growth rate of the projected figure degree for the vehicle determines the logistic characteristic that with unlimited resources has the form of an exponent, and with low ones – that of a line. Findings. The data obtained according to the proposed method allowed determining the expected (future value, that is the ratio of load to volume of the body for non-tractive rolling stock (gondola cars and weight-to-power for tractive rolling stock, the degree of forecast reliability and the standard forecast error, which show high prediction accuracy for the completed procedure. As a result, this will allow estimating the required characteristics of vehicles in the forecast year with high accuracy. Originality. The concept of forecasting the characteristics of the vehicles for decision-making on the evaluation of their prospects was proposed. Practical value. The forecasting methodology will reliably determine the technical parameters of tractive and non-tractive rolling stock, which will meet

  14. 48 CFR 3052.216-72 - Performance evaluation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.216-72 Performance evaluation plan. As prescribed in... Evaluation Plan (DEC 2003) (a) A Performance Evaluation Plan shall be unilaterally established by the...

  15. DRACS thermal performance evaluation for FHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Q.; Wilson, D. F.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-01-01

    Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive decay heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines coated particle fuel and a graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops, relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. These loops are coupled through two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger. In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during normal operation of the reactor, and to keep the DRACS ready for activation, if needed, during accidents. To help with the design and thermal performance evaluation of the DRACS, a computer code using MATLAB has been developed. This code is based on a one-dimensional formulation and its principle is to solve the energy balance and integral momentum equations. By discretizing the DRACS system in the axial direction, a bulk mean temperature is assumed for each mesh cell. The temperatures of all the cells, as well as the mass flow rates in the DRACS loops, are predicted by solving the governing equations that are obtained by integrating the energy conservation equation over each cell and integrating the momentum conservation equation over each of the DRACS loops. In addition, an intermediate heat transfer loop equipped with a pump has also been modeled in the code. This enables the study of flow reversal phenomenon in the DRACS primary loop, associated with the pump trip process. Experimental data from a High-Temperature DRACS Test Facility (HTDF) are not available yet to benchmark the code. A preliminary code validation is performed by using natural circulation experimental data available in the literature, which are as closely relevant as possible. The code is subsequently applied to the HTDF that is under

  16. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  17. Evaluation of Ultrafiltration Performance for Phospholipid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, N.; Wardhani, D. H.; Maulana, Z. S.; Roberto, D.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane for degumming of crude palm oil has been applied as an alternative method since the membrane process required less procedure than the conventional degumming. This research focused on the examination of ultrafiltration performance for phospholipid separation from model crude palm oil degumming. Specifically, profile flux and rejection, as well as blocking mechanism, were investigated. Feed consisting of Refined Crude Palm Oil - Isopropanol - Lecithin mixtures were represented as crude palm oil degumming. Lecithin was denoted a phospholipid component, and the concentrations of lecithin in feed were varied to 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The concentration of phospholipid was determined as phosphor content. At the concentration of lecithin in feed representing phospholipid concentration of 8,45 mg/kg, 8,45 mg/kg, 24,87 mg/kg and 57,58 mg/kg, respectively. Flux profiles confirmed that there was a flux decline during filtration. In addition, the lecithin concentrations do not significantly effect on further flux decline. Rejection characteristic and phospholipid concentration in the permeate showed that the phospholipid rejections by ultrafiltration were in the range of 23-79,5% representing permeate’s phospholipid concentration of 1,73 - 44,25 mg/kg. Evaluation of fouling mechanism by Hermia’s blocking model confirmed that the standard blocking is the dominant mechanism in the ultrafiltration of lecithin mixture.

  18. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page

  19. comparative performance evaluation of an existing and modified

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    and fan speeds of 2800 rpm as against the existing cylinder and fan speeds of 934 rpm. The performance evaluation for ... KEYWORDS: Acha, fonio, dehuller, performance evaluation, ... centrifugal force as a result of the rotation of the cylinder.

  20. Patterned Armor Performance Evaluation for Multiple Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De

    2003-01-01

    .... Performance characteristics of an ideal patterned armor with respect to multiple hits are discussed, and the types of single-shot ballistic data needed to quantify that performance are presented...

  1. Evaluating Library Staff: A Performance Appraisal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Patricia

    This manual provides librarians and library managers with a performance appraisal system that measures staff fairly and objectively and links performance to the goals of the library. The following topics are addressed: (1) identifying expectations for quality service or standards of performance; (2) the importance of a library's code of service,…

  2. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation of Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabrier Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a study of unsupervised evaluation criteria that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. These evaluation criteria compute some statistics for each region or class in a segmentation result. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for different applications: the comparison of segmentation results, the automatic choice of the best fitted parameters of a segmentation method for a given image, or the definition of new segmentation methods by optimization. We first present the state of art of unsupervised evaluation, and then, we compare six unsupervised evaluation criteria. For this comparative study, we use a database composed of 8400 synthetic gray-level images segmented in four different ways. Vinet's measure (correct classification rate is used as an objective criterion to compare the behavior of the different criteria. Finally, we present the experimental results on the segmentation evaluation of a few gray-level natural images.

  3. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham; Sneve, Malgorzata K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  4. 10 CFR 1045.9 - RD classification performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RD classification performance evaluation. 1045.9 Section... classification performance evaluation. (a) Heads of agencies shall ensure that RD management officials and those... RD or FRD documents shall have their personnel performance evaluated with respect to classification...

  5. 48 CFR 2452.216-73 - Performance evaluation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance evaluation plan... 2452.216-73 Performance evaluation plan. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(3), insert the following clause in all award fee contracts: Performance Evaluation Plan (AUG 1987) (a) The Government shall...

  6. 48 CFR 2936.201 - Evaluation of contractor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of contractor... Construction 2936.201 Evaluation of contractor performance. The HCA must establish procedures to evaluate construction contractor performance and prepare performance reports as required by FAR 36.201. ...

  7. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  8. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts

  9. Performance evaluation of local colour invariants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we compare local colour descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are

  10. Staff Performance Evaluation in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drumea C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In public Organizations staff performance is difficult to measure in absence of overall quantitative performance indicators. There are also the qualitative indicators that give an overview on staff’s motivation, strive, ability, commitment to values, teamwork. These aspects are even less easy to illustrate, in private and public sectors equally. In both cases, measuring staff performance at work, as well as its input on the global performance of the organization is a difficult task which has in practice different approaches. Subsequently, this paper is discussing the system indicators and performance triggers used in International Organizations UN affiliated, in order to adjust staff classification and benefits to their staff’s performance.

  11. Evaluating Robot-Operator Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moses, Franklin L; Brooks, Peter S; Hofmann, M; Johnson, E; Laveson, J; Zaccaro, S

    2007-01-01

    .... Tests that do include performance of the human operator often rely on qualitative observations -- observer judgments and interviews about workload, situation awareness, cognitive issues, and so on...

  12. performance evaluation of evolutionary designed conventional AGC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, the tuning of a multi-area automatic generation control (AGC) system after deregulation and furthermore, the effect of reheat turbines dynamics in the power system performance, are not yet ... The performances of the tuned two–area AGC system are obtained using appropriate Matlab/Simulink models. Finally ...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Blind Tropospheric Delay correction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report represents an appraisal of the performance of the GPT2w and UNB3M models with accurate International GNSS Service (IGS)- tropospheric estimations for fifteen IGS stations over a period of 1 year on the Africa continent. Both models perform significantly better at low latitudes than higher latitudes. There was ...

  14. Performance evaluation and specification of trackless tack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Several trackless tack products have come to market in Texas; however, there are currently no specifications to : ensure the products have trackless properties and adequate bond strength. The objectives of this project were to : (1) evaluate the trac...

  15. Managing the radiological risk: ALARA, a principle, an obligation, a state of mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.

    1995-01-01

    According to the 1993 data published by French nuclear operators and by the Ionizing Radiations Protection Office (OPRI), only two workers have exceeded the maximum annual permissible dose of 50 mSv. However, the respect of dose limits is not a sufficient warranty to accept the ionizing radiations exposure risk. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle is a masterpiece of the radiological protection system. Its goal is to maintain the exposures as low as reasonably achievable taking into account the socio-economical constraints. In France, the application of this principle is as compulsory as the respect of dose limits. The proper management and optimization of radiological risk requires the motivation of everybody. (J.S.). 2 refs., 3 figs

  16. Optimisation of structural shielding of accelerator control room for compliance with ALARA principle under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Masood; Singh, Brijesh

    1999-01-01

    The case of a 20 MV x-ray accelerator has been considered in this paper for optimisation. An internationally recommended value of α = US$ 1000 per person-sievert has been assumed. Cost of concrete has been assumed as US$ 82.7/m 3 . It is seen that, extra shielding is needed to satisfy the ALARA principle. Further, the amount of requisite shielding increases with the degree of occupancy and, also, if the local construction materials or the labour are cheaper than considered in this paper. Accordingly 1.5 to 4.75 HVLs may be needed as extra shielding in different situations. Therefore, a site specific and installation specific optimisation of shielding is necessary

  17. Use of rank sum method in identifying high occupational dose jobs for ALARA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong Ho; Kang, Chang Sun

    1998-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) dose at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORE dose data of existing plants. It is necessary to identify what are high ORE jobs for ALARA implementation. In this study, the Rank Sum Method (RSM) is used in identifying high ORE jobs. As a case study, the database of ORE-related maintenance and repair jobs for Kori Units 3 and 4 is used for assessment, and top twenty high ORE jobs are identified. The results are also verified and validated using the Friedman test, and RSM is found to be a very efficient way of analyzing the data. (author)

  18. Hospital evacuation; planning, assessment, performance and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Nero C Wabo; P Örtenwall; A Khorram-Manesh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Malfunction in hospitals' complex internal systems, or extern threats, may result in a hospital evacuation. Factors contributing to such evacuation must be identified, analyzed and action plans should be prepared. Our aims in this study were 1) to evaluate the use of risk and vulnerability analysis as a basis for hospital evacuation plan, 2) to identify risks/hazards triggering an evacuation and evaluate the respond needed and 3) to propose a template with main key points for plann...

  19. Evaluation of photovoltaic installations performances in Sardinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiani, Emilio; Pilo, Fabrizio; Cossu, Silvestro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • One year measurement and performance analysis of grid connected PV power plants. • The analysis of the whole energetic PV transformation chain is presented. • Ambient parameters monitored and compared with the ones available in literature. • Monthly variability of the performance ratio and its correlation with temperature. • Range of variation of performance ratio in plants grouped by typology. - Abstract: This paper aims at providing a performance analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic power plant in Sardinia by investigating on the effective performance ratio of PV installations, with a critical analysis of the whole energetic transformation chain, starting from the incident solar energy, to the DC energy output from the modules and AC energy output from the inverter and transformer. The parameters that can influence the energy production are analyzed in order to find out the critical points in the optimization of the PV system design process. One year measurement and performance analysis of two real-life grid connected PV power plants are presented in the paper, providing up-to-date measurement data, useful to compare the effective energy production of PV plants positioned in different areas of the world. Monthly variability of the performance ratio and its correlation with ambient temperature is also discussed in the paper

  20. Shock circle model for ejector performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Cai, Wenjian; Wen, Changyun; Li, Yanzhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel shock circle model for the prediction of ejector performance at the critical mode operation is proposed. By introducing the 'shock circle' at the entrance of the constant area chamber, a 2D exponential expression for velocity distribution is adopted to approximate the viscosity flow near the ejector inner wall. The advantage of the 'shock circle' analysis is that the calculation of ejector performance is independent of the flows in the constant area chamber and diffuser. Consequently, the calculation is even simpler than many 1D modeling methods and can predict the performance of critical mode operation ejectors much more accurately. The effectiveness of the method is validated by two experimental results reported earlier. The proposed modeling method using two coefficients is shown to produce entrainment ratio, efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) accurately and much closer to experimental results than those of 1D analysis methods

  1. Performance evaluation of cogeneration power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacone, M.

    2001-01-01

    The free market has changed the criteria for measuring the cogeneration plant performances. Further at the technical-economic parameters, are considered other connected at the profits of the power plant [it

  2. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.; Hadri, Bilel; Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin; Feki, Saber

    2017-01-01

    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays

  3. Experimental evaluation of solar still performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif-ur-Rehman, M

    1973-01-01

    A method is described to measure various temperatures, insolation, and the distillate outputs from various stills simultaneously. The experimental results are used to study the thermodynamic behavior of solar still performance with the help of temperature profiles of saline water, underneath soil and glass. Effects of ageing on material deterioration and still output are discussed and in the light of the experimental evidence, recommendations are made for better still performance.

  4. Methodology for evaluation of diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Effort in this project during the past year has focused on the development, refinement, and distribution of computer software that will allow current Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) methodology to be used conveniently and reliably by investigators in a variety of evaluation tasks in diagnostic medicine; and on the development of new ROC methodology that will broaden the spectrum of evaluation tasks and/or experimental settings to which the fundamental approach can be applied. Progress has been limited by the amount of financial support made available to the project

  5. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.

    2017-10-19

    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.

  6. Performance evaluation of matrix gradient coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Schultz, Gerrit; Testud, Frederik; Welz, Anna Masako; Weber, Hans; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new performance measure of a matrix coil (also known as multi-coil) from the perspective of efficient, local, non-linear encoding without explicitly considering target encoding fields. An optimization problem based on a joint optimization for the non-linear encoding fields is formulated. Based on the derived objective function, a figure of merit of a matrix coil is defined, which is a generalization of a previously known resistive figure of merit for traditional gradient coils. A cylindrical matrix coil design with a high number of elements is used to illustrate the proposed performance measure. The results are analyzed to reveal novel features of matrix coil designs, which allowed us to optimize coil parameters, such as number of coil elements. A comparison to a scaled, existing multi-coil is also provided to demonstrate the use of the proposed performance parameter. The assessment of a matrix gradient coil profits from using a single performance parameter that takes the local encoding performance of the coil into account in relation to the dissipated power.

  7. Evaluating Performances of Traffic Noise Models | Oyedepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise in decibel dB(A) were measured at six locations using 407780A Integrating Sound Level Meter, while spot speed and traffic volume were collected with cine-camera. The predicted sound exposure level (SEL) was evaluated using Burgess, British and FWHA model. The average noise level obtained are 77.64 ...

  8. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and operational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of four on site rapid tests in comparison with Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) as a gold standard and (ii) to evaluate the operational characteristics of those tests among health workers in a maternity unit. Methods: Four rapid ...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Tree Object Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Kreiborg, Sven

    2005-01-01

    Multi-Scale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) represents the deep structure of images in scale-space and provide both the connections between image features at different scales and their strengths. In this report we present and evaluate an algorithm that exploits the MSSTs for image matching. Two versions...

  10. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity

  11. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechel, Ben

    such data are for evaluating theories in personnel economics and whether findings from such data generalize to the labor force at large. In this paper, we examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employees within narrowly...

  12. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  13. The evaluation of myomectomies performed during cesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We evaluated the data of patients who had applied myomectomy during cesarean section operation in our clinic between April, 2008 and December, 2010. Objective: In this period, 3689 cesarean sections were done in our clinic, we analyzed their data retrospectively and determined 27 myomectomy cases ...

  14. Performance evaluation of 1 kw PEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Hideaki [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ky, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a PEFC Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns the effects brought on PEFC operating performance by conditions particular to shipboard operation. The performance characteristics were examined through tests performed on a 1 kw stack and on a single cell (Manufactured by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.). The tests covered the items (1) to (4) cited in the headings of the sections that follow. Specifications of the stack and single cell are as given.

  15. Performance objectives and criteria for plant evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Maintenance organization and administration should ensure effective implementation and control of maintenance activities. The criteria are: A. The organizational structure is clearly defined. B. Staffing and resources are sufficient to accomplish assigned tasks. C. Responsibilities and authority of each management, supervisory, and professional position are clearly defined. D. Personnel clearly understand their authority, responsibilities, accountabilities, and interfaces with supporting groups. E. Administrative controls are employed for maintenance activities important to plant safety and reliability. F. Performance appraisals are effectively utilized to enhance individual performance

  16. Evaluating Performance: Strategic Alignment and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cuesta Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Actually is reported as a world problem to enterprise label the rupture or inexistence of the connections between the strategy, human resource management and the organizational management indicators. In the Cuban enterprise practice this is manifest too. Surpass this rupture on the technical and organizer plan, is the principal objective of this research. In this paper is argument one methodological process that begins with the definition of labour competency to consider into post profiles, that conduced to surpass the actual rupture or opposition (versus, or not alignment or not integration, between the performance individual appraisal and the performance organizational strategic appraisal.

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CHINESE NEW FUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪苏云; 翁轶丛; 吴冲锋

    2001-01-01

    he performance of Chinese investment funds was empirically analyzed using the following models, i.e. Jensen model, Treynor-Mazuy (T-M) model amd Merton-Henriksson model. The results show that T-M model is fitted to Chinese investment funds best among these three. But none of them can perfectly interpret the new funds' performance. So, the idea suggested by Jagannathan, Korajczyk (J-K) to extend the test was adopted in this paper, and the results show that J-K model augmented from the M-H can explain the source of excess return of fund Anxin.

  18. Importance Performance Analysis as a Trade Show Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Wondwesen; Skallerud, Kåre; Korneliussen, Tor

    2010-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). The purpose of this study is to introduce importance performance analysis as a trade show performance evaluation and benchmarking tool. Importance performance analysis considers exhibitors’ performance expectation and perceived performance in unison to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance. The present study uses data obtained from exhibitors of an international trade show to demonstrate how importance performance analysis can be used to eval...

  19. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complex casting machine has been designed to perform the following techniques: gravity casting, stir casting, squeeze casting, vacuum casting, compocasting and thixoforming. All these casting techniques have been integrated into this complex casting machine as different units which work with the help of automation.

  20. A performance evaluation of point pair features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Drost, Bertram; Tombari, Federico

    2018-01-01

    have low resolution data, where local histogram features show a higher performance than PPFs. We also found that PPFs compared to most local histogram features degrade faster under disturbances such as occlusion and clutter, however, PPFs still remain more descriptive on an absolute scale. The main...

  1. Performance evaluation of chip seals in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The intent of this research project is to identify a wide variety of parameters that influence the performance of pavements treated via chip seals within the State of Idaho. Chip sealing is currently one of the most popular methods of maintenance for...

  2. Performance evaluation of prototype mechanical cassava harvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale cassava harvesting, especially during the dry season, is a major constraint to its industrial demand and commercial production. Manual harvesting is slow and ... Results from field trials showed prototype harvesters weighing 268 – 310 kg can achieve optimum performance on ridged landforms. When harvested ...

  3. Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.

  4. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  5. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

  6. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  7. 40 CFR 35.115 - Evaluation of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of performance. 35.115 Section 35.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Evaluation of performance. (a) Joint evaluation process. The applicant and the Regional Administrator will...

  8. 40 CFR 35.515 - Evaluation of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of performance. 35.515 Section 35.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL....515 Evaluation of performance. (a) Joint evaluation process. The applicant and the Regional...

  9. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  10. Fuel performance evaluation through iodine activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Chandra, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the failed fuel detection system is to keep a watch on fuel behaviour during operation. This paper describes the evaluation of fuel behaviour by monitoring the activities of various isotopes of iodine both during steady state and during a reactor shutdown. The limitations of this approach also has been explained. The monitoring of tramp uranium for different types of release, namely fixed contamination and continuous release from fuel, is also presented. (author)

  11. 48 CFR 1552.209-76 - Contractor performance evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor performance... 1552.209-76 Contractor performance evaluations. As prescribed in section 1509.170-1, insert the following clause in all applicable solicitations and contracts. Contractor Performance Evaluations (OCT 2002...

  12. 48 CFR 8.406-7 - Contractor Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor Performance... ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Federal Supply Schedules 8.406-7 Contractor Performance Evaluation. Ordering activities must prepare an evaluation of contractor performance for each...

  13. 48 CFR 1536.201 - Evaluation of contracting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance. 1536.201 Section 1536.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Contracting for Construction 1536.201 Evaluation of contracting performance. (a) The Contracting Officer will... will file the form in the contractor performance evaluation files which it maintains. (e) The Quality...

  14. Performance evaluation of real time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The Real Time Radiography (RTR) system can be studied completely by knowing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the whole system. The MTF curve is a special form of contrast/detail-size diagram in which the image contrast is plotted against the spatial frequency of a test object measured in line-pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). MTF curves are widely used to measure the characteristics of optical equipment, particularly for assessing the contribution of individual items in a complex imaging transfer system. Codes of practice indicate that the image intensifier systems should be checked periodically to assess its performance through the use of MTF curves and step wedges for contrast ratio. Authors, instead, suggest the use of performance curves which are simple to obtain and can be easily interpreted by radiographers. (author)

  15. Diagnostics and performance evaluation of multikilohertz capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuff, G.; Nunnally, W.C.; Rust, K.; Sarjeant, J.

    1980-01-01

    The observed performance of nanofarad polypropylene-silicone oil, mica paper, and polytetrafluoroethylene-silicone oil capacitors discharged in a 100-ns, 1-kA pulse with a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz is presented. The test facility circuit, diagnostic parameters, and the preliminary test schedule are outlined as a basis for discussion of the observed failure locations and proposed failure mechanisms. Most of the test data and discussion presented involves the polypropylene-silicone oil units

  16. Attributes and descriptors for building performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopikrishnan

    2017-12-01

    In order to obtain the right feedback in levels of satisfaction with respect to these attributes, there is a need to have appropriate descriptors for incorporation in a survey instrument. This paper identifies attributes that indicate building performance and provides simple description of these attributes based on which items can be generated for a questionnaire. Such items can enable any user/occupant to easily understand the characteristics of these attributes and offer an objective feedback during questionnaire survey.

  17. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction.

  18. Evaluating performance measures to determine training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.W.; Feiza, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This research was conceived and dedicated to helping the CECo training organization become a more integrated part of the corporate business. The target population for this study was nuclear and fossil generating station employees who directly impacted the production of electricity. The target sample (n = 150) included: instrument, mechanical, and electrical maintenance personnel; control room operators; engineers, radiation chemists, and other technical specialists; and equipment operators and attendants. A total of four instruments were utilized by this study. Three instruments were administered to the generating station personnel. These included a demographic form, a learning style profile, and a motivational style profile. The focal instrument, a performance skills rating form, was administered to supervisory personnel. Data analysis consisted of three major parts. Part one established internal consistency through Cronbach alpha statistics. Part two provides summary statistics and breakdown tables for important variables. Part three provides inferential statistics responding to the research questions. All six Performance Skills variables discriminated significantly between the trained and non-trained groups (p .001). In all cases, the mean value for the trained group exceeded the mean value for the non-trained group. Implications for further research indicate that training does have a quantifiable effect on job performance

  19. An urban energy performance evaluation system and its computer implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Guan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2017-12-15

    To improve the urban environment and effectively reflect and promote urban energy performance, an urban energy performance evaluation system was constructed, thereby strengthening urban environmental management capabilities. From the perspectives of internalization and externalization, a framework of evaluation indicators and key factors that determine urban energy performance and explore the reasons for differences in performance was proposed according to established theory and previous studies. Using the improved stochastic frontier analysis method, an urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model was built that brings performance evaluation and factor analysis into the same stage for study. According to data obtained for the Chinese provincial capitals from 2004 to 2013, the coefficients of the evaluation indicators and key factors were calculated by the urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model. These coefficients were then used to compile the program file. The urban energy performance evaluation system developed in this study was designed in three parts: a database, a distributed component server, and a human-machine interface. Its functions were designed as login, addition, edit, input, calculation, analysis, comparison, inquiry, and export. On the basis of these contents, an urban energy performance evaluation system was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2015. The system can effectively reflect the status of and any changes in urban energy performance. Beijing was considered as an example to conduct an empirical study, which further verified the applicability and convenience of this evaluation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedure for preparation, follow-up and experience gained from maintenance: application to replacement of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Lefaure, Christian

    1990-01-01

    This report proposes the organisation and ALARA procedures for preparation, follow-up and analysis of the lessons learned during maintenance works at a nuclear power plant. After a brief description of the ALARA principle in the first chapter, the following chapters describe proposals for establishing and start-up of a maintenance building site. The proposals are illustrated by the replacement of the pressure vessel as an example

  1. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedure for preparation, follow-up and experience gained from maintenance: application to replacement of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Lefaure, Christian

    1989-12-01

    This report proposes the organisation and ALARA procedures for preparation, follow-up and analysis of the lessons learned during maintenance works at a nuclear power plant. After a brief description of the ALARA principle in the first chapter, the following chapters describe proposals for establishing and start-up of a maintenance building site. The proposals are illustrated by the replacement of the pressure vessel as an example

  2. Performance evaluation of a distance learning program.

    OpenAIRE

    Dailey, D. J.; Eno, K. R.; Brinkley, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a performance metric which uses a single number to characterize the response time for a non-deterministic client-server application operating over the Internet. When applied to a Macintosh-based distance learning application called the Digital Anatomist Browser, the metric allowed us to observe that "A typical student doing a typical mix of Browser commands on a typical data set will experience the same delay if they use a slow Macintosh on a local network or a fast Macint...

  3. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M.; Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996

  4. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. This implicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes...

  5. Performance evaluation of seal coat materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This project presents an evaluation of seal coat materials and design method. The primary objectives of this research are 1) to evaluate seal coat performance : from various combinations of aggregates and emulsions in terms of aggregate loss; 2) to ...

  6. Diverging diamond interchange performance evaluation (I-44 and Route 13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Performance evaluation was conducted on the first diverging diamond interchange (DDI) or double : crossover interchange (DCD) constructed in the United States. This evaluation assessed traffic operations, safety and : public perceptions t...

  7. Brazilian Resorts: an overall performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Bonfato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article is about resort’s operations in Brazil. The main goal was to identify the financial key performance indicators, so that it could contribute to a better comprehension about how the resorts area acts in Brazil. To achieve this goal, this study took researches which generated numbers and indicators that could establish a comparison between 2013 and 2014. The main sources were token from all resorts from the Associação Brasileira de Resorts - Resorts Brasil, as well as an interview with a renowned area professional. Other sources were token by the most important resorts books. There are actually 49 resorts which are part of the Brazilian Resorts Association-ABR/Resorts Brasil. This institution allowed the access to all its database, in which the associated resorts give numerical informations about its own performance. The resorts studied in this article were divided and studied in four big groups. The results showed that the national resorts market keeps increasing its statistics and improving its internal management processes and sales distribution. Revenues increased 6.34% in the main analysed indicator during the years of 2013 and 2014. It was also observed that beach and all inclusive resorts tend to have better results.

  8. Burar seismic station: evaluation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela

    2005-01-01

    A new seismic monitoring system, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been established since July 2002, in the Northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The small-aperture array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 vertical short-period and one three-component broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km 2 area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by the BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center in Bucharest and National Data Center of the USA, in Florida. Based on the BURAR seismic information gathered at the National Data Center, NIEP (ROM N DC), in the August 2002 - December 2004 time interval, analysis and statistical assessments were performed. Following the preliminary processing of the data, several observations on the global performance of the BURAR system were emphasized. Data investigation showed an excellent efficiency of the BURAR system particularly in detecting teleseismic and regional events. Also, a statistical analysis for the BURAR detection capability of the local Vrancea events was performed in terms of depth and magnitude for the year 2004. The high signal detection capability of the BURAR resulted, generally, in improving the location solutions for the Vrancea seismic events. The location solution accuracy is enhanced when adding BURAR recordings, especially in the case of low magnitude events (recorded by few stations). The location accuracy is increased, both in terms of constraining hypocenter depth and epicentral coordinates. Our analysis certifies the importance of the BURAR system in NIEP efforts to elaborate seismic bulletins. Furthermore, the specific procedures for array data processing (beam forming, f-k analysis) increase significantly the signal-to-noise ratio by summing up the coherent signals from the array components, and ensure a better accuracy

  9. performance evaluation of a pilot paraplegic centricity mobility aid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A PILOT PARAPLEGIC CENTRICITY. MOBILITY AID. MOBILITY ... The result of the test showed a remarkable improvement in. Wilcoxin's signed rank test. .... RESEARCH METHOD. RESEARCH METHOD.

  10. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  11. An hierarchical approach to performance evaluation of expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1985-01-01

    The number and size of expert systems is growing rapidly. Formal evaluation of these systems - which is not performed for many systems - increases the acceptability by the user community and hence their success. Hierarchical evaluation that had been conducted for computer systems is applied for expert system performance evaluation. Expert systems are also evaluated by treating them as software systems (or programs). This paper reports many of the basic concepts and ideas in the Performance Evaluation of Expert Systems Study being conducted at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  12. Evaluation of teachers' performance of vision screening in primary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Petronilla

    Evaluation of Teachers' Performance of Vision Screening in Primary. School Children in Port ... teachers can effectively perform vision screening in school children using ..... may be due to variations in methodology and definitions used, as this ...

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  14. Evaluation of performance of extension workers in Lesotho | Mokone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of performance of extension workers in Lesotho. ... role to play in ensuring that extension workers improve their work performance and as ... This cannot be true since most of the factors that affect efficiency were found to be negative.

  15. Performance evaluation of a distance learning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, D J; Eno, K R; Brinkley, J F

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a performance metric which uses a single number to characterize the response time for a non-deterministic client-server application operating over the Internet. When applied to a Macintosh-based distance learning application called the Digital Anatomist Browser, the metric allowed us to observe that "A typical student doing a typical mix of Browser commands on a typical data set will experience the same delay if they use a slow Macintosh on a local network or a fast Macintosh on the other side of the country accessing the data over the Internet." The methodology presented is applicable to other client-server applications that are rapidly appearing on the Internet.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    Ocean waves provide a sustainable, power-dense, predictable and widely available source of energy that could provide about 10 % of worlds energy needs. While research into waveenergy has been undertaken for decades, a significant increase in related activities has been seen in the recent years......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes....... Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. Thisimplicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development...

  17. ALARA Review of the Activation/Repair of Fire Detectors in Zone Three at the 233-S Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure 1.22, 'Planning Radiological Work', when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the viewing room meets this criterion. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-005-8.3.3 (mini task instruction to a living work package), 'Instructions for D ampersand D Support of Fire Detector Troubleshooting and Minor Maintenance Work at 233-S,' and DynCorp 2G-98-7207C, '233-S Reconnect Smoke Detectors Zone 3.' The Radiological Work Permit (RWP) request broke these two task instructions into four separate tasks. The four tasks identified in the RWP request were used to estimate airborne concentrations and the total exposure

  18. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Khan, T.A.

    1986-10-01

    This report is the third in a series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at Brookhaven National Laboratory on dose reduction at nuclear power plants. Abstracts for this report were selected from papers presented at recent technical meetings, journals and research reports reviewed at the BNL ALARA Center, and searches of the DOE/RECON data base on energy-related publications. The references selected for inclusion in the bibliography relate not only to operational health physics topics but also to plant chemistry, stress corrosion cracking, and other aspects of plant operation which have important impacts on occupational exposure. Also included are references to improved design, planning, materials selection and other topics related to what might be called ALARA engineering. Thus, an attempt has been made to cover a broad spectrum of topics related directly or indirectly to occupational exposure reduction. The report contains 252 abstracts and both author and subject indices

  19. EVALUATION OF THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF PENSION FUNDS IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dražen Novaković

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the financial performance of pension funds in Croatia. Although there are other factors which are important in the pension funds overall performance, this paper focuses on investment accomplishments. The purpose of measuring portfolio performance is to determine whether portfolio managers add value compared to passive investment strategies. The traditional approach to pension funds’ performance evaluation underlines standard measures of financial performan...

  20. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  1. Relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in a functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Jorritsma, W; Dijkstra, SJ; Dijkstra, PU

    2003-01-01

    Fear of movement and (re) injury (kinesiophobia) has been postulated to play an important role in the performance in a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). This study was performed to analyze the relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in an FCE. Kinesiophobia and FCE performance of 54

  2. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-04

    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction. Testing with a blower door indicated that whole-building air leakage to the outside was 324 CFM and 0.60 ACH50. The other two test homes had little short-term testing done post-construction by the local energy rater. IBACOS then monitored the energy consumption and whole-house comfort conditions of that occupied Passive House after one year of operation and compared the monitoring results to those for two other occupied test houses in the same area with similar square footage but slightly different floor plans. IBACOS also assisted the builder, Brookfield Homes, in researching design scenarios for Zero Energy Ready Home and ENERGY STAR acceptance levels. IBACOS also assisted Brookfield in conceptualizing product for Denver's Brighton Heights area. Brookfield was considering building to Zero Energy Ready Home standards in that location. IBACOS provided strategies that Brookfield may draw from in the event the builder chooses to pursue a Zero Energy Ready Home plan for that market.

  3. Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastassopoulos, G; Lymberopoulos, D [Wire Communications Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Patras, Greece (Greece); Panayiotakis, G; Bezerianos, A [Medical Physics Department, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors). 12 refs, 4 figs.

  4. Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassopoulos, G.; Lymberopoulos, D.; Panayiotakis, G.; Bezerianos, A.

    1994-01-01

    Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors)

  5. Use of computerized, 3-dimensional solids modeling and data base management to support radiation mapping and ALARA planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauss, R.D.; Slobodien, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The RADiation Mapping and ALARA Planning System (RADMAPS) under development by GPU Nuclear Corporation in conjunction with Construction Systems Associates, Inc., integrates computerized solids modeling and data base management to provide an automated, integrated systems solution to the problems associated with acquiring, managing, and communicating plant radiological data at nuclear facilities. This presentation describes the status of the RADMAPS development and outlines plans for future expansion

  6. Excellence in occupational dose reduction in the new millennium: the first international Alara symposium in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The International Symposium ALARA 2001 on Radiological Protection Challenges in NPP's Management on the Verge of the XXI Century took place in Anaheim. California on February 5-7. In this congress, Anibal Martin, Vice-President of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, received an honorable mention from the Health Physics Society for his professional career in the nuclear arena. After being awarded the commemorative plague, Anibal martin addressed the meeting. His speech is reproduced below. (Author)

  7. Evaluating Judicial Performance and Addressing Gender Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Melville

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elek and Rottman argue that judicial evaluation is often biased against women and minority judges. The need to address bias is important, however often the desire for diversity seems so self-evident as to belie deeper analysis. This paper examines the two main rationales for gender equality on the bench. First, female judges are often considered necessary in order to bring a gendered perspective to judging, however it is argued that this rationale is flawed. Second, an alternative rationale based on equality and legitimacy is offered which avoids gender essentialism. While debates typically focus on these two rationales, a third rationale embraces both difference and equality/legitimacy. The presence of female judges has an important symbolic value which destabilises existing fraternal legal norms. Finally, increasing the number of female judges may not necessarily change judging, and this paper also analyses how the transformative potential offered by judicial diversity can work in practice. Elek y Rottman defienden que la evaluación judicial suele estar sesgada en contra de las mujeres y los jueces pertenecientes a minorías. La necesidad de abordar el sesgo es importante, sin embargo a menudo el deseo de diversidad parece tan evidente como para contradecir un análisis más profundo. Este artículo examina los dos motivos principales para la igualdad de género en el banquillo. En primer lugar, las mujeres jueces a menudo se consideran necesarias para aportar una perspectiva de género al hecho de juzgar, sin embargo, se defiende que este razonamiento es erróneo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece una alternativa lógica basada en la igualdad y la legitimidad que evita el esencialismo de género. Mientras que los debates suelen centrarse en estas dos razones, una tercera justificación abarca tanto la diferencia como la igualdad/legitimidad. La presencia de mujeres en la judicatura tiene un importante valor simbólico que desestabiliza las normas

  8. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S P.R. can loadout and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. Disassembly of the loadout hood and its associated equipment may be done in parallel with the isolation of 233-S from REDOX via the pipe trench equipment removal. The work scope is to remove the entire loadout hood from the Product Receiver (P.R.) Can Loadout and Decon Room inside the 233-S Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the loadout hood and its associated equipment is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the loadout hood and disassembly commences. This ALARA review is for the task instruction 1997-03-18-010 Revision 0, 233-S Loadout Hood Decon and Dismantlement

  9. Performances evaluation of different open source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Patel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Open sources DEMs such as SRTM, ASTER and Cartosat-1, various factors affecting the accuracy of satellite based DEM such as errors during data collection, systematic errors and unknown errors that are geographically dependent on terrain conditions cannot be avoided. For these reasons it is very necessary to check and compare the performances and validation of the above mentioned different satellite based DEMs. Accuracy assessment of these DEM has been done using DGPS points. For these points proper interpolation of the surface was developed using different interpolation techniques. For the generation of the surface the first step was converting the satellite based DEMs height into linear interpolation contour maps of 1 m interval. Then came selecting random sample points on the contour line and generating the interpolated surface using different interpolation techniques such as IDW, GPI, RBF, OK and UK, LPI, TR and BI, which are commonly used in geomorphology research. This interpolated surface helps in proper representation of the terrain and was checked under different terrain surfaces. For validation of DGPS points the height was taken for ground control points and standard statistical tests such as ME and RMSE were applied. From above investigation, it is reveals that above mention DEMs which are used for study. Cartosat-1 (30 m data product is better than SRTM (90 m and ASTER (30 m because it had produced low RMSE of 3.49 m without applying the interpolation method. Investigation also reveals after applying the interpolation techniques on this data error can be reduced. In the case of Cartosat-1 and SRTM, low RMSE and ME were produced by the BI method, where Cartosat-1 DEM had an RMSE of 3.36 m with ME of −2.74 m, respectively. But in this case, RMSE and ME of SRTM is 2.73 m and −0.36 m, respectively. BI is designed for image processing and can be used for imagery were a maximum height variation in satellite DEM and terrain

  10. Performance evaluation methods and instrumentation for mine ventilation fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; WANG Xue-rong

    2009-01-01

    Ventilation fans are one of the most important pieces of equipment in coal mines. Their performance plays an important role in the safety of staff and production. Given the actual requirements of coal mine production, we instituted a research project on the measurement methods of key performance parameters such as wind pressure, amount of ventilation and power. At the end a virtual instrument for mine ventilation fans performance evaluation was developed using a USB interface. The practical perform-ance and analytical results of our experiments show that it is feasible, reliable and effective to use the proposed instrumentation for mine ventilation performance evaluation.

  11. Who Should Evaluate Teachers' Performance at Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabancali, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    Correct determination of whether or not the objectives are achieved or of the level of achievement of the objectives is vital in educational organizations. In this context, one of the indicators of how teachers serve the organizational objectives is performance evaluation. In Turkish Educational System, the evaluation of the performance of…

  12. 48 CFR 36.201 - Evaluation of contractor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of contractor performance. 36.201 Section 36.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Contracting for Construction 36.201 Evaluation of contractor performance. See 42.1502(e) for the requirements...

  13. Research on Performance Evaluation by IDSS Based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xuelian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Talent resource is the primary resource. There are two sides as the starting point and foothold in this paper. One is how to evaluate the performance of science and technology talents flow by IDSS (Intelligence Decision Supporting System. Another is how to guide the innovation work of science and technology according to the evaluation results. The evaluation index on performance system has hierarchical structure. So AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process is applied to evaluate the performance. Evaluation model is established and illustrated by the cases in this paper. It can be seen that the flow of performance is influenced by the growth rate of important scientific and technological achievements. Furthermore, some constructive suggestions are given based on the results of evaluation.

  14. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  15. Market behavior and performance of different strategy evaluation schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjoo Baek; Sang Hoon Lee; Hawoong Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Strategy evaluation schemes are a crucial factor in any agent-based market model, as they determine the agents' strategy preferences and consequently their behavioral pattern. This study investigates how the strategy evaluation schemes adopted by agents affect their performance in conjunction with the market circumstances. We observe the performance of three strategy evaluation schemes, the history-dependent wealth game, the trend-opposing minority game, and the trend-following majority game,...

  16. Irradiation test and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S.

    2002-05-01

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  17. An approach for evaluating expert performance in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Kawano, Ryutaro; Yoshimura, Sandanori

    1995-01-01

    To understand expert behavior and define what constitutes good performance in emergency situations in huge and complex plants, human performance evaluation should be made from viewpoints of not only error, but also various cognitive, psychological, and behavioral characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative measures of human performance are proposed for both individual operators and crews, based on the operator performance analysis experiment, among which cognitive and behavioral aspects are the most important. Operator performance should be further analyzed experimentally from the cognitive and behavioral viewpoints, using an evaluation based on various gross indexes considering operator's tasks which should be done in response to plant situations

  18. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step

  19. Performance evaluation methodology for historical document image binarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntirogiannis, Konstantinos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis

    2013-02-01

    Document image binarization is of great importance in the document image analysis and recognition pipeline since it affects further stages of the recognition process. The evaluation of a binarization method aids in studying its algorithmic behavior, as well as verifying its effectiveness, by providing qualitative and quantitative indication of its performance. This paper addresses a pixel-based binarization evaluation methodology for historical handwritten/machine-printed document images. In the proposed evaluation scheme, the recall and precision evaluation measures are properly modified using a weighting scheme that diminishes any potential evaluation bias. Additional performance metrics of the proposed evaluation scheme consist of the percentage rates of broken and missed text, false alarms, background noise, character enlargement, and merging. Several experiments conducted in comparison with other pixel-based evaluation measures demonstrate the validity of the proposed evaluation scheme.

  20. Reducing the Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Cara C.; Baltes, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether a structured free recall intervention could decrease the influence of traditional gender stereotypes on the performance evaluations of women. College students provided performance ratings for vignettes describing the performance of male and female professors. Without the intervention, raters who had traditional stereotypes…

  1. 48 CFR 3036.201 - Evaluation of contractor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of contractor performance. 3036.201 Section 3036.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... contractor performance. (a)(2) Performance reports shall be prepared and entered into the Contractor...

  2. Evaluation of DUF6-G-Q-STU-001 (ALARA analysis supporting approval of authorized limits)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N. L.; Croff, A. G.; Cheng, J.-J.; Gillette, J. L.; Avci, H. I.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (UDS) to proceed with disposition of the inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) for which DOE has management responsibility. To accomplish this task, UDS will construct and operate facilities at two DOE-owned sites, one near Paducah, Kentucky, and another near Portsmouth, Ohio, to convert DUF 6 to uranium oxide (principally U 3 O 8 ). The off-gas treatment system for the conversion process will produce aqueous hydrogen fluoride (AqHF), also known as hydrofluoric acid, and a relatively small amount of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ), each containing some residual radioactive material. As part of its contractual charge, UDS must identify and implement a disposition for all three products generated by the DUF 6 conversion facilities: uranium oxide, AqHF, and CaF 2 . The UDS DUF 6 Conversion Product Management Plan (DUF 6 -UDS-PLN-004, September 2003) concludes that a viable commercial market exists for AqHF, which, if not sold, would have to be neutralized, producing a relatively large quantity of additional CaF 2 . Although CaF 2 has very limited market potential, there is some possibility that it also could be sold. If these potential markets could be developed, DOE would save the costs of neutralizing AqHF and/or disposing of the CaF 2 neutralization product. Accordingly, UDS has decided to seek approval from DOE for unrestricted release of both AqHF and CaF 2 that would be generated if AqHF could not be sold or if sales were interrupted. If AqHF were sold, the relatively small quantity of CaF 2 still being generated by the DUF 6 conversion process off-gas treatment system would most likely be disposed of as waste. The main product of conversion, depleted uranium oxide, will be reused to the extent possible or disposed of as waste, if no practical reuse option is found

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PENSION FUNDS WITH FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERDAR KORUKOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial rating and ranking firms often use linguistic instead of numerical values. When input data are mostly qualitative and are based on subjective knowledge of experts, the Fuzzy Set Theory provides a solid mathematical model to represent and handle these data. The aim of this study is developing a fuzzy expert model to evaluate the performance of the pension funds by using their risk and return values. The method is used for evaluating the performance of the randomly selected of twenty seven Turkish pension funds. The obtained results proved that the fuzzy expert system is appropriate and consistent for performance evaluation.

  4. Port performance evaluation tool based on microsimulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsavalista Burhani Jzolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As port performance is becoming correlative to national competitiveness, the issue of port performance evaluation has significantly raised. Port performances can simply be indicated by port service levels to the ship (e.g., throughput, waiting for berthing etc., as well as the utilization level of equipment and facilities within a certain period. The performances evaluation then can be used as a tool to develop related policies for improving the port’s performance to be more effective and efficient. However, the evaluation is frequently conducted based on deterministic approach, which hardly captures the nature variations of port parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a stochastic microsimulation model for investigating the impacts of port parameter variations to the port performances. The variations are derived from actual data in order to provide more realistic results. The model is further developed using MATLAB and Simulink based on the queuing theory.

  5. Financial performance evaluation and bankruptcy prediction (failure1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal A. Al-Kassar, Dr.

    2014-10-01

    The research also demonstrates the need to include measures of both financial and non-financial performance in the evaluation as they complement each other. Without both financial and non-financial, the evaluation process is incomplete and does not provide desired results or the correct image of the process. The research suggests including comprehensive measures of performance evaluation of projects by using indicators of adopted criteria. Thus, the application of both models leads to better results and assists users in maintaining greater objectivity while obtaining more accurate results than from analysis based on personal evaluation alone.

  6. Performance Evaluation Of Mobile Cellular Networks In Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Shoewu, O.O

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of mobile networks such as MTN, GLO, and ETISALAT in Nigeria and suggest ways the performance of digital cellular networks can improve to minimize some of its present short comings or limitations. This paper discusses the performance improvement of digital cellular networks. A non- CDMA cellular network is use in an overall wireless environment for the purpose of this paper. This paper also discusses the performance assessment of three mobi...

  7. Fiscal year 1999 Battelle performance evaluation and fee agreement; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1999 represents the third fill year utilizing a results-oriented, performance-based evaluation for the Contractor's operations and management of the DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (here after referred to as the Laboratory). However, this is the first year that the Contractor's fee is totally performance-based utilizing the same Critical Outcomes. This document describes the critical outcomes, objectives, performance indicators, expected levels of performance, and the basis for the evaluation of the Contractor's performance for the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999, as required by Clauses entitled ''Use of Objective Standards of Performance, Self Assessment and Performance Evaluation'' and ''Performance Measures Review'' of the Contract DE-ACO6-76RL01830. Furthermore, it documents the distribution of the total available performance-based fee and the methodology set for determining the amount of fee earned by the Contractor as stipulated within the causes entitled ''Estimated Cost and Annual Fee,'' ''Total Available Fee'' and ''Allowable Costs and Fee.'' In partnership with the Contractor and other key customers, the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ) and Richland Operations Office (RL) has defined four critical outcomes that serve as the core for the Contractor's performance-based evaluation and fee determination. The Contractor also utilizes these outcomes as a basis for overall management of the Laboratory

  8. Tribo-performance evaluation of ecofriendly brake friction composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Tej; Grewal, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the potential of natural fibre in brake friction materials. Natural fibre filled ecofriendly brake friction materials were developed without Kevlar fibre evaluated for tribo-performance on a chase friction testing machine following SAE J 661a standard. Experimental results indicated that natural fibre enhances the fade performance, but depresses the friction and wear performance, whereas Kevlar fibre improves the friction, wear and recovery performance but depresses the fade performance. Also the results revealed that with the increase in natural fibre content, the friction and fade performances enhanced.

  9. Impact of Diffusion and Variability on Vendor Performance Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doerr, Kenneth; Lewis, Ira

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we develop a theory of the impact of behavioral decision making factors on the evaluation of logistic service providers under performance-based logistics and provide an analysis of pilot...

  10. Performance Evaluation and HaematologicalParameters of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance Evaluation and HaematologicalParameters of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diet Containing Graded Level of Raw and Fermented Malted Sorghum ... influenced white blood cell count (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, basophil and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration across the dietary treatments.

  11. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model performance evaluation consists of metrics and model diagnostics. These metrics provides modelers with statistical goodness-of-fit measures that capture magnitude only, sequence only, and combined magnitude and sequence errors.

  12. Performance evaluation of Louisiana superpave mixtures : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the fundamental engineering : properties and mixture performance of Superpave hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures : in Louisiana through laboratory mechanistic tests, aggregate gradation analysis, and...

  13. Performance evaluation of thin wearing courses through scaled accelerated trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the permanent deformation (rutting) and fatigue performance of : several thin asphalt concrete wearing courses using a scaled-down accelerated pavement testing device. The accelerated testing : was ...

  14. Performance evaluation of corrosion-affected reinforced concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B Anoop

    Abstract. A methodology for performance evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge girders in corrosive ... concrete (RC) members of infrastructural systems, espe- ... bility will be useful for making engineering decisions for ...... Water-cement ratio.

  15. Evaluation of the productive performance characteristics of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the productive performance characteristics of red tilapia ( Oreochromis sp.) injected with shark DNA into skeletal muscles and maintained diets containing different levels of probiotic and amino yeast.

  16. Evaluation of the main parameters affecting seismic performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current study considers forty eight (48) 3-D RC building models to .... Acceptance criteria for members and performance level criteria for buildings are ..... Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, Applied Technology Council, Vol 1.

  17. Development and performance evaluation of fiber reinforced polymer bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) have become more popular construction materials in the last decade due to the reduction of : material costs. The installation and performance evaluation of the first FRP-wrapped balsa wood bridge in Louisiana is descri...

  18. Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Cho, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Woo, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

  19. Small Influence of Performing from Memory on Audience Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kopiez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of an actual music stand on the evaluation of a videotaped audio-visual solo instrumental performance. Previous research has provided evidence that the presence of a score or music stand (obstructing the audience's view of the performer might negatively influence the evaluation of the performance. However, due to methodological ambiguities, results in previous studies cannot be regarded as definitive. Thus, we conducted a replication study of Williamon (1999 with better control over confounding variables (e.g., varying levels of technical proficiency in different conditions. A violoncello player performed two pieces for solo instrument: once with a music stand on stage (pretending to play from score and once without. The level of technical proficiency was kept constant in both performance presentations by the use of a pre-recorded, well-rehearsed performance from memory. Audio tracks were synchronized with the performance movements in a playback paradigm. Based on the performance evaluations from a web-based experiment (N = 471 participants, we found a significant but small effect size for the main effect of performance presentation (with vs. without music stand (d = 0.23. We conclude that the audience's appreciation of a particular performance from memory might be based on factors other than the objective performance quality.

  20. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedure for preparation, follow-up and experience gained from maintenance: application to replacement of pressure vessel; Proposition d'organisation et procedure ALARA pour la preparation le suivi et le retour d'experience des chantiers de maintenance: application au RGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, Jacques; Lefaure, Christian

    1990-01-01

    This report proposes the organisation and ALARA procedures for preparation, follow-up and analysis of the lessons learned during maintenance works at a nuclear power plant. After a brief description of the ALARA principle in the first chapter, the following chapters describe proposals for establishing and start-up of a maintenance building site. The proposals are illustrated by the replacement of the pressure vessel as an example.

  1. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedure for preparation, follow-up and experience gained from maintenance: application to replacement of pressure vessel; Proposition d'organisation et procedure ALARA pour le suivi et le retour d'experience des chantiers de maintenance: application au RGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, Jacques; Lefaure, Christian

    1989-12-01

    This report proposes the organisation and ALARA procedures for preparation, follow-up and analysis of the lessons learned during maintenance works at a nuclear power plant. After a brief description of the ALARA principle in the first chapter, the following chapters describe proposals for establishing and start-up of a maintenance building site. The proposals are illustrated by the replacement of the pressure vessel as an example.

  2. Integrating Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy ARAS for evaluating financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolhamid Safaei Ghadikolaei; Saber Khalili Esbouei

    2014-01-01

    Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is an advanced field of Operation Research; recently MCDM methods are efficient and common tools for performance evaluation in many areas such as finance and economy. The aim of this study is to show one of applications of mathematics in real word. This study with considering value based measures and accounting based measures simultaneously, provided a hybrid approach of MCDM methods in fuzzy environment for financial performance evaluation of automotive ...

  3. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Gou, Juanqiong; Shen, Guguan; Chai, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering ...

  4. Performance Evaluation of Incremental K-means Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Sanjay; Nagwani, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    The incremental K-means clustering algorithm has already been proposed and analysed in paper [Chakraborty and Nagwani, 2011]. It is a very innovative approach which is applicable in periodically incremental environment and dealing with a bulk of updates. In this paper the performance evaluation is done for this incremental K-means clustering algorithm using air pollution database. This paper also describes the comparison on the performance evaluations between existing K-means clustering and i...

  5. Using hybrid method to evaluate the green performance in uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Lang; Lan, Lawrence W; Wang, Ray; Chiu, Anthony; Cheng, Hui-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Green performance measure is vital for enterprises in making continuous improvements to maintain sustainable competitive advantages. Evaluation of green performance, however, is a challenging task due to the dependence complexity of the aspects, criteria, and the linguistic vagueness of some qualitative information and quantitative data together. To deal with this issue, this study proposes a novel approach to evaluate the dependence aspects and criteria of firm's green performance. The rationale of the proposed approach, namely green network balanced scorecard, is using balanced scorecard to combine fuzzy set theory with analytical network process (ANP) and importance-performance analysis (IPA) methods, wherein fuzzy set theory accounts for the linguistic vagueness of qualitative criteria and ANP converts the relations among the dependence aspects and criteria into an intelligible structural modeling used IPA. For the empirical case study, four dependence aspects and 34 green performance criteria for PCB firms in Taiwan were evaluated. The managerial implications are discussed.

  6. Evaluating supplier quality performance using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nazihah; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram Kalimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating supplier quality performance is vital in ensuring continuous supply chain improvement, reducing the operational costs and risks towards meeting customer's expectation. This paper aims to illustrate an application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the evaluation criteria in a context of automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Five main criteria were identified which were quality, cost, delivery, customer serviceand technology support. These criteria had been arranged into hierarchical structure and evaluated by an expert. The relative importance of each criteria was determined by using linguistic variables which were represented as triangular fuzzy numbers. The Center of Gravity defuzzification method was used to convert the fuzzy evaluations into their corresponding crisps values. Such fuzzy evaluation can be used as a systematic tool to overcome the uncertainty evaluation of suppliers' performance which usually associated with human being subjective judgments.

  7. Using Conjoint Analysis to Evaluate and Reward Teaching Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Zheng, Yilong; Stewart, Kim A.; Johnson, Carol J.; Paul, Pallab

    2016-01-01

    Although widely used, student evaluations of teaching do not address several factors that should be considered in evaluating teaching performance such as new course preparations, teaching larger classes, and inconvenient class times. Consequently, the incentive exists to avoid certain teaching assignments to achieve high SET scores while…

  8. Evaluating energy performance in non-domestic buildings : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgstein, E.H.; Lamberts, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation methods can be used to determine what constitutes good energy performance in a building. With an increasing focus on energy use of buildings worldwide, this evaluation assumes a fundamental importance. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the available methods for analysing,

  9. Comparative evaluation of maintenance performance using subsurvival functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, J.L.; Cooke, R.; Nyman, R.

    1997-01-01

    Subsurvival functions are applied to operational data for the control rod drive systems of Nordic nuclear reactors to evaluate maintenance performance. Competing failure modes are preventive and corrective maintenance. Maintenance indicators are defined and evaluated for 8 plants. (C) 1997 Elsevier...

  10. A string matching based algorithm for performance evaluation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we have addressed the problem of automated performance evaluation of Mathematical Expression (ME) recognition. Automated evaluation requires that recognition output and ground truth in some editable format like LaTeX, MathML, etc. have to be matched. But standard forms can have extraneous symbols ...

  11. Optimal contracts based on subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated in a recent laboratory experiment (see Sebald & Walzl, 2014), individuals tend to sanction others who subjectively evaluate their performance whenever this assessment falls short of the individuals’ self-evaluation. Interestingly, this is the case even if the individuals’ earnings...

  12. Evaluating Organizational Performance: Rational, Natural, and Open System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Wes

    2013-01-01

    As the definition of organization has evolved, so have the approaches used to evaluate organizational performance. During the past 60 years, organizational theorists and management scholars have developed a comprehensive line of thinking with respect to organizational assessment that serves to inform and be informed by the evaluation discipline.…

  13. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  14. performance evaluation of feature sets of minutiae quadruplets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    databases. This shows that the evaluation of algorithms on just one or two databases is not sufficient to confirm the performance of tech- niques as they may be database-dependent. Much work was done to find a feature-set that would have a good performance across three. FVC databases of the FVC 2000, 2002 and. 2004 ...

  15. Performance evaluation of communication systems via importance sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remondo Bueno, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the design and development of telecommunication systems, the preparation of experiments can be made more effective by predicting the system performance and its dependence on the different system parameters. This can be done by modeling the system and using performance evaluation methods. This

  16. Expected Evaluation, Goals, and Performance: Mood as Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Research indicates effortful performances are reduced when participants cannot be evaluated. Hypothesized mood interacts with goals to attenuate such reduction in performance. As predicted, when participants' tried to do as much as they could, those in negative moods put forth more effort and persisted longer than those in positive moods,…

  17. Chinese Middle School Teachers' Preferences Regarding Performance Evaluation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Xu, Xianxuan; Stronge, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher performance evaluation currently is receiving unprecedented attention from policy makers, scholars, and practitioners worldwide. This study is one of the few studies of teacher perceptions regarding teacher performance measures that focus on China. We employed a quantitative dominant mixed research design to investigate Chinese teachers'…

  18. Evaluation of Earning Performance of Female Owned Leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tools for data analyses were descriptive statistics, income statement and an econometric model involving Ordinary Least Square regression analyses. The earning performance evaluation indicated that the enterprises have performed creditably considering the value of the gross margin analysis which is high and gross ...

  19. Performance evaluation on aquatic product cold-chain logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The requirements for high quality and diversification aquatic products are increasing with the improvement of Chinese living standard. However, the distribution between place of production and place of consumption are uneven, which results in large cold-chain logistics demand for aquatic products. At present, the low-level development of cold chain logistics has a bad impact on the circulation of aquatic products in China. So it is very urgent to develop cold-chain logistics in China. Design/methodology/approach: In order to do this, we apply performance evaluation, a well-known management tool, to study Chinese aquatic product cold-chain logistics. In this paper we first propose SISP(Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model(Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation. Then an ANP-Fuzzy method is proposed to evaluate the operational performance of Shandong Oriental Ocean Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. Furthermore, a system dynamic model is built to simulate the impact of temperature on the profits in aquatic products cold-chain sales section. Findings: We find out within a reasonable temperature range, lower temperature brings higher profit level. Also, performance improvement methods are proposed and the simulation of performance evaluation system is developed. Practical implications: Our findings can help to improve the level of aquatic product cold-chain logistics in China. Originality/value: The paper proposes the SISP (Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model (Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation.

  20. The Effect of Implied Performer Age and Group Membership on Evaluations of Music Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implied performer age and group membership on listeners' evaluations of music performances. Undergraduate music majors (n = 23), nonmusic majors (n = 17), and members of a New Horizons ensemble (n = 16) were presented with six 30-second excerpts of concert band performances. Excerpts were presented to all…

  1. Evaluation of the dynamic and kinematic performance of the THOR dummy: neck performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoofman, M.; Ratingen, M.R. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the frontal head-neck performance of the THOR neck with respect to the human frontal head-neck performance and the Hybrid-III frontal head-neck performance. For this purpose, tests were carried out with an isolated THOR and Hybrid-III-neck system on a HyGe

  2. Evaluation of the dynamic and kinematic performance of the THOR dummy : neck performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoofman, M.; van Ratingen, M.R.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Cesari, D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the frontal head-neck performance of the THOR neck with respect to the human frontal head-neck performance and the Hybrid-III frontal head-neck performance. For this purpose, tests were carried out with an isolated THOR and Hybrid-III head-neck system on a

  3. Low dose radiation and ALARA: the potential risks to patients and staff from alpha-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    This year a new drug containing radium-223, an alpha-emitting radionuclide, was approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration for the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer metastases. Other drugs containing short-lived alpha-emitters are on clinical trial in Europe. Commonly, these employ a radionuclide attached to an antibody that specifically targets tumor cells to produce a highly localized radio-therapeutic dose to the tumor. However, normal tissues within the body will also be irradiated, albeit sometimes at low dose, and the question arises as to whether this presents a significant additional risk to the patient. Similarly, medical staff that handle these radionuclides could receive intakes of the radionuclides. What is the risk to staff? To assess the risk resulting from small tissue alpha-doses the toxicological, both human and animal, database was re-examined. The results of 20 epidemiological and toxicological studies with alpha-emitting radionuclides were analysed. In all cases a polynomial function provided a better fit to the data than a linear, no thresholds function. Also, in 19 cases a threshold dose below which no cancer is seen was indicated. The position of this threshold varied according to cancer type, but was typically in the range 0.1 to 1.0Gy of tissue dose - with a mean of 0.5Gy. It is concluded that alpha-radiation induced tumorogenesis is a threshold response and that as long as tissue doses are kept below these thresholds no additional cancers would be seen in either patients receiving alpha-therapy or in staff exposed to 'spilt' radionuclide. The presence of thresholds questions the appropriateness of current ALARA practices that are mostly used to drive occupational alpha-radiation exposures to as close to zero as possible. (author)

  4. Low dose radiation and ALARA: the potential risks to patients and staff from alpha-therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, N.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    This year a new drug containing radium-223, an alpha-emitting radionuclide, was approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration for the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer metastases. Other drugs containing short-lived alpha-emitters are on clinical trial in Europe. Commonly, these employ a radionuclide attached to an antibody that specifically targets tumor cells to produce a highly localized radio-therapeutic dose to the tumor. However, normal tissues within the body will also be irradiated, albeit sometimes at low dose, and the question arises as to whether this presents a significant additional risk to the patient. Similarly, medical staff that handle these radionuclides could receive intakes of the radionuclides. What is the risk to staff? To assess the risk resulting from small tissue alpha-doses the toxicological, both human and animal, database was re-examined. The results of 20 epidemiological and toxicological studies with alpha-emitting radionuclides were analysed. In all cases a polynomial function provided a better fit to the data than a linear, no thresholds function. Also, in 19 cases a threshold dose below which no cancer is seen was indicated. The position of this threshold varied according to cancer type, but was typically in the range 0.1 to 1.0Gy of tissue dose - with a mean of 0.5Gy. It is concluded that alpha-radiation induced tumorogenesis is a threshold response and that as long as tissue doses are kept below these thresholds no additional cancers would be seen in either patients receiving alpha-therapy or in staff exposed to 'spilt' radionuclide. The presence of thresholds questions the appropriateness of current ALARA practices that are mostly used to drive occupational alpha-radiation exposures to as close to zero as possible. (author)

  5. A simplified ALARA approach to demonstration of compliance with surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Cook, J.C.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have jointly prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for consignors and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). The guidance is being developed to facilitate compliance with the new LSA material and SCO requirements, not to impose additional requirements. These new requirements represent, in some areas, significant departures from the manner in which packaging and transportation of these materials and objects were previously controlled. On occasion, it may be appropriate to use conservative approaches to demonstrate compliance with some of the requirements, ensuring that personnel are not exposed to radiation at unnecessary levels, so that exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In the draft guidance, one such approach would assist consignors preparing a shipment of a large number of SCOs in demonstrating compliance without unnecessarily exposing personnel. In applying this approach, users need to demonstrate that four conditions are met. These four conditions are used to categorize non-activated, contaminated objects as SCO-2. It is expected that, by applying this approach, it will be possible to categorize a large number of small contaminated objects as SCO-2 without the need for detailed, quantitative measurements of fixed, accessible contamination, or of total (fixed and non-fixed) contamination on inaccessible surfaces. The method, which is based upon reasoned argument coupled with limited measurements and the application of a sum of fractions rule, is described and examples of its use are provided

  6. Probabilistic performance assessments for evaluations of the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Noronha, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Site suitability evaluations are conducted to determine if a repository system at a particular site will be able to meet the performance objectives for that system. Early evaluations to determine if the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development have been made in the face of large uncertainties in site features and conditions. Because of these large uncertainties, the evaluations of the site have been qualitative in nature, focusing on the presence or absence of particular features or conditions thought to be important to performance, rather than on results of quantitative performance assessments. Such a qualitative approach was used in the recently completed evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the Early Site-Suitability Evaluation (ESSE). In spite of the qualitative approach, the ESSE was able to conclude that no disqualifying conditions are likely to be present at the site and that all of the geologic conditions that would qualify the site are likely to be met. At the same time, because of the qualitative nature of the approach used in the ESSE, the precise importance of the identified issues relative to performance could not be determined. Likewise, the importance of the issues relative to one another could not be evaluated, and, other than broad recommendations, specific priorities for future testing could not be set. The authors have conducted quantitative performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain site to address these issues

  7. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....

  8. How the Brain Converts Negative Evaluation into Performance Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Lau, Hakwan; Mobbs, Dean

    2018-02-01

    Surpassing negative evaluation is a recurrent theme of success stories. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the counterintuitive idea that negative evaluation might not only motivate people, but also enhance performance. To address this question, we designed a task that required participants to decide whether taking up a risky challenge after receiving positive or negative evaluations from independent judges. Participants believed that these evaluations were based on their prior performance on a related task. Results showed that negative evaluation caused a facilitation in performance. Concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the motivating effect of negative evaluation was represented in the insula and striatum, while the performance boost was associated with functional positive connectivity between the insula and a set of brain regions involved in goal-directed behavior and the orienting of attention. These findings provide new insight into the neural representation of negative evaluation-induced facilitation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Proposed evaluation framework for assessing operator performance with multisensor displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Despite aggressive work on the development of sensor fusion algorithms and techniques, no formal evaluation procedures have been proposed. Based on existing integration models in the literature, an evaluation framework is developed to assess an operator's ability to use multisensor, or sensor fusion, displays. The proposed evaluation framework for evaluating the operator's ability to use such systems is a normative approach: The operator's performance with the sensor fusion display can be compared to the models' predictions based on the operator's performance when viewing the original sensor displays prior to fusion. This allows for the determination as to when a sensor fusion system leads to: 1) poorer performance than one of the original sensor displays (clearly an undesirable system in which the fused sensor system causes some distortion or interference); 2) better performance than with either single sensor system alone, but at a sub-optimal (compared to the model predictions) level; 3) optimal performance (compared to model predictions); or, 4) super-optimal performance, which may occur if the operator were able to use some highly diagnostic 'emergent features' in the sensor fusion display, which were unavailable in the original sensor displays. An experiment demonstrating the usefulness of the proposed evaluation framework is discussed.

  10. Optimization (Alara) and probabilistic exposures: the application of optimization criteria to the control of risks due to exposures of a probabilistic nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper described the application of the principles of optimization recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to the restrain of radiation risks due to exposures that may or may not be incurred and to which a probability of occurrence can be assigned. After describing the concept of probabilistic exposures, it proposes a basis for a converging policy of control for both certain and probabilistic exposures, namely the dose-risk relationship adopted for radiation protection purposes. On that basis some coherent approaches for dealing with probabilistic exposures, such as the limitation of individual risks, are discussed. The optimization of safety for reducing all risks from probabilistic exposures to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels is reviewed in full. The principles of optimization of protection are used as a basic framework and the relevant factors to be taken into account when moving to probabilistic exposures are presented. The paper also reviews the decision-aiding techniques suitable for performing optimization with particular emphasis to the multi-attribute utility-analysis technique. Finally, there is a discussion on some practical application of decision-aiding multi-attribute utility analysis to probabilistic exposures including the use of probabilistic utilities. In its final outlook, the paper emphasizes the need for standardization and solutions to generic problems, if optimization of safety is to be successful

  11. Integrating Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy ARAS for evaluating financial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Safaei Ghadikolaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM is an advanced field of Operation Research; recently MCDM methods are efficient and common tools for performance evaluation in many areas such as finance and economy. The aim of this study is to show one of applications of mathematics in real word. This study with considering value based measures and accounting based measures simultaneously, provided a hybrid approach of MCDM methods in fuzzy environment for financial performance evaluation of automotive and parts manufacturing industry of Tehran stock exchange (TSE.for this purpose Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied to determine the relative important of each criterion, then The companies are ranked according their financial performance by using fuzzy additive ratio assessment (Fuzzy ARAS method. The finding of this study showed effective of this approach in evaluating financial performance.

  12. ALARA review of the maintenance and repair jobs of repetitive high radiation dose at Kori Unit 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Moon, J.H.; Kang, C.S.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    The policy of maintaining occupational radiation dose (ORD) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requires the effective reduction of ORD in the phases of design as well as operation of nuclear power plants. It has been identified that a predominant portion of ORD arises during maintenance and repair operations at nuclear power plants. The cost-effective reduction of ORD cannot be achieved without a comprehensive analysis of accumulated ORD data of existing nuclear power plants. To identify the jobs of repetitive high ORD, the ORD data of Kori Units 3 and 4 over 10-year period from 1986 to 1995 were compiled into the PC-based ORD database program. As the radiation job classification structure, 26 main jobs are considered, most of which are further subdivided into detailed jobs. According to the order of the collective dose values for 26 main jobs, 10 jobs of high collective dose are identified. As an ALARA review, then, top 10 jobs of high collective dose are statistically analyzed with regard to 1) dose rate, 2) crew number and 3) job frequency that are the factors determining the collective dose for the radiation job of interest. Through the ALARA review, main reasons causing to high collective dose values are identified as follows. The high collective dose of RCP maintenance job is mainly due to the large crew number and the high job frequency. The characteristics of refueling job are similar to those of RCP maintenance job. However, the high collective doses of SG-related jobs such as S/G nozzle dam job, S/G man-way job and S/G tube maintenance job are mainly due to high radiation dose rate. (author)

  13. Evaluating Tourist Destination Performance: Expanding the Sustainability Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluations are a critical tool in promoting the sustainability of tourist destinations. The literature shows a lack of consensus on basic terminology and definitions of destination performance. While research focuses on business efficiency, areas such as development effectiveness, social equality, and environmental integrity are still not well understood, even though these are salient elements of sustainable development. This paper provides a framework for evaluating destination performance under the 4E rubric of economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental quality, which reflects a more holistic and effective destination performance. The information entropy weight method and a multi-factor comprehensive evaluation model are developed and applied to an international destination, Zhangjiajie, China, which was selected as a case study to test the framework developed. Results show that the economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental quality aspects should be considered when evaluating tourism development performance. The empirical analysis shows that based on these criteria, Zhangjiajie’s destination performance improved measurably during the test period from 2005 to 2009. The results indicate that significant events, natural disasters, and financial crises influence performance most.

  14. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique

  15. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites

  16. Evaluating Flight Crew Performance by a Bayesian Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flight crew performance is of great significance in keeping flights safe and sound. When evaluating the crew performance, quantitative detailed behavior information may not be available. The present paper introduces the Bayesian Network to perform flight crew performance evaluation, which permits the utilization of multidisciplinary sources of objective and subjective information, despite sparse behavioral data. In this paper, the causal factors are selected based on the analysis of 484 aviation accidents caused by human factors. Then, a network termed Flight Crew Performance Model is constructed. The Delphi technique helps to gather subjective data as a supplement to objective data from accident reports. The conditional probabilities are elicited by the leaky noisy MAX model. Two ways of inference for the BN—probability prediction and probabilistic diagnosis are used and some interesting conclusions are drawn, which could provide data support to make interventions for human error management in aviation safety.

  17. Materials balance area Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The material balance area (MBA) custodian has primary responsibility for control and accountability of nuclear material within an MBA. In this role, the custodian operates as an extension of the facility material control and accountability (MC ampersand A) organization. To effectively meet administrative requirements and protection needs, the custodian must be fully trained in all aspects of MC ampersand A related to the MBA, and custodian performance must be periodically evaluated. DOE Policy requires that each facility provide for a program which assures that each facility provide for a program which assures that personnel performing MC ampersand A functions are (1) trained and/or qualified to perform their duties and responsibilities and (2) knowledgeable of requirements and procedures related to their functions. The MBA Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL uses a variety of assessment techniques to meet this goal, including internal and independent MBA audits, periodic custodian testing, conduct of limited scope performance tests, daily monitoring of MC ampersand A documentation, and reviewing custodian performance during physical inventories. The data collected from these sources is analyzed and incorporated into an annual custodian performance evaluation document, given to each custodian and line management. Development of this program has resulted in significantly improved custodian performance and a marked decrease in finding and observations identified during MBA audits

  18. Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy utilizes deterministic seismic design/evaluation criteria developed to achieve probabilistic performance goals. These seismic design and evaluation criteria are intended to apply equally to the design of new facilities and to the evaluation of existing facilities. In addition, the criteria are intended to cover design and evaluation of buildings, equipment, piping, and other structures. Four separate sets of seismic design/evaluation criteria have been presented each with a different performance goal. In all these criteria, earthquake loading is selected from seismic hazard curves on a probabilistic basis but seismic response evaluation methods and acceptable behavior limits are deterministic approaches with which design engineers are familiar. For analytical evaluations, conservatism has been introduced through the use of conservative inelastic demand-capacity ratios combined with ductile detailing requirements, through the use of minimum specified material strengths and conservative code capacity equations, and through the use of a seismic scale factor. For evaluation by testing or by experience data, conservatism has been introduced through the use of an increase scale factor which is applied to the prescribed design/evaluation input motion

  19. Hanford performance evaluation program for Hanford site analytical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, L.P.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, states that it is the responsibility of DOE contractors to ensure that ''quality is achieved and maintained by those who have been assigned the responsibility for performing the work.'' Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) is designed to meet the needs of the Richland Operations Office (RL) for maintaining a consistent level of quality for the analytical chemistry services provided by contractor and commmercial analytical laboratory operations. Therefore, services supporting Hanford environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, and waste management analytical services shall meet appropriate quality standards. This performance evaluation program will monitor the quality standards of all analytical laboratories supporting the Hanforad Site including on-site and off-site laboratories. The monitoring and evaluation of laboratory performance can be completed by the use of several tools. This program will discuss the tools that will be utilized for laboratory performance evaluations. Revision 0 will primarily focus on presently available programs using readily available performance evaluation materials provided by DOE, EPA or commercial sources. Discussion of project specific PE materials and evaluations will be described in section 9.0 and Appendix A

  20. Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Patient Exercises during Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Ferguson, Jake M; Lee, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The article proposes a set of metrics for evaluation of patient performance in physical therapy exercises. Taxonomy is employed that classifies the metrics into quantitative and qualitative categories, based on the level of abstraction of the captured motion sequences. Further, the quantitative metrics are classified into model-less and model-based metrics, in reference to whether the evaluation employs the raw measurements of patient performed motions, or whether the evaluation is based on a mathematical model of the motions. The reviewed metrics include root-mean square distance, Kullback Leibler divergence, log-likelihood, heuristic consistency, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and similar. The metrics are evaluated for a set of five human motions captured with a Kinect sensor. The metrics can potentially be integrated into a system that employs machine learning for modelling and assessment of the consistency of patient performance in home-based therapy setting. Automated performance evaluation can overcome the inherent subjectivity in human performed therapy assessment, and it can increase the adherence to prescribed therapy plans, and reduce healthcare costs.

  1. Fiscal year 1999 Battelle performance evaluation and fee agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, T.L.

    1998-10-22

    Fiscal Year 1999 represents the third fill year utilizing a results-oriented, performance-based evaluation for the Contractor's operations and management of the DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (here after referred to as the Laboratory). However, this is the first year that the Contractor's fee is totally performance-based utilizing the same Critical Outcomes. This document describes the critical outcomes, objectives, performance indicators, expected levels of performance, and the basis for the evaluation of the Contractor's performance for the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999, as required by Clauses entitled ''Use of Objective Standards of Performance, Self Assessment and Performance Evaluation'' and ''Performance Measures Review'' of the Contract DE-ACO6-76RL01830. Furthermore, it documents the distribution of the total available performance-based fee and the methodology set for determining the amount of fee earned by the Contractor as stipulated within the causes entitled ''Estimated Cost and Annual Fee,'' ''Total Available Fee'' and ''Allowable Costs and Fee.'' In partnership with the Contractor and other key customers, the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ) and Richland Operations Office (RL) has defined four critical outcomes that serve as the core for the Contractor's performance-based evaluation and fee determination. The Contractor also utilizes these outcomes as a basis for overall management of the Laboratory.

  2. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program is to provide the NRC licensing staff with data which will allow an assessment of radiation exposure during decommissioning and the implementation of ALARA techniques. The data will also provide information to determine the funding level necessary to ensure timely and safe decommissioning operations. Actual decommissioning costs, methods and radiation exposures are compared with those estimated by the Battelle-PNL and ORNL NUREGs on decommissioning. Exposure reduction techniques applied to decommissioning activities to meet ALARA objectives are described. The lessons learned concerning various decommissioning methods are evaluated

  3. Evaluating supplier quality performance using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2013-09-01

    This paper elaborates the importance of evaluating supplier quality performance to an organization. Supplier quality performance evaluation reflects the actual performance of the supplier exhibited at customer's end. It is critical in enabling the organization to determine the area of improvement and thereafter works with supplier to close the gaps. Success of the customer partly depends on supplier's quality performance. Key criteria as quality, cost, delivery, technology support and customer service are categorized as main factors in contributing to supplier's quality performance. 18 suppliers' who were manufacturing automotive application parts evaluated in year 2010 using weight point system. There were few suppliers with common rating which led to common ranking observed by few suppliers'. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a user friendly decision making tool for complex and multi criteria problems was used to evaluate the supplier's quality performance challenging the weight point system that was used for 18 suppliers'. The consistency ratio was checked for criteria and sub-criteria. Final results of AHP obtained with no overlap ratings, therefore yielded a better decision making methodology as compared to weight point rating system.

  4. Evaluation of new control rooms by operator performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M; Tomizawa, T.; Tai, I.; Monta, K.; Yoshimura, S.; Hattori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced supervisory and control system called PODIA TM (Plant Operation by Displayed Information and Automation) was developed by Toshiba. Since this system utilizes computer driven CRTs as a main device for information transfer to operators, thorough system integration tests were performed at the factory and evaluations were made of operators' assessment from the initial experience of the system. The PODIA system is currently installed at two BWR power plants. Based on the experiences from the development of PODIA, a more advanced man-machine interface, Advanced-PODIA (A-PODIA), is developed. A-PODIA enhances the capabilities of PODIA in automation, diagnosis, operational guidance and information display. A-PODIA has been validated by carrying out systematic experiments with a full-scope simulator developed for the validation. The results of the experiments have been analyzed by the method of operator performance analysis and applied to further improvement of the A-PODIA system. As a feedback from actual operational experience, operator performance data in simulator training is an important source of information to evaluate human factors of a control room. To facilitate analysis of operator performance, a performance evaluation system has been developed by applying AI techniques. The knowledge contained in the performance evaluation system was elicited from operator training experts and represented as rules. The rules were implemented by employing an object-oriented paradigm to facilitate knowledge management. In conclusion, it is stated that the feedback from new control room operation can be obtained at an early stage by validation tests and also continuously by comprehensive evaluation (with the help of automated tools) of operator performance in simulator training. The results of operator performance analysis can be utilized for improvement of system design as well as operator training. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of the insurance companies based on AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Manhong; Zhu, Kunping

    2018-04-01

    With the entry of foreign capital, China's insurance industry is under increasing pressure of competition. The performance of a company is the external manifestation of its comprehensive strength. Therefore, the establishment of a scientific evaluation system is of practical significance for the insurance companies. In this paper, based on the financial and non-financial indicators of the companies, the performance evaluation system is constructed by means of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In the system, the weights of the indicators which represent the impact on the performance of the companies will be calculated by the process. The evaluation system is beneficial for the companies to realize their own strengths and weaknesses, so as to take steps to enhance the core competitiveness of the companies.

  6. Statistical evaluation of diagnostic performance topics in ROC analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Kelly H; Bandos, Andriy I; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Rockette, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of diagnostic performance in general and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis in particular are important for assessing the performance of medical tests and statistical classifiers, as well as for evaluating predictive models or algorithms. This book presents innovative approaches in ROC analysis, which are relevant to a wide variety of applications, including medical imaging, cancer research, epidemiology, and bioinformatics. Statistical Evaluation of Diagnostic Performance: Topics in ROC Analysis covers areas including monotone-transformation techniques in parametric ROC analysis, ROC methods for combined and pooled biomarkers, Bayesian hierarchical transformation models, sequential designs and inferences in the ROC setting, predictive modeling, multireader ROC analysis, and free-response ROC (FROC) methodology. The book is suitable for graduate-level students and researchers in statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology, public health, biomedical engineering, radiology, medi...

  7. NREL Evaluates Performance of Fast-Charge Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-16

    This real-world performance evaluation is designed to enhance understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of electric buses in transit operation and to provide unbiased technical information to other agencies interested in adding such vehicles to their fleets. Initial results indicate that the electric buses under study offer significant fuel and emissions savings. The final results will help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals. help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals.

  8. Citation ranking versus peer evaluation of senior faculty research performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meho, Lokman I.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between citation ranking and peer evaluation in assessing senior faculty research performance. Other studies typically derive their peer evaluation data directly from referees, often in the form of ranking. This study uses two additional...... indicator of research performance of senior faculty members? Citation data, book reviews, and peer ranking were compiled and examined for faculty members specializing in Kurdish studies. Analysis shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis data yield identical ranking results....... Analysis also shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis, book reviews, and peer ranking perform similarly (i.e., are highly correlated) for high-ranked and low-ranked senior scholars. Additional evaluation methods and measures that take into account the context and content...

  9. Exploration of nuclear power enterprise 'STAR' management performance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Sen

    2005-01-01

    From the angle of nuclear power enterprise safety culture, this essay breaks the connotations of the safety culture down to nine aspects (target management, safety management, quality management, housekeeping, cost control, authorization management, teamwork, communication and continued improvement), with each aspect divided into five levels of star class according to its own characteristics. A comparison is made between the actualities of the enterprise and star management performance evaluation system to find out the gap and identify ways of continued improvement to elevate the enterprise management level, thereby developing a standard system of conducting qualitative and quantitative evaluation to the management process. Apart from its evaluation function, this system provides a guideline on the work orientation, method, and steps to elevate work level and capability for the managers performing specific management actions. It is also a system of measuring and evaluating the executive force of the company's management and its employees. (author)

  10. Features principles and purposes of teacher performance evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esnares José Maussa Díaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teacher evaluation represents a nodal aspect for improving of system education. Any evaluation has a previously predefined purpose and is essentially a valorative act, where the principles applied are indicators of the degree of responsibility which is performed and the visión that society gives to the education. This paper analyzes how the purposes are fulfilled, principles and characteristics of the performance evaluation of teachers in connection with the practice of respect for the guiding principles of assessment practice teaching; just like existing rating on indicators of professional and personal development achieved by teachers as a result of the evaluative practices in the context of the pursuit of improving of quality of education. 

  11. Ergonomic evaluation model of operational room based on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhiyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical calculation model based on the ergonomic evaluation of team performance was proposed in order to carry out the ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station in a multitasking operational room. This model was constructed in order to calculate and compare the theoretical value of team performance in multiple layout schemes by considering such substantial influential factors as frequency of communication, distance, angle, importance, human cognitive characteristics and so on. An experiment was finally conducted to verify the proposed model under the criteria of completion time and accuracy rating. As illustrated by the experiment results,the proposed approach is conductive to the prediction and ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station during early design stages,and provides a new theoretical method for the ergonomic evaluation,selection and optimization design of layout design schemes.

  12. Evaluating building performance in healthcare facilities: an organizational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Claudia; Webster, Lynn; Fontaine, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Using the environment as a strategic tool is one of the most cost-effective and enduring approaches for improving public health; however, it is one that requires multiple perspectives. The purpose of this article is to highlight an innovative methodology that has been developed for conducting comprehensive performance evaluations in public sector health facilities in Canada. The building performance evaluation methodology described in this paper is a government initiative. The project team developed a comprehensive building evaluation process for all new capital health projects that would respond to the aforementioned need for stakeholders to be more accountable and to better integrate the larger organizational strategy of facilities. The Balanced Scorecard, which is a multiparadigmatic, performance-based business framework, serves as the underlying theoretical framework for this initiative. It was applied in the development of the conceptual model entitled the Building Performance Evaluation Scorecard, which provides the following benefits: (1) It illustrates a process to link facilities more effectively to the overall mission and goals of an organization; (2) It is both a measurement and a management system that has the ability to link regional facilities to measures of success and larger business goals; (3) It provides a standardized methodology that ensures consistency in assessing building performance; and (4) It is more comprehensive than traditional building evaluations. The methodology presented in this paper is both a measurement and management system that integrates the principles of evidence-based design with the practices of pre- and post-occupancy evaluation. It promotes accountability and continues throughout the life cycle of a project. The advantage of applying this framework is that it engages health organizations in clarifying a vision and strategy for their facilities and helps translate those strategies into action and measurable performance

  13. A performance evaluation of the IBM 370/XT personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of the IBM 370/XT personal computer is given. This evaluation focuses primarily on the use of the 370/XT for scientific and technical applications and applications development. A measurement of the capabilities of the 370/XT was performed by means of test programs which are presented. Also included is a review of facilities provided by the operating system (VM/PC), along with comments on the IBM 370/XT hardware configuration.

  14. Performance evaluation based on data from code reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej, Sekáč

    2016-01-01

    Context. Modern code review tools such as Gerrit have made available great amounts of code review data from different open source projects as well as other commercial projects. Code reviews are used to keep the quality of produced source code under control but the stored data could also be used for evaluation of the software development process. Objectives. This thesis uses machine learning methods for an approximation of review expert’s performance evaluation function. Due to limitations in ...

  15. Development of Testing Methodologies to Evaluate Postflight Locomotor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Crewmembers experience locomotor and postural instabilities during ambulation on Earth following their return from space flight. Gait training programs designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a transition to a gravitational environment need to be accompanied by relevant assessment methodologies to evaluate their efficacy. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the operational validity of two tests of locomotor function that were used to evaluate performance after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS).

  16. Sustainability performance evaluation: Literature review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüközkan, Gülçin; Karabulut, Yağmur

    2018-07-01

    Current global economic activities are increasingly being perceived as unsustainable. Despite the high number of publications, sustainability science remains highly dispersed over diverse approaches and topics. This article aims to provide a structured overview of sustainability performance evaluation related publications and to document the current state of literature, categorize publications, analyze and link trends, as well as highlight gaps and provide research recommendations. 128 articles between 2007 and 2018 are identified. The results suggest that sustainability performance evaluation models shall be more balanced, suitable criteria and their interrelations shall be well defined and subjectivity of qualitative criteria inherent to sustainability indicators shall be considered. To address this subjectivity, group decision-making techniques and other analytical methods that can deal with uncertainty, conflicting indicators, and linguistic evaluations can be used in future works. By presenting research gaps, this review stimulates researchers to establish practically applicable sustainability performance evaluation frameworks to help assess and compare the degree of sustainability, leading to more sustainable business practices. The review is unique in defining corporate sustainability performance evaluation for the first time, exploring the gap between sustainability accounting and sustainability assessment, and coming up with a structured overview of innovative research recommendations about integrating analytical assessment methods into conceptual sustainability frameworks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Business games: evaluating the financial performance of companies using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Cunha Marinho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is permeated by uncertainty and volatility, making the activities related to the ever-challenging decision making for administrators. In the current context, it is fundamental premise for continuous evaluation of the assets applied in the organizations, be they of any segment or size. This article aims to evaluate the financial performance of companies in a simulated environment in business games by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP using as a base the analysis of current liquidity ratios, profitability and apital structure, demonstrating, through these indices, the industry involved in the game that obtained the best performance.

  18. Performance evaluation software moving object detection and tracking in videos

    CERN Document Server

    Karasulu, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Performance Evaluation Software: Moving Object Detection and Tracking in Videos introduces a software approach for the real-time evaluation and performance comparison of the methods specializing in moving object detection and/or tracking (D&T) in video processing. Digital video content analysis is an important item for multimedia content-based indexing (MCBI), content-based video retrieval (CBVR) and visual surveillance systems. There are some frequently-used generic algorithms for video object D&T in the literature, such as Background Subtraction (BS), Continuously Adaptive Mean-shift (CMS),

  19. Evaluating Innovations in Home Care for Performance Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, Barbara; Gutscher, Abram; Ambrogiano, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about rising costs and the sustainability of our healthcare system have led to a drive for innovative solutions and accountability for performance. Integrated Home Care, Calgary Zone, Alberta Health Services went beyond traditional accountability measures to use evaluation methodology to measure the progress of complex innovations to its organization structure and service delivery model. This paper focuses on the first two phases of a three-phase evaluation. The results of the first two phases generated learning about innovation adoption and sustainability, and performance accountability at the program-level of a large publicly funded healthcare organization.

  20. Simulated Evaluation of Drug-Impaired Psychomotor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this placebo-controlled, randomized-crossover study was to evaluate a computer-based divided-attention task as a method for measure impaired human psychomotor performance. The ability of the divided-attention task to detect and differentiate was evaluated using single oral doses of placebo, caffeine and diphenhydramine. Ten healthy men were the subjects of the study. Subject performance on divided-attention was compared with tests of short-term memory and a set of visual analog...

  1. INDONESIA PUBLIC BANKS PERFORMANCE EVALUATION USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Return on Asset (ROA is a variable that has the greatest ability in predicting public banks stock prices in Indonesia. The coefficient of determination of ROA on public banks stock prices in Indonesia reached 54.8%. ROA has a significant positive influence on public bank stock prices in Indonesia. Fuzzy logic process on the performance of the 15 public banks in Indonesia have been carried out using the data of ROA for the period 2010 up to 2013. Bank reference performance according to ROA is based on Bank Indonesia Letter No. 6 / 23DPNP / 2011. The performance of each bank was analyzed by conventional methods and as a comparison used fuzzy logic. The evaluation with fuzzy logic method able to provide added value to the currently enforced performance evaluation method. There is significant difference in conclusion between the determination of fuzzy logic models and conventional method

  2. Evaluation Method for Low-Temperature Performance of Lithium Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. W.; Ma, Q.; Fu, Y. L.; Tao, Z. Q.; Xiao, H. Q.; Bai, H.; Bai, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the evaluation method for low temperature performance of lithium battery is established. The low temperature performance level was set up to determine the best operating temperature range of the lithium battery using different cathode materials. Results are shared with the consumers for the proper use of lithium battery to make it have a longer service life and avoid the occurrence of early rejection.

  3. EVALUATION OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA WITH DANP METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZVERİ, Onur; GÜÇLÜ, Pembe; AYCİN, Ejder

    2018-01-01

    Despite the service industry composes large part of the world economy, the academic studies and applications on supply chain are mainly about production industry. Because of the different structure of services, the service supply chain and also performance criteria-metrics differ from the product supply chain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the supply chain performance metrics for restaurant sector. For this purpose in the first and second part of the paper the service supply chain conc...

  4. The Search Performance Evaluation and Prediction in Exploratory Search

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, FEI

    2016-01-01

    The exploratory search for complex search tasks requires an effective search behavior model to evaluate and predict user search performance. Few studies have investigated the relationship between user search behavior and search performance in exploratory search. This research adopts a mixed approach combining search system development, user search experiment, search query log analysis, and multivariate regression analysis to resolve the knowledge gap. Through this study, it is shown that expl...

  5. High performance APCS conceptual design and evaluation scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.; Liekhus, K.; Chambers, A.; Anderson, G.

    1998-02-01

    This Air Pollution Control System (APCS) Conceptual Design and Evaluation study was conducted to evaluate a high-performance (APC) system for minimizing air emissions from mixed waste thermal treatment systems. Seven variations of high-performance APCS designs were conceptualized using several design objectives. One of the system designs was selected for detailed process simulation using ASPEN PLUS to determine material and energy balances and evaluate performance. Installed system capital costs were also estimated. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the incremental cost and benefit of added carbon adsorber beds for mercury control, specific catalytic reduction for NO x control, and offgas retention tanks for holding the offgas until sample analysis is conducted to verify that the offgas meets emission limits. Results show that the high-performance dry-wet APCS can easily meet all expected emission limits except for possibly mercury. The capability to achieve high levels of mercury control (potentially necessary for thermally treating some DOE mixed streams) could not be validated using current performance data for mercury control technologies. The engineering approach and ASPEN PLUS modeling tool developed and used in this study identified APC equipment and system performance, size, cost, and other issues that are not yet resolved. These issues need to be addressed in feasibility studies and conceptual designs for new facilities or for determining how to modify existing facilities to meet expected emission limits. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation with current and refined input assumptions and calculations can be used to provide system performance information for decision-making, identifying best options, estimating costs, reducing the potential for emission violations, providing information needed for waste flow analysis, incorporating new APCS technologies in existing designs, or performing facility design and permitting activities

  6. Determinants of the use of value-based performance measures for managerial performance evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.; Wiersma, E.

    2012-01-01

    As value-based (VB) performance measures include firms' cost of capital, they are considered more congruent than earnings measures. Prior studies, however, find that their use for managerial performance evaluation is less extensive than their presumed benefits would suggest. We examine how the

  7. The transport performance evaluation system building of logistics enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern logistics has a significant role in today’s society, logistics cost accounts for 35% to 50% of total logistics costs, so it’s great significance to improve the transport performance of logistics enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: the authors select the transportation performance evaluation index of logistics enterprise, with the aid of the fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative analysis, construct the transport performance evaluation system of logistics enterprises. Findings: the choice of transport performance evaluation indicator system for Logistics enterprise is in a state of "high", which indicates the indicator selection is reasonable. Research limitations/implications: the selected indicators with experts’ subjective factors can not accurately quantify. Practical implications: it has important practical significance to promote the development of modern logistics enterprises and save social cost. Originality/value: current research methods mainly include the PDCA cycle model, key performance indicators (KPI and benchmarking method, principal component analysis method, etc. The authors for the first time with the aid of fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative research on transport performance problems.

  8. OpenCL Performance Evaluation on Modern Multicore CPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hwan Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing heterogeneous platforms for computation has become a general trend, making the portability issue important. OpenCL (Open Computing Language serves this purpose by enabling portable execution on heterogeneous architectures. However, unpredictable performance variation on different platforms has become a burden for programmers who write OpenCL applications. This is especially true for conventional multicore CPUs, since the performance of general OpenCL applications on CPUs lags behind the performance of their counterparts written in the conventional parallel programming model for CPUs. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of OpenCL applications on out-of-order multicore CPUs from the architectural perspective. We evaluate OpenCL applications on various aspects, including API overhead, scheduling overhead, instruction-level parallelism, address space, data location, data locality, and vectorization, comparing OpenCL to conventional parallel programming models for CPUs. Our evaluation indicates unique performance characteristics of OpenCL applications and also provides insight into the optimization metrics for better performance on CPUs.

  9. Considerations concerning the Alara principle, the {alpha} value, and the Choice of attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, G. M.

    2004-07-01

    The paper initially introduces the ALARA principle conceptually through its equations which demand the maximum net benefit, and consecutively demonstrates that it can be interpreted as discriminator between the radiation protection options which are to be avoided and those which are allowed. With respect to the alpha value, the paper demonstrates that it can be interpreted as an indicator of the velocity decrease of the involved doses. If the entities involved, that which contributes to the protection costs, and that which contributes to the detriment cost are different, substantial inequities could be committed if certain indispensable precautions are not taken. When the quantitative decision-aiding techniques are used in the analysis, these being; the multi-attribute utility analysis, or the multicriteria outranking analysis, a larger number of attributes are permitted in addition to the two obligatory attributes of protection cost and detriment cost. With this approach it is observed that those attributes which decrease when the annual protection costs increase (or the annual collective dose decreases), tends to increase the alpha value and viceversa. This phenomena leads us to various conclusions such as: a) if the quantitative decision-aiding techniques of cost-benefit, differential cost-benefit, and extended cost benefit are employed the alpha value is explicit, and therefore can be argued between the involved parties. However if the more complex quantitative analyses are used, the selection of the attributes can substantially increase or decrease the alpha value, committing inequity to one of the parties involved in benefit to the other; b) in order to avoid large distortions provoked by the use of non-obligatory attributes, these should be weighted in such a manner that the decrease provoked by some should be compensated by the increase caused by the use of non-obligatory attributes, these should be weighted in such a manner that the decrease caused by some

  10. Considerations concerning the Alara principle, the α value, and the Choice of attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper initially introduces the ALARA principle conceptually through its equations which demand the maximum net benefit, and consecutively demonstrates that it can be interpreted as discriminator between the radiation protection options which are to be avoided and those which are allowed. With respect to the alpha value, the paper demonstrates that it can be interpreted as an indicator of the velocity decrease of the involved doses. If the entities involved, that which contributes to the protection costs, and that which contributes to the detriment cost are different, substantial inequities could be committed if certain indispensable precautions are not taken. When the quantitative decision-aiding techniques are used in the analysis, these being; the multi-attribute utility analysis, or the multicriteria outranking analysis, a larger number of attributes are permitted in addition to the two obligatory attributes of protection cost and detriment cost. With this approach it is observed that those attributes which decrease when the annual protection costs increase (or the annual collective dose decreases), tends to increase the alpha value and viceversa. This phenomena leads us to various conclusions such as: a) if the quantitative decision-aiding techniques of cost-benefit, differential cost-benefit, and extended cost benefit are employed the alpha value is explicit, and therefore can be argued between the involved parties. However if the more complex quantitative analyses are used, the selection of the attributes can substantially increase or decrease the alpha value, committing inequity to one of the parties involved in benefit to the other; b) in order to avoid large distortions provoked by the use of non-obligatory attributes, these should be weighted in such a manner that the decrease provoked by some should be compensated by the increase caused by the use of non-obligatory attributes, these should be weighted in such a manner that the decrease caused by some

  11. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  12. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  13. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  14. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  15. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  16. Knowledge construction about port performance evaluation: An international literature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Somensi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims at identifying and analyzing the characteristics of international scientific research that address the literature fragment referring to the Port Performance Evaluation to identify the existence of theoretical alignment of Performance Evaluation notion, as an area of knowledge, with practical area stage, the Port Performance Evaluation. Design/Methodology/Approach: The approach the problem, this paper makes use of qualitative research, since it analyzes the Bibliographical Portfolio characteristics related to the Performance Evaluation Port. The strategy adopted was action research where the authors through their analysis and interpretation made the selection of the  Bibliographical Portfolio. Findings: From the analyzed literature fragment it was possible to identify some misalignment between what has been pointed out in the literature regarding the management practices in the port sector. This discrepancy refers to the management practices that are ignored by port managers, which implies the loss of opportunities and may even come to jeopardize the organization's performance. Research limitations/implications: The literature search was restricted to articles written in the English language, published in indexed scientific journals in the selected databases (ii the restriction by the time limit of articles published after the year 2000; (iii the generation of knowledge based on the characteristics selected by the researchers and (iv the analysis of BP articles regarding the  by the judgment and interpretation of this research authors. It is suggested for future work the expanding this research to other databases, other languages, other features, and continuity of this investigation with the development of "systemic analysis' and 'identifying research opportunities' stages through ProKnow-C. Originality/value: Although two similar works have been developed in the same area of research in 2015, the results achieved have

  17. Conceptual Designs for the Performance Improvement of APR1400 SIT and Preliminary Performance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In-Cheol; Kwon, Tae-Soon; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Some evolutionary type PWRs such as APR1400 and APWR adopt advanced safety injection tank (SIT). The SIT of APR1400 has a fluidic device (FD) which passively controls ECC water injection flow rate into reactor coolant system during refill and reflood phases of LB-LOCA (i.e., a high injection flow rate during the refill phase and a low injection flow rate during the reflood phase). The benefit of the FD is the elimination of the function of low pressure safety injection pump from the safety injection system. The flow controlling performance of the APR1400 FD was evaluated using a prototypical full-scale test facility, called VAPER (Valve Performance Evaluation Rig). Even though the performance of the APR1400 FD satisfied major design and licensing requirements, further improvement of the performance is expected such as the extension of total injection period, the delay of nitrogen gas discharge. Several conceptual designs have been being drawn out in order to improve the performance of the APR1400 SIT. The performance of some designs was evaluated using a small scale SIT test rig. The present paper introduces some of the conceptual designs and shows the performance evaluation experimental results

  18. Performance evaluation of self-breakdown-based single-gap ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gap plasma cathode electron (PCE) gun (5–20 kV/50–160 A) in argon, gas atmosphere and its performance evaluation based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code `OOPIC-Pro'.The PCE-Gun works in conducting phase (low energy, high ...

  19. A Process For Performance Evaluation Of Real-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Kornecki

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time developers and engineers must not only meet the system functional requirements, but also the stringent timing requirements. One of the critical decisions leading to meeting these timing requirements is the selection of an operating system under which the software will be developed and run. Although there is ample documentation on real-time systems performance and evaluation, little can be found that combines such information into an efficient process for use by developers. As the software industry moves towards clearly defined processes, creation of appropriate guidelines describing a process for performance evaluation of real-time system would greatly benefit real-time developers. This technology transition research focuses on developing such a process. PROPERT (PROcess for Performance Evaluation of Real Time systems - the process described in this paper - is based upon established techniques for evaluating real-time systems. It organizes already existing real-time performance criteria and assessment techniques in a manner consistent with a well-formed process, based on the Personal Software Process concepts.

  20. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…