Sample records for eva joint angle

  1. Studies Relating to EVA (United States)


    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  2. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.


    Drews, M. L.


    The primary objective of space telerobotics as a research discipline is the augmentation and/or support of extravehicular activity (EVA) with telerobotic activity; this allows increased emplacement of on-orbit assets while providing for their "in situ" management. Development of the requisite telerobot work system requires a well-understood correspondence between EVA and telerobotics that to date has been only partially established. The Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) hypermedia information system uses object-oriented programming to bridge the gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains twenty HyperCard stacks that use a visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about the primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space telerobot or crew EVA tasks. These stacks are meant to be interactive and can be used with any database system running on a Macintosh, including spreadsheets, relational databases, word-processed documents, and hypermedia utilities. The software provides a means for managing volumes of data and for communicating complex ideas, relationships, and processes inherent to task planning. The stack system contains 3MB of data and utilities to aid referencing, discussion, communication, and analysis within the EVA and telerobotics communities. The six baseline analysis stacks (EVATasks, EVAAssume, EVAIssues, TeleTasks, TeleAssume, and TeleIssues) work interactively to manage and relate basic information which you enter about the crew-EVA and telerobot tasks you wish to analyze in depth. Analysis stacks draw on information in the Reference stacks as part of a rapid point-and-click utility for building scripts of specific task primitives or for any EVA or telerobotics task. Any or all of these stacks can be completely incorporated within other hypermedia applications, or they can be

  4. IMU-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seel


    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1 joint axis and position identification; and (2 flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  5. Measurements of normal joint angles by goniometry in calves. (United States)

    Sengöz Şirin, O; Timuçin Celik, M; Ozmen, A; Avki, S


    The aim of this study was to establish normal reference values of the forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Thirty clinically normal Holstein calves that were free of any detectable musculoskeletal abnormalities were included in the study. A standard transparent plastic goniometer was used to measure maximum flexion, maximum extension, and range-of-motion of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints. The goniometric measurements were done on awake calves that were positioned in lateral recumbency. The goniometric values were measured and recorded by two independent investigators. As a result of the study it was concluded that goniometric values obtained from awake calves in lateral recumbency were found to be highly consistent and accurate between investigators (p <0.05). The data of this study acquired objective and useful information on the normal forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Further studies can be done to predict detailed goniometric values from different diseases and compare them.

  6. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine


    . Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within...... this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can...

  7. Joint Angle and Frequency Estimation Using Multiple-Delay Output Based on ESPRIT (United States)

    Xudong, Wang


    This paper presents a novel ESPRIT algorithm-based joint angle and frequency estimation using multiple-delay output (MDJAFE). The algorithm can estimate the joint angles and frequencies, since the use of multiple output makes the estimation accuracy greatly improved when compared with a conventional algorithm. The useful behavior of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atar


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effects of different joint angles and adhesives on diagonal tension performances of the box-type furniture made from solid wood and medium density fiberboard (MDF. After drilling joints of 75º, 78º, 81º, 84º, and 87º degrees on Oriental beech, European oak, Scotch pine, and MDF samples, a diagonal tensile test was applied on corners glued with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc and polyurethane (D-VTKA = Desmodur-Vinyl Trieketonol Acetate according to ASTM D 1037 standard. With reference to the obtained results, the highest tensile strength was obtained in European oak with PVAc glue and joint angle of 84º, while the lowest value was obtained in MDF with D-VTKA glue and joint angle of 75º. Considering the interaction of wood, adhesive, and joint angle, the highest tensile strength was obtained in European oak with joint angle of 81º and D-VTKA glue (1.089, whereas the lowest tensile strength was determined in MDF with joint angle of 75º and PVAc glue (0.163 Therefore, PVAc as glue and 81º as joint angle could be suggested to obtain some advantageous on the dovetail joint process for box-type furniture made from both solid wood and MDF.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 1, 2003 ... Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated comparative variations in means and ranges of normal axial angles .... population was significantly different from the mean ... case, however, the angle also exhibits racial variations.

  10. Interdependence of torque, joint angle, angular velocity and muscle action during human multi-joint leg extension. (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel; Herzog, Walter; Schwirtz, Ansgar


    Force and torque production of human muscles depends upon their lengths and contraction velocity. However, these factors are widely assumed to be independent of each other and the few studies that dealt with interactions of torque, angle and angular velocity are based on isolated single-joint movements. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine force/torque-angle and force/torque-angular velocity properties for multi-joint leg extensions. Human leg extension was investigated (n = 18) on a motor-driven leg press dynamometer while measuring external reaction forces at the feet. Extensor torque in the knee joint was calculated using inverse dynamics. Isometric contractions were performed at eight joint angle configurations of the lower limb corresponding to increments of 10° at the knee from 30 to 100° of knee flexion. Concentric and eccentric contractions were performed over the same range of motion at mean angular velocities of the knee from 30 to 240° s(-1). For contractions of increasing velocity, optimum knee angle shifted from 52 ± 7 to 64 ± 4° knee flexion. Furthermore, the curvature of the concentric force/torque-angular velocity relations varied with joint angles and maximum angular velocities increased from 866 ± 79 to 1,238 ± 132° s(-1) for 90-50° knee flexion. Normalised eccentric forces/torques ranged from 0.85 ± 0.12 to 1.32 ± 0.16 of their isometric reference, only showing significant increases above isometric and an effect of angular velocity for joint angles greater than optimum knee angle. The findings reveal that force/torque production during multi-joint leg extension depends on the combined effects of angle and angular velocity. This finding should be accounted for in modelling and optimisation of human movement.

  11. Effect of knee joint angle on neuromuscular activation of the vastus intermedius muscle during isometric contraction. (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Akima, H


    The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between surface electromyography (EMG) and knee joint angle of the vastus intermedius muscle (VI) with the synergistic muscles in the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle group. Fourteen healthy men performed maximal voluntary contractions during isometric knee extension at four knee joint angles from 90°, 115°, 140°, and 165° (180° being full extension). During the contractions, surface EMG was recorded at four muscle components of the QF muscle group: the VI, vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. The root mean square of the surface EMG at each knee joint angle was calculated and normalized by that at a knee joint angle of 90° for individual muscles. The normalized RMS of the VI muscle was significantly lower than those of the VL and RF muscles at the knee joint angles of 115° and 165° and those of the VL, VM, and RF muscles at the knee joint angle of 140° (Pneuromuscular activation of the VI muscle is regulated in a manner different from the alteration of the knee joint angle compared with other muscle components of the QF muscle group. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Fusimotor control of spindle sensitivity regulates central and peripheral coding of joint angles. (United States)

    Lan, Ning; He, Xin


    Proprioceptive afferents from muscle spindles encode information about peripheral joint movements for the central nervous system (CNS). The sensitivity of muscle spindle is nonlinearly dependent on the activation of gamma (γ) motoneurons in the spinal cord that receives inputs from the motor cortex. How fusimotor control of spindle sensitivity affects proprioceptive coding of joint position is not clear. Furthermore, what information is carried in the fusimotor signal from the motor cortex to the muscle spindle is largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the issue of communication between the central and peripheral sensorimotor systems using a computational approach based on the virtual arm (VA) model. In simulation experiments within the operational range of joint movements, the gamma static commands (γ(s)) to the spindles of both mono-articular and bi-articular muscles were hypothesized (1) to remain constant, (2) to be modulated with joint angles linearly, and (3) to be modulated with joint angles nonlinearly. Simulation results revealed a nonlinear landscape of Ia afferent with respect to both γ(s) activation and joint angle. Among the three hypotheses, the constant and linear strategies did not yield Ia responses that matched the experimental data, and therefore, were rejected as plausible strategies of spindle sensitivity control. However, if γ(s) commands were quadratically modulated with joint angles, a robust linear relation between Ia afferents and joint angles could be obtained in both mono-articular and bi-articular muscles. With the quadratic strategy of spindle sensitivity control, γ(s) commands may serve as the CNS outputs that inform the periphery of central coding of joint angles. The results suggest that the information of joint angles may be communicated between the CNS and muscles via the descending γ(s) efferent and Ia afferent signals.

  13. Joint angle sensors for closed-loop control (United States)

    Ko, Wen H.; Miao, Chih-Lei

    In order to substitute braces that have built-in goniometers and to provide feedback signals for closed loop control of lower extremity Functional Neuromuscular System in paraplegics, a stretchable capacitive sensor was developed to accurately detect angular movement in joints. Promising clinical evaluations on the knee joints of a paraplegic and a volunteer were done. The evaluations show great promise for the possibility of implantation applications.

  14. Nonlinear joint angle control for artificially stimulated muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Chizeck, Howard J.; Crago, Patrick E.; El-Bialy, Ahmed


    Designs of both open- and closed-loop controllers of electrically stimulated muscle that explicitly depend on a nonlinear mathematical model of muscle input-output properties are presented and evaluated. The muscle model consists of three factors: a muscle activation dynamics factor, an angle-torque

  15. Associations between alpha angle and herniation pit on MRI revisited in 185 asympomatic hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chae; Choi, Jung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the association between alpha angle and herniation pit on MRI in asymptomatic hip joints and their associations with demographic variables.Hip MRI of 185 asymptomatic hip joints of 105 adults (age 18 to 80 years) from September 2011 through December 2012 were retrospectively studied. Alpha angles were measured on oblique axial MR images by 2 observers. Herniation pit was determined by 1 observer. Size measures, prevalence, and statistical analyses were conducted regarding its association with age, gender, laterality (right or left hip). Intra- and inter-observer agreements were determined by intra-class correlation coefficient. The prevalence of herniation pit in asymptomatic hips was 21.6%. The range of alpha angle was 27.6-65.0 degrees. Seventeen and 16 out of 185 (9.1% and 8.6%) hip joints showed alpha angle of ≥ 55 degrees in first and second measurement sessions, respectively. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and presence of herniation pit. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and the size of herniation pit. Inter-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.485 between first measurements of first vs. second observer, respectively. Intra-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.654, respectively. Forty (21.6%) of 185 hip joints (35 of 105 patients, 33.3%) had herniation pit, with no difference according to age, gender, or laterality of hip joint. There is no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 degrees and presence of herniation pit or demographic variables.

  16. Neuromuscular adaptations associated with knee joint angle-specific force change. (United States)

    Noorkõiv, Marika; Nosaka, Kazunori; Blazevich, Anthony J


    Neuromuscular adaptations to joint angle-specific force increases after isometric training have not yet been fully elucidated. This study examined angle-specific neuromuscular adaptations in response to isometric knee extension training at short (SL, joint angle 38.1° ± 3.7°) versus long (LL, 87.5° ± 6.0°) muscle lengths. Sixteen men trained three times a week for 6 wk either at SL (n = 8) or LL (n = 8). Voluntary maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC) force, doublet twitch force, EMG amplitudes (EMG/Mmax), and voluntary activation during MVC force (VA%) were measured at eight knee joint angles (30°-100°) at weeks 0, 3, and 6. Muscle volume and cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured from magnetic resonance imaging scans, and fascicle length (Lf) was assessed using ultrasonography before and after training. Clear joint angle specificity of force increase was seen in SL but not in LL. The 13.4% ± 9.7% (P = 0.01) force increase around the training angle in SL was related to changes in vastus lateralis and vastus medialis EMG/Mmax around the training angle (r = 0.84-0.88, P < 0.05), without changes in the doublet twitch force-angle relation or muscle size. In LL, muscle volume and CSA increased and the changes in CSA at specific muscle regions were correlated with changes in MVC force. A 5.4% ± 4.9% (P = 0.001) increase in Lf found in both groups was not associated with angle-specific force changes. There were no angle-specific changes in VA%. The EMG/Mmax, although not VA%, results suggest that neural adaptations underpinned training-related changes at short quadriceps lengths, but hypertrophic changes predominated after training at long lengths. The findings of this study should contribute to the development of more effective and evidence-based rehabilitation and strength training protocols.

  17. Neural network committees for finger joint angle estimation from surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Narender P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In virtual reality (VR systems, the user's finger and hand positions are sensed and used to control the virtual environments. Direct biocontrol of VR environments using surface electromyography (SEMG signals may be more synergistic and unconstraining to the user. The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a technique to predict the finger joint angle from the surface EMG measurements of the extensor muscle using neural network models. Methodology SEMG together with the actual joint angle measurements were obtained while the subject was performing flexion-extension rotation of the index finger at three speeds. Several neural networks were trained to predict the joint angle from the parameters extracted from the SEMG signals. The best networks were selected to form six committees. The neural network committees were evaluated using data from new subjects. Results There was hysteresis in the measured SMEG signals during the flexion-extension cycle. However, neural network committees were able to predict the joint angle with reasonable accuracy. RMS errors ranged from 0.085 ± 0.036 for fast speed finger-extension to 0.147 ± 0.026 for slow speed finger extension, and from 0.098 ± 0.023 for the fast speed finger flexion to 0.163 ± 0.054 for slow speed finger flexion. Conclusion Although hysteresis was observed in the measured SEMG signals, the committees of neural networks were able to predict the finger joint angle from SEMG signals.

  18. Knee joint angle affects EMG-force relationship in the vastus intermedius muscle. (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Akima, Hiroshi


    It is not understood how the knee joint angle affects the relationship between electromyography (EMG) and force of four individual quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the knee joint angle on the EMG-force relationship of the four individual QF muscles, particularly the vastus intermedius (VI), during isometric knee extensions. Eleven healthy men performed 20-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at knee joint angles of 90°, 120° and 150°. Surface EMG of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized by the root mean square during MVC. The normalized EMG of the four QF synergists at a knee joint angle of 150° was significantly lower than that at 90° and 120° (P knee joint angle of 150°. Furthermore, the neuromuscular activation of the VI was the most sensitive to change in muscle length among the four QF synergistic muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of joint dip angle on seismic behaviors of rock foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Yujing; Li, Bo; Li Shucai


    The seismic response of rock foundation to seismic loads is an important issue to the stability and safety of nuclear power plants. Due to the fact that the discontinuities like joints existing in the rock mass govern principally the deformation and failure behaviors of the rock mass, the influence of discontinuities on the seismic behaviors of rock mass remains as one of the fundamental problems in the safety assessment of nuclear power plants. In this study, the distinct element method (DEM) and finite element method (FEM) were adopted to investigate the seismic responses of rock foundation to a real seismic wave, taking into account the effect of joint dip angle on the deformation and dynamic behaviors of rock foundation. In the DEM simulations, the intact rock has an amplification effect on the amplitudes of seismic waves, while the joints exhibit an attenuation effect on the seismic waves. In the FEM simulations, however, the attenuation effect of joints is not obvious. The dip angle of joints has strong effects on the deformation and dynamic behaviors of rock foundation, in terms that different dip angles lead to obviously different deformation and horizontal stress in the rock foundation when subjected to seismic load. When the dip angle of joints is around 60deg, the seismic velocity, displacement and stress reach the maximums. Therefore, attentions need to be paid on this factor during the seismic design of nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip and loading conditions during split squats. (United States)

    Schütz, Pascal; List, Renate; Zemp, Roland; Schellenberg, Florian; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio


    The aim of this study was to quantify how step length and the front tibia angle influence joint angles and loading conditions during the split squat exercise. Eleven subjects performed split squats with an additional load of 25% body weight applied using a barbell. Each subject's movements were recorded using a motion capture system, and the ground reaction force was measured under each foot. The joint angles and loading conditions were calculated using a cluster-based kinematic approach and inverse dynamics modeling respectively. Increases in the tibia angle resulted in a smaller range of motion (ROM) of the front knee and a larger ROM of the rear knee and hip. The external flexion moment in the front knee/hip and the external extension moment in the rear hip decreased as the tibia angle increased. The flexion moment in the rear knee increased as the tibia angle increased. The load distribution between the legs changed squat execution was varied. Our results describing the changes in joint angles and the resulting differences in the moments of the knee and hip will allow coaches and therapists to adapt the split squat exercise to the individual motion and load demands of athletes.

  1. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints. (United States)

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam


    Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (ptensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p≤ 0.490). Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint.

  2. An evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow joint in adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Department of Anatomy and Orthopedics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences,. Pondicherry - 605 502 ... forearm deviates laterally from the long axis of the humerus, with the arm extended and the palm ... for elbow reconstruction. Key words: Carrying angle, elbow joint, adolescent, forearm, humerus, ulna ...

  3. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps. (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico


    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  4. Assessment of novel digital and smartphone goniometers for measurement of canine stifle joint angles. (United States)

    Freund, Kristin A; Kieves, Nina R; Hart, Juliette L; Foster, Sasha A; Jeffery, Unity; Duerr, Felix M


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate accuracy and reliability of 3 novel goniometers for measurement of canine stifle joint angles and compare the results with those obtained with a universal goniometer (UG). SAMPLE 8 pelvic limbs from 4 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Each limb was secured to a wooden platform at 3 arbitrarily selected fixed stifle joint angles. Goniometry was performed with 2 smartphone-based applications (novel goniometers A and B), a digital goniometer (novel goniometer C), and a UG; 3 evaluators performed measurements in triplicate for each angle with each device. Results were compared with stifle joint angle measurements on radiographs (used as a gold standard). Accuracy was determined by calculation of bias and total error, coefficients of variation were calculated to estimate reliability, and strength of linear association between radiographic and goniometer measurements was assessed by calculation of correlation coefficients. RESULTS Mean coefficient of variation was lowest for the UG (4.88%), followed by novel goniometers B (7.37%), A (7.57%), and C (12.71%). Correlation with radiographic measurements was highest for the UG (r = 0.97), followed by novel goniometers B (0.93), A (0.90), and C (0.78). Constant bias was present for all devices except novel goniometer B. The UG and novel goniometer A had positive constant bias; novel goniometer C had negative constant bias. Total error at 50° and 100° angles was > 5% for all devices. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE None of the devices accurately represented radiographically measured stifle joint angles. Additional veterinary studies are indicated prior to the use of novel goniometers in dogs.

  5. Validation of functional calibration and strap-down joint drift correction for computing 3D joint angles of knee, hip, and trunk in alpine skiing


    Fasel, Benedikt; Spörri, Jörg; Schütz, Pascal; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Aminian, Kamiar


    To obtain valid 3D joint angles with inertial sensors careful sensor-to-segment calibration (i.e. functional or anatomical calibration) is required and measured angular velocity at each sensor needs to be integrated to obtain segment and joint orientation (i.e. joint angles). Existing functional and anatomical calibration procedures were optimized for gait analysis and calibration movements were impractical to perform in outdoor settings. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to propose and va...

  6. No evidence hip joint angle modulates intrinsically produced stretch reflex in human hopping. (United States)

    Gibson, W; Campbell, A; Allison, G


    Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip joint angle/phase of the gait cycle. Previous work has focussed on reflex activity induced by an artificial perturbation or by induction of H-reflexes. As such, it is currently unknown if stretch reflex activity induced intrinsically (as part of the task) is modulated by changes in hip joint angle. This study investigated whether hip joint angle modulated reflex EMG 'burst' activity during a hopping task performed on a custom-built partially reclined sleigh. Ten subjects participated; EMG and kinematic data (VICON motor capture system) was collected for each hop cycle. Participants completed 5 sets of 30s of self-paced hopping in (1) hip neutral and (2) hip 60° flexion conditions. There was no difference in EMG 'burst' activity or in sagittal plane kinematics (knee/ankle) in the hopping task between the two conditions. The results indicate that during a functional task such as hopping, changes in hip angle do not alter the stretch reflex-like activity associated with landing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobile Phone-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Functional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Mourcou


    Full Text Available Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM. Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS. Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home.

  8. Effect of Knee Joint Angle and Contraction Intensity on Hamstrings Coactivation. (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine M; DE Vito, Giuseppe


    This study investigated the effect of knee joint angle and contraction intensity on the coactivation of the hamstring muscles (when acting as antagonists to the quadriceps) in young and older individuals of both sexes. A total of 25 young (24 ± 2.6 yr) and 26 older (70 ± 2.5 yr) healthy men and women participated. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the knee extensors and flexors was assessed at two knee joint angles (90° and 60°, 0° = full extension). At each angle, participants performed submaximal contractions of the knee extensors (20%, 50%, and 80% maximal voluntary isometric contraction), whereas surface EMG was simultaneously acquired from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles to assess the level (EMG root-mean-square) of agonist activation and antagonist coactivation. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in the areas corresponding to surface EMG electrode placements was measured via ultrasonography. The contractions performed at 90° knee flexion demonstrated higher levels of antagonist coactivation (all P < 0.01) and agonist activation (all P < 0.01) as a function of contraction intensity compared with the 60° knee flexion. Furthermore, after controlling for subcutaneous adipose tissue, older participants exhibited a higher level of antagonist coactivation at 60° knee flexion compared with young participants (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that 1) the antagonist coactivation is dependent on knee joint angle and contraction intensity and 2) subcutaneous adipose tissue may affect the measured coactivation level likely because of a cross-talk effect. Antagonist coactivation may play a protective role in stabilizing the knee joint and maintaining constant motor output.

  9. Joint angle affects volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance differentially. (United States)

    Minshull, C; Rees, D; Gleeson, N P


    This study examined the volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance of the quadriceps femoris at functional knee joint angles adjacent to full extension. Indices of volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance (N=15 healthy males, 23.5 ± 2.9 years, 71.5 ± 5.4 kg, 176.5 ± 5.5 cm) were obtained at 25°, 35° and 45° of knee flexion. Results showed that volitional and magnetically-evoked peak force (PF(V) and P(T)F(E), respectively) and electromechanical delay (EMD(V) and EMD(E), respectively) were enhanced by increased knee flexion. However, greater relative improvements in volitional compared to evoked indices of neuromuscular performance were observed with increasing flexion from 25° to 45° (e.g. EMD(V), EMD(E): 36% vs. 11% improvement, respectively; F([2,14])=6.8, pjoint positions. These findings suggest that the extent of the relative differential between volitional and evoked neuromuscular performance capabilities is joint angle-specific and not correlated with performance capabilities at adjacent angles, but tends to be smaller with increased flexion. As such, effective prediction of volitional from evoked performance capabilities at both analogous and adjacent knee joint positions would lack robustness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of functional calibration and strap-down joint drift correction for computing 3D joint angles of knee, hip, and trunk in alpine skiing. (United States)

    Fasel, Benedikt; Spörri, Jörg; Schütz, Pascal; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Aminian, Kamiar


    To obtain valid 3D joint angles with inertial sensors careful sensor-to-segment calibration (i.e. functional or anatomical calibration) is required and measured angular velocity at each sensor needs to be integrated to obtain segment and joint orientation (i.e. joint angles). Existing functional and anatomical calibration procedures were optimized for gait analysis and calibration movements were impractical to perform in outdoor settings. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to propose and validate a set of calibration movements that were optimized for alpine skiing and could be performed outdoors and 2) to validate the 3D joint angles of the knee, hip, and trunk during alpine skiing. The proposed functional calibration movements consisted of squats, trunk rotations, hip ad/abductions, and upright standing. The joint drift correction previously proposed for alpine ski racing was improved by adding a second step to reduce separately azimuth drift. The system was validated indoors on a skiing carpet at the maximum belt speed of 21 km/h and for measurement durations of 120 seconds. Calibration repeatability was on average boots. Joint angle precision was <4.9° for all angles and accuracy ranged from -10.7° to 4.2° where the presence of an athlete-specific bias was observed especially for the flexion angle. The improved joint drift correction reduced azimuth drift from over 25° to less than 5°. In conclusion, the system was valid for measuring 3D joint angles during alpine skiing and could be used outdoors. Errors were similar to the values reported in other studies for gait. The system may be well suited for within-athlete analysis but care should be taken for between-athlete analysis because of a possible athlete-specific joint angle bias.

  11. Muscle and reflex changes with varying joint angle in hemiparetic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibiglou Laila


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive investigation, the origins of the neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity are not well understood. In particular, the mechanical properties induced by stretch reflex activity have been especially difficult to study because of a lack of accurate tools separating reflex torque from torque generated by musculo-tendinous structures. The present study addresses this deficit by characterizing the contribution of neural and muscular components to the abnormally high stiffness of the spastic joint. Methods Using system identification techniques, we characterized the neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity of ankle muscles in chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors. In particular, we systematically tracked changes in muscle mechanical properties and in stretch reflex activity during changes in ankle joint angle. Modulation of mechanical properties was assessed by applying perturbations at different initial angles, over the entire range of motion (ROM. Experiments were performed on both paretic and non-paretic sides of stroke survivors, and in healthy controls. Results Both reflex and intrinsic muscle stiffnesses were significantly greater in the spastic/paretic ankle than on the non-paretic side, and these changes were strongly position dependent. The major reflex contributions were observed over the central portion of the angular range, while the intrinsic contributions were most pronounced with the ankle in the dorsiflexed position. Conclusion In spastic ankle muscles, the abnormalities in intrinsic and reflex components of joint torque varied systematically with changing position over the full angular range of motion, indicating that clinical perceptions of increased tone may have quite different origins depending upon the angle where the tests are initiated. Furthermore, reflex stiffness was considerably larger in the non-paretic limb of stroke patients than in healthy control subjects

  12. Biomechanical analysis of clavicle hook plate implantation with different hook angles in the acromioclavicular joint. (United States)

    Hung, Li-Kun; Su, Kuo-Chih; Lu, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Hung


    A clavicle hook plate is a simple and effective method for treating acromioclavicular dislocation and distal clavicle fractures. However, subacromial osteolysis and peri-implant fractures are complicated for surgeons to manage. This study uses finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the post-implantation biomechanics of clavicle hook plates with different hook angles. This FEA study constructed a model with a clavicle, acromion, clavicle hook plate, and screws to simulate the implantation of clavicle hook plates at different hook angles (90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°) for treating acromioclavicular joint dislocations. This study investigated the biomechanics of the acromion, clavicle, hook plate, and screws. A smaller hook angle increases the stress on the middle third of the clavicle. A larger hook angle increases the force exerted by the clavicle hook plate on the acromion. The screw at the most medial position on the plate generated the highest stress. The highest stress on the implanted clavicle hook plate was on the turning corner of the hook. A clavicle hook plate with different hook angles may induce different biomechanical behaviors in the clavicle and acromion. Orthopedic surgeons must select a suitable clavicle hook plate based on the anatomical structure of each patient.

  13. Detecting elementary arm movements by tracking upper limb joint angles with MARG sensors


    Mazomenos, Evangelos B.; Biswas, Dwaipayan; Cranny, Andy; Rajan, Amal; Maharatna, Koushik; Achner, Josy; Klemke, Jasmin; Jobges, Michael; Ortmann, Steffen; Langendorfer, Peter


    This paper reports an algorithm for the detection of three elementary upper limb movements, i.e., reach and retrieve, bend the arm at the elbow and rotation of the arm about the long axis. We employ two MARG sensors, attached at the elbow and wrist, from which the kinematic properties (joint angles, position) of the upper arm and forearm are calculated through data fusion using a quaternion-based gradient-descent method and a two-link model of the upper limb. By studying the kinematic pattern...

  14. Joint Moment-Angle Properties of the Hip Extensors in Subjects With and Without Patellofemoral Pain. (United States)

    Kindel, Curtis; Challis, John


    Strength deficits of hip extension in individuals with patellofemoral syndrome are commonly reported in literature. No literature to date has examined these deficits with variable positions of the knee and hip; altering knee angle alters the length and therefore potentially the force produced by the biarticular muscles. Beyond strength, neuromuscular control can also be assessed through the analysis of isometric joint moment steadiness. Subjects consisted of a group of individuals with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 9), and a group of age- and size-matched controls with no symptoms (n = 9). Maximum isometric joint moments for hip extension were measured at 4 points within the joint's range of motion, at 2 different knee positions (0° and 90°) for each group. The joint moment signals were analyzed by computing signal Coefficient of Variation (CV). The results indicate that no significant differences were found between the groups of subjects for the hip extension moments when the knee was extended. However, there was a significant difference between the groups for the joint moments of hip extension with the knee flexed at all 4 hip positions. Results also showed hip extension CV values to be significantly higher in the patellofemoral group compared with the control group, indicating greater signal noise and therefore poorer neuromuscular control of the hip extensor musculature. This study demonstrated that individuals with patellofemoral syndrome have reduced hip extension strength and reduced neuromuscular control with the knee flexed compared with a control group. These results have implications for the etiology of patellofemoral syndrome and its rehabilitation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Strengthening exercises have been routinely used in persons with orthopaedic problems and athletes to increase force production or minimize muscle imbalance and joint injuries.Many studies have reported that isometric contractions can rapidly increases strength in quadriceps muscle. Objective: Objective of the study was to find out the effect of isometric strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint and also to compare the effect of strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at multiple angles of knee joint among control and experimental group. Methodology: This was a ccomparative experimental study with forty female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 20 subjects in each group. Isometric strengthening exercise and squatting exercise were given as intervention program for eight weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of quadriceps muscle strength measured were collected separately at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint using goniometry during resisted extension of knee in multi gym. Result: In experimental group Pre –Post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.0001.****In control group quadriceps pre-post statistical analysis found no significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.083NS and P<0.055 NS respectively. Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 90 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength with P< 0.001.*** Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 45 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of

  16. Multifractal fluctuations in joint angles during infant spontaneous kicking reveal multiplicativity-driven coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Young, Diana; Saltzman, Elliot L.; Holt, Kenneth G.; Newman, Dava J.; Weinberg, Marc; Wood, Robert J.; Nagpal, Radhika; Goldfield, Eugene C.


    Previous research has considered infant spontaneous kicking as a form of exploration. According to this view, spontaneous kicking provides information about motor degrees of freedom and may shape multijoint coordinations for more complex movement patterns such as gait. Recent work has demonstrated that multifractal, multiplicative fluctuations in exploratory movements index energy flows underlying perceptual-motor information. If infant spontaneous kicking is exploratory and occasions an upstream flow of information from the motor periphery, we expected not only that multiplicativity of fluctuations at the hip should promote multiplicativity of fluctuations at more distal joints (i.e., reflecting downstream effects of neural control) but also that multiplicativity at more distal joints should promote multiplicativity at the hip. Multifractal analysis demonstrated that infant spontaneous kicking in four typically developing infants for evidence of multiplicative fluctuations in multiple joint angles along the leg (i.e., hip, knee, and ankle) exhibited multiplicativity. Vector autoregressive modeling demonstrated that only one leg exhibited downstream effects but that both legs exhibited upstream effects. These results confirm the exploratory aspect of infant spontaneous kicking and suggest chaotic dynamics in motor coordination. They also resonate with existing models of chaos-controlled robotics and noise-based interventions for rehabilitating motor coordination in atypically developing patients.

  17. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Joint Range and Angle Estimation in Indoor Ultrawideband Location Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentile Camillo


    Full Text Available Abstract Fine time resolution enables ultrawideband (UWB ranging systems to extract the first multipath arrival corresponding to the range between a transmitter and receiver, even when attenuated in strength compared to later arrivals. Bearing systems alone lack any notion of time and in general select the strongest arrival which is rarely the first one in nonline-of-sight conditions. Complementing UWB ranging systems with bearing capabilities allows indexing the arrivals as a function of both time and angle in order to isolate the first, providing precision range and angle. However, that precision degrades with the increasing presence of walls and other objects which distort the properties of the first arrival. In order to gauge the physical limits of the joint UWB system, we design and assemble a spatial-temporal channel sounder using a vector network analyzer coupled to a virtual antenna array, and conduct 200 experiments to measure the time- and angle-of-flight. The experiments are carried out in both line-of-sight and nonline-of-sight conditions up to an unprecedented 45 meters throughout four separate buildings with dominant wall material varying from sheet rock to steel. In addition, we report performance for varying bandwidth and center frequency of the system. We find that operating at a bandwidth of 4 GHz suffices in resolving multipath in most buildings and in excess shows virtually no improvement. While the range error decreases at lower center frequencies, the higher frequencies offer better angular resolution and so smaller angle error.

  18. [Correlation of medial compartmental joint line elevation with femorotibial angle correction and clinical function after unicompartmental arthroplasty]. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Wang, Dan; Min, Ji-Kang


    To study the correlation of postoperative femorotibial angle with medial compartmental joint line elevation after unicompartmental arthroplasty(UKA), as well as the correlation of joint line elevation with the clinical function by measuring radiological joint line. A retrospective study of 56 patients from July 2012 to August 2015 was performed. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.5 (ranged, 18.3 to 30.1). The standing anteroposterior radiographs of these patients were assessed both pre-and post-operatively, and the knee function was evaluated according to HSS grading. The correlation between postoperative femorotibial angle(FTA) and joint line elevation was analyzed as well as the correlation between joint line elevation and the clinical function. The mean medial joint line elevation was (2.2±2.0) mm(ranged, -3.3 to 7.0 mm), and the mean FTA correction was (2.3±3.0)°(ranged, -4.5° to 9.6°). The mean follow-up period was 12.2 months. There was a significant correlation between in joint line elevation and FTA correction( P clinical function( P >0.05). There was a significant correlation between medial compartmental joint line elevation and FTA correction after UKA, and the proximal tibial osteotomy was critical during the procedure. There was no significant correlation between joint line elevation and the clinical function, which may be related to the design of UKA prosthesis.

  19. Design and characterization of a wearable macrobending fiber optic sensor for human joint angle determination (United States)

    Silva, Ana S.; Catarino, André; Correia, Miguel V.; Frazão, Orlando


    The work presented here describes the development and characterization of intensity fiber optic sensor integrated in a specifically designed piece of garment to measure elbow flexion. The sensing head is based on macrobending incorporated in the garment, and the increase of curvature number was studied in order to investigate which scheme provided a good result in terms of sensitivity and repeatability. Results showed the configuration that assured a higher sensitivity (0.644 dBm/deg) and better repeatability was the one with four loops. Ultimately, this sensor can be used for rehabilitation purposes to monitor human joint angles, namely, elbow flexion on stroke survivors while performing the reach functional task, which is the most common upper-limb human gesture.

  20. Limited-angle multi-energy CT using joint clustering prior and sparsity regularization (United States)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xing, Yuxiang


    In this article, we present an easy-to-implement Multi-energy CT scanning strategy and a corresponding reconstruction method, which facilitate spectral CT imaging by improving the data efficiency the number-of-energy- channel fold without introducing visible limited-angle artifacts caused by reducing projection views. Leveraging the structure coherence at different energies, we first pre-reconstruct a prior structure information image using projection data from all energy channels. Then, we perform a k-means clustering on the prior image to generate a sparse dictionary representation for the image, which severs as a structure information constraint. We com- bine this constraint with conventional compressed sensing method and proposed a new model which we referred as Joint Clustering Prior and Sparsity Regularization (CPSR). CPSR is a convex problem and we solve it by Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). We verify our CPSR reconstruction method with a numerical simulation experiment. A dental phantom with complicate structures of teeth and soft tissues is used. X-ray beams from three spectra of different peak energies (120kVp, 90kVp, 60kVp) irradiate the phantom to form tri-energy projections. Projection data covering only 75◦ from each energy spectrum are collected for reconstruction. Independent reconstruction for each energy will cause severe limited-angle artifacts even with the help of compressed sensing approaches. Our CPSR provides us with images free of the limited-angle artifact. All edge details are well preserved in our experimental study.

  1. Influence of Joint Angle on EMG-Torque Model During Constant-Posture, Torque-Varying Contractions. (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Clancy, Edward A


    Relating the electromyogram (EMG) to joint torque is useful in various application areas, including prosthesis control, ergonomics and clinical biomechanics. Limited study has related EMG to torque across varied joint angles, particularly when subjects performed force-varying contractions or when optimized modeling methods were utilized. We related the biceps-triceps surface EMG of 22 subjects to elbow torque at six joint angles (spanning 60° to 135°) during constant-posture, torque-varying contractions. Three nonlinear EMG σ -torque models, advanced EMG amplitude (EMG σ ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) and the duration of data used to train models were investigated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the six distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.01±1.2% MVC(F90) resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so achieved a statistically equivalent error of 4.06±1.2% MVC(F90). Results demonstrated that advanced EMG σ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation as do longer model training durations.

  2. Posterior Radioscaphoid Angle as a Predictor of Wrist Degenerative Joint Disease in Patients With Scapholunate Ligament Tears. (United States)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; De Verbizier, Jacques; Aptel, Sabine; Wack, Maxime; Dap, François; Dautel, Gilles; Blum, Alain


    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the posterior radioscaphoid angle, a marker of posterior displacement of the scaphoid, is associated with degenerative joint disease in patients with scapholunate ligament tears. Images from 150 patients with wrist pain who underwent CT arthrography and radiography were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with and without scapholunate ligament ruptures were divided into two groups according to CT arthrography findings. The presence of degenerative changes (scapholunate advanced collapse [SLAC] wrist) was evaluated and graded on conventional radiographs. Images were evaluated by two readers independently, and an adjudicator analyzed the discordant cases. Posterior radioscaphoid angle values were correlated with CT arthrography and radiographic findings. The association between posterior radioscaphoid angle and degenerative joint disease was evaluated. Scapholunate and radiolunate angles were considered in the analysis. The posterior radioscaphoid angle was measurable in all patients, with substantial interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.75). The posterior radioscaphoid angle performed better than did the scapholunate and radiolunate angles in the differentiation of patients with and without SLAC wrist (p degenerative wrist disease, with potential prognostic implications in patients with wrist trauma and scapholunate ligament ruptures.

  3. POD evaluation for joint angles from inertial and optical motion capturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kai; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Fumio


    It has been recognized that advances in preventive maintenance can improve the sustainment of systems, facilities, and infrastructure. Robot technologies have also received attention for maintenance applications. In order to operate delicate tasks, multi-fingered robot hands have been proposed in cases where human capability is deficient. This paper deals with motion capturing systems for controlling the hand/arm robot remotely. Several types of motion capturing systems have been developed so far. However, it is difficult for individual motion capturing systems to measure precise joint angles of a human arm. Therefore, in this paper, we integrate the inertial motion capturing system with the optical motion capturing system to capture a human arm posture. By evaluating the reliability of each motion capturing system, the integration is carried out. The probability of detection (POD) is applied to evaluate and compare the reliability of datasets measured by each motion capturing system. POD is one of the widely used statistical techniques to determine reliability. We apply the â analysis to determine the POD(a) function from the data set. Based on the POD evaluation, two motion capturing systems are integrated. (author)

  4. Joint-Angle Specific Strength Adaptations Influence Improvements in Power in Highly Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Matthew R.


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05. Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05; however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.

  5. Joint small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data analysis of asymmetric lipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, Barbara; Heberle, Frederick A.; Marquardt, Drew T.


    Low- and high-resolution models describing the internal transbilayer structure of asymmetric lipid vesicles have been developed. These models can be used for the joint analysis of small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. The models describe the underlying scattering length density/electron density profiles either in terms of slabs or through the so-called scattering density profile, previously applied to symmetric lipid vesicles. Both models yield structural details of asymmetric membranes, such as the individual area per lipid, and the hydrocarbon thickness of the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. The scattering density profile model, however, comes at a cost of increased computational effort but results in greater structural resolution, showing a slightly lower packing of lipids in the outer bilayer leaflet of ~120 nm diameter palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) vesicles, compared to the inner leaflet. Here, analysis of asymmetric dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/POPC vesicles did not reveal evidence of transbilayer coupling between the inner and outer leaflets at 323 K,i.e.above the melting transition temperature of the two lipids.

  6. Estimation of ground reaction forces and joint moments on the basis on plantar pressure insoles and wearable sensors for joint angle measurement. (United States)

    Ostaszewski, Michal; Pauk, Jolanta


    Gait analysis is a useful tool medical staff use to support clinical decision making. There is still an urgent need to develop low-cost and unobtrusive mobile health monitoring systems. The goal of this study was twofold. Firstly, a wearable sensor system composed of plantar pressure insoles and wearable sensors for joint angle measurement was developed. Secondly, the accuracy of the system in the measurement of ground reaction forces and joint moments was examined. The measurements included joint angles and plantar pressure distribution. To validate the wearable sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, an experimental study on ten volunteer subjects was conducted. The accuracy of measurement of ground reaction forces and joint moments was validated against the results obtained from a reference motion capture system. Ground reaction forces and joint moments measured by the wearable sensor system showed a root mean square error of 1% for min. GRF and 27.3% for knee extension moment. The correlation coefficient was over 0.9, in comparison with the stationary motion capture system. The study suggests that the wearable sensor system could be recommended both for research and clinical applications outside a typical gait laboratory.

  7. Computed tomographic method for measurement of inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in German Shepherd Dogs and Greyhounds. (United States)

    Saunders, Fritha C; Cave, Nick J; Hartman, Karl M; Gee, Erica K; Worth, Andrew J; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela C


    To develop an in vivo CT method to measure inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in dogs of performance breeds. 10 German Shepherd Dogs and 12 Greyhounds without signs of lumbosacral region pain or neurologic problems. CT of the ilium and sacrum was performed in flexed, neutral, and extended hind limb positions. Lines were drawn on volume-rendered images acquired in the flexed and extended positions to measure motion of the ilia relative to the sacra. Inclination angles of the synovial and ligamentous components of the sacroiliac joints were measured on transverse-plane CT images acquired at cranial and caudal locations. Coefficients of variance of measurements were calculated to determine intraobserver variability. Coefficients of variance of measurements ranged from 0.17% to 2.45%. A significantly higher amount of sacroiliac joint rotational motion was detected for German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. The cranial synovial joint component had a significantly more sagittal orientation in German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. No significant differences were detected between breeds for x- or y-axis translational motion or caudal synovial or ligamentous joint component inclination angles. The small amounts of sacroiliac joint motion detected in this study may buffer high-frequency vibrations during movement of dogs. Differences detected between breeds may be associated with the predisposition of German Shepherd Dogs to develop lumbosacral region signs of pain, although the biological importance of this finding was not determined. Future studies are warranted to compare sacroiliac joint variables between German Shepherd Dogs with and without lumbosacral region signs of pain.

  8. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona


    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  9. Consideration of Shoulder Joint's Image with the Changed Tube Angle of the Shoulder Oblique Projection in Supine Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jae Hyun; Choi, Nam Gil


    There is a standard shoulder oblique method (Grashey method) available to view the shoulder joint. This method projects AP view of the shoulder joint so that the Humerus head's subuxation or joint degeneration can be easily visualized. However, in this view, the patients, with supine or sitting or erect position, have to keep their body obliquely. Whereas, the patients who are not well or operated, usually feel very uncomfortable to keep their body in this position and hence, we need other persons' help and much efforts will be needed to get the good quality shoulder joint view. Therefore, we thought of examining a method which shows the joint well by angling the tube to Medio-Lateral direction and without keeping the patients' one side upward in supine position. For this study, total 15 subjects with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness, were recruited for examinations. They consisted of 9 males and 6 females. Statistic group analysis was performed with ANOVA test. Scores of the evaluation of the experts were 1.01±0.54 at 25 degrees, 2.50±0.50 at 30 degrees, 2.85±0.36 at 35 degrees and 2.33±0.47 at 40 degrees, respectively, and they were significant(p<0.05, Table 1). Joint space of the Humerus head and Scapula were well distinguished at 35 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees with the almost same score. However, the degree of distortion at 40 degrees was more severe than that at 30 degrees. Ultimately, 30-35 degrees views were shown to yield good quality shoulder oblique images. In conclusion, this method may be very useful for the patients who are uncomfortable and for the emergency patients. In order to get similar or comparable view, the same X-tube angle is recommended to be used before and after the operation. Therefore, we hope that this new angled method seems to be efficient.

  10. Estimation of distal arm joint angles from EMG and shoulder orientation for transhumeral prostheses. (United States)

    Akhtar, Aadeel; Aghasadeghi, Navid; Hargrove, Levi; Bretl, Timothy


    In this paper, we quantify the extent to which shoulder orientation, upper-arm electromyography (EMG), and forearm EMG are predictors of distal arm joint angles during reaching in eight subjects without disability as well as three subjects with a unilateral transhumeral amputation and targeted reinnervation. Prior studies have shown that shoulder orientation and upper-arm EMG, taken separately, are predictors of both elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination. We show that, for eight subjects without disability, shoulder orientation and upper-arm EMG together are a significantly better predictor of both elbow flexion/extension during unilateral (R 2 =0.72) and mirrored bilateral (R 2 =0.72) reaches and of forearm pronation/supination during unilateral (R 2 =0.77) and mirrored bilateral (R 2 =0.70) reaches. We also show that adding forearm EMG further improves the prediction of forearm pronation/supination during unilateral (R 2 =0.82) and mirrored bilateral (R 2 =0.75) reaches. In principle, these results provide the basis for choosing inputs for control of transhumeral prostheses, both by subjects with targeted motor reinnervation (when forearm EMG is available) and by subjects without target motor reinnervation (when forearm EMG is not available). In particular, we confirm that shoulder orientation and upper-arm EMG together best predict elbow flexion/extension (R 2 =0.72) for three subjects with unilateral transhumeral amputations and targeted motor reinnervation. However, shoulder orientation alone best predicts forearm pronation/supination (R 2 =0.88) for these subjects, a contradictory result that merits further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between hindfoot joint three-dimensional kinematics and the changes of the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Yue; Lin, Xiang-Jin; Ma, Xin


    The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the kinematics of the hindfoot joint and the medial arch angle change in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot three-dimensionally under loading. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 12 healthy feet and 12 feet with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot were taken both in non- and full-body-weight-bearing condition. The CT images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into three-dimensional models with Mimics and Geomagic reverse engineering software. The three-dimensional changes of the hindfoot joint were calculated to determine their correlation to the medial longitudinal arch angle. The medial arch angle change was larger in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot compared to that in healthy foot under loading. The rotation and translation of the talocalcaneal joint, the talonavicular joint and the calcanocuboid joint had little influence on the change of the medial arch angle in healthy foot. However, the eversion of the talocalcaneal joint, the proximal translation of the calcaneus relative to the talus and the dorsiflexion of talonavicular joint could increase the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Joint instability occurred in patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Limitation of over movement of the talocalcaneal joint and the talonavicular joint may help correct the medial longitudinal arch in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Foot Progression Angle on Knee Joint Compression Force during Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsson, Henrik Koblauch; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Alkjær, Tine


    males walked at a fixed speed of 4.5 km/h under three conditions: Normal walking, internally rotated and externally rotated. All gait-trials were recorded by six infrared cameras. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. The results revealed that the medial knee joint compartment......It is unclear how rotations of the lower limb affect the knee joint compression forces during walking. Increases in the frontal plane knee moment have been reported when walking with internally rotated feet and a decrease when walking with externally rotated feet. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the knee joint compressive forces during walking with internal, external and normal foot rotation and to determine if the frontal plane knee joint moment is an adequate surrogate for the compression forces in the medial and lateral knee joint compartments under such gait modifications. Ten healthy...

  13. Effect of Forefoot Strike on Lower Extremity Muscle Activity and Knee Joint Angle During Cutting in Female Team Handball Players. (United States)

    Yoshida, Naruto; Kunugi, Shun; Mashimo, Sonoko; Okuma, Yoshihiro; Masunari, Akihiko; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Miyakawa, Shumpei


    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle. Force plates were synchronized with electromyography measurements to compare muscle activity immediately before and after foot strike. The valgus angle tends to be smaller during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Just prior to ground contact, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was greater during RFS cutting. Immediately after ground contact, biceps femoris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was significantly lower during FFS cutting. The results of the present study suggest that the hamstrings demonstrate greater activity, immediately after foot strike, during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Thus, FFS cutting may involve a lower risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than does RFS cutting.

  14. Posterior Tibial Slope Angle Correlates With Peak Sagittal and Frontal Plane Knee Joint Loading During Robotic Simulations of Athletic Tasks (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Nesbitt, Rebecca J.; Shearn, Jason T.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.


    Background Tibial slope angle is a nonmodifiable risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanical role of varying tibial slopes during athletic tasks has yet to be clinically quantified. Purpose To examine the influence of posterior tibial slope on knee joint loading during controlled, in vitro simulation of the knee joint articulations during athletic tasks. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods A 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulator positionally maneuvered cadaveric knee joints from 12 unique specimens with varying tibial slopes (range, −7.7° to 7.7°) through drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks that were derived from 3-dimensional in vivo motion recordings. Internal knee joint torques and forces were recorded throughout simulation and were linearly correlated with tibial slope. Results The mean (6SD) posterior tibial slope angle was 2.2° ± 4.3° in the lateral compartment and 2.3° ± 3.3° in the medial compartment. For simulated drop vertical jumps, lateral compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee adduction (r = 0.60–0.65), flexion (r = 0.64–0.66), lateral (r = 0.57–0.69), and external rotation torques (r = 0.47–0.72) as well as inverse correlations with peak abduction (r = −0.42 to −0.61) and internal rotation torques (r = −0.39 to −0.79). Only frontal plane torques were correlated during sidestep cutting simulations. For simulated drop vertical jumps, medial compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee flexion torque (r = 0.64–0.69) and lateral knee force (r = 0.55–0.74) as well as inverse correlations with peak external torque (r = −0.34 to 20.67) and medial knee force (r = −0.58 to −0.59). These moderate correlations were also present during simulated sidestep cutting. Conclusion The investigation supported the theory that increased posterior

  15. MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Part 2. Effect of flip angle on MR imaging with FLASH sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Maya; Sasano, Takashi; Higano, Shuichi; Takahashi, Shoki; Kurihara, Noriko


    In our previous study on MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), fast low angle shot (FLASH) showed the highest image contrast between disc and surrounding TMJ tissues compared with those of 4 other sequences (i,e., fast imaging with steady precession (FISP), conventional T1-weighted spin echo (SE) and fast spin echo (FSE, TR/TE/ETL: 1100/12/3, 3000/15/7)). Furthermore, FLASH also received a high score on visual evaluation including the position and contour of the disc, and the border between the disc and surrounding tissues. Therefore, we concluded that FLASH was the most suitable sequence for evaluating the TMJ disc. However, the image contrast and signal intensity on MR imaging with gradient echo pulse sequence are affected by flip angle. Consequently, in this report, to find the most suitable flip angle for MR scanning of the TMJ using a FLASH sequence (TR/TE: 450/11), ten TMJs of 5 volunteers were experimentally imaged with various flip angles from 10 degrees to 70 degrees at an interval of 10 degrees between 10 to 70. The image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the disc and surrounding tissues were compared. In addition, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of phantoms was also calculated using the same imaging parameters. Visual evaluation including position and contour of the disc, and the border between the disc and surrounding tissues, was also performed by 4 radiologists. As the flip angle increased, imaging contrast decreased while SNR increased. Images with flip angles between 30 and 60 degrees demonstrated high CNR. On visual evaluation, images using flip angles between 30 and 50 degrees received high scores. In conclusion, FLASH sequence with a flip angle between 30 and 50 degrees was considered most suitable for evaluating the TMJ disc based on the results of visual assessment and analysis of three major components of image diagnostic quality: image contrast, CNR and SNR. (author)

  16. The influence of muscle pennation angle and cross-sectional area on contact forces in the ankle joint. (United States)

    Sopher, Ran S; Amis, Andrew A; Davies, D Ceri; Jeffers, Jonathan Rt


    Data about a muscle's fibre pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area are used in musculoskeletal modelling to estimate muscle forces, which are used to calculate joint contact forces. For the leg, muscle architecture data are derived from studies that measured pennation angle at the muscle surface, but not deep within it. Musculoskeletal models developed to estimate joint contact loads have usually been based on the mean values of pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate differences between superficial and deep pennation angles within each muscle acting over the ankle and predict how differences may influence muscle forces calculated in musculoskeletal modelling. The second aim was to investigate how inter-subject variability in physiological cross-sectional area and pennation angle affects calculated ankle contact forces. Eight cadaveric legs were dissected to excise the muscles acting over the ankle. The mean surface and deep pennation angles, fibre length and physiological cross-sectional area were measured. Cluster analysis was applied to group the muscles according to their architectural characteristics. A previously validated OpenSim model was used to estimate ankle muscle forces and contact loads using architecture data from all eight limbs. The mean surface pennation angle for soleus was significantly greater (54%) than the mean deep pennation angle. Cluster analysis revealed three groups of muscles with similar architecture and function: deep plantarflexors and peroneals, superficial plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. Peak ankle contact force was predicted to occur before toe-off, with magnitude greater than five times bodyweight. Inter-specimen variability in contact force was smallest at peak force. These findings will help improve the development of experimental and computational musculoskeletal models by providing data to estimate force based on both surface and deep

  17. Relationship between degenerative joint disease and hip joint laxity by use of distraction index and Norberg angle measurement in a group of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbach, A.; Giger, U.; Green, P.; Rhodes, H.; Gregor, T.P.; Lafond, E.; Smith, G.


    Objective: To determine the relationship between degenerative joint disease (DJD) and passive laxity of the hip joint in a group of cats. Design: Prospective study. Animals: A select (nonrandomized) group of 78 cats. Procedure: Standard hip-extended radiographic views and compression and distraction views of the pelvis were obtained from cats during sedation. Radiographs were evaluated, using an Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA)-like scoring system for dogs. Passive joint laxity was measured, using Norberg angle (NA) and distraction index (DI). Hip laxity in cats with DJD was compared with hip laxity in cats without DJD. Results: Hip dysplasia (HD) was subjectively diagnosed radiographically in 25 of 78 (32%) cats using the OFA-like scoring system. Nineteen cats had mild HD 4 had moderate HD, and 2 had severe HD. Fifteen of the 25 cats with HD had DJD. The NA ranged from 56 to 105. The mean NA in cats with DJD was (84 degrees) significantly lower than in cats without DJD (95 degrees). The DI ranged from 0.2 to 0.84. The mean DI for cats with DJD was (0.6) significantly higher than that for cats without DJD (0.49). Cats with a DI < 0.4 did not have DJD. Cats had an increased likelihood of having DJD with increased laxity in the coxofemoral joint, as measured by NA or DI. Clinical Implications: The mean NA for radiographically normal cats (92.4 degrees) was lower than that in radiographically normal dogs (103 degrees). The overall mean DI for cats in this group (0.51) is similar to dogs of breeds with high joint laxity, such as the Labrador Retriever (0.5). As in dogs, there is a relationship between DJD and laxity in the hip joint of cats

  18. Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi


    Reconstruction of limb posture is a challenging task in assessing functional morphology and biomechanics of extinct tetrapods, mainly because of the wide range of motions possible at each limb joint and because of our poor knowledge of the relationship between posture and musculoskeletal structure, even in the extant taxa. This is especially true for extinct mammals such as the desmostylian taxa Desmostylus and Paleoparadoxia. This study presents a procedure that how the elbow joint angles of extinct quadruped mammals can be inferred from osteological characteristics. A survey of 67 dried skeletons and 113 step cycles of 32 extant genera, representing 25 families and 13 orders, showed that the olecranon of the ulna and the shaft of the humerus were oriented approximately perpendicular to each other during the stance phase. At this angle, the major extensor muscles maximize their torque at the elbow joint. Based on this survey, I suggest that olecranon orientation can be used for inferring the elbow joint angles of quadruped mammals with prominent olecranons, regardless of taxon, body size, and locomotor guild. By estimating the elbow joint angle, it is inferred that Desmostylus would have had more upright forelimbs than Paleoparadoxia, because their elbow joint angles during the stance phase were approximately 165 degrees and 130 degrees , respectively. Difference in elbow joint angles between these two genera suggests possible differences in stance and gait of these two mammals. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and barred owls (Strix varia). (United States)

    Bonin, Glen; Lauer, Susanne K; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N; Hosgood, Giselle; Gaschen, Lorrie


    Information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. Joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. We evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 10 Hispaniolan Amazons (Amazona ventralis), and 9 barred owls (Strix varia) and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections. Intra- and interobserver variation was less than 7% for all stifle and intertarsal joint measurements but frequently exceeded 10% for the hip-joint measurements. Hip, stifle, and intertarsal perching angles differed significantly among cockatiels, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and barred owls. The accuracy of measurements performed on straight lateral radiographic projections with superimposed limbs was not consistently superior to measurements on oblique projections with a slightly rotated pelvis. Stifle and intertarsal joint angles can be measured on radiographs by different observers with acceptable variability, but intra- and interobserver variability for hip-joint-angle measurements is higher.

  20. Effect of hoof angle on joint contact area in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint following simulated impact loading ex vivo. (United States)

    McCarty, C A; Thomason, J J; Gordon, K; Hurtig, M; Bignell, W


    To add to the existing data on impact loading of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint as a precursor to assessing the potential role of impact in joint disease. To examine the effect of impact loading on contact areas of the first phalanx (P1) and proximal sesamoids (PS) with the third metacarpal (McIII) under 3 hoof-strike conditions (toe-first, flat, heel-first). Randomised, repeated controlled experiment using cadaver material. Eight cadaver limbs were subjected to randomised, repeated controlled trials where the hoof was struck by a pendulum impact machine (impact velocity 3.55 m/s) under 3 strike conditions. Data from pressure sensitive film placed over medial and lateral McIII condyles and lateromedially across the dorsal aspect of McIII were quantified: total areas of P1 and PS contact (cm(2) ) at maximum recorded pressure; centroid locations of contact areas relative to the sagittal ridge (cm) and transverse ridge (cm) and dispersion of pixels (cm(4) ) for each McIII condyle (medial/lateral). The effect of the strike conditions on each variable were statistically tested using repeated-measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Contact area between P1 and McIII condyles fell in well-defined areas bounded by the sagittal and transverse ridge, contact areas from PS were smaller and widely dispersed across McIII palmar border. Ratio of contact area of P1 to PS was 2.83 (Pcontact area (P>0.54) CONCLUSIONS: Contact at impact (primarily from P1 and distally situated on McIII), contrasts with contact areas at midstance from both P1 and PS, symmetrically placed. Under impact, the greatest contact area was on the dorsal aspect of the medial condyle and coincides with the area subjected to the greatest increase in subchondral bone stiffening in joint disease. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Dynamic strength of rock with single planar joint under various loading rates at various angles of loads applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Shu


    Full Text Available Intact rock-like specimens and specimens that include a single, smooth planar joint at various angles are prepared for split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB testing. A buffer pad between the striker bar and the incident bar of an SHPB apparatus is used to absorb some of the shock energy. This can generate loading rates of 20.2–4627.3 GPa/s, enabling dynamic peak stresses/strengths and associated failure patterns of the specimens to be investigated. The effects of the loading rate and angle of load applied on the dynamic peak stresses/strengths of the specimens are examined. Relevant experimental results demonstrate that the failure pattern of each specimen can be classified as four types: Type A, integrated with or without tiny flake-off; Type B, slide failure; Type C, fracture failure; and Type D, crushing failure. The dynamic peak stresses/strengths of the specimens that have similar failure patterns increase linearly with the loading rate, yielding high correlations that are evident on semi-logarithmic plots. The slope of the failure envelope is the smallest for slide failure, followed by crushing failure, and that of fracture failure is the largest. The magnitude of the plot slope of the dynamic peak stress against the loading rate for the specimens that are still integrated after testing is between that of slide failure and crushing failure. The angle of application has a limited effect on the dynamic peak stresses/strengths of the specimens regardless of the failure pattern, but it affects the bounds of the loading rates that yield each failure pattern, and thus influences the dynamic responses of the single jointed specimen. Slide failure occurs at the lowest loading rate of any failure, but can only occur in single jointed specimen that allows sliding. Crushing failure is typically associated with the largest loading rate, and fracture failure may occur when the loading rate is between the boundaries for slide failure and crushing

  2. Provocative mechanical tests of the peripheral nervous system affect the joint torque-angle during passive knee motion. (United States)

    Andrade, R J; Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Pezarat-Correia, P


    This study aimed to determine the influence of the head, upper trunk, and foot position on the passive knee extension (PKE) torque-angle response. PKE tests were performed in 10 healthy subjects using an isokinetic dynamometer at 2°/s. Subjects lay in the supine position with their hips flexed to 90°. The knee angle, passive torque, surface electromyography (EMG) of the semitendinosus and quadriceps vastus medialis, and stretch discomfort were recorded in six body positions during PKE. The different maximal active positions of the cervical spine (neutral; flexion; extension), thoracic spine (neutral; flexion), and ankle (neutral; dorsiflexion) were passively combined for the tests. Visual analog scale scores and EMG were unaffected by body segment positioning. An effect of the ankle joint was verified on the peak torque and knee maximum angle when the ankle was in the dorsiflexion position (P torque (P torque when the cervical and thoracic spines were flexed (P torque-angle response since different positions of head, upper trunk, and foot induce dissimilar knee mechanical responses during passive extension. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Joint angle and Doppler frequency estimation of coherent targets in monostatic MIMO radar (United States)

    Cao, Renzheng; Zhang, Xiaofei


    This paper discusses the problem of joint direction of arrival (DOA) and Doppler frequency estimation of coherent targets in a monostatic multiple-input multiple-output radar. In the proposed algorithm, we perform a reduced dimension (RD) transformation on the received signal first and then use forward spatial smoothing (FSS) technique to decorrelate the coherence and obtain joint estimation of DOA and Doppler frequency by exploiting the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm. The joint estimated parameters of the proposed RD-FSS-ESPRIT are automatically paired. Compared with the conventional FSS-ESPRIT algorithm, our RD-FSS-ESPRIT algorithm has much lower complexity and better estimation performance of both DOA and frequency. The variance of the estimation error and the Cramer-Rao Bound of the DOA and frequency estimation are derived. Simulation results show the effectiveness and improvement of our algorithm.

  4. Continuous Estimation of Human Multi-Joint Angles From sEMG Using a State-Space Model. (United States)

    Ding, Qichuan; Han, Jianda; Zhao, Xingang


    Due to the couplings among joint-relative muscles, it is a challenge to accurately estimate continuous multi-joint movements from multi-channel sEMG signals. Traditional approaches always build a nonlinear regression model, such as artificial neural network, to predict the multi-joint movement variables using sEMG as inputs. However, the redundant sEMG-data are always not distinguished; the prediction errors cannot be evaluated and corrected online as well. In this work, a correlation-based redundancy-segmentation method is proposed to segment the sEMG-vector including redundancy into irredundant and redundant subvectors. Then, a general state-space framework is developed to build the motion model by regarding the irredundant subvector as input and the redundant one as measurement output. With the built state-space motion model, a closed-loop prediction-correction algorithm, i.e., the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), can be employed to estimate the multi-joint angles from sEMG, where the redundant sEMG-data are used to reject model uncertainties. After having fully employed the redundancy, the proposed method can provide accurate and smooth estimation results. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on the multi-joint movements of the upper limb. The maximum RMSE of the estimations obtained by the proposed method is 0.16±0.03, which is significantly less than 0.25±0.06 and 0.27±0.07 (p < 0.05) obtained by common neural networks.

  5. The impact of office chair features on lumbar lordosis, intervertebral joint and sacral tilt angles: a radiographic assessment. (United States)

    De Carvalho, Diana; Grondin, Diane; Callaghan, Jack


    The purpose of this study was to determine which office chair feature is better at improving spine posture in sitting. Participants (n = 28) were radiographed in standing, maximum flexion and seated in four chair conditions: control, lumbar support, seat pan tilt and backrest with scapular relief. Measures of lumbar lordosis, intervertebral joint angles and sacral tilt were compared between conditions and sex. Sitting consisted of approximately 70% of maximum range of spine flexion. No differences in lumbar flexion were found between the chair features or control. Significantly more anterior pelvic rotation was found with the lumbar support (p = 0.0028) and seat pan tilt (p < 0.0001). Males had significantly more anterior pelvic rotation and extended intervertebral joint angles through L1-L3 in all conditions (p < 0.0001). No one feature was statistically superior with respect to minimising spine flexion, however, seat pan tilt resulted in significantly improved pelvic posture. Practitioner Summary: Seat pan tilt, and to some extent lumbar supports, appear to improve seated postures. However, sitting, regardless of chair features used, still involves near end range flexion of the spine. This will increase stresses to the spine and could be a potential injury generator during prolonged seated exposures.

  6. Velocities and joint angles during double backward stretched salto performed with stable landing and in combination with tempo salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sadowski


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the values of velocity an joint angles obtained during performance of double salto backward stretched with a stable landing and its combination with salto tempo. Seven top level acrobats (track jumpers participated in study. Mean values of body height, mass and age had a value of: 170 cm ± 4.0 cm, 72.4 kg ± 3.6 kg, 20.4±1.7 years, respectively. The studies were conducted on a standard acrobatic path (type PTS 2000. Two digital video cameras (240 Hz and APAS 2000 (Ariel Dynamics Inc. were used during studies. Markers were placed in ankle, knee, hip, arm, elbow and wrist joints. All marker positions were tracked and reconstructed using the APAS system. Two sequences with the following elements were analysed: round-off - double salto backward stretched (A and round-off - double salto backward stretched - tempo salto (B. The highest differences between the key components describing performance of presented exercises exist for joint angles during launching and landing position, and resultant velocities during touchdown. In version A the athlete created prerequisites for “gliding” double salto backward stretched by means of the body segments motions, whereas in version B he executes faster motions of the body segments accentuating his actions upon backward rotation of the body. During the final phase of double salto backward stretched in combination with tempo salto the athlete performed courbette “under himself” (almost straight feet are placed in front of vertical line, pushes directly back and in 0,1 s executes stable arm swing upward-backward to tempo salto.

  7. EVA Training and Development Facilities (United States)

    Cupples, Scott


    Overview: Vast majority of US EVA (ExtraVehicular Activity) training and EVA hardware development occurs at JSC; EVA training facilities used to develop and refine procedures and improve skills; EVA hardware development facilities test hardware to evaluate performance and certify requirement compliance; Environmental chambers enable testing of hardware from as large as suits to as small as individual components in thermal vacuum conditions.

  8. Effect of the sagittal ankle angle at initial contact on energy dissipation in the lower extremity joints during a single-leg landing. (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Song, Yongnam; Shin, Choongsoo S


    During landing, the ankle angle at initial contact (IC) exhibits relatively wide individual variation compared to the knee and hip angles. However, little is known about the effect of different IC ankle angles on energy dissipation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between individual ankle angles at IC and energy dissipation in the lower extremity joints. Twenty-seven adults performed single-leg landings from a 0.3-m height. Kinetics and kinematics of the lower extremity joints were measured. The relationship between ankle angles at IC and negative work, range of motion, the time to peak ground reaction force, and peak loading rate were analyzed. The ankle angle at IC was positively correlated with ankle negative work (r = 0.80, R 2  = 0.64, p angle was negatively correlated with hip negative work (r = -0.46, R 2  = 0.21, p = 0.01) and the contribution of the hip to total negative work (r = -0.61, R 2  = 0.37, p angle at IC. The ankle angle at IC was positively correlated with total negative work (r = 0.50, R 2  = 0.25, p angle at IC increased, such that the ankle energy dissipation increased and redistributed the energy dissipation in the ankle and hip joints. Further, these results suggest that increased ankle energy dissipation with a higher IC plantar flexion angle may be a potential landing technique for reducing the risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament and hip musculature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of ball impact location on racket and forearm joint angle changes for one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes. (United States)

    King, Mark; Hau, Agnes; Blenkinsop, Glen


    Recreational tennis players tend to have higher incidence of tennis elbow, and this has been hypothesised to be related to one-handed backhand technique and off-centre ball impacts on the racket face. This study aimed to investigate for a range of participants the effect of off-longitudinal axis and off-lateral axis ball-racket impact locations on racket and forearm joint angle changes immediately following impact in one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes. Three-dimensional racket and wrist angular kinematic data were recorded for 14 university tennis players each performing 30 "flat" one-handed backhand groundstrokes. Off-longitudinal axis ball-racket impact locations explained over 70% of the variation in racket rotation about the longitudinal axis and wrist flexion/extension angles during the 30 ms immediately following impact. Off-lateral axis ball-racket impact locations had a less clear cut influence on racket and forearm rotations. Specifically off-longitudinal impacts below the longitudinal axis forced the wrist into flexion for all participants with there being between 11° and 32° of forced wrist flexion for an off-longitudinal axis impact that was 1 ball diameter away from the midline. This study has confirmed that off-longitudinal impacts below the longitudinal axis contribute to forced wrist flexion and eccentric stretch of the wrist extensors and there can be large differences in the amount of forced wrist flexion from individual to individual and between strokes with different impact locations.

  10. OpenSim Model Improvements to Support High Joint Angle Resistive Exercising (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William; Lewandowski, Beth; Humphreys, Brad


    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Rigorous testing of these proposed devices in space flight is difficult so computational modeling provides an estimation of the muscle forces and joint loads during exercise to gain insight on the efficacy to protect the musculoskeletal health of astronauts. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts

  11. A unitary ESPRIT scheme of joint angle estimation for MOTS MIMO radar. (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Shi, Guangming


    The transmit array of multi-overlapped-transmit-subarray configured bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MOTS MIMO) radar is partitioned into a number of overlapped subarrays, which is different from the traditional bistatic MIMO radar. In this paper, a new unitary ESPRIT scheme for joint estimation of the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for MOTS MIMO radar is proposed. In our method, each overlapped-transmit-subarray (OTS) with the identical effective aperture is regarded as a transmit element and the characteristics that the phase delays between the two OTSs is utilized. First, the measurements corresponding to all the OTSs are partitioned into two groups which have a rotational invariance relationship with each other. Then, the properties of centro-Hermitian matrices and real-valued rotational invariance factors are exploited to double the measurement samples and reduce computational complexity. Finally, the close-formed solution of automatically paired DOAs and DODs of targets is derived in a new manner. The proposed scheme provides increased estimation accuracy with the combination of inherent advantages of MOTS MIMO radar with unitary ESPRIT. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed scheme.

  12. Passive stiffness of monoarticular lower leg muscles is influenced by knee joint angle. (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Andrade, Ricardo J; Freitas, Sandro R; Hug, François; Lacourpaille, Lilian; Gross, Raphael; Yucesoy, Can A; Nordez, Antoine


    While several studies demonstrated the occurrence of intermuscular mechanical interactions, the physiological significance of these interactions remains a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to quantify the localized changes in the shear modulus of the gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), monoarticular dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles induced by a change in knee angle. Participants underwent slow passive ankle rotations at the following two knee positions: knee flexed at 90° and knee fully extended. Ultrasound shear wave elastography was used to assess the muscle shear modulus of the GL, soleus [both proximally (SOL-proximal) and distally (SOL distal)], peroneus longus (PERL), and tibialis anterior (TA). This was performed during two experimental sessions (experiment I: n = 11; experiment II: n = 10). The shear modulus of each muscle was compared between the two knee positions. The shear modulus was significantly higher when the knee was fully extended than when the knee was flexed (P passive muscle force, these results provide evidence of a non-negligible intermuscular mechanical interaction between the human lower leg muscles during passive ankle rotations. The role of these interactions in the production of coordinated movements requires further investigation.

  13. EVA Glove Research Team (United States)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.


    The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

  14. Reliability of the standard goniometry and diagrammatic recording of finger joint angles: a comparative study with healthy subjects and non-professional raters. (United States)

    Macionis, Valdas


    Diagrammatic recording of finger joint angles by using two criss-crossed paper strips can be a quick substitute to the standard goniometry. As a preliminary step toward clinical validation of the diagrammatic technique, the current study employed healthy subjects and non-professional raters to explore whether reliability estimates of the diagrammatic goniometry are comparable with those of the standard procedure. The study included two procedurally different parts, which were replicated by assigning 24 medical students to act interchangeably as 12 subjects and 12 raters. A larger component of the study was designed to compare goniometers side-by-side in measurement of finger joint angles varying from subject to subject. In the rest of the study, the instruments were compared by parallel evaluations of joint angles similar for all subjects in a situation of simulated change of joint range of motion over time. The subjects used special guides to position the joints of their left ring finger at varying angles of flexion and extension. The obtained diagrams of joint angles were converted to numerical values by computerized measurements. The statistical approaches included calculation of appropriate intraclass correlation coefficients, standard errors of measurements, proportions of measurement differences of 5 or less degrees, and significant differences between paired observations. Reliability estimates were similar for both goniometers. Intra-rater and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.69 to 0.93. The corresponding standard errors of measurements ranged from 2.4 to 4.9 degrees. Repeated measurements of a considerable number of raters fell within clinically non-meaningful 5 degrees of each other in proportions comparable with a criterion value of 0.95. Data collected with both instruments could be similarly interpreted in a simulated situation of change of joint range of motion over time. The paper goniometer and the standard goniometer can

  15. Correlation in the Coronal Angle between Knee and Hindfoot Was Observed in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Unless Talocrural Joint Was Destroyed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nishitani


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the compensatory correlation between knee and hindfoot in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This cross-sectional study included 218 patients (407 lower extremities. Radiographs of the hindfoot and full-length posteroanterior hip-to-calcaneus standing radiographs were evaluated. The destruction of the hindfoot was evaluated using the Larsen grading system. The coronal angular deformity of the knee and hindfoot was evaluated by the femorotibial angle (FTA and the angle between the tibial shaft and the entire hindfoot (tibiohindfoot angle, THFA. The correlation between FTA and THFA was determined by Pearson’s coefficient. For all patients, FTA correlated to THFA (R = 0.28, p<0.001. The correlation was observed as long as the talocrural joint was preserved (Larsen grade ≤ 2, even if the subtalar joint had been destroyed (Larsen grade ≥ 3. However, the correlation was not observed when the talocrural joint was destroyed (Larsen grade ≥ 3, R = −0.02, p=0.94. The pain in the hindfoot did not correlate with FTA or THFA. In conclusion, a compensatory deformity of the hindfoot against the deformity of the knee was observed in RA, and the correlation was lost when talocrural joint was destroyed.

  16. EVA Skills Training (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott


    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  17. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.


    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  18. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model (United States)


    The EVA systems cost model presented is based on proposed EVA equipment for the space shuttle program. General information on EVA crewman requirements in a weightless environment and an EVA capabilities overview are provided.

  19. Consideration of Shoulder Joint's Image with the Changed Tube Angle of the Shoulder Oblique Projection in Supine Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Hyun; Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    There is a standard shoulder oblique method (Grashey method) available to view the shoulder joint. This method projects AP view of the shoulder joint so that the Humerus head's subuxation or joint degeneration can be easily visualized. However, in this view, the patients, with supine or sitting or erect position, have to keep their body obliquely. Whereas, the patients who are not well or operated, usually feel very uncomfortable to keep their body in this position and hence, we need other persons' help and much efforts will be needed to get the good quality shoulder joint view. Therefore, we thought of examining a method which shows the joint well by angling the tube to Medio-Lateral direction and without keeping the patients' one side upward in supine position. For this study, total 15 subjects with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness, were recruited for examinations. They consisted of 9 males and 6 females. Statistic group analysis was performed with ANOVA test. Scores of the evaluation of the experts were 1.01{+-}0.54 at 25 degrees, 2.50{+-}0.50 at 30 degrees, 2.85{+-}0.36 at 35 degrees and 2.33{+-}0.47 at 40 degrees, respectively, and they were significant(p<0.05, Table 1). Joint space of the Humerus head and Scapula were well distinguished at 35 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees with the almost same score. However, the degree of distortion at 40 degrees was more severe than that at 30 degrees. Ultimately, 30-35 degrees views were shown to yield good quality shoulder oblique images. In conclusion, this method may be very useful for the patients who are uncomfortable and for the emergency patients. In order to get similar or comparable view, the same X-tube angle is recommended to be used before and after the operation. Therefore, we hope that this new angled method seems to be efficient.

  20. A parametric model of muscle moment arm as a function of joint angle: application to the dorsiflexor muscle group in mice. (United States)

    Miller, S W; Dennis, R G


    A parametric model was developed to describe the relationship between muscle moment arm and joint angle. The model was applied to the dorsiflexor muscle group in mice, for which the moment arm was determined as a function of ankle angle. The moment arm was calculated from the torque measured about the ankle upon application of a known force along the line of action of the dorsiflexor muscle group. The dependence of the dorsiflexor moment arm on ankle angle was modeled as r = R sin(a + delta), where r is the moment arm calculated from the measured torque and a is the joint angle. A least-squares curve fit yielded values for R, the maximum moment arm, and delta, the angle at which the maximum moment arm occurs as offset from 90 degrees. Parametric models were developed for two strains of mice, and no differences were found between the moment arms determined for each strain. Values for the maximum moment arm, R, for the two different strains were 0.99 and 1.14 mm, in agreement with the limited data available from the literature. While in some cases moment arm data may be better fitted by a polynomial, use of the parametric model provides a moment arm relationship with meaningful anatomical constants, allowing for the direct comparison of moment arm characteristics between different strains and species.

  1. Predicting timing of foot strike during running, independent of striking technique, using principal component analysis of joint angles. (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed


    As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intramuscular Pressure of Tibialis Anterior Reflects Ankle Torque but Does Not Follow Joint Angle-Torque Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ateş


    Full Text Available Intramuscular pressure (IMP is the hydrostatic fluid pressure that is directly related to muscle force production. Electromechanical delay (EMD provides a link between mechanical and electrophysiological quantities and IMP has potential to detect local electromechanical changes. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of IMP with the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA activity at different ankle positions. We hypothesized that (1 the TA IMP and the surface EMG (sEMG and fine-wire EMG (fwEMG correlate to ankle joint torque, (2 the isometric force of TA increases at increased muscle lengths, which were imposed by a change in ankle angle and IMP follows the length-tension relationship characteristics, and (3 the electromechanical delay (EMD is greater than the EMD of IMP during isometric contractions. Fourteen healthy adults [7 female; mean (SD age = 26.9 (4.2 years old with 25.9 (5.5 kg/m2 body mass index] performed (i three isometric dorsiflexion (DF maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and (ii three isometric DF ramp contractions from 0 to 80% MVC at rate of 15% MVC/second at DF, Neutral, and plantarflexion (PF positions. Ankle torque, IMP, TA fwEMG, and TA sEMG were measured simultaneously. The IMP, fwEMG, and sEMG were significantly correlated to the ankle torque during ramp contractions at each ankle position tested. This suggests that IMP captures in vivo mechanical properties of active muscles. The ankle torque changed significantly at different ankle positions however, the IMP did not reflect the change. This is explained with the opposing effects of higher compartmental pressure at DF in contrast to the increased force at PF position. Additionally, the onset of IMP activity is found to be significantly earlier than the onset of force which indicates that IMP can be designed to detect muscular changes in the course of neuromuscular diseases impairing electromechanical transmission.

  3. Application of posterior pelvic tilt taping for the treatment of chronic low back pain with sacroiliac joint dysfunction and increased sacral horizontal angle. (United States)

    Lee, Jung-hoon; Yoo, Won-gyu


    Kinesio Taping (KT) is a therapeutic method used by physical therapists and athletic trainers in combination with other treatment techniques for various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular problems. However, no research has evaluated the effect of KT in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this case was to describe the application of posterior pelvic tilt taping (PPTT) with Kinesio tape as a treatment for chronic LBP and to reduce the anterior pelvic tilt angle. Case report. The patien was a 20-year-old female amateur swimmer with a Cobb's angle (L1-S1) of 68°, a sacral horizontal angle of 45°, and pain in both medial buttock areas and sacroiliac joints. We performed PPTT with Kinesio tape for 2 weeks (six times per week for an average of 9 h each time). The patient’s radiographs showed that the Cobb's angle (L1-S1) had decreased from 68° to 47° and that the sacral horizontal angle had decreased from 45° to 31°. Reductions in hypomobility or motion asymmetry, as assessed by the motion palpation test, and in pain, as measured by the pain-provocation tests, were observed. On palpation for both medial buttock areas in the prone position, the patient felt no pain. The patient experienced no pain or stiffness in the low back area while performing forward flexion in the standing position with knees fully extended when washing dishes in the sink. The case study demonstrated that PPTT intervention favourably affected the pelvic inclination and sacral horizontal angle, leading to beneficial effects on sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) and medial buttock pain. Additional research on the clinical effects of this taping procedure requires greater numbers of athletes with SIJD or LBP who have inappropriate anterior pelvic tilt angles and hyperlordosis.

  4. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in...

  5. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging (United States)

    Dickenson, Rueben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.


    A new method of analyzing the kinematics of joint motion is developed. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers several distinct advantages. Past methods of studying anatomic joint motion have usually centered on four approaches. These methods are x-ray projection, goniometric linkage analysis, sonic digitization, and landmark measurement of photogrammetry. Of these four, only x-ray is applicable for in vivo studies. The remaining three methods utilize other types of projections of inter-joint measurements, which can cause various types of error. MRI offers accuracy in measurement due to its tomographic nature (as opposed to projection) without the problems associated with x-ray dosage. Once the data acquisition of MR images was complete, the images were processed using a 3D volume rendering workstation. The metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint of the left index finger was selected and reconstructed into a three-dimensional graphic display. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones were obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the MCP joint. Landmark positions were chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily two dimensional planar motion of this joint was then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three (or more) points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system described the location and orientation of a local target coordinate system. Future research involving volume rendering of MRI data focusing on the internal kinematics of the hand's individual ligaments, cartilage, tendons, etc. will follow. Its findings will show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove (power assisted) design for extravehicular activity (EVA).

  6. Comparison of 3D Joint Angles Measured With the Kinect 2.0 Skeletal Tracker Versus a Marker-Based Motion Capture System. (United States)

    Guess, Trent M; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Amirhossein; Skubic, Marjorie; Huo, Zhiyu


    The Microsoft Kinect is becoming a widely used tool for inexpensive, portable measurement of human motion, with the potential to support clinical assessments of performance and function. In this study, the relative osteokinematic Cardan joint angles of the hip and knee were calculated using the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker. The pelvis segments of the default skeletal model were reoriented and 3-dimensional joint angles were compared with a marker-based system during a drop vertical jump and a hip abduction motion. Good agreement between the Kinect and marker-based system were found for knee (correlation coefficient = 0.96, cycle RMS error = 11°, peak flexion difference = 3°) and hip (correlation coefficient = 0.97, cycle RMS = 12°, peak flexion difference = 12°) flexion during the landing phase of the drop vertical jump and for hip abduction/adduction (correlation coefficient = 0.99, cycle RMS error = 7°, peak flexion difference = 8°) during isolated hip motion. Nonsagittal hip and knee angles did not correlate well for the drop vertical jump. When limited to activities in the optimal capture volume and with simple modifications to the skeletal model, the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker can provide limited 3-dimensional kinematic information of the lower limbs that may be useful for functional movement assessment.

  7. Coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscle activity as a function of wrist joint angle during two-digit grasping. (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie A; Bobich, Lisa R; Santello, Marco


    Fingertip forces result from the activation of muscles that cross the wrist and muscles whose origins and insertions reside within the hand (extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles, respectively). Thus, tasks that involve changes in wrist angle affect the moment arm and length, hence the force-producing capabilities, of extrinsic muscles only. If a grasping task requires the exertion of constant fingertip forces, the Central Nervous System (CNS) may respond to changes in wrist angle by modulating the neural drive to extrinsic or intrinsic muscles only or by co-activating both sets of muscles. To distinguish between these scenarios, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the thumb and index finger as a function of wrist angle during a two-digit object hold task. We hypothesized that changes in wrist angle would elicit EMG amplitude modulation of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. In one experimental condition we asked subjects to exert the same digit forces at each wrist angle, whereas in a second condition subjects could choose digit forces for holding the object. EMG activity was significantly modulated in both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a function of wrist angle (both pextrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a muscle synergy. These findings are discussed within the theoretical frameworks of synergies and common neural input across motor nuclei of hand muscles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EVA 1 - ADAM 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken, C.B. von der; Fedders, H.; Hoehlein, B.


    The supplying of industry and households with heat is a central problem in our economy. The crisis background of oil supply renders a long-term secured heat supply with nuclear power plants a discussible alternative. The district heating in the form of hot water, which is heated in power plants and supplied to the consumer via district heating pipeline networks, however, is limited due to the unavoidable heat losses. To bridge long distances between the heat source and consumer and to maintain the heat at a high temperature level, there are distinct advantages in using the EVA-ADAM principle of long-distance energy transport. (orig.) [de

  9. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B


    vegetation- plot databases on a single software platform. Data storage in EVA does not affect on-going independent development of the contributing databases, which remain the property of the data contributors. EVA uses a prototype of the database management software TURBOVEG 3 developed for joint management......The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at

  10. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, Francesco, E-mail: [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); Chan, Tze Y., E-mail:; Shaikh, Usman, E-mail: [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); England, Andrew, E-mail: [University of Salford, Department of Radiography (United Kingdom); Fisher, Robert K., E-mail: [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G., E-mail: [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)


    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  11. A Human Machine Interface for EVA (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    EVA astronauts work in a challenging environment that includes high rate of muscle fatigue, haptic and proprioception impairment, lack of dexterity and interaction with robotic equipment. Currently they are heavily dependent on support from on-board crew and ground station staff for information and robotics operation. They are limited to the operation of simple controls on the suit exterior and external robot controls that are difficult to operate because of the heavy gloves that are part of the EVA suit. A wearable human machine interface (HMI) inside the suit provides a powerful alternative for robot teleoperation, procedure checklist access, generic equipment operation via virtual control panels and general information retrieval and presentation. The HMI proposed here includes speech input and output, a simple 6 degree of freedom (dof) pointing device and a heads up display (HUD). The essential characteristic of this interface is that it offers an alternative to the standard keyboard and mouse interface of a desktop computer. The astronaut's speech is used as input to command mode changes, execute arbitrary computer commands and generate text. The HMI can respond with speech also in order to confirm selections, provide status and feedback and present text output. A candidate 6 dof pointing device is Measurand's Shapetape, a flexible "tape" substrate to which is attached an optic fiber with embedded sensors. Measurement of the modulation of the light passing through the fiber can be used to compute the shape of the tape and, in particular, the position and orientation of the end of the Shapetape. It can be used to provide any kind of 3d geometric information including robot teleoperation control. The HUD can overlay graphical information onto the astronaut's visual field including robot joint torques, end effector configuration, procedure checklists and virtual control panels. With suitable tracking information about the position and orientation of the EVA suit

  12. Improper trunk rotation sequence is associated with increased maximal shoulder external rotation angle and shoulder joint force in high school baseball pitchers. (United States)

    Oyama, Sakiko; Yu, Bing; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A; Li, Li; Myers, Joseph B


    In a properly coordinated throwing motion, peak pelvic rotation velocity is reached before peak upper torso rotation velocity, so that angular momentum can be transferred effectively from the proximal (pelvis) to distal (upper torso) segment. However, the effects of trunk rotation sequence on pitching biomechanics and performance have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk rotation sequence on ball speed and on upper extremity biomechanics that are linked to injuries in high school baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that pitchers with improper trunk rotation sequence would demonstrate lower ball velocity and greater stress to the joint. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional pitching kinematics data were captured from 72 high school pitchers. Subjects were considered to have proper or improper trunk rotation sequences when the peak pelvic rotation velocity was reached either before or after the peak upper torso rotation velocity beyond the margin of error (±3.7% of the time from stride-foot contact to ball release). Maximal shoulder external rotation angle, elbow extension angle at ball release, peak shoulder proximal force, shoulder internal rotation moment, and elbow varus moment were compared between groups using independent t tests (α ways that may influence injury risk. As such, exercises that reinforce the use of a proper trunk rotation sequence during the pitching motion may reduce the stress placed on the structures around the shoulder joint and lead to the prevention of injuries. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during...

  14. Reliability of sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle joint angles from a single frame of video data using the GAITRite camera system. (United States)

    Ross, Sandy A; Rice, Clinton; Von Behren, Kristyn; Meyer, April; Alexander, Rachel; Murfin, Scott


    The purpose of this study was to establish intra-rater, intra-session, and inter-rater, reliability of sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle angles with and without reflective markers using the GAITRite walkway and single video camera between student physical therapists and an experienced physical therapist. This study included thirty-two healthy participants age 20-59, stratified by age and gender. Participants performed three successful walks with and without markers applied to anatomical landmarks. GAITRite software was used to digitize sagittal hip, knee, and ankle angles at two phases of gait: (1) initial contact; and (2) mid-stance. Intra-rater reliability was more consistent for the experienced physical therapist, regardless of joint or phase of gait. Intra-session reliability was variable, the experienced physical therapist showed moderate to high reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.50-0.89) and the student physical therapist showed very poor to high reliability (ICC = 0.07-0.85). Inter-rater reliability was highest during mid-stance at the knee with markers (ICC = 0.86) and lowest during mid-stance at the hip without markers (ICC = 0.25). Reliability of a single camera system, especially at the knee joint shows promise. Depending on the specific type of reliability, error can be attributed to the testers (e.g. lack of digitization practice and marker placement), participants (e.g. loose fitting clothing) and camera systems (e.g. frame rate and resolution). However, until the camera technology can be upgraded to a higher frame rate and resolution, and the software can be linked to the GAITRite walkway, the clinical utility for pre/post measures is limited.

  15. Morgan line and its relationship with distraction index, angle of inclination and degenerative joint disease in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Miranda


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated 160 hip joint radiographs of 40 dogs of different large breeds (25 females and 15 males from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The radiographs of each dog were obtained at two different stages: stage 1 (mean 7.23 months and stage 2 (mean 14.25. The conventional radiographic method (CRM and the radiographic distraction method (RDM were used, carried out in both stages. CRM measured the Norberg angle (NA, the angle of inclination (AI and evaluated the presence of degenerative joint disease (DJD. The MRD was performed to establish the distraction index (DI. The aims were to evaluate the presence of the Morgan line and other signs of DJD and correlate them with the degree of canine hip dysplasia (CHD and also check if the DI greater than 0.3 (first stage was associated with the presence of ML (second stage. It was found that DI, AI and changes of femoral neck and the formation of osteophytes were associated with the presence of ML. It was observed that if the DI is greater than 0.3 at the first stage, the chance of a positive outcome of ML in the second stage increases by 7.2 times. Thus, 49 joints showed DI > 0.3 at the first stage, in which 31 (63.3 % presented ML at the second stage. Of the 31 animals that showed DI ≤ 0.3 at first, six (19.4% had LM at the second stage. There has been a significant association between the presence of ML and the degree of CHD. The more severe the CHD, the higher the percentage of positive ML results. Thus, among the 24 (60 % animals that showed ML, 11 (45.83 % were classified as severe dysplastics, 5 (20.83% as moderate and 8 (33.33 % as mild. None of the animals classified as normal or borderline presented ML. Among the 8 animals classified as mild dysplastics, 5 showed only ML as DJD.

  16. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation (United States)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis

  17. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey


    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  18. Melting and crystallization behavior of partially miscible high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (HDPE/EVA) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yang; Zou, Huawei, E-mail:; Liang, Mei, E-mail:; Cao, Ya


    Highlights: • HDPE/EVA blends undergo phase separation, making it an interesting topic to investigate the relationships between miscibility and crystallization. • Influences from blending on the crystallization kinetics were successfully evaluated by Friedman's and Khanna's method. • X-ray diffraction studies revealed that blending with EVA the unit length of the unit cell of the HDPE increases. • Thermal fractionation method was successfully used to characterize the co-crystallization in HDPE/EVA blends. - Abstract: Crystallization studies on HDPE/EVA blends and the individual components were performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Influences of blending on the crystallization kinetics of each component in HDPE/EVA mixture were evaluated by Friedman's activation energy and Khanna's crystallization rate coefficient (CRC). The addition of more HDPE into the EVA matrix causes more heterogeneous nucleation while the addition of EVA would hinder the nucleation of HDPE at the beginning of cooling process. Inter-molecular interaction in the melt facilitated the crystallization of both EVA and HDPE components. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that HDPE and EVA have orthorhombic unit cell. Blending with EVA did not affect the crystalline structure of HDPE. In addition, a little shift of (1 1 0), (2 0 0) and (0 2 0) crystalline peaks toward lower 2θ values of samples indicating a little increase of unit cell parameters of the orthorhombic unit cell of polyethylene. Thermal fractionation results showed that co-crystallization took place in the HDPE/EVA blend. All those results indicated that the polymer pair we choose was partially miscible.

  19. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (United States)

    Graf, John C.


    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  20. The Influence of Oblique Angle Forced Exercise in Surgically Destabilized Stifle Joints Is Synergistic with Bone, but Antagonistic with Cartilage in an Ovine Model of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. Hill


    Full Text Available Large animal models of osteoarthritis are a necessary testing ground for FDA approval of human medicine applications. Sheep models have advantages over other available large animals, but development and progression of osteoarthritis in sheep is exceedingly slow, which handicaps progress in development of potential treatments. We combined oblique angle forced exercise to increase stress on the stifle, with surgical destabilization to hasten the development of osteoarthritis in ewes. Methods for early detection of clinical signs included radiography, urine, and serum biomarker assays and gait analysis and ex vivo we used microcomputed tomography and macroscopic joint analysis. Our model was able to produce clinically detectable signs of osteoarthritis in a relatively short period (14 weeks. Changes in bone were highly correlated between microcomputed tomography and radiographic analysis and changes in cartilage correlated well between urinary glycosaminoglycan levels and serum aggrecanase analyses. Exercise improved the negative effects of destabilization in bone but exacerbated the negative effects of destabilization in cartilage. These observations suggest that we may need to consider treatments for bone and cartilage separately. These results represent an improved large animal model of osteoarthritis with rapid onset of disease and superior detection of bone and soft tissue changes.

  1. Eva Wohlgemuth / Eva Wohlgemuth ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wohlgemuth, Eva


    1997. a. tehtud intervjuu austria kontseptuaalse kunstniku Eva Wohlgemuthiga (sünd. 1955), kes koos Kathy Rae Huffmaniga dokumenteeris võrgus reisipäevikuna (Interneti projekt "Siberian Deal") sõidu läbi Siberi. Ka projektist "Face Settings". E. Wohlgemuth on loonud varem "Location Sculpture Systems'i" (koos Andreas Baumanniga) ja "Moving Plates Systems'i" ning dokumenteerinud tööd veebisaidil

  2. Tracking Historical NASA EVA Training: Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Development of the EVA Suit Exposure Tracker (EVA SET) (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary


    During a spacewalk, designated as extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut ventures from the protective environment of the spacecraft into the vacuum of space. EVAs are among the most challenging tasks during a mission, as they are complex and place the astronaut in a highly stressful environment dependent on the spacesuit for survival. Due to the complexity of EVA, NASA has conducted various training programs on Earth to mimic the environment of space and to practice maneuvers in a more controlled and forgiving environment. However, rewards offset the risks of EVA, as some of the greatest accomplishments in the space program were accomplished during EVA, such as the Apollo moonwalks and the Hubble Space Telescope repair missions. Water has become the environment of choice for EVA training on Earth, using neutral buoyancy as a substitute for microgravity. During EVA training, an astronaut wears a modified version of the spacesuit adapted for working in water. This high fidelity suit allows the astronaut to move in the water while performing tasks on full-sized mockups of space vehicles, telescopes, and satellites. During the early Gemini missions, several EVA objectives were much more difficult than planned and required additional time. Later missions demonstrated that "complex (EVA) tasks were feasible when restraints maintained body position and underwater simulation training ensured a high success probability".1,2 EVA training has evolved from controlling body positioning to perform basic tasks to complex maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Today, preparation is centered at special facilities built specifically for EVA training, such as the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center ([JSC], Houston) and the Hydrolab at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre ([GCTC], Star City, outside Moscow). Underwater training for an EVA is also considered hazardous duty for NASA

  3. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort (United States)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.


    injured during 11,704 ground EVA training events. Of the 196 glove related injury incidents, 106 related to EVA and 90 to EVA training. Over these 196 incidents, 277 total injuries (126 flight; 151 training) were reported and were then grouped into 23 types of injuries. Of EVA flight injuries, 65% were commonly reported to the hand (in general), metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, and finger (not including thumb) with fatigue, abrasion, and paresthesia being the most common injury types (44% of total flight injuries). Training injuries totaled to more than 70% being distributed to the fingernail, MCP joint, and finger crotch with 88% of the specific injuries listed as pain, erythema, and onycholysis. Of these training injuries, when reporting pain or erythema, the most common location was the index finger, but when reporting onycholysis, it was the middle finger. Predictor variables specific to increased risk of onycholysis included: female sex (OR=2.622), older age (OR=1.065), increased duration in hours of the flight or training event (OR=1.570), middle finger length differences in inches between the finger and the EVA glove (OR=7.709), and use of the Phase VI glove (OR=8.535). Differentiation between training and flight and injury reporting during 2002-2004 were significant control variables. For likelihood of time to first onycholysis injury, there was a 24% reduction in rate of reporting for each year increase in age. Also, more experienced crewmembers, based on number of EVA flight or training events completed, were less likely to report an onycholysis injury (3% less for every event). Longer duration events also found reporting rates to occur 2.37 times faster for every hour of length. Crewmembers with larger hand size reported onycholysis 23% faster than those with smaller hand size. Finally, for every 1/10th of an inch increase in difference between the middle finger length and the glove, the rate of reporting increased by 60%. DISCUSSION: One key finding was that

  4. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa


    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  5. Eva Luna: Writing as History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Diamond-Nigh


    Full Text Available The Bildungsroman of Eva Luna's development as a writer reflects—in a somewhat fragmented manner—important developments in Latin American literary history. Her personal quest was paralleled by an aesthetic quest, manifested in the trying on and taking off of various genres, literary movements and myths characteristic of Latin America; she even goes so far as to allude explicitly to specific authors and their individual works. Although some of these are simply lightheartedly parodied, others are reworked and reinterpreted in the light of the feminist enterprise of the past twenty-five years. Eva Luna transgresses fundamentally by having an intellectually strong, sexual, nurturing, very feminine protagonist, setting up an initial rupture with the dichotomy so clearly demarcated by Octavio Paz between "the mother and the whore." Four primary categories suggest themselves: myth and the mythic consciousness; magical realism; Boom writers; and then a miscellaneous grouping that subsumes a host of other significant literatures and literary themes: the picaresque, the neo-romantic, novels of the dictators, the ever-present conflict between civilization and barbarism, and testimonial literature.

  6. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie


    The EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, searchable repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, the one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision control system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, and also for hundreds of other NASA and contract employees. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  7. Bagatellid : Maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva


    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: Arvo Pärdi Neljanda sümfoonia maailma esiettekanne Los Angeleses. Felix Mendelssohni 200. sünniaastapäeva eel avastati helilooja kadunud teoseid. Esa-Pekka Salonen lahkub Los Angelese Filharmoonikute juurest

  8. EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.


    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

  9. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  10. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  11. Innovative EVA Glove Exoskeleton, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dexterous performance degradation resulting from donning an extra-vehicular activity (EVA) glove limits the capability of astronauts to perform certain tasks in...

  12. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  13. Design and Evaluation of a New Type of Knee Orthosis to Align the Mediolateral Angle of the Knee Joint with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esrafilian


    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is a disease which influences the performance of the knee joint. Moreover, the force and moments applied on the joint increase in contrast to normal subjects. Various types of knee orthoses have been designed to solve the mentioned problems. However, there are other problems in terms of distal migration during walking and the alignment of the orthosis which cannot be changed following the use of brace. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to design an orthosis to solve the aforementioned problems. Method. A new type of knee orthosis was designed with a modular structure. Two patients with knee OA participated in this research project. The force applied on the foot, moment transmitted through the knee joint, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured by use of a motion analysis system. Results. The results of the research showed that the adduction moment applied on the knee joint decreased while subjects walked with the new knee orthosis (P-value < 0.05. Conclusion. The new design of the knee brace can be used as an effective treatment to decrease the loads applied on the knee joint and to improve the alignment whilst walking.

  14. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.


    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  15. Eva ja Adele: "Kus oleme meie, seal on muuseum" / Eva & Adele ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eva & Adele, kunstnikepaar


    Berliini kunstnikepaari Eva & Adele näitus "Stereoefekt" Tallinna Kunstihoones 28. maini, kuraator Harry Liivrand. Kunstnikud räägivad koostööst meediaga, sooküsimusest, julgusest teha kunstis midagi uut, oma otsusest elada elu Eva ja Adelena, inimeste julgusest teha valikuid, inimlikkusest, üksindusest, oma maalidest, kollaažidest ja videotest, missioonitundest

  16. Applications of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model formating (United States)

    Brown, N. E.


    The development of a model for estimating the impact of manned EVA costs on future payloads is discussed. Basic information on the EV crewman requirements, equipment, physical and operational characteristics, and vehicle interfaces is provided. The cost model is being designed to allow system designers to quantify the impact of EVA on vehicle and payload systems.

  17. Evaluation of an Anthropometric Human Body Model for Simulated EVA Task Assessment (United States)

    Etter, Brad


    One of the more mission-critical tasks performed in space is extravehicular activity (EVA) which requires the astronaut to be external to the station or spacecraft, and subsequently at risk from the many threats posed by space. These threats include, but are not limited to: no significant atmosphere, harmful electromagnetic radiation, micrometeoroids, and space debris. To protect the astronaut from this environment, a special EVA suit is worn which is designed to maintain a sustainable atmosphere (at 1/3 atmosphere) and provide protection against the hazards of space. While the EVA suit serves these functions well, it does impose limitations on the astronaut as a consequence of the safety it provides. Since the astronaut is in a virtual vacuum, any atmospheric pressure inside the suit serves to pressurize the suit and restricts mobility of flexible joints (such as fabric). Although some of the EVA suit joints are fixed, rotary-style joints, most of the mobility is achieved by the simple flexibility of the fabric. There are multiple layers of fabric, each of which serves a special purpose in the safety of the astronaut. These multiple layers add to the restriction of motion the astronaut experiences in the space environment. Ground-based testing is implemented to evaluate the capability of EVA-suited astronauts to perform the various tasks in space. In addition to the restriction of motion imposed by the EVA suit, most EVA activity is performed in a micro-gravity (weight less) environment. To simulate weightlessness EVA-suited testing is performed in a neutral buoyancy simulator (NBS). The NBS is composed of a large container of water (pool) in which a weightless environment can be simulated. A subject is normally buoyant in the pressurized suit; however he/she can be made neutrally buoyant with the addition of weights. In addition, most objects the astronaut must interface with in the NBS sink in water and flotation must be added to render them "weightless". The

  18. The Effects of Shoulder- Girdle Muscles Fatigue on Ground Reaction Force, Elbow and Shoulder Joint Angle, and Accuracy of the Athletic Performance in Handball Penalty Throws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Shiravand


    Discussion: As the subjects were professional, muscle fatigue did not have a significant effect on postural control, angles and angular velocity; but did affect the reaction force and accuracy of the throws before and after fatigue, which could ultimately affect the performance of athletes and competition results.

  19. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models (United States)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.


    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  20. Reconfigurable Ultra-Low Power Miniaturized EVA Radio, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EVA radio is an important integral part of lunar missions and beyond. To minimize power consumption and mass of an EVA radio, innovative solutions are needed for the...

  1. EVA: Evryscopes for the Arctic and Antarctic (United States)

    Richichi, A.; Law, N.; Tasuya, O.; Fors, O.; Dennihy, E.; Carlberg, R.; Tuthill, P.; Ashley, M.; Soonthornthum, B.


    We are planning to build Evryscopes for the Arctic and Antarctic (EVA), which will enable the first ultra-wide-field, high-cadence sky survey to be conducted from both Poles. The system is based on the successful Evryscope concept, already installed and operating since 2015 at Cerro Tololo in Chile with the following characteristics: robotic operation, 8,000 square degrees simultaneous sky coverage, 2-minute cadence, milli-mag level photometric accuracy, pipelined data processing for real-time analysis and full data storage for off-line analysis. The initial location proposed for EVA is the PEARL station on Ellesmere island; later also an antarctic location shall be selected. The science goals enabled by this unique combination of almost full-sky coverage and high temporal cadence are numerous, and include among others ground-breaking forays in the fields of exoplanets, stellar variability, asteroseismology, supernovae and other transient events. The EVA polar locations will enable uninterrupted observations lasting in principle over weeks and months. EVA will be fully robotic. We discuss the EVA science drivers and expected results, and present the logistics and the outline of the project which is expected to have first light in the winter of 2018. The cost envelope can be kept very competitive thanks to R&D already employed for the CTIO Evryscope, to our experience with both Arctic and Antarctic locations, and to the use of off-the-shelf components.

  2. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David


    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  3. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort (United States)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.


    thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but

  4. A imagem de Eva : o governo peronista


    Souza, Renata A. Melki de


    Esta dissertação tem como objetivo a análise da imagem de Eva Perón, entre de 1939 a 1955 e utiliza como fontes de pesquisa a imprensa, brasileira e argentina, e a biografia “A Razão de minha Vida”, publicada em 1951, em Buenos Aires. Outro fim desta pesquisa é questionar qual foi o papel de Eva no regime peronista, qual o foco e o olhar quando se fala da primeira-dama argentina e quais os direcionamentos que levaram a imprensa a ter esta posição, além de mostrar como a Argenti...

  5. Leinapäeva õppetund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Vabariigi Presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, Riigikogu esimehe Ene Ergma ja peaminister Andrus Ansipi ühisavaldus 14. juunil 2007. Ingl. k. ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna 21. juuni 2007, lk. 12, pealk.: Day of Mourning: Joint statement of the President of the Republic, the President of the Riigikogu and the Prime Minister

  6. EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott


    This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

  7. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.


    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  8. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice (United States)


    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

  9. Effective Teamwork: The EVA NBL Experience (United States)

    Crocker, Lori


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experience of improving the operation of the ExtraVehiclar Activity (EVA) Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as a team of NASA employees and contractors. It reviews specific recommendations to use in turning a struggling organization around as a NASA/contractor team

  10. Bagatellid : Maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva


    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: Paavo Järvi lahkub Cincinnati sümfooniaorkestri peadirigendi ametist. Läti metsosopran Elina Garanca pälvis tunnustust. Seiji Ozawa lahkub kontserdielust kuueks kuuks. Fryderyk Chopini 200nda sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest

  11. CETA truck and EVA restraint system (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.


    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  12. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA) (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban


    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  13. Ettevõtte tegevuse hindamine : EVA meetod / Kristo Reinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinsalu, Kristo


    Järgneb: Raamatupidamisuudised, nr. 7, 2001, lk. 19-25. Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti, nr. 6, 2001, lk. 17-22; nr. 7, 2001, lk. 15-18; nr. 8, 2001, lk. 21-24. Majandusliku lisandväärtuse meetodist EVA - Economic Value Added - leidmisest ja standardimisest. Tabelid ja diagrammid: Hansapanga Grupi EVA septembris 2000; korrelatsioon turuväärtusega; tegevustulemused: mittefinantsiline lähenemine; preemia määramine; EVA ja Benchmarking

  14. Patellofemoral joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Albright, J.; Kathol, M.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.


    This paper describes the use of ultrafast computed tomography (CT) to obtain dynamic images of the patellofemoral joint during active motion. Thirty-eight patients underwent measurements of tangent offset, bisect offset, congruence angle, patellar tilt angle, lateral patellofemoral angle, sulcus angle, and sulcus depth made during leg movement. Selected parameters were compared with Merchant views. Significant correlations were obtained between Merchant views and comparable ultrafast CT views for all parameters except sulcus angle. Correlations between the other parameters were poor. Cine strips showed two patterns of movement; the patella remained centered either throughout excursion or until the last 20 0 of full extension, when it would sublux laterally

  15. Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance (United States)

    Greenisen, Michael C.


    The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

  16. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Waldo-Mendoza


    Full Text Available The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  17. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.


    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  18. Swivel Joint For Liquid Nitrogen (United States)

    Milner, James F.


    Swivel joint allows liquid-nitrogen pipe to rotate through angle of 100 degree with respect to mating pipe. Functions without cracking hard foam insulation on lines. Pipe joint rotates on disks so mechanical stress not transmitted to thick insulation on pipes. Inner disks ride on fixed outer disks. Disks help to seal pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through joint.

  19. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA (United States)


    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  20. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murry, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.


    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This activity places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies.

  1. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA) (United States)


    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  2. EVA: continuous automatic evaluation of protein structure prediction servers. (United States)

    Eyrich, V A; Martí-Renom, M A; Przybylski, D; Madhusudhan, M S; Fiser, A; Pazos, F; Valencia, A; Sali, A; Rost, B


    Evaluation of protein structure prediction methods is difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe EVA, a web server for assessing protein structure prediction methods, in an automated, continuous and large-scale fashion. Currently, EVA evaluates the performance of a variety of prediction methods available through the internet. Every week, the sequences of the latest experimentally determined protein structures are sent to prediction servers, results are collected, performance is evaluated, and a summary is published on the web. EVA has so far collected data for more than 3000 protein chains. These results may provide valuable insight to both developers and users of prediction methods.

  3. Hydrogeology of the Olševa massif (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Krivic


    Full Text Available Olševa consists of highly pervious carbonates, forming a relatively big fractured and karstified aquifer. Due to its high-altitude mountainous nature, the aquifer is unpolluted and therefore has to be regarded as a potential source of drinking water for the future.The Olševa aquifer is tectonically divided into three parts. Groundwater from the two smaller aquifers, covering areas of 1,9 and 0,8 km2, located in eastern part of Ol{eva massif, flows toward Northeast into Meža river basin. In spite of several transversal faults, the rest of Olševa massif forms a relatively uniform aquifer that is conveying groundwater in westerly direction towards Rjavica valley. Rjavica valley in Austria represents the discharge area of a majority of groundwater from the main Ol{eva aquifer.

  4. The odontological identification of Eva Braun Hitler. (United States)

    Keiser-Nielsen, S; Strøm, F


    On May 7th-9th, 1945, a team of Russian pathologists autopsied several bodies found in and near the Fuehrer Bunker in Berlin; among them, a female body (No. 13) was later identified as that of Eva Braun Hitler (EBH), mainly by means of a gold bridge from the lower right jaw. A postmortem photograph of this bridge also shows a separate gold filling. Data now available on the dental treatment of EBH have permitted the present authors to substantiate that this gold filling also came from the mouth of EBH. Further speculation about the fate of EBH would henceforth seem professionally unfounded.

  5. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations (United States)

    Watson, Richard D.


    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  6. Synthesis of EVA/MWNT nanocomposites by radiation induced crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, K.A.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Chaudhari, C.V.; Sabharwal, S.


    Full text: EVA is widely used as an insulating material for high voltage cables and in the footwear and toy industries due to its high flexibility and chemical inertness. The nano-composites of EVA with MWNT are of the special interest because incorporation of suitable amount of MWNT in EVA matrix is expected to significantly enhance EVA's thermal and mechanical properties, and open a new domain of applications. The modification of EVA by using high-energy radiation and with particulate filler has been widely practiced; however, there is not much information available on the radiation processing of EVA nanocomposites. To understand the effect of radiation and of MWNT addition on the physico-mechanical characteristics of EVA, different compositions of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/multiple walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) nanocomposites were prepared by mixing in Brabender and subjected to different doses of gamma radiation. The efficiency of radiation vulcanization was analyzed by gel-content, Charlesby-Pinner parameter and crosslinking density measurements. Gamma radiation induced crosslinking was found to increase with MWNT fraction in EVA/MWNT nanocomposites (P o /q o range: 1.15-0.98). These results ruled out the possibility of a significant neutralization of single ionization spurs by MWNT addition. The polymer-filler interaction parameter determined from Kraus plot indicated good interaction between EVA and MWNTs. Storage modulus changed from 7 x 10 7 Pa to 1.8 x 10 8 Pa with incorporation of 5% (wt/wt) MWNT while density increased from 0.78 g/cc to 0.80 g/cc

  7. Effect of EVA on thermal stability, flammability, mechanical properties of HDPE/EVA/Mg(OH)2 composites (United States)

    Cao, R.; Deng, Z. L.; Ma, Y. H.; Chen, X. L.


    In this work, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is introduced to improve the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/magnesium hydroxide (MH) composites. The thermal stability, flame retardancy and mechanical properties of HDPE/EVA/MH composites are investigated and discussed. With increasing content of EVA, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the composites increases. The thermal stability analysis shows that the initial decomposition temperature begins at a low temperature; however, the residues of the composites at 600°C increase when HDPE is replaced by small amounts of EVA. The early degradation absorbs heat, dilute oxygen and residue. During this process, it protects the matrix inside. Compared with the HDPE/MH and EVA/MH composites, the ternary HDPE/EVA/MH composites exhibit better flame retardancy by increasing the LOI values, and reducing the heat release rate (HRR) and total heat release (THR). With increasing content of EVA, the mechanical properties can also be improved, which is attributed to the good affinity between EVA and MH particles.

  8. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.


    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  9. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, A.K.


    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%. (author)

  10. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Rubber Technology Center; Tikku, V.K.; Pradhan, N.K. [NICCO Corporation Ltd., (Cable Div.), Calcutta (India)


    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%. (author).

  11. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project (United States)

    Mock, Kyla


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  12. Analisis Economic Value Added (EVA) dalam Menilai Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan pada PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk.




    The purpose of this research is to know the financial performance of PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk which is measured by Economic Value Added (EVA). Variable which is needed to compute The EVA are Net Profit After Tax (NOPAT), Cost of Capital (CoC), and Economic Value Added (EVA). EVA concept is different with another financial performance instruments. Because in computing EVA, Cost of Capital is included. That’s why accounting profitable company doesn’t mean it has positive EV...

  13. Branching miter joints : principles and artwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Hart, G.W.; Sarhangi, R.


    A miter joint connects two beams, typically of the same cross section, at an angle such that the longitudinal beam edges continue across the joint. When more than two beams meet in one point, like in a tree, we call this a branching joint. In a branching miter joint, the beams’ longitudinal edges

  14. Astronaut Ronald Evans photographed during transearth coast EVA (United States)


    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans is photographed performing extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 17 spacecraft's transearth coast. During his EVA Command Module pilot Evans retrieved film cassettes from the Lunar Sounder, Mapping Camera, and Panoramic Camera. The total time for the transearth EVA was one hour seven minutes 19 seconds, starting at ground elapsed time of 257:25 (2:28 p.m.) amd ending at ground elapsed time of 258:42 (3:35 p.m.) on Sunday, December 17, 1972.

  15. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres (United States)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham


    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  16. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 2: Shuttle orbiter crew and equipment translation concepts and EVA workstation concept development and integration (United States)


    EVA crewman/equipment translational concepts are developed for a shuttle orbiter payload application. Also considered are EVA workstation systems to meet orbiter and payload requirements for integration of workstations into candidate orbiter payload worksites.

  17. SELENE - Self-Forming Extensible Lunar EVA Network, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar EVA network will exhibit a wide range of connectivity levels due to the challenging communications environment and mission dynamics. Disruption-Tolerant...

  18. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses control of MMU during EVA practice (United States)


    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  19. Vabariigi aastapäeva tähistamisest Hamiltonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    EV 91. aastapäeva tähistas Hamiltoni Eesti Võitlejate Ühing, Hamiltoni Eesti Pensionäride Klubi; Hamiltoni eesti organisatsioonid korraldasid aktuse, mille peakõneleja oli Eesti Sihtkapital Kanadas esinaine Lia Hess

  20. KIK pidas sünnipäeva / Endrik Tõnsberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnsberg, Endrik


    11. mail 2005. a. andsid Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskuse viienda sünnipäeva puhul ajakirjanikele pressikonverentsi KIK-i nõukogu esimees, keskkonnaminister Villu Reiljan, KIK-i juhataja Kalev Aun ja programmijuht Heiko Põdersalu

  1. Reconfigurable Power-Aware EVA Radio, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) radio system is a pivotal technology for the successful support of the International Space Station beyond 2020 and future...

  2. Soomemeelsed / Eva Klemets ja Juhan Ulfsak ; intervjueerinud Rednar Annus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koldits, Eva, 1977-


    Kristian Smedsi lavastusest "Mental Finland", milles osalevad üheteistkümne rahvuse esindajad, sealhulgas eesti näitlejad Juhan Ulfsak ja Eva Klemets. Koostööst Kristian Smedsi trupiga. Eesti ja soome teatrimaastiku erinevusest ja sarnasusest

  3. Phase separation and orientation in EVA/polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins-Franchetti, S.M.; Nunes, S.P.


    Blends of the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A-(PC) with poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) were prepared by solution casting in different solvents and various proportions. Their behaviours was examined by diferential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and u.v. spectrophotometry. The results obtained show that PC and EVA form partially miscible blends. In some cases, birefringence was observed by optical microscopy indicating the occurrence of polymer orientation in the neighbourhood of the interfaces. (author) [pt

  4. Astronaut Ronald Evans is suited up for EVA training (United States)


    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, is assisted by technicians in suiting up for extravehicular activity (EVA) training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (49970); Evans participates in EVA training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The structure in the picture simulates the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay of the Apollo 17 Service Module (49971).

  5. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.


    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be

  6. Clay intercalation and influence on crystallinity of EVA-based clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, D.S.; Prasad, R.; Gupta, R.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.


    Various polymer clay nanocomposites (PCNs) were prepared from ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) with 9, 18 and 28% vinyl acetate (VA) content filled with different wt.% (2.5, 5 and 7.5) of a Montmorillonite-based organo-modified clay (Cloisite[reg] C15A and C30B). The PCNs were prepared using melt blending techniques. Morphological information regarding intercalation and exfoliation were determined by using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). WAXS and TEM confirmed that increasing the VA content was necessary to achieve greater clay-polymer interaction as seen from the comparatively higher intercalation of clay platelets with 28% VA. The effect of addition of clay on the development and the modification of crystalline morphology in EVA matrix was also studied using WAXS and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Results are presented showing that the addition of clay platelets does not increase the matrix crystallinity but the morphology was significantly modified such that there was an increase in the 'rigid' amorphous phase. Mechanical properties were also evaluated against the respective morphological information for each specimen and there are indications that the level of clay-polymer interaction plays a significant role in such morphological modification, and in such a way that affects the final PCN mechanical properties which has wide and significant applications in the packaging industries

  7. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.


    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  8. EVA1A inhibits GBM cell proliferation by inducing autophagy and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xue; Kan, Shifeng; Liu, Zhen [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Guang [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Yingyu [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Beijing 100191 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)


    Eva-1 homolog A (EVA1A) is a novel lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein involved in autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-EVA1A vector (Ad5-EVA1A) to overexpress EVA1A in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and evaluated its anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. We found that overexpression of EVA1A in three GBM cell lines (U251, U87 and SHG44) resulted in a suppression of tumor cell growth via activation of autophagy and induction of cell apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EVA1A-mediated autophagy was associated with inactivation of the mTOR/RPS6KB1 signaling pathway. Furthermore in vivo, overexpression of EVA1A successfully inhibited tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice. Our data suggest that EVA1A-induced autophagy and apoptosis play a role in suppressing the development of GBM and their up-regulation may be an effective method for treating this form of cancer. - Highlights: • Overexpression of EVA1A suppresses GBM cell growth. • EVA1A induces autophagy through the mTOR/RPS6KB1 pathway. • EVA1A induces GBM cell apoptosis. • EVA1A inhibits the development of GBM in vivo.

  9. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan


    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  10. Assessment of physical protection systems: EVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-L.; Lamotte, C.; Jorda, A.


    CEA's missions in various sectors of activity such as nuclear, defence, industrial contracts and the associated regulatory requirements, make it necessary to develop a strategy in the field of physical protection. In particular, firms having nuclear materials are subject to the July 25, 1980 law no.80-572 on the protection and control of nuclear materials. A holding permit delivered by the regulatory authority is conditioned to the protection by the operator of the nuclear materials used. In France it is the nuclear operator who must demonstrate, in the form of a security study, that potential aggressors would be neutralised before they could escape with the material. To meet these requirements, we have developed methods to assess the vulnerability of our facilities. The EVA method, the French acronym for 'Evaluation de la vulnerabilite des Acces' (access vulnerability system) allows dealing with internal and external threats involving brutal actions. In scenarios relating to external threat, the intruders get past the various barriers of our protection system, attempting to steal a large volume of material in one swoop and then escape. In the case of internal threat, the goal is the same. However, as the intruder usually has access to the material in the scope of his activities, the action begins at the level of the target. Our protection system is based on in-depth defense where the intruders are detected and then delayed in their advance towards their target to allow time for intervention forces to intercept them

  11. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  12. An investigation on radiation crosslinked foam of LDPE/EVA blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqin Dalai; Chen Wenxiu


    LDPE/EVA blend, irradiated by γ-ray then expansed by heat as a foam material, the EVA content in LDPE/EVA blend was benefited to form gelation. The gel fraction on irradiated LDPE/EVA blend increased with the increasing of its EVA content in a given dose. The gel fraction values of LDPE/EVA blend with 30% EVA content were higher than those of other blends in a same given dose, its gel fraction value was 1.7 times as those values of LDPE without EVA. The gel fractions on LDPE/EVA blend were increased with dose in oxygen, in air and in nitrogen, the formation of gel was limited by oxygen. The oxidation products on foam of LDPE/EVA blend were observed in nitrogen, in air and in oxygen by FTIR spectra. The LDPE/EVA blend system has no protection effect from oxidation comparison with the LDPE system without EVA which has less oxidation product than those without EVA in a same given gel fraction. The gel fraction on foam of LDPE/EVA blend around 25-35%, dose 25 ± 5kGy, irradiated by γ-ray in air or in nitrogen, with higher expansion ratio (19), smaller cell diameter (0.175mm), lower apparent density (0.042g/cm 3 ), higher tensile strength (0.40MPa) and longer elongation at break (290-360%) on foam of LDPE/EVA blend were selected. It was opitimum condition for application in this systems. The relations among gel fraction on LDPE/EVA blend, expansion ratio, apparent density, average cell diameter and mechanical properties of foamed sheet were discussed. (author)

  13. EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract (United States)

    Melone, Kate


    The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

  14. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition (United States)


    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

  15. Electrostatic Discharge Issues in International Space Station Program EVAs (United States)

    Bacon, John B.


    EVA activity in the ISS program encounters several dangerous ESD conditions. The ISS program has been aggressive for many years to find ways to mitigate or to eliminate the associated risks. Investments have included: (1) Major mods to EVA tools, suit connectors & analytical tools (2) Floating Potential Measurement Unit (3) Plasma Contactor Units (4) Certification of new ISS flight attitudes (5) Teraflops of computation (6) Thousands of hours of work by scores of specialists (7) Monthly management attention at the highest program levels. The risks are now mitigated to a level that is orders of magnitude safer than prior operations

  16. Glaucoma, Open-Angle (United States)

    ... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  17. EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite: Study of the properties thermal and crystallinity of the EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentim, Ana C.S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Emerson O. da


    The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the thermal properties and crystallinity of the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer containing 28% vinyl acetate were investigated. The EVA/TiO 2 nanocomposite films with TiO 2 contents of 0,10-1% relative to the total mass of EVA, were prepared via solution. The prepared films were characterized using TG, and XRD methods. (author)

  18. Avaliação do ângulo intermetatarsal após a artrodese da primeira articulação metatarsofalangeana para tratamento do hálux valgo Evaluation of the intermetatarsal angle after the arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint for treatment of the hallux valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Costa


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correção do ângulo intermetatarsal após a artrodese da articulação metatarsofalangeana do hálux. Acreditamos que a deformidade em varo do primeiro metatarso pode ser corrigida após a artrodese da primeira articulação metatarsofalangeana, sem a necessidade da osteotomia proximal. MÉTODO: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 43 pés de pacientes submetidos à artrodese da primeira articulação metatarsofalangeana no período de maio de 1997 a outubro de 2009 utilizando radiografias. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 58 meses. A mensuração dos ângulos metatarsofalangeano, intermetatarsal e a luxação dos sesamoides foram realizadas nas radiografias no pré-operatório, pós-operatório imediato e pós-operatório tardio. RESULTADOS: O ângulo médio metatarsofalangeano foi de 37,6 graus no pré-operatório, 12,8 graus no pós-operatório imediato e 16,4 graus no pósoperatório tardio. O ângulo médio intermetatarsal foi de 16 graus no pré-operatório, 10 graus no pós-operatório imediato e 10,2 graus no pós-operatório tardio. Quanto à luxação dos sesamoides, nas radiografias pré-operatórias a maioria dos pés foram classificados como G3, no pós-operatório imediato foi classificada como G2 e no pós-operatório tardio como G1. CONCLUSÃO: O ângulo intermetatarsal e a luxação dos sesamoides melhoram com a artrodese da primeira articulação metatarsofalangeana sem a necessidade de uma osteotomia na base do primeiro metatarso.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correction of the intermetatarsal angle after arthrodesis of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux. We believe that varus deformity of the first metatarsal can be corrected after arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, without the need for proximal osteotomy. METHODS: Forty-three feet of patients who had undergone arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint between May 1997 and October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed by

  19. Executive compensation and the EVA and MVA performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The media regularly report a growing incidence of non-alignment of executive pay and performance, and in some cases, no link between the two whatsoever. The advent of new measures of shareholder wealth such as economic value added (EVA) and market value added (MVA) have allowed some companies to link ...

  20. Kodundust tuleks õpetada teisiti / Tiina Päeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päeva, Tiina


    Tiina Päeva 2000. a. läbi viidud uurimistööst "Eesti noorte kodumajanduslikud oskused ja teadmised - nende tähtsus, allikad ning seotus kodumajanduse õpetamisega", milles huvitas autorit, kuidas suhtuvad Eesti noored poistele kodunduse õpetamisse ning mida Eesti noored kodumajandusest kui õppeainest arvavad

  1. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.


    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  2. Taju vormiv arhitektuur / Eva Castro, Holger Kehne ; interv. Inga Raukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Castro, Eva


    Londoni arhitektuuribüroo Plasma Studio arhitektid Eva Castro (s. 1969 Argentiinas) ja Holger Kehne (s. 1970 Saksamaal) räägivad oma tööst ja arhitektuurist. Loetletud büroo tähtsamad arhitektuuriauhinnad ja projektid. Osalesid 5. Põhja- ja Baltimaade arhitektuuritriennaalil

  3. Kõne EV aastapäeva aktusel / Karl Altau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altau, Karl Stephen, 1959-


    Läti kirikus peetud Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva aktusel rääkis Karl Altau Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee nimel kommunismi ohvrite mälestussamba ehitamise alustamisest Washingtoni kesklinna 2006. aastal, koostööst kõigi baltlaste vahel ja võimalusest annetada, üleskutsest toetada Valgevene rahvast teel demokraatiale

  4. 29. V peeti Narva kunstigaleriis traditsioonilist kunstnikupäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Salvador Dali 100. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud kunstnikupäeval eksponeerisid 53 Narva, Ivangorodi, Kohtla-Järve, Jõhvi ja Tallinna kunstnikku Dali loomingust inspireeritud töid. Päeva külaline: Tallinna Katariina gild eesotsas Kaire Taliga. Toimus teatri VB performance "Aastaajad. Mitgard"

  5. Radiation Effects on Mechanical Properties of LDPE/EVA blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung; Kim, Ki Yup; Im, Don Sun; Ryu, Boo Hyung


    Restricted properties and a limited use of homopolymers alone, have given rise to an exploration of composites, copolymers, blends, etc. Copolymers such as poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA), poly(ethylene-co-butyl acrylate), poly(ethylene-co-ethyl acrylate) (EEA) have wide usages in different industry. Among the numerous ethylene copolymers, due to its wide range of properties depending on its vinyl acetate content, EVA has become one of the most useful copolymers in the electrical industry as a cable insulator, and in many other industries as a hot melt adhesive, a coating, etc. Several works looked at the influence of gamma rays on polymers. Zhang et al have blended EVA with PE because crosslinked PE has a low flexibility for use as a cable insulation. It was reported that the blend showed have a better elongation, flexibility and heat aging effect than PE, but its hardness and softening point were lower. In this study, the radiation degradation of LDPE/EVA blends as a function of the vinyl acetate contents was investigated by using TGA, gelation and elongation

  6. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China. (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo


    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89.

  7. Site-specific cultivation systems for energy plants. Results of the joint project ''Development and comparison of optimized cultivation systems for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site-specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany, EVA I''. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Standortangepasste Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Ergebnisse des Verbundprojektes ''Entwicklung und Vergleich von optimierten Anbausystemen fuer die landwirtschaftliche Produktion von Energiepflanzen unter den verschiedenen Standortbedingungen Deutschlands, EVA I''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With respect to the estimations of the Agency for Renewable Ressources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany), nearly 2 millions ha of the area of arable land in Germany were used for the production of renewable raw materials in the last years. The production of vegetable energy sources only was limited on few cultural species. This led to criticism by organisations of nature protection and environmental protection. The joint project 'Development and comparison of optimized cultivation system for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany' was one of the most extensive national agrarian research projects of the past years. This joint project offers practice-relevant knowledge to efficient and sustainable cultivation systems of energy plants. The brochure under consideration reports on the results of the first project phase of this joint project.

  8. Bond-girl Eva Green: "Daniel ei ole sugugi halb" / Eva Green ; ref. Viktoria Ladõnskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Green, Eva


    Ajakirjanikud vaatasid Londonis uut Bondi-filmi "007 : Casino Royale" ja kohtusid pressikonverentsil peaosatäitjatega. Prantsusmaal elav rootsi-alžeeria päritolu näitlejanna Eva Green räägib oma rollist ja koostööst Bondi-kehastaja Daniel Craigiga

  9. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.


    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  10. Contact Angle Goniometer (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  11. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  12. Coracoclavicular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Chan Il; Ahn, Jae Doo; Lim, Chong Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The coracoclvicular joint, a rear abnormality which may be the cause of pain in the shoulder and limitation of motion of the shoulder joint, is discussed. A case of coracoclvicular joint with shoulder pain was observed in 65 yrs old Korean male.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 20, 1971 ... slight reduction of joint space and osteophyte formation at the capital margin ... ring and irregularity of the subchondral line and an increase of CE angle, .... Unfortunately histological examination was not carried out. As the hip ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chiadamrong


    Full Text Available The significance of investment is transparent in the world of competitive business. Traditional costing systems in which their emphasizes are for short term savings rather than long term benefits have shown some lacking in providing accurate and reliable cost data for the investment decisions. Activity-based Costing (ABC, which is developed to satisfy some of the weaknesses of the traditional costing systems, can provide valuable insights into the operating processes and come up with more accurate cost data. In this paper, ABC is used to provide significant information for investment decisions. Although, the ABC method provides accurate operating product costs, it does not identify which products are economic valued added creators and so contribute to companies’ wealth. This drawback can be overcome by applying Economic Value Added (EVA. The adoption of ABC and EVA can represent a considerable change in the managerial thinking and to corporate strategies and business performance.

  15. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.


    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  16. Farewell Jean-Marie Good Luck Eva Welcome back Franz

    CERN Multimedia


    At the farewell reception offered by the Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, on the occasion of Jean-Marie Dufour's retirement from CERN, three generations of CERN Legal Counsel met. From right to left: Jean-Marie Dufour, who retires on 30 November 2001, after 35 years of service. Eva-Maria Gröniger-Voss, who takes over from Jean-Marie Dufour on 1st December 2001. Ambassador Franz Schmid, CERN Legal Counsel from 1971 to 1974.

  17. Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits (United States)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant


    Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

  18. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA (United States)


    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returing from the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of HDPE/EVA Flat Sheet Membranes by Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shoeyb


    Full Text Available The adjustment of material composition in fabrication of modified polymeric membrane has been considered the most efficient and easiest method. For this purpose blended membranes of high density polyethylene (HDPE–ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA were prepared by thermally induced phase separation method. The impact of EVA in the presence of diluent on the crystalization temperature was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The obtained results showed that EVA has no significant effect on the crystalization temperature of HDPE. The absorption frequencies at 1248 and 1749 cm-1, respectively, due to C-O and C=O streching vibrations of EVA functional groups, confirmed the existence of EVA in HDPE membrane. The pure water permeability of HDPE/EVA blend was measured and compared with that of neat HDPE membrane. The results showed that an EVA content up to 2.5 wt% raised water permeability considerably and the leafy structure of the membranes contracted and the pure water permeation dropped with higher EVA content. The results of porosity measurement and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM analysis also confirmed these findings. Contact angel measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM examinations and static absorption of collagen protein on the membrane surfaces revealed that EVA content up to 5 wt% lowered the hydrophobicity of the membrane. By EVA content above 10 wt%, due to the structural alteration on the membrane surface, the contact angel and the collagen absorption on the surface of membrane increased. The measurement of tensile strength showed that with increasing EVA content the mechanical properties of the membranes improved due to interactions of polar groups in EVA.

  20. Spaceborne construction and operations planning - Decision rules for selecting EVA, telerobot, and combined work-systems (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.


    An approach is presented for selecting an appropriate work-system for performing construction and operations tasks by humans and telerobots. The decision to use extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by astronauts, extravehicular robotics (EVR), or a combination of EVA and EVR is determined by the ratio of the marginal costs of EVA, EVR, and IVA. The approach proposed here is useful for examining cost trade-offs between tasks and performing trade studies of task improvement techniques (human or telerobotic).

  1. Maturing Pump Technology for EVA Applications in a Collaborative Environment (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward; Anchondo, Ian


    The transition from low earth orbit Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for construction and maintenance activities to planetary surface EVA on asteroids, moons, and, ultimately, Mars demands a new spacesuit system. NASA's development of that system has resulted in dramatically different pumping requirements from those in the current spacesuit system. Hamilton Sundstrand, Cascon, and NASA are collaborating to develop and mature a pump that will reliably meet those new requirements in space environments and within the design constraints imposed by spacesuit system integration. That collaboration, which began in the NASA purchase of a pump prototype for test evaluation, is now entering a new phase of development. A second generation pump reflecting the lessons learned in NASA's testing of the original prototype will be developed under Hamilton Sundstrand internal research funding and ultimately tested in an integrated Advanced Portable Life Support System (APLSS) in NASA laboratories at the Johnson Space Center. This partnership is providing benefit to both industry and NASA by supplying a custom component for EVA integrated testing at no cost to the government while providing test data for industry that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to duplicate in industry laboratories. This paper discusses the evolving collaborative process, component requirements and design development based on early NASA test experience, component stand alone test results, and near term plans for integrated testing at JSCs.

  2. Next Generation Life Support: High Performance EVA Glove (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah K.


    The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.

  3. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (United States)

    Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.


    As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.

  4. EVA: laparoscopic instrument tracking based on Endoscopic Video Analysis for psychomotor skills assessment. (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Lamata, Pablo; Fernández, Alvaro; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Jansen, Frank Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J


    The EVA (Endoscopic Video Analysis) tracking system is a new system for extracting motions of laparoscopic instruments based on nonobtrusive video tracking. The feasibility of using EVA in laparoscopic settings has been tested in a box trainer setup. EVA makes use of an algorithm that employs information of the laparoscopic instrument's shaft edges in the image, the instrument's insertion point, and the camera's optical center to track the three-dimensional position of the instrument tip. A validation study of EVA comprised a comparison of the measurements achieved with EVA and the TrEndo tracking system. To this end, 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts) were asked to perform a peg transfer task in a box trainer. Ten motion-based metrics were used to assess their performance. Construct validation of the EVA has been obtained for seven motion-based metrics. Concurrent validation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by EVA and the TrEndo for metrics, such as path length (ρ = 0.97), average speed (ρ = 0.94), or economy of volume (ρ = 0.85), proving the viability of EVA. EVA has been successfully validated in a box trainer setup, showing the potential of endoscopic video analysis to assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills. The results encourage further implementation of video tracking in training setups and image-guided surgery.

  5. Architectures/Algorithms/Tools for Ultra-Low Power, Compact EVA Digital Radio, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EVA digital radio imposes tight constraints on power consumption, latency, throughput, form factor, reconfigurability, single event upset and fault tolerance,...

  6. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13 C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimaraes


    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  7. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves Stael


    Full Text Available The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group.

  8. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.


    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  9. Temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westesson, P.L.; Hatala, M.; Tallents, R.H.; Katzberg, R.W.; Musgrave, M.; Levitt, S.


    This paper determines the frequency of MR signs of abnormal temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in asymptomatic volunteers. Forty-two volunteers with 84 clinically normal TMJs were imaged in the sagittal and coronal planes with surface coil MR imaging. Sagittal closed and open and coronal closed views were obtained bilaterally in all volunteers. The images were classified as normal (superior disk position) or abnormal (disk displacement of degenerative joint disease). Eighteen joints in 11 volunteers were abnormal; 12 had disk displacement with reduction and six had disk displacement without reduction, with associated degenerative joint disease in three of the six. Asymptomatic internal derangement and degenerative joint disease occur in about one-fourth of asymptomatic volunteers

  10. Vabariigi presidendi iseseisvuspäeva kõne / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-


    Presidendi kõne Eesti Vabariigi 93. aastapäeva pidulikul kontserdil Estonias 24. veebruaril 2011. aastal. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Isetehtud Eesti. Õhtulehes kommenteerivad Rainer Kattel, Olev Remsu, Agu Uudelepp ja Vitali Belobrovtsev. Õhtulehes vt. ka juhtkiri: Vaikne ja rahulik Põhjamaa? Äripäevas vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Rohkem enesekindlust, rohkem eneseusaldust!

  11. Valitsuse 100 päeva üllatused / Kadri Jakobson, Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 18. juuli lk. 2. Aprillirahutuste ohjamine on toonud valitsusele toetuse, aktsiisi- ja hinnatõus aga ennustavad majandusraskusi. Tabel: Valitsuskoalitsiooni lubadused, teod ja peaministri kommentaarid. Vt. samas: Silmapaistvamad 100 päeva ministrid; Valitsuse 100 päeva positiivsed otsused. Vt. samas: Andrus Saar: valitsuse otsused on pannud käima inflatsiooniralli

  12. Role of EVA viscoelastic properties in the protective performance of a sport shoe: computational studies. (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Weisz, Ety; Hirsch-Falk, Yifat; Gefen, Amit


    Modern sport shoes are designed to attenuate mechanical stress waves, mainly through deformation of the viscoelastic midsole which is typically made of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. Shock absorption is obtained by flow of air through interconnected air cells in the EVA during shoe deformation under body-weight. However, when the shoe is overused and air cells collapse or thickness of the EVA is reduced, shock absorption capacity may be affected, and this may contribute to running injuries. Using lumped system and finite element models, we studied heel pad stresses and strains during heel-strike in running, considering the viscoelastic constitutive behavior of both the heel pad and EVA midsole. In particular, we simulated wear cases of the EVA, manifested in the modeling by reduced foam thickness, increased elastic stiffness, and shorter stress relaxation with respect to new shoe conditions. Simulations showed that heel pad stresses and strains were sensitive to viscous damping of the EVA. Wear of the EVA consistently increased heel pad stresses, and reduced EVA thickness was the most influential factor, e.g., for a 50% reduction in thickness, peak heel pad stress increased by 19%. We conclude that modeling of the heel-shoe interaction should consider the viscoelastic properties of the tissue and shoe components, and the age of the studied shoe.

  13. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart (United States)


    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  14. A versão de Eva: perspectiva, narrativa e interpretação em A vida de Adão e Eva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Motta Rios


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, estudo o discurso de Eva em A vida de Adão e Eva, em sua versão grega. Em um primeiro momento, introduzo o tema da mudança de perspectiva a partir de uma obra contemporânea, Vita Brevis de Jostein Gaarder. Em seguida, apresento brevemente o texto com o qual trabalho. Então, abordo o discurso de Eva, observando a maneira como este se insere na narrativa mais ampla. Reflito também sobre como a mudança de perspectiva instaurada no recontar de Eva possibilita uma narrativa na qual contar e interpretar se mesclam, à maneira dos midrashim agádicos.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign (United States)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

  16. A relação do ângulo da articulação metatarsofalangeana e de medidas antropométricas com a postura dos pés de idosos Relationship between the metatarsophalangeal joint angle and anthropometric measures and foot posture among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP Castro


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a relação entre o ângulo da articulação metatarsofalangeana I (Ang-I e a idade, as medidas antropométricas e a postura dos pés de mulheres e homens idosos. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 227 mulheres idosas, com média de idade de 69,6 anos (±6,8 e 172 homens idosos, com média de idade de 69,4 anos (±6,7. As variáveis estudadas foram: a largura e o perímetro da cabeça dos metatarsos, a altura da cabeça do metatarso I e do dorso do pé, o comprimento do pé, os ângulos articulares Ang-I e metatarsofalangeana V, o índice do arco e o índice postural do pé. As medidas foram tomadas com instrumentos analógicos. Os dados foram analisados por meio de Correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O Ang-I não apresentou relação com a idade e com o índice do arco, porém apresentou associação positiva com a largura e o perímetro da cabeça dos metatarsos, com o índice postural do pé e com o ângulo da articulação metatarsofalangeana V e associação negativa com a altura do dorso do pé. CONCLUSÕES: Foram encontradas relações entre maior Ang-I e maiores largura e perímetro de antepé, maior ângulo da articulação metatarsofalangeana V, pés mais pronados e com menor altura do dorso do pé.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the first metatarsophalangeal joint angle (Ang-I, the age, anthropometric measures and foot posture of older adults. METHODS: The sample was composed of 227 older women with a mean age of 69.6 (±6.8 years and 172 older men with a mean age of 69.4 (±6.7 years. The studied variables were: the width and circumference of the metatarsal heads, the height of the first metatarsal head and the dorsum of the foot, the length of the foot, the Ang-I and fifth metatarsophalangeal joint angles, the arch index and the foot posture index. The measurements were taken with analog instruments. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: There was no association

  17. Neuromuscular properties of different spastic human joints vary systematically. (United States)

    Mirbagheri, M M; Settle, K


    We quantified the mechanical abnormalities of the spastic wrist in chronic stroke survivors, and determined whether these findings were representative of those recorded at the elbow and ankle joints. System identification techniques were used to characterize the mechanical abnormalities of these joints and to identify the contribution of intrinsic and reflex stiffness to these abnormalities. Modulation of intrinsic and reflex stiffness with the joint angle was studied by applying PRBS perturbations to the joints at different joint angles over the range of motion. Age-matched healthy subjects were used as control.

  18. Spectroscopic, scanning laser OBIC, and I-V/QE characterizations of browned EVA solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Eisgruber, I.L. [Materials Research Group, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Micheels, R.H. [Polestar Technologies, Inc., Needham Hts, MA (United States)


    The effects of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration due to accelerated field or laboratory exposure on the encapsulated silicon (Si) solar cells or EVA/glass laminates were characterized quantitatively by using non-invasive, non-destructive ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, spectrocolorimetry, spectrofluorometry, scanning laser OBIC (optical beam induced current) spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) measurements. The results show that the yellowness index (YI) measured directly over the AR-coated solar cells under the glass superstrate increased from the range of -80 to -90 to the range of -20 to 15 as the EVA changed from clear to brown. The ratio of two fluorescence emission peak areas generally increased from 1.45 to 5.69 as browning increased, but dropped to 4.21 on a darker EVA. For a solar cell with brown EVA in the central region, small-area grating QE measurements and scanning laser OBIC analysis between the brown and clear EVA regions showed that the quantum efficiency loss at 633 nm was 42%-48% of the loss at 488 nm, due to a reduced decrease of transmittance in browned EVA at the longer wavelengths. The portion of the solar cell under the browned EVA showed a decrease of {approximately}36% in efficiency, as compared to the cell efficiency under clear EVA. Transmittance loss at 633 nm was 38% of the loss at 488 nm for a light yellow-brown EVA/glass laminate that showed a small increase of 10 in the yellowness index.

  19. Study on the constitutive model for jointed rock mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    Full Text Available A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis.

  20. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders


    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  1. Joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.


    The authors discuss how x-ray examination is essential in the diagnosis and evaluation of the arthritides. Most arthritides are first suspected by the clinician, and x-ray evaluation of these entities along with laboratory testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in staging of the disease process. Several arthritides are often diagnosed first by the podiatrist on x-ray evaluation, including pseudogout, ankylosing spondylitis, early rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease, and tuberculosis of bone. The joint responds to insult in only a limited number of ways that become apparent on x-ray. The soft tissues surrounding the joint, the articulating bones, and alignment of the joint space may all be involved by the arthritic process. On roentgenographic examination, the soft tissues must be examined for edema, masses, calcifications, and atrophy. The articulating bones must be examined for demineralization, erosions, osteophytes, periosteal reaction, cysts and sclerosis

  2. Joint pain (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  3. Joint Commission (United States)

    ... for the latest publication of The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (JQPS). . How We Work Process improvement program breeds quality culture, empowers staff An article in Quality Progress, June ...

  4. Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante


    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of 5 fruits per package for each evaluation period. A group of control apples was not submitted to atmospheric modification. After the treatment, all fruits were stored at 0.5±0.5°C (cold storage for up to 225 days. The analyses were performed at 45, 135, and 225 days after cold storage. Respiration, ethylene production, firmness, mass loss, total pectin, soluble pectin, soluble solids, total acidity, and epidermis background color of each treatment group were evaluated. The high density polyethylene film treatment did not show a decrease in ethylene production during storage and allowed the fruits to maintain a greater firmness and smaller percentage of mass loss during the study period. Moreover, the storage of the Eva apple cultivar under modified atmosphere allowed the preservation of quality for up to seven months.

  5. Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Peters, B.; McBryan, E.; Laske, E.


    The Space Suit RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an EVA crew member since gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to approach this problem by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices. This application of the NASA/GM RoboGlove technology uses a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove. This design provides grasp augmentation to the glove user while active, but can also function as a normal glove when disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and extrinsically locating the actuators. Conduits are used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The second generation of the SSRG includes updated electronics, sensors, and actuators to improve performance. The following discusses the electromechanical design, softgoods integration, and control system of the SSRG. It also presents test results from the first integration of a powered mobility element onto a space suit, the NASA Mark III. Early results show that sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and the actuators show potential for reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of the support in race walking. Relationship between footprint, subtalar joint angles, and plantar pressures Análisis biomecánico del apoyo plantar en la marcha atlética. Relación entre la huella plantar, ángulos de la articulación subastragalina y presiones plantares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meana


    Full Text Available

    The aims were to describe the behavior of the subtalar joint and foot in the race walk, and seek for correlations between them and the footprint. 12 race walkers participated in the study. The arch index was calculated on their footprints. Plantar pressures were measured and 3D photogrammetry used on a single support while they race walked at their own competitive speed. Maximum pressures were calculated in each region of the foot and also the maximum and minimum values of the three angles that describe the subtalar joint. The maximum pronation was higher than that described in the walking gait and similar to that of the running gait (-13.6 ± 3.90. In the beginning of the support the subtalar joint was between the walking and the running gaits. This suggests that the cushioning mechanism of this joint is adjusted according to the type of locomotion. The region of the foot that registered higher pressures was the external rearfoot (21.02 kPa/kg followed by the internal forefoot (13.12 kPa/kg, showing a different behaviour to that of the running gait, in which both present similar maximum pressures. The subjects with lower arches tended to support with the internal face of the foot (r=-0.713 and with the leg inclined medially (r=0.874. Likewise, the racewalkers with higher arches registered higher pressures in the external part of the rearfoot, whereas the lowest ones did it in the internal part of the midfoot.
    Key Words: Biomechanics, race walk, footprint, subtalar joint, plantar pressure.

    Los objetivos fueron describir el comportamiento de la articulación subastragalina y el pie en la marcha atlética y buscar correlaciones entre estos y la huella plantar. Participaron 12 marchadores. Se calculó el índice del arco sobre sus huellas plantares. Se registraron presiones plantares y se aplicó fotogrametría 3D durante un apoyo

  7. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study (United States)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.


    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  8. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system (United States)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.


    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  9. EVA Human Health and Performance Benchmarking Study Overview and Development of a Microgravity Protocol (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Jarvis, Sarah; Bekdash, Omar; Cupples, Scott; Abercromby, Andrew


    The primary objective of this study is to develop a protocol to reliably characterize human health and performance metrics for individuals working inside various EVA suits under realistic spaceflight conditions. Expected results and methodologies developed during this study will provide the baseline benchmarking data and protocols with which future EVA suits and suit configurations (e.g., varied pressure, mass, center of gravity [CG]) and different test subject populations (e.g., deconditioned crewmembers) may be reliably assessed and compared. Results may also be used, in conjunction with subsequent testing, to inform fitness-for-duty standards, as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  10. Joint Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreň Ladislav


    Full Text Available According to the shared intentionality hypothesis proposed by Michael Tomasello, two cognitive upgrades – joint and collective intentionality, respectively – make human thinking unique. Joint intentionality, in particular, is a mindset supposed to account for our early, species-specific capacity to participate in collaborative activities involving two (or a few agents. In order to elucidate such activities and their proximate cognitive-motivational mechanism, Tomasello draws on philosophical accounts of shared intentionality. I argue that his deference to such cognitively demanding accounts of shared intentional activities is problematic if his theoretical ambition is in part to show that and how early (prelinguistic and precultural capacities for joint action contribute to the development of higher cognitive capacities.

  11. EVA Swab Tool to Support Planetary Protection and Astrobiology Evaluations (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hood, Drew; Walker, Mary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.


    When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. A team at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each end effector. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab end effector much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab end effector is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and re-pressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between

  12. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona


    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  13. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  14. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.


    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  15. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.


    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  17. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System (United States)

    Lavelle, Joseph


    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  18. Joint imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengst, W.


    Joint imaging is a proven diagnostic procedure which has become indispensable to the detection and treatment of different joint diseases in almost all disciplines. The method is suited for early diagnosis of joint affections both in soft tissue and bone which cannot be detected by X-ray or other procedures. The local activity accumulation depends on the rate of metabolism and is visualized in the scan, which in turn enables the extension and floridity of focal lesions to be evaluated and followed-up. Although joint scans may often give hints to probabilities relevant to differential diagnosis, the method is non-specific and only useful if based on the underlying clinical picture and X-ray finding, if possible. The radiation exposure is very low and does not represent a hazard in cases of adequate assessment of indication. In pregnant women and children the assessment of indication has to be based on very strict principles. The method is suited for out-patient diagnosis and can be applied in all installations equipped with a gamma camera and a technetium generator. (orig.) [de

  19. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene


    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose...

  20. Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.


    NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

  1. Effect of rock joint roughness on its cyclic shear behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mahdi Niktabar


    Full Text Available Rock joints are often subjected to dynamic loads induced by earthquake and blasting during mining and rock cutting. Hence, cyclic shear load can be induced along the joints and it is important to evaluate the shear behavior of rock joint under this condition. In the present study, synthetic rock joints were prepared with plaster of Paris (PoP. Regular joints were simulated by keeping regular asperity with asperity angles of 15°–15° and 30°–30°, and irregular rock joints which are closer to natural joints were replicated by keeping the asperity angles of 15°–30° and 15°–45°. The sample size and amplitude of roughness were kept the same for both regular and irregular joints which were 298 mm × 298 mm × 125 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Shear test was performed on these joints using a large-scale direct shear testing machine by keeping the frequency and amplitude of shear load under constant cyclic condition with different normal stress values. As expected, the shear strength of rock joints increased with the increases in the asperity angle and normal load during the first cycle of shearing or static load. With the increase of the number of shear cycles, the shear strength decreased for all the asperity angles but the rate of reduction was more in case of high asperity angles. Test results indicated that shear strength of irregular joints was higher than that of regular joints at different cycles of shearing at low normal stress. Shearing and degradation of joint asperities on regular joints were the same between loading and unloading, but different for irregular joints. Shear strength and joint degradation were more significant on the slope of asperity with higher angles on the irregular joint until two angles of asperities became equal during the cycle of shearing and it started behaving like regular joints for subsequent cycles.

  2. A Pilot Model for the NASA Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) (Single-Axis Pitch Task) (United States)

    Handley, Patrick Mark

    This thesis defines, tests, and validates a descriptive pilot model for a single-axis pitch control task of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). SAFER is a small propulsive jetpack used by astronauts for self-rescue. Pilot model research supports development of improved self-rescue strategies and technologies through insights into pilot behavior.This thesis defines a multi-loop pilot model. The innermost loop controls the hand controller, the middle loop controls pitch rate, and the outer loop controls pitch angle. A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to gather data from a human pilot. Quantitative and qualitative metrics both indicate that the model is an acceptable fit to the human data. Fuel consumption was nearly identical; time to task completion matched very well. There is some evidence that the model responds faster to initial pitch rates than the human, artificially decreasing the model's time to task completion. This pilot model is descriptive, not predictive, of the human pilot. Insights are made into pilot behavior from this research. Symmetry implies that the human responds to positive and negative initial conditions with the same strategy. The human pilot appears indifferent to pitch angles within 0.5 deg, coasts at a constant pitch rate 1.09 deg/s, and has a reaction delay of 0.1 s.

  3. Korp! Filiae Patriae 85. aastapäeva pidustused Los Angeleses / Lumme Erilt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilt, Lumme


    5. novembril 2005 tähistas Filiae Patriae Kalifornia koondis Los Angelese Eesti Majas piduliku õestuspeo ning ühise perekonnaõhtuga koos korp! Rotaliaga aastapäeva. Peeti kõnesid, oli tervitusi, muusikat, palju lilli

  4. Eesti vanim raamatukogu tähistab 450. aastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Oleviste raamatukogu, mille varad on EAR baltikaosakonnas. Aastapäeva puhul avati näitus "Tallinna Oleviste raamatukogu 450" 3. aprillil 2002 Tallinna Raekoja keldrisaalis, samuti esitletakse kogumikku "Bibliotheca Revaliensis ad. D. Olai"


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Economic Value Added (EVA is an index of “durable development.” It was proposed by the Stern-Stewart Office and represents the true economic profit of companies. A company reports economic profit only if thereported accounting profit is higher than the opportunity cost of equity. The authors of the EVA model (Stern-Stewart have also proposed the ways of restating the financial statements to get a “fair image” of the results, thuseliminating the “accounting distortions.”Based on the performance indexes calculated based on EVA and second-generation indexes relating toEVA, we calculated two types of rating: Rating Performance Current and Rating Performance Trend. The rating iscalculated by means of the percentiles technique and the results are split into 22 rating classes.The used database is Russell 3000.

  6. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview (United States)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  7. Taasleitud kadunud ja unustatud kino / Jonathan L. Owen ; tõlkinud Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Owen, Jonathan L.


    Arvustus: Via Transversa : Lost cinema of the former Eastern bloc. Eds. Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek. Special issue of Koht ja paik/Place and location :Studies in environmental aesthetics and semiotics VII. Tallinn, 2008

  8. 'Seal, kus oleme meie, on muuseum!' ; Eva ja Adele Helsingis / interv. Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Elavad skulptuurid Saksamaalt Eva ja Adele etendasid moodsa kunsti muuseumi Kiasma avamisel performance'it 'Seal, kus oleme meie, on muuseum'. Intervjuu kunstnikega. Kunstnikepaarist, nende eesmärgist, millistes maades võetakse neid kergemini vastu, Kiasmast jm

  9. Reconfigurable EVA Radio with Built-In Navigation Capability, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc. and its sub-contractor, Purdue University, propose to develop a power-efficient miniaturized reconfigurable EVA radio system with...

  10. A Novel Approach to Highly Damage Tolerant and Abrasion Resistant EVA Gloves, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the spacesuit pressure garment, the EVA glove incorporates a silicone pad on the palm for protection of the bladder from cuts and punctures. Repeated...

  11. Võidupüha-Jaanipäeva tähistamine Clevelandis / Hans Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Hans


    25. juunil Clevelandi Eesti Kultuuraias. Sellel aastal tähistas kultuuraed 40-ndat asutamise aastapäeva. Meenutati monumendi avamist, peakõnelejaks Toomas Tubalkain, mälestati sõjas hukkunud eestlasi

  12. Closed-Loop, Non-Venting Thermal Control for Mars EVA Suits, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks new thermal control technology for EVA suits on Mars. The system must be closed-loop and non-venting, have negligible impact on the Martian environment,...

  13. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, and highly reliable. A key component is a...

  14. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, highly reliable, and meets stringent...

  15. Astronauts Allen and Gemar during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT (United States)


    Astronauts Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, and Andrew M. Allen participate in a training exercise at JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT), located in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility. Gemar sits inside the airlock as Allen reviews procedures for EVA.

  16. Mechanical behavior of recycled lightweight concrete using EVA waste and CDW under moderate temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Q. R. Santiago

    Full Text Available Many benefits can be achieved by using recycled waste as raw material for construction. Some of them are the reduction of the total cost of the construction, the reduction of the consumption of energy and the decrease in the use of natural materials. The construction sector can also incorporate the waste of the other industries, like the waste of the shoes industry, the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA. EVA aggregate is obtained by cutting off the waste of EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of the shoes. In this work two types of recycled aggregate were used - construction and demolition waste (CDW and EVA. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates, as replacement of the natural coarse aggregate, on mechanical behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with two w/c ratio: 0.49 and 0.82. Four mixtures with produced with different aggregates substitution rates (0, 50%EVA, 50%CDW and 25%EVA-25%CDW, by volume. Compressive tests were carried out to evaluable the influence of recycled aggregate on strength, elastic modulus and Poisson coefficient. In addition, it was evaluated the effect of the moderate temperatures (50, 70 and 100º C on stress-strain behavior of concretes studied. The results demonstrated that is possible to use the EVA waste and RCD to produces lightweight concrete. The influence of temperature was more significant only on elastic modulus of the recycled concrete with 50%EVA.

  17. Diagnostic criteria for enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) on CT of the temporal bones. Borderline cases of EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Hoshino, Tomoyuki; Kikura, Mikino; Kikawada, Keiko; Kikawada, Toru


    The objective of this study was to examine measurements of the vestibular aqueduct on axial CT figures and to examine the cases with borderline EVA. The width of the vestibular aqueduct was measured in two places, the midpoint of the duct and the external aperture in the posterior cranial fossa. Criteria was as follow: Enlargement; ≥1.5 mm at the midpoint, ≥2 mm at the aperture, Borderline; 1-1.4 mm at the midpoint, 1.5-1.9 mm at the aperture. Three hundred forty-five cases with CT scans of the temporal bones taken during July 2003 to June 2004 in the secondary ENT referral center. Those patients include sensorinearal, mixed or conductive deafness, vertigo, ear infections and other ear diseases. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct was found in 10 ears with sensorineural deafness (SD) and 2 ears without SD. Borderline measurements were found in 19 ears with SD and 33 ears without SD. The enlarged midpoint measurement was not seen in the cases without SD. More than 1.5 mm of the definition for the enlargement at the midpoint of the vestibular aqueduct seemed to be appropriate in the clinical situation. The measurement at the midpoint of the duct is more reliable than at the external aperture. The conductive component in EVA Syndrome with mixed hearing loss is present only at the lower frequencies (250, 500 Hz), not at the middle and higer frequencies. Long-term follow-up of hearing should be done in the borderline cases with check-up of PDS gene anomaly if necessary. (author)

  18. Comparison of Quaternion and Euler Angle Methods for Joint Angle Animation of Human Figure Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usta, Umit


    .... The model is then manipulated with user inputs by a mouse. As part of this research, the real-time display of human arm tracking with two inertial sensors, human walking, inverse kinematics, and key frame animation...

  19. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) (EVA). (United States)

    Brancher, Luiza R; Nunes, Maria Fernanda de O; Grisa, Ana Maria C; Pagnussat, Daniel T; Zeni, Mára


    This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm) with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  20. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza R. Brancher


    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  1. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtao Li


    Full Text Available Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation.

  2. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.


    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  3. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.


    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  4. Automated measurement of diagnostic angles for hip dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Raedt, Sepp; Mechlenburg, I.; Stilling, M.


    automatically calculated. Previous work in automating the measuring of angles required the manual segmentation or delineation of the articular joint surface. In the current work automatic segmentation is established using graph-cuts with a cost function based on a sheetness score to detect the sheet...

  5. Optical Enhancement of Exoskeleton-Based Estimation of Glenohumeral Angles (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; Unzueta, Luis; de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Ruiz, Oscar E.; Flórez, Julián


    In Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) the accurate estimation of the patient limb joint angles is critical for assessing therapy efficacy. In RAR, the use of classic motion capture systems (MOCAPs) (e.g., optical and electromagnetic) to estimate the Glenohumeral (GH) joint angles is hindered by the exoskeleton body, which causes occlusions and magnetic disturbances. Moreover, the exoskeleton posture does not accurately reflect limb posture, as their kinematic models differ. To address the said limitations in posture estimation, we propose installing the cameras of an optical marker-based MOCAP in the rehabilitation exoskeleton. Then, the GH joint angles are estimated by combining the estimated marker poses and exoskeleton Forward Kinematics. Such hybrid system prevents problems related to marker occlusions, reduced camera detection volume, and imprecise joint angle estimation due to the kinematic mismatch of the patient and exoskeleton models. This paper presents the formulation, simulation, and accuracy quantification of the proposed method with simulated human movements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the method accuracy to marker position estimation errors, due to system calibration errors and marker drifts, has been carried out. The results show that, even with significant errors in the marker position estimation, method accuracy is adequate for RAR. PMID:27403044

  6. Transverse morphology of the sacroiliac joint: effect of angulation and implications for fluoroscopically guided sacroiliac joint injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, B.C.; Lee, J.W.; Man, H.S.J.; Grace, M.G.A.; Lambert, R.G.W.; Jhangri, G.S.


    Effects of angulation of computed tomography (CT) reconstruction plane on sacroiliac (SI) joint morphology were studied, and factors influencing the approach to fluoroscopically guided SI joint injection were assessed. CT scans of pelvises were reformatted on 41 subjects, aged 51.7 (±15.1) years. Transverse images were reconstructed at the caudal 3 cm of the SI joint tilting plane of reconstruction from -30 to +30 at 15 increments. Anteroposterior diameter of joint (depth), angle from sagittal plane (orientation angle), and distance from skin were measured. Joint contour was classified, and presence of bone blocking access to the joint was recorded. Comparison between angles were analysed by t-test. Relationships between variables were assessed by a Pearson correlation test. Depth was shorter with angulation in the inferior direction (P<0.01). Orientation angle increased with superior angulation (P<0.01). Distance from skin increased (P<0.01) with angulation in either direction. Joint contour was significantly different from baseline at each angle (P<0.001) but highly variable. Inferior angulation resulted in interposition of ilium between skin and SI joint, and superior angulation caused bone block due to the lower sacrum. None of these features was identified without tilting of the reconstruction plane, and effects were more pronounced with steeper angulation

  7. Transverse morphology of the sacroiliac joint: effect of angulation and implications for fluoroscopically guided sacroiliac joint injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, B.C.; Lee, J.W.; Man, H.S.J.; Grace, M.G.A.; Lambert, R.G.W. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton (Canada); Jhangri, G.S. [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton (Canada)


    Effects of angulation of computed tomography (CT) reconstruction plane on sacroiliac (SI) joint morphology were studied, and factors influencing the approach to fluoroscopically guided SI joint injection were assessed. CT scans of pelvises were reformatted on 41 subjects, aged 51.7 ({+-}15.1) years. Transverse images were reconstructed at the caudal 3 cm of the SI joint tilting plane of reconstruction from -30 to +30 at 15 increments. Anteroposterior diameter of joint (depth), angle from sagittal plane (orientation angle), and distance from skin were measured. Joint contour was classified, and presence of bone blocking access to the joint was recorded. Comparison between angles were analysed by t-test. Relationships between variables were assessed by a Pearson correlation test. Depth was shorter with angulation in the inferior direction (P<0.01). Orientation angle increased with superior angulation (P<0.01). Distance from skin increased (P<0.01) with angulation in either direction. Joint contour was significantly different from baseline at each angle (P<0.001) but highly variable. Inferior angulation resulted in interposition of ilium between skin and SI joint, and superior angulation caused bone block due to the lower sacrum. None of these features was identified without tilting of the reconstruction plane, and effects were more pronounced with steeper angulation.

  8. Joint Operation Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the joint operation planning activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, and provides the joint doctrinal basis...

  9. Development of lightweight concrete subfloor with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates waste to reduce impact sound in flooring system


    Pacheco, Fernanda; Krumenauer, Marcelo; Reis de Medeiros, Daniel; Oliveira, Maria Fernanda; Fonseca Tutikian, Bernardo


    Abstract Comfort and habitability are requirements for housing quality, affected by underfloor system. Thus, this study aims to design lightweight concrete slabs underfloor with the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates, with two grain sizes of conventional aggregates replaced with EVA. The experimental counted on four unit mixes, varying the ratio between EVA coarse and fine aggregates and natural aggregates. The underfloor plates were molded with thickness of 3, 5 and 7 centimeters...

  10. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks (United States)

    Kilby, Melissa


    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  11. The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.


    Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)

  12. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA


    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  13. Association of Gastrocnemius Muscle Stiffness With Passive Ankle Joint Stiffness and Sex-Related Difference in the Joint Stiffness. (United States)

    Chino, Kintaro; Takashi, Hideyuki


    Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness. Localized muscle stiffness of the MG in 16 men and 17 women was assessed at 10° and 20° plantar flexion, neutral anatomical position, 10° and 20° dorsiflexion. Fascicle length and pennation angle of the MG were measured at these joint positions. Passive ankle joint stiffness was determined by the ankle joint angle-torque relationship. Localized MG muscle stiffness was not significantly correlated with passive ankle joint stiffness, and did not show significant sex-related difference, even when considering the muscle architecture. This finding suggest that muscle stiffness of the MG would not be a prominent factor to determine passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness.

  14. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state {sup 13} C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimaraes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Menezes, Sonia Maria Cabral de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; D' Almeida, Jose Roberto Morais; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the {sup 13} C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Sri Hariani


    Full Text Available This research investigated the simultaneous impact and partial impact of financial ratios (ROA, ROE, EPS and Economic Value-Added (EVA on stock return. One of the four independent variables, that is EVA, are new concepts for measuring financial performance. Explanatory method was used in this research, and the sample was collected using purposive sampling method from Jakarta Islamic Index listed in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI, Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2005 - 2007. Multiple linear regression was used for the analysis in this research.The result of the analysis shows that all independent variables, that is Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Earnings per Share (EPS and EVA have both simultaneous and partial impact on the dependent variable, that is stock return. An interesting finding is that the regression coefficients are different among the variables. ROE and EPS were found to have positive and significant impact on dependent variable while EVA and ROA were found to have negative and significant impact on dependent variable. A positive value for ROE means that the ROE variable can be taken as a measure for a company’s effectivity in utilizing equity in the effort to gain profit. While EPS was found to have the most dominant impact on stock price. The higher the EPS, the greater management’s success in gaining profit for the shareholder or investors. ROA was found to have negative and significant. A finding of this research which is contrary to previous research is that economic value added (EVA was found to have negative and significant impact on stock price. However this finding can be explained as follows: first, the average debt in the companies in the sample is greater than the value of their equity so that EVA will increase due to the reduction in WACC. The increase in EVA is accompanied by a reduction in stock return. Second, positive EVA is not accompanied by any increase of stock performance in the market; and

  16. Použití ukazatele EVA v konkrétním podniku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Zemánková


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: This article is an illustrative case study describing usage of EVA indicator in chosen specific company. Key part of the article deals with application of EVA indicator in company. It consists of procedure how to adjust accounting data into required form and determine weight costs of capital. Then there is calculation of EVA indicator and other indicators based on it. Last part is comparison of results. Methodology/methods: The basic method is case study. Its aim is to demonstrate good understanding or causation explanation of particular example. It takes into account the overall context of the problem. Scientific aim: The objective of the article is to come near to theoretical economic procedures and highlight the problematic areas within the practical application of EVA indicator in the business. Next aim is to emphasize the importance of EVA indicator. Findings: This article illustrates some problematic issues that companies may face while calculating EVA indicator. Czech accounting standards do not correspond with international accounting standard methodology known as IFRS for compiling statements. First difficult area was conversion of assets into net operating assets NOA. Then operating profit is modified in respect of so-called unusual costs and revenues. The next issue in calculation of EVA indicator is stating average weight costs on capital. The last area of problems is the time flow of leasing contracts, value of liabilities arising from them and assessing the lifetime of leased property. Conclusions: The article empirically examined the effectiveness of EVA indicator with regard to its relation to the accounting performance indicators. It was proved that although the company reported financial health within the frame of financial analysis, it gave owners only slightly increasing economic value added. The article points out the need of usege of EVA indicator in corporate practice.

  17. Wearable human body joint and posture measuring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunias, P.; Gransier, R.; Jin, A.; Statham, A.; Willems, P.


    In many medical applications, especially the orthopaedic setting, ambulatory, monitoring of human joint angles could be of substantial value to improving rehabilitation strategies and unravelling the pathomechanics of many degenerative joint diseases (e.g. knee osteoarthritis). With the ageing of

  18. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0: an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey


    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  19. A comparative study of EVA with and without thermal history for different lamination process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabczyk, Kazimierz, E-mail: [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Panek, Piotr [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)


    In more than 80% of the worldwide photovoltaic (PV) modules, mostly very fragile and 200 {mu}m thick, crystalline silicon solar cells are encapsulated into ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foils, which bond the module components together, provide physical protection, electrical insulation and a barrier for moisture ingress. The understanding of what can happen with EVA during its transport, storage and lamination process is necessary to optimize the quality of the PV module for its long exposure to outdoor weather conditions. Achieving a proper cross-link density of over 70%, it is essential to overcome the cold flow of EVA and to make the module durable. In this work, the feasibility of the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) compared with the solvent extraction (SE) method by toluene were evaluated in order to provide structural information on the EVA curing kinetics and the cross-link density. DSC tests were performed on a DTA DuPont1600 tester. The temperature range for the test was from -50 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C, with the heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min, and the endothermic and exothermic peaks were evaluated. Toluene solvent extractions were performed on the same set of samples that were analyzed by DSC. The measured cross-link density shows a direct dependence on the pre-lamination conditions of EVA, which is in good agreement with the data obtained with the DSC method.

  20. A evasão no ensino superior brasileiro Higher education institutions' evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leal Lobo e Silva Filho


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho a evasão nas instituições de educação superior no Brasil é estudada com base em dados oficiais, em que se incluem análises regionais dos índices da evasão anual média e da evasão por tipo de instituição. Verifica-se uma correlação negativa entre os índices de evasão e a demanda por curso. Com vistas a possibilitar comparações, são apresentados dados internacionais que indicam que a evasão no Brasil não difere muito das médias internacionais.In this work, evasion in institutions of higher education is studied, based on official data, including regional analyses of annual mean evasion rates and evasion rates by type of institution. It was verified that there is a negative correlation between evasion rates an demand for undergraduate courses. Comparisons with international data are presented, pointing out that the evasion rates in Brazil do not differ a lot from those of other countries.

  1. Biosensors for EVA: Muscle Oxygen and pH During Walking, Running and Simulated Reduced Gravity (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Ellerby, G.; Scott, P.; Stroud, L.; Norcross, J.; Pesholov, B.; Zou, F.; Gernhardt, M.; Soller, B.


    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI-funded project is looking to extend this methodology to examine activities which more appropriately represent EVA activities, such as walking and running and to better understand factors that determine the metabolic cost of exercise in both normal and lunar gravity. Our 4 year project specifically addresses risk: ExMC 4.18: Lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capability for Constellation EVA Suits and EPSP risk: Risk of compromised EVA performance and crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems.

  2. A comparative study of EVA with and without thermal history for different lamination process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabczyk, Kazimierz; Panek, Piotr


    In more than 80% of the worldwide photovoltaic (PV) modules, mostly very fragile and 200 μm thick, crystalline silicon solar cells are encapsulated into ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foils, which bond the module components together, provide physical protection, electrical insulation and a barrier for moisture ingress. The understanding of what can happen with EVA during its transport, storage and lamination process is necessary to optimize the quality of the PV module for its long exposure to outdoor weather conditions. Achieving a proper cross-link density of over 70%, it is essential to overcome the cold flow of EVA and to make the module durable. In this work, the feasibility of the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) compared with the solvent extraction (SE) method by toluene were evaluated in order to provide structural information on the EVA curing kinetics and the cross-link density. DSC tests were performed on a DTA DuPont1600 tester. The temperature range for the test was from −50 °C to 200 °C, with the heating rate of 10 °C/min, and the endothermic and exothermic peaks were evaluated. Toluene solvent extractions were performed on the same set of samples that were analyzed by DSC. The measured cross-link density shows a direct dependence on the pre-lamination conditions of EVA, which is in good agreement with the data obtained with the DSC method.

  3. Changes in the EV-A71 Genome through Recombination and Spontaneous Mutations: Impact on Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiiha Bibi Mandary


    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 is a major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD that mainly affects young children less than five years old. The onset of severe HFMD is due to neurological complications bringing about acute flaccid paralysis and pulmonary oedema. In this review, we address how genetic events such as recombination and spontaneous mutations could change the genomic organization of EV-A71, leading to an impact on viral virulence. An understanding of the recombination mechanism of the poliovirus and non-polio enteroviruses will provide further evidence of the emergence of novel strains responsible for fatal HFMD outbreaks. We aim to see if the virulence of EV-A71 is contributed solely by the presence of fatal strains or is due to the co-operation of quasispecies within a viral population. The phenomenon of quasispecies within the poliovirus is discussed to reflect viral fitness, virulence and its implications for EV-A71. Ultimately, this review gives an insight into the evolution patterns of EV-A71 by looking into its recombination history and how spontaneous mutations would affect its virulence.

  4. Comparison Of Human Modelling Tools For Efficiency Of Prediction Of EVA Tasks (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Loughead, Tomas E.


    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require extensive extravehicular activity (EVA, spacewalks), and estimates of the actual time needed continue to rise. As recently as September, 1996, the amount of time to be spent in EVA was believed to be about 400 hours, excluding spacewalks on the Russian segment. This estimate has recently risen to over 1100 hours, and it could go higher before assembly begins in the summer of 1998. These activities are extremely expensive and hazardous, so any design tools which help assure mission success and improve the efficiency of the astronaut in task completion can pay off in reduced design and EVA costs and increased astronaut safety. The tasks which astronauts can accomplish in EVA are limited by spacesuit mobility. They are therefore relatively simple, from an ergonomic standpoint, requiring gross movements rather than time motor skills. The actual tasks include driving bolts, mating and demating electric and fluid connectors, and actuating levers; the important characteristics to be considered in design improvement include the ability of the astronaut to see and reach the item to be manipulated and the clearance required to accomplish the manipulation. This makes the tasks amenable to simulation in a Computer-Assisted Design (CAD) environment. For EVA, the spacesuited astronaut must have his or her feet attached on a work platform called a foot restraint to obtain a purchase against which work forces may be actuated. An important component of the design is therefore the proper placement of foot restraints.

  5. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle? (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A


    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint bone in the classification of the ankle joint trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Zhang Qiang


    Objective: To evaluate the fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint bone in the classification of the ankle joint trauma. Methods: Measure fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint in 217 adult cases of fracture and dislocation of ankle joint. And the cases were classified by the results of the measurement. Results: Measurement was unavailable in 9 cases of tearing fracture. In 31 cases, the lesions could not be particularly classified. And in the rest 176 cases the trauma were precisely classified. The over all successful rate was 81.6%. Conclusion: Fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint bone are valuable in classification of the trauma of the angle joint. While the specificity of this method is low in differentiating the adducting and abducting fracture of the medial angle, in which a combined investigation is recommended

  7. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao Chuanmei [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Zhengzhou [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail:; Chen Xilei [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Yu Benyi [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu Yuan [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)


    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO{sub 3} hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose.

  8. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete (United States)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.


    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  9. Synergistic effects of EB irradiation and heat on EVA electrical insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, S.; Zaharescu, T.; Marcuta, M.; Setnescu, R.; Gorghiu, L.M.; Dumitrescu, C.


    Radiation/thermal degradation is discussed as a successful endurance check. EVA samples were subjected to electron beam irradiation at 12, 30, 60 and 90kGy. Heat treatment was performed in air at 120 o C for 72h and 120h. Chemiluminescence (CL) investigations on EVA specimens were carried out at 200, 210 and 220 o C. Several kinetic parameters such as oxidation induction time (t i ), half-oxidation time (t 1/2 ), maximum oxidation rate (v ox max ), maximum time of thermal oxidation (t max ) and other chemiluminescence features were obtained from the time dependencies of the CL intensity. While the ageing factors of processed EVA samples reveal a constant value for two testing temperatures (200 and 210 o C), the co-operative factors that describe a combined (synergistic) degradation present higher than unity values, either for the oxidation rates or for the maximum CL intensity measured for all irradiation doses. They increase linearly with dose

  10. All about Eve. Eva Hesse and the Post-Minimalist Romantic Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański, Wojciech


    Full Text Available The article employs the category of Romantic irony for an interpretation of Eva Hesse's work. It takes as its starting point one of Arthur Danto's texts, where the American philosopher makes a positive re-evaluation of the artist's work, and reads it as a largely humorous combination of two – seemingly incongruent – traditions of American art of the 20thcentury: Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism. Features that Danto finds humorous, the author of the present article considers exemplary of Romantic irony, an approach that he finds in Eva Hesse's oeuvre. In the second part of the article, two competing interpretations of Eva Hesse's work are presented: Robert Pincus-Witten's and Lucy R. Lippard's. However, with the use of the notion of Romantic irony their standpoints can be reconciled, with a simultaneous indication of a previously dismissed, yet crucial, ironic aspect of the work of the American artist.

  11. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Chuanmei; Wang Zhengzhou; Chen Xilei; Yu Benyi; Hu Yuan


    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO 3 hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose

  12. Tectonic contact beetwen Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc


    Full Text Available Tectonic contact between Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa, which passes prominent cliffs over the left bank of Savinja river (Klemenča peč, Jamnikova peč, Golerjeva peč, Strevčeva peč and Huda peč, is on the basis of the new mapping a steep fault, dipping to the north. In the last phase, the fault was dextral strike – slip active, before was probably reverse, and can represent accompanying structure of Periadriatic lineament. It was under transpresive tectonic regime and complies with model of positive flower structure.We named it Podol{evski prelom (Podol{eva fault.

  13. Sistema E.V.A. 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Córdova, D. M.


    Full Text Available Dentro del campo del crecimiento y desarrollo, el cálculo antropométrico, es una de las herramientas más utilizadas para encontrar indicadores válidos del estado general del crecimiento biológico de una población en su interacción con los diversos factores sociales. Frente al evidente proceso de pauperización por el que viene transcurriendo el país, la evaluación del estado nutricional de la población infantil, tanto en sus aspectos poblacionales como individuales, se hace necesaria y cotidiana. Presentamos aquí un software de escritorio que permite el cálculo y la graficación de las principales variables antropométricas. El E.V.A. 1.0 (Evaluación y Visualización Antropométrica brinda también la posibilidad de almacenar los datos, de incorporar tablas de comparación (por default el sistema trae las tablas de la SAP y del NCHS, y de exportar la información al programa EPINFO y a la mayoría de las aplicaciones estándar de escritorio (planillas de cálculo, procesadores de texto, etc.. La aplicación posee también una modalidad de sugerencias de diagnóstico, con referencias bibliográficas, que puede ser de ayuda, tanto para el profesional de A.P.S. como para el investigador.

  14. Joint torques and joint reaction forces during squatting with a forward or backward inclined Smith machine. (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E


    We developed a biomechanical model to determine the joint torques and loadings during squatting with a backward/forward-inclined Smith machine. The Smith squat allows a large variety of body positioning (trunk tilt, foot placement, combinations of joint angles) and easy control of weight distribution between forefoot and heel. These distinctive aspects of the exercise can be managed concurrently with the equipment inclination selected to unload specific joint structures while activating specific muscle groups. A backward (forward) equipment inclination decreases (increases) knee torque, and compressive tibiofemoral and patellofemoral forces, while enhances (depresses) hip and lumbosacral torques. For small knee flexion angles, the strain-force on the posterior cruciate ligament increases (decreases) with a backward (forward) equipment inclination, whereas for large knee flexion angles, this behavior is reversed. In the 0 to 60 degree range of knee flexion angles, loads on both cruciate ligaments may be simultaneously suppressed by a 30 degree backward equipment inclination and selecting, for each value of the knee angle, specific pairs of ankle and hip angles. The anterior cruciate ligament is safely maintained unloaded by squatting with backward equipment inclination and uniform/forward foot weight distribution. The conditions for the development of anterior cruciate ligament strain forces are clearly explained.

  15. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US and Russian EVA Suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.


    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27 percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the bare phantom head

  16. Simulation of Martian EVA at the Mars Society Arctic Research Station (United States)

    Pletser, V.; Zubrin, R.; Quinn, K.

    The Mars Society has established a Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) on Devon Island, North of Canada, in the middle of the Haughton crater formed by the impact of a large meteorite several million years ago. The site was selected for its similarities with the surface of the Mars planet. During the Summer 2001, the MARS Flashline Research Station supported an extended international simulation campaign of human Mars exploration operations. Six rotations of six person crews spent up to ten days each at the MARS Flashline Research Station. International crews, of mixed gender and professional qualifications, conducted various tasks as a Martian crew would do and performed scientific experiments in several fields (Geophysics, Biology, Psychology). One of the goals of this simulation campaign was to assess the operational and technical feasibility of sustaining a crew in an autonomous habitat, conducting a field scientific research program. Operations were conducted as they would be during a Martian mission, including Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) with specially designed unpressurized suits. The second rotation crew conducted seven simulated EVAs for a total of 17 hours, including motorized EVAs with All Terrain Vehicles, to perform field scientific experiments in Biology and Geophysics. Some EVAs were highly successful. For some others, several problems were encountered related to hardware technical failures and to bad weather conditions. The paper will present the experiment programme conducted at the Mars Flashline Research Station, the problems encountered and the lessons learned from an EVA operational point of view. Suggestions to improve foreseen Martian EVA operations will be discussed.

  17. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard


    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  18. Subtalar joint stress imaging with tomosynthesis. (United States)

    Teramoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kota; Takashima, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Toshihiko


    The purpose of this study was to perform stress imaging of hindfoot inversion and eversion using tomosynthesis and to assess the subtalar joint range of motion (ROM) of healthy subjects. The subjects were 15 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 29.1 years. Coronal tomosynthesis stress imaging of the subtalar joint was performed in a total of 30 left and right ankles. A Telos stress device was used for the stress load, and the load was 150 N for both inversion and eversion. Tomographic images in which the posterior talocalcaneal joint could be confirmed on the neutral position images were used in measurements. The angle of the intersection formed by a line through the lateral articular facet of the posterior talocalcaneal joint and a line through the surface of the trochlea of the talus was measured. The mean change in the angle of the calcaneus with respect to the talus was 10.3 ± 4.8° with inversion stress and 5.0 ± 3.8° with eversion stress from the neutral position. The result was a clearer depiction of the subtalar joint, and inversion and eversion ROM of the subtalar joint was shown to be about 15° in healthy subjects. Diagnostic, Level IV.

  19. Caracterização de resíduos de copolímeros de etileno-acetato de vinila - EVA Characterization of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir J. Zattera


    Full Text Available O poli[(etileno-co-(acetato de vinila] (EVA possui grande aplicação na indústria calçadista, sendo utilizado na confecção de placas expandidas para posterior corte de palmilhas e entressolas. Estudos realizados na região sul do Brasil mostraram que os resíduos gerados pela indústria calçadista foram superiores a 200 toneladas/mês em 2001, sendo o maior volume oriundo de recortes de placas expandidas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de caracterizar resíduos de EVA de chapas expandidas, visando à reciclagem mecânica desse material. Análises em MEV demonstraram que o resíduo de EVA apresenta uma morfologia microcelular que é destruída após o processo de moagem. O resíduo de EVA moído apresenta duas fases, uma reticulada (matriz e uma não-reticulada (dispersa. O resíduo de EVA apresentou teor de gel de aproximadamente 75% em massa, cerca de 20% em massa de acetato de vinila (VAc, fora processado a partir de EVA com aproximadamente 28% de VAc e possui teor de carga inorgânica de 20% em massa, segundo análises em TGA. O EVA resíduo apresentou maiores valores de módulo elástico e de dureza, e menores valores de elongação na ruptura e de resistência ao impacto Izod. O custo energético da moagem do resíduo de EVA foi calculado como sendo inferior a 5% do valor do EVA virgem.Poly[(ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate] (EVA has large application in the shoes industries, especially as expanded sheets, in order to produce insoles and innersoles. Studies carried out in the south region of Brazil in 2001 have demonstrated that the residues generated by shoes industries were higher than 200 ton/month, the major part of which is composed by EVA expanded sheets. With this in mind, the objective of this work was to characterize the residues of expanded EVA and also to analyze the milling cost in order to make the recycling possible. The EVA residues presented originally a microcellular structure, which was destroyed after milling

  20. The double Brewster angle effect (United States)

    Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Guinvarc'h, Régis


    The Double Brewster angle effect (DBE) is an extension of the Brewster angle to double reflection on two orthogonal dielectric surfaces. It results from the combination of two pseudo-Brewster angles occurring in complementary incidence angles domains. It can be observed for a large range of incidence angles provided that double bounces mechanism is present. As a consequence of this effect, we show that the reflection coefficient at VV polarization can be at least 10 dB lower than the reflection coefficient at HH polarization over a wide range of incidence angle - typically from 20 to 70∘. It is experimentally demonstrated using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image that this effect can be seen on buildings and forests. For large buildings, the difference can reach more than 20 dB. xml:lang="fr"

  1. Insight into a Pedagogical Sketchbook. Life and work of Eva Eyquem


    Richter, Sabine


    Die vorliegende Arbeit dokumentiert und kontextualisiert das Werk der französischen Kunstpädagogin und ehemaligen Itten-Schülerin Eva Eyquem, geb. Plaut (1915-2009). Es ist meine Absicht, ihr Werk für Forschung und Lehre zugänglich zu machen und für einen kunstpädagogischen Diskurs zu öffnen, der sich mit Positionen in der Nachfolge der Bauhaus-Pädagogik befasst. Meine Arbeit ist in zwei Teile gegliedert. Sie umfasst eine Monografie zu Eva Eyquem, sowie eine fachwissenschaftliche Reflexion, i...

  2. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls (United States)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce


    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  3. IAS15 inflation adjustments and EVA: empirical evidence from a highly variable inflation regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Erasmus


    Full Text Available Inflation can have a pronounced effect on the financial performance of a firm. This study makes inflation adjustments to a firm’s cost of sales, depreciation, level of gearing and assets in line with International Accounting Standard 15 (IAS15 in order to calculate an inflation-adjusted version of the economic value added (EVA measure. The study was conducted using data from South African industrial firms during a period characterised by highly variable inflation levels (1991-2005. The results indicate that during this period there were significant differences between the nominal and real values of the firms’ EVAs

  4. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Blalock


    Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  5. Joint instability and osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi


    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  6. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu


    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  7. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice


    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  8. Chuck for machining armature casings and angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlitskii, A.I.; Matskevich, A.I.


    When machining T-joints and angles, the test specimen must be fixed before being placed in the desired position. This is quite a complex operation and is achieved in a few stages. At the Scientific Production Combine ''Kislorodmash,'' a new chuck was designed which in one pressing of the jaws seats and fixes the specimen. In the clamped condition, the chuck helps rotate and fix the specimen in one of the four positions. Rotating and fixing are manual. The chuck developed ensured a distinct interdependence of the axes of the branches being machined as the specimen remains fixed throughout the period of machining, and provides reliable fixing of the specimen, and there are no clearances when the specimen is fixed with a special wedge. When using the chuck, the ancillary movements of the operator are reduced to a minimum thus increasing the labor productivity

  9. Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images. (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin


    To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  10. Lower limb joint work and joint work contribution during downhill and uphill walking at different inclinations. (United States)

    Alexander, Nathalie; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Ameshofer, Lisa Maria; Schwameder, Hermann


    Work performance and individual joint contribution to total work are important information for creating training protocols, but were not assessed so far for sloped walking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze lower limb joint work and joint contribution of the hip, knee and ankle to total lower limb work during sloped walking in a healthy population. Eighteen male participants (27.0±4.7yrs, 1.80±0.05m, 74.5±8.2kg) walked on an instrumented ramp at inclination angles of 0°, ±6°, ±12° and ±18° at 1.1m/s. Kinematic and kinetic data were captured using a motion-capture system (Vicon) and two force plates (AMTI). Joint power curves, joint work (positive, negative, absolute) and each joint's contribution to total lower limb work were analyzed throughout the stance phase using an ANOVA with repeated measures. With increasing inclination positive joint work increased for the ankle and hip joint and in total during uphill walking. Negative joint work increased for each joint and in total work during downhill walking. Absolute work was increased during both uphill (all joints) and downhill (ankle & knee) walking. Knee joint contribution to total negative and absolute work increased during downhill walking while hip and ankle contributions decreased. This study identified, that, when switching from level to a 6° and from 6° to a 12° inclination the gain of individual joint work is more pronounced compared to switching from 12° to an 18° inclination. The results might be used for training recommendations and specific training intervention with respect to sloped walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA


    The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  12. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN


    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  13. Eesti piirivalve tähistas 85. aastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese sõnavõtust Eesti kutselise piirivalve 85. aastapäeva tähistamise pidulikul kontsertaktusel 1. novembril 2007 Estonia kontserdisaalis. Ingl. k. ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna 8. nov. 2007, lk. 12, pealk.: President Ilves thanked the Estonian border guards

  14. Tänapäeva muinasjutt : [lühijutud] / Kris, Moor, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kris Moor, pseud.


    Sisu: Imagine an actor saying following ; algus ; korralikud tüdrukud ; Provokatsioon ; absoluutselt täiuslik ; sigaret ; best friends ; probleem ; Tere Kris ; kirjutis ; armastus ; Elluastuja ; oeh ; klishee ; happy neverending story ; tungid ja tungisaatused ; noh ; lohe ; the art of noise ; latentsus ; Lühikokkuvõte tänapäeva muinasjutust: (ilma ilukirjandusliku liialduseta)

  15. ETV tähistab tantsupäeva kolme filmiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Rahvusvahelise tantsupäeva puhul 29. apr. on Eesti Televisiooni kavas kolm tantsuprogrammi - Uwe Scholzi tantsulavastus "Suur Missa", tantsufilm "Teine" (filmi režissöör René Vilbre) ja kolmas film on Inglismaal valminud Lloyd Newsoni "Elu hind"

  16. Mis on "Tänapäeva apokalüpsis"? / Kalmer Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Kalmer


    Francis Ford Coppola suurfilmi "Tänapäeva apokalüpsis" autoriversioon "Apocalypse Now Redux" (Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001/1979) lõpetab USA kultusfilmide festivali kinos "Sõprus". Lisa : Jaan Ruusi "Apocalypse Now Redux" selgitab autoriversiooni - director's cut - mõistet

  17. "Nad olid nuhkinud meie pulmapäeva välja!" / Aigi Viira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viira, Aigi


    Vanemuise teatri draamajuht andis näitlejatest abielupaarile Herta Elvistele ja Lembit Eelmäele peale L. Razumovskaja näidendi "Vladimiri väljak" 30. okt. etendust üle lilled ja õnnitlused 50. pulma-aastapäeva puhul

  18. Mari sangari päeva sõnum / Jaak Prozes ; interv. Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prozes, Jaak, 1965-


    Fenno-Ugria Hõimukeskuse juhataja ja Eestimaa Rahvaste Ühenduse juht soome-ugri rahvaste olukorrast Venemaal ja rahvusseltside tegevusest Eestis. Aprilli lõpul tähistasid marid oma rahvuspüha - mari sangari päeva. Pärimuse põhjal langes maride rahvuskangelane Boltu̧ võitluses oma rahva vabaduse eest 26. aprillil 1556

  19. STS-31 crew training: firefighting, food tasting, EVA prep and post (United States)


    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  20. Simunas pühitseti uus vitraažaken / Eva Klaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaas, Eva, 1977-


    Simunas tähistati 31. oktoobril Simuna kiriku ja kogu kihelkonna nimepäeva, pühitseti ka äsjavalminud vitraažaken, mille autor on Dolores Hoffmann, kelle kujundatud on ka sarja "Maailma loomine" kuuluvad teised vitraažid

  1. The properties of neutron shielding and flame retardant of EVA polymer after modified by EB accelerator (United States)

    Wang, Guo-hui; He, Man-li; Jiang, Dan-feng; He, Fan; Chang, Shu-quan; Dai, Yao-dong


    According to the requirements for neutron shielding and flame retardant properties of some nuclear devices, a new kind of polymer composite materials based on ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer have been studied. EVA is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, It can be used as materials for applications due to its flexibility, good processability, and low cost. Insulating EVA can be used for cable sheath, automotive sound damping and many other appication. Boron nitride (BN), zinc borate (ZB), magnesium hydroxide (MH) and EVA consisted the compounds with the properties of neutron shielding and flame retardant. With increasing of the contents of BN and ZB, the neutron shielding performance of materials increased up to 33.08%. With the increasing contents of MH and ZB as flame retardant, oxygen index of material have been improved. The elongation at break and tensile strength of material decreased with the increasing of filler powders. Sheet E was chosen and modified by electron beam accelerator in different doses. After modification by electron beam irradiation the sheets showed varying degrees of transformation in the OI, neutron shielding rate and mechanical properties.

  2. Kunstnikuks pürgija vajab paari õigeaegset impulssi / Kaido Ole, Eva Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ole, Kaido


    Antonia Claudio Carvalho meistriklass "Ava oma silmad/Open Your Eyes" 23.-27. I ja näitus 27. I-9. II Eesti Kunstiakadeemia galeriis. Meistriklassist vestlesid EKA maaliosakonna juhataja Kaido Ole ja maalieriala III kursuse üliõpilane Eva Unt

  3. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.


    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  4. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.


    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  5. Meremaa võluriga päeva kallastele / Helle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Helle


    29. apr. esietendub Ugalas "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", lavalugu Ursula K. Le Guini Meremaa-lugude alusel, lavastaja Andres Noormets, kunstnikud Silver Vahtre ja Airi Eras, peaosades Margus Vaher, Martin Algus, Aarne Soro, Leila Säälik, Gert Raudsepp, Silvia Sarrap

  6. Eesti Draamateater tähistas maja 100. sünnipäeva / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-


    18. septembril tähistati avatud uste päevaga Eesti Draamateater hoone 100. sünnipäeva. Õhtul sai teatrihoone fassaadilt vaadata Taavet Janseni, Taavi Varmi ja Andres Tenusaare videoinstallatsiooni. Esitleti raamatut "Eesti Draamateatri maja 100" (autorid Karin Hallas-Murula, Kristel Pappel, Haldja Jalajas). Avati Peeter Lauritsa fotonäitus "Pahempidi"

  7. Keskkonnamiljardär pidas sünnipäeva / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-


    Viiendat sünnipäeva tähistanud Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskus (KIK) on oma tegutsemisaja jooksul investeerinud keskkonda 1,4 miljardit krooni ning vahendanud ühtekuuluvusfondi ISPA raha 575 miljonit krooni eest. Lisa: KIKi rahastatud projektid Raplamaal

  8. TÜ tähistab rahvusülikooli aastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Emakeelse ülikooli 91. aastapäeva tähistamisest. Aktusel promoveeriti 103 doktorit ja 5 audoktorit. Audoktoriks said: Jaan Einasto (Eesti), Vilmos Voigt (Ungari), Pekka Topias Männistö (Soome), William J. Mitsch (USA), Lars Oreland (Rootsi)

  9. Linn kui maastik / Eva Castro ; intervjueerinud Katrin Koov ; toimetanud Carl-Dag Lige

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Castro, Eva


    Intervjuus Tallinna arhitektuuribiennaali ühe peaesineja Eva Castroga, kes on AB Groundlab arhitekt ja juhib Londoni Arhitektuuriühingu arhitektuurikoolis maastikuurbanismi magistriprogrammi, maastikuurbanismist ja selle õppekavast, Groundlabi projektide ja Londoni Arhitektuuriühingu arhitektuurikooli tudengite tööde näitusest Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis, visioonivõistlusest "Street 2020"

  10. 25. juulil toimuvad kodukoha suurmehe Jakob Hurda 170. sünniaastapäeva pidustused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vill, Sirje


    Jakob Hurda 170. sünniaastapäeva tähistatakse traditsioonilise kultuuriretkega Jakob Hurdaga seotud paikadesse, autasustatakse õpilaste uurimustööde võitjaid ja teemaüritusel "Jakob Hurt 170" Põlva Kultuuri- ja Huvikeskuses antakse üle laureaatidele Hurda-nimelised kultuuriauhinnad

  11. Kunagi nii popp idabloki kadunud filmikunst / Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek ; intervjueerinud Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva


    2007. a. oktoobris toimunud konverentsi "Via Transversa : Lost Cinema of the Former Eastern Bloc" ettekannetel põhinevast kogumikust: Via Transversa : Lost Cinema of the Former Eastern Bloc / editors Eva Näripea, Andreas Trossek. Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2008. (Koht ja paik ; 7)

  12. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA (United States)


    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  13. Ei sinistele esmaspäevadele!!! / Piret Jamnes, Marju Unt, Mare Teichmann, Eva Palu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Personaliotsingufirma Fontes partner ja konsultant Piret Jamnes, Estonian Euromanagement Institute'i direktor Marju Unt, kommunikatsioonibüroo JLS PR-konsultant Eva Palu ja TTÜ psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Teichmann ideedest, mis aitavad tööst rohkem rõõmu tunda

  14. Head animapäeva soovivad Petja ja hunt / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-


    Animaürituste sari "Animateek" tähistab täna rahvusvahelist animapäeva, näidates Suzie Templetoni animafilmi (32 min) Sergei Prokofjevi muusikateose alusel "Petja ja hunt" : Suurbritannia - Norra - Poola 2006. Filmi tutvustab üks selle juhtanimaatoreid Krzysztof Brzozowski


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia I. PICIU


    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables of the method EVaR, and the way in which this model can be applied as a risk of the lack (rarity of petroleum. This risk is not only analyzed as a unique risk of growing the prices, but also as an uncertainty risk on volatile markets, in which the price and the volatility are the main variables used by the function EVaR.

  16. Evaluation of safety of hypobaric decompressions and EVA from positions of probabilistic theory (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. P.

    Formation and subsequent evolution of gas bubbles in blood and tissues of subjects exposed to decompression are casual processes in their nature. Such character of bubbling processes in a body predetermines probabilistic character of decompression sickness (DCS) incidence in divers, aviators and astronauts. Our original probabilistic theory of decompression safety is based on stochastic models of these processes and on the concept of critical volume of a free gas phase in body tissues. From positions of this theory, the probability of DCS incidence during single-stage decompressions and during hypobaric decompressions under EVA in particular, is defined by the distribution of possible values of nucleation efficiency in "pain" tissues and by its critical significance depended on the parameters of a concrete decompression. In the present study the following is shown: 1) the dimensionless index of critical nucleation efficiency for "pain" body tissues is a more adequate index of decompression stress in comparison with Tissue Ratio, TR; 2) a priory the decompression under EVA performed according to the Russian protocol is more safe than decompression under EVA performed in accordance with the U.S. protocol; 3) the Russian space suit operated at a higher pressure and having a higher "rigidity" induces a stronger inhibition of mechanisms of cavitation and gas bubbles formation in tissues of a subject located in it, and by that provides a more considerable reduction of the DCS risk during real EVA performance.

  17. Evidence Report: Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah L.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.; House, Nancy; Jadwick, Jennifer; hide


    Given the high physiological and functional demands of operating in a self-contained EVA or training suit in various gravity fields and system environments, there is a possibility that crew injury can occur and physiological and functional performance may be comprised.

  18. EVA reactive blending with Si–H terminated polysiloxane by carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction: From compatibilised blends to crosslinking networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, J.; Bounor-Legaré, V.; Alcouffe, P.; Cassagnau, P.


    A new and original method based on carbonyl hydrosilylation was developed to prepare ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)/polysiloxane polymer blends. This focused on the addition of hydrogenosilane groups (SiH) from polysiloxane to the carbonyl groups of EVA. The influence of the nature of the polysiloxane on blend properties was investigated by rheology and scanning electron microscopy. Mixing of a low viscosity polysiloxane with a high viscosity EVA matrix produced a two-phase morphology. The occurrence of the hydrosilylation reaction at the EVA/polysiloxane interface promoted a homogenisation of the blend depending on the molar ratio SiH/vinyl acetate groups, [SiH]/[VA], and the viscosity ratio of the blend. Two distinct behaviours were observed. The formation of a crosslinked network under shear was obtained for a low viscosity ratio between polysiloxane and EVA (λ polysiloxane/EVA = 4.0 × 10 −6 ) with a high concentration of SiH groups ([SiH]/[VA] = 0.5), while the formation of a compatibilised blend was observed for high molar mass polysiloxanes (Mn > 15,000 g mol −1 ) with a low concentration of SiH ([SiH]/[VA] −3 ). -- Highlights: ► Carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction was found to enhance EVA/polysiloxane immiscible blends. ► EVA crosslinking was obtained with a low molar mass polysiloxane. ► EVA compatibilisation was obtained with a high molar mass polysiloxane. ► Shear rate was found to improve the hydrosilylation reaction at the interface. ► A two-phase morphology of the blends was observed after reaction with fine polysiloxane nodules.

  19. International joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig


    The article analysis problems connected with corporate joint ventures. Among others the possible conflicts between the joint venture agreement and the statutes of the companies is examined, as well as certain problems connected to the fact that the joint venture partners have created commen control...... over their joint company....

  20. Effects of Angle Variations in Suspension Push-up Exercise. (United States)

    Gulmez, Irfan


    Gulmez, I. Effects of angle variations in suspension push-up exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1017-1023, 2017-This study aimed to determine and compare the amount of loads on the TRX Suspension Trainer (TRX) straps and ground reaction forces at 4 different angles during TRX push-ups. Twenty-eight male (mean age, 24.1 ± 2.9 years; height, 179.4 ± 8.0 m; weight, 78.8 ± 9.8 kg) physical education and sports university students participated in this study. The subjects were tested at TRX angles (0, 15, 30, 45°) during the TRX push-ups. Force data were recorded by a force platform and load cells integrated into the TRX straps. The results show that as the TRX angle was reduced, the load applied to the TRX straps increased and simultaneously the load measured by the force platform decreased. This was true for both the elbow joint changing from flexion to extension and vice versa. When the TRX angle was set at 0° and subjects' elbows were at extension during TRX push-up, 50.4% of the subjects' body weight, and when the elbows were at flexion, 75.3% of the body weight was registered by the sensors on the TRX straps. The results of this study can be used in the calculation of the training load and volume (resistance training programming) during TRX push-up exercises at varying angles.

  1. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups (United States)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay


    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  2. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The angle of internal friction ... compression chambers. Lorenzen, 1957 (quoted by Mohsenin,. 1986), reported that the design of deep ... tiongiven for lateral pressure in deep bins as presented by Mohsenin. (1986). The presence of moisture ...

  3. The effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on joint position sense in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Shafaee, Razieh; Abbasi, Leila


    To study the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on joint position sense (JPS) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) subjects. Thirty subjects with knee OA (40-60 years old) using non-random sampling participated in this study. In order to evaluate the absolute error of repositioning of the knee joint, Qualysis Track Manager system was used and sensory electrical stimulation was applied through the TENS device. The mean errors in repositioning of the joint, in two position of the knee joint with 20 and 60 degree angle, after applying the TENS was significantly decreased (p knee OA could improve JPS in these subjects.

  4. Ring magnet firing angle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.


    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle

  5. Calcaneal Fractures and Böhler’s Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Spiegelman


    Full Text Available History of present illness: 40-year-old male presents to the emergency department after falling off a ladder. He was repairing a window when he fell, landing on the ground 12 feet below. The patient landed onto his feet bilaterally and then fell backwards onto his buttocks. On arrival, the patient had bilateral foot pain. He denied any back pain, headache, or loss of consciousness. Significant findings: The right ankle lateral radiograph shows a comminuted, non-displaced fracture of the posterior calcaneus (red arrow in addition to fracture fragments along the heel pad margin (blue arrow. The left ankle lateral radiograph shows a displaced, comminuted fracture of the mid to posterior calcaneus with extension into the subtalar joint posteriorly (purple arrow. There is subcutaneous air seen anteriorly to the tibiotalar joint space (green arrow in addition to a joint effusion. Of note, the Böhler’s angle in the left x-ray is 16 degrees which is consistent with a fracture (see red annotation showing Böhler’s angle. Discussion: Calcaneal fractures occur typically in adults who have undergone significant axial load on their feet secondary to a fall from high height.2,3 There are two broad types of calcaneal fractures: intraarticular and extraarticular.2 The intraarticular fractures are colloquially referred to as a “Lover’s Fracture” as they have been known to occur in those jumping out of a tall window to escape the wrath of a lover’s spouse.1 Calcaneal fractures are best diagnosed with a CT scan or with lateral x-ray by measuring Böhler’s angle.2,3 This is the angle formed by the intersection of two lines demonstrated on a normal lateral ankle radiograph. The first line is drawn between the superior aspect of the anterior process of the calcaneus (point A and the superior edge of the posterior articular facet (point B. The second line is drawn between the superior aspect of the posterior calcaneal tuberosity (point C and point B.2

  6. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.


    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  7. Effects of tibial plateau angle and spacer thickness applied during in vitro canine total knee replacement on three-dimensional kinematics and collateral ligament strain. (United States)

    Baker, Katherine M; Foutz, Timothy L; Johnsen, Kyle J; Budsberg, Steven C


    To quantify the 3-D kinematics and collateral ligament strain of stifle joints in cadaveric canine limbs before and after cranial cruciate ligament transection followed by total knee replacement (TKR) involving various tibial plateau angles and spacer thicknesses. 6 hemi-pelvises collected from clinically normal nonchondrodystrophic dogs (weight range, 25 to 35 kg). Hemi-pelvises were mounted on a modified Oxford knee rig that allowed 6 degrees of freedom of the stifle joint but prevented mechanical movement of the hip and tarsal joints. Kinematics and collateral ligament strain were measured continuously while stifle joints were flexed. Data were again collected after cranial cruciate ligament transection and TKR with combinations of 3 plateau angles (0°, 4°, and 8°) and spacer thicknesses (5, 7, and 9 mm). Presurgical (ie, normal) stifle joint rotations were comparable to those previously documented for live dogs. After TKR, kinematics recorded for the 8°, 5-mm implant most closely resembled those of unaltered stifle joints. Decreasing the plateau angle and increasing spacer thickness altered stifle joint adduction, internal rotation, and medial translation. Medial collateral ligament strain was minimal in unaltered stifle joints and was unaffected by TKR. Lateral collateral ligament strain decreased with steeper plateau angles but returned to a presurgical level at the flattest plateau angle. Among the constructs tested, greatest normalization of canine stifle joint kinematics in vitro was achieved with the steepest plateau angle paired with the thinnest spacer. Furthermore, results indicated that strain to the collateral ligaments was not negatively affected by TKR.

  8. Two Comments on Bond Angles (United States)

    Glaister, P.


    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  9. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro


    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m −2 ; tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome. (paper)

  10. Do changes in neuromuscular activation contribute to the knee extensor angle-torque relationship? (United States)

    Lanza, Marcel B; Balshaw, Thomas G; Folland, Jonathan P


    What is the central question of the study? Do changes in neuromuscular activation contribute to the knee extensor angle-torque relationship? What is the main finding and its importance? Both agonist (quadriceps) and antagonist coactivation (hamstrings) differed with knee joint angle during maximal isometric knee extensions and thus both are likely to contribute to the angle-torque relationship. Specifically, two independent measurement techniques showed quadriceps activation to be lower at more extended positions. These effects might influence the capacity for neural changes in response to training and rehabilitation at different knee joint angles. The influence of joint angle on knee extensor neuromuscular activation is unclear, owing in part to the diversity of surface electromyography (sEMG) and/or interpolated twitch technique (ITT) methods used. The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular activation, using rigorous contemporary sEMG and ITT procedures, during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVCs) of the quadriceps femoris at different knee joint angles and examine whether activation contributes to the angle-torque relationship. Sixteen healthy active men completed two familiarization sessions and two experimental sessions of isometric knee extension and knee flexion contractions. The experimental sessions included the following at each of four joint angles (25, 50, 80 and 106 deg): iMVCs (with and without superimposed evoked doublets); submaximal contractions with superimposed doublets; and evoked twitch and doublet contractions whilst voluntarily passive, and knee flexion iMVC at the same knee joint positions. The absolute quadriceps femoris EMG was normalized to the peak-to-peak amplitude of an evoked maximal M-wave, and the doublet-voluntary torque relationship was used to calculate activation with the ITT. Agonist activation, assessed with both normalized EMG and the ITT, was reduced at the more extended compared with the more flexed

  11. Homogeneity characterization of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and hydrophobic silica nanocomposite by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; Tavares, Maria I.B.


    This project proposes the characterization of a polymeric matrix composite material using nanometric scale hydrophobic silica as charge element, with the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), by using the spin-lattice relaxation time measurement applying the low field NMR

  12. Low Power, Small Form Factor, High Performance EVA Radio Employing Micromachined Contour Mode Piezoelectric Resonators and Filters, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I Harmonic Devices proposes to investigate the feasibility of a low-power, low-volume, lightweight, frequency agile, and fault tolerant EVA radio based on...

  13. Muusajüngrid pühitsesid Kreutzwaldi 200. sünnipäeva / Toomas Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas


    13. dets. 2003 Sydneys toimunud tähtpäevaüritusel esines Toomas Pill referaadiga "Kalevipoja" retseptsioonist, loeti ette katkendeid Kreutzwaldi ja Koidula kirjavahetusest ning deklameeriti Heidi Aedma poolt valitud katkendeid "Kalevipojast"

  14. The Baltic States and Moscow's 9 May Commemoration : Analysing Memory Politics in Europe / Eva-Clarita Onken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Onken, Eva-Clarita


    Mälu roll kaasaegse Euroopa poliitikas, selle mõju riikidevahelistele kahepoolsetele suhetele ja Euroopa Liidu poliitikale seoses 2005. aasta 9. mail Moskvas toimunud Teise maailmasõja 60. aastapäeva pidustustega

  15. Nende kõrgeaususte kirjad on avaldatud : [intervjuu] / Eva Aaver, Heli Laanekask ; üles kirjut. Juhani Püttsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaver, Eva, 1925-2008


    Riigi teaduspreemia humanitaarteaduste vallas said Eva Aaver, Heli Laanekask, Abel Nagelmaa ja Leo Anvelt (postuumselt) publikatsiooni 'Otto Wilhelm Masingu kirjad Johann Heinrich Rosenplänterile. 1814-1832'

  16. Compósitos à base de gesso com resíduos de EVA e vermiculita Gypsum-based composites with EVA waste and vermiculite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia P. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O gesso é um dos materiais de construção mais antigos de que se tem conhecimento. Algumas de suas propriedades lhes conferem vantagens, tais como resistência ao fogo e isolamentos térmico e acústico. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar as propriedades físico-mecânicas de compósitos à base de gesso com a incorporação de resíduos da indústria de calçados, o etileno acetato de vinila (EVA e a vermiculita. O desenvolvimento desses compósitos tem como propósito a produção de elementos de revestimento para proteção térmica de alvenarias. Para determinar a influência dos teores de resíduo de EVA e vermiculita e da relação água/gesso nas propriedades massa específica aparente e nas resistências a flexão e a compressão, foram incorporados cinco diferentes percentuais desses materiais, combinados com três relações água/gesso. Os resultados foram analisados por meio da estatística multivariável e indicaram que a massa específica aparente de ambos os compósitos e a resistência à flexão do compósito com vermiculita, mostraram maior dependência da relação água/gesso; por sua vez, o percentual de agregado apresentou maior influência na resistência à flexão do compósito com EVA e na resistência a compressão de ambos os compósitos.Gypsum is one of the oldest known building materials. Some of its properties confer advantages such as fire resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation. This work aims to study the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum-based composite with the incorporation of residues from the footwear industry ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA and vermiculite. The aim to develop these composites is to produce components for thermal protection of masonry. To determine the influence of different residue levels of EVA and vermiculite, and the water/plaster ratio on the bulk density, flexural and compressive strength, five different percentages of these materials were incorporated combined with

  17. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture. (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S


    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2) block K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy-five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size: +0.67, time to operation: +0.60). When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint, the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is -3.67° and +4.54° (DIP joint fixation angles of block

  18. Unweaving the joints in Entrada Sandstone, Arches National Park, Utah, U.S.A. (United States)

    Cruikshank, Kenneth M.; Aydin, Atilla


    On the southwest limb of Salt Valley Anticline, Arches National Park, Utah three sets of joints are developed in the Entrada Sandstone covering an area of about 6 km 2. Within the 20 m thick Moab Member, a single joint set is is found in three distinct areas, separated by a second set of joints at a 35° angle to the first set. Joint interaction features show that the second set is younger than the first. This illustrates that joints of a single set do not have to fill the entire area across which the stresses that formed the joints were acting. The underlying Slickrock Member contains a third set of joints, which is at an angle of 5°-35° to joints in the Moab Member. The Slickrock set nucleated from the lower edges of joints of all orientations in the overlying Moab Member. Thus, the fracture pattern evolved both horizontally, within the same unit, and vertically between units. The sequence of jointing is determined by establishing the relative ages of each joint set. Each joint orientation is best interpreted as representing a direction of maximum compression, ruling out the possibility that the joints are a conjugate set. The joints, and an earlier set of deformation bands, record a 95° counterclockwise rotation of the direction of maximum compression.

  19. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints) (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Joint Replacement Email to a friend * required fields ...

  20. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense. (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J


    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  1. Hip joint injection (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  2. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare (United States)

    ... this page: // Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe ...

  3. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...... by experimental test results. Therefore, there is a need for performing experimental tests in this area....

  4. Hip joint replacement - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  5. Design of mechanical joints

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Alexander


    A cornerstone publication that covers the basic principles and practical considerations of design methodology for joints held by rivets, bolts, weld seams, and adhesive materials, Design of Mechanical Joints gives engineers the practical results and formulas they need for the preliminary design of mechanical joints, combining the essential topics of joint mechanics...strength of materials...and fracture control to provide a complete treatment of problems pertinent to the field of mechanical connections.

  6. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Carneiro Guimarães


    Full Text Available RESUMO: O setor da construção civil apresenta grande potencial para aproveitamento de vários tipos de resíduos industriais. A incorporação dos resíduos, principalmente nas argamassas e concretos, produtos com vasta aplicabilidade no setor, tem se mostrado como uma ótima alternativa na diversificação das matérias-primas e para a economia de recursos naturais. Esse trabalho avaliou as propriedades das argamassas, no estado fresco e endurecido, produzidas com substituição parcial da areia por resíduo de EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. Para isso, foram preparadas argamassas com teores de substituição do agregado 0% (referência, 5%, 10% e 15%, em massa. A relação água/cimento, para cada traço, foi determinada empiricamente e mantida constante para as argamassas com substituição. Os resultados apontam que as argamassas produzidas com agregado de EVA apresentam menor absorção de água e também um decréscimo da resistência mecânica. Desta forma, a produção de argamassas utilizando EVA em substituição ao agregado natural é viável, todavia é necessário avaliar os parâmetros mínimos de aplicação para cada finalidade. Dessa forma, o trabalho apresenta contribuição ao servir de suporte a gestores de empresas de argamassas ou gestores de obra a tomarem decisões acerca da inserção do resíduo de EVA na produção de argamassa. ABSTRACT: The construction sector has great potential for use of various types of industrial waste. The incorporation of waste, especially in mortar and concrete products with wide applicability in the industry, has proven to be a great alternative for diversification of raw materials and the economy of natural resources. This study evaluated the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state, made with partial replacement of sand by waste EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. For this, mortars were prepared with substitution aggregate content 0%(reference, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. The water

  8. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen (United States)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.


    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  9. Analysis by X-Ray images of EVA waste incorporated in Portland Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.A.; Antunes, M.L.P.; Montagnoli, R.M.; Mancini, S.D.


    The EVA is a copolymer used by Brazilian shoes industries. This material is cut for the manufacture of insoles. This operation generates about 18% of waste. The EVA waste can be reused in incorporation in Portland cement to construction without structural purposes. The aim of this work is to show X-rays images to assessment the space distribution of the wastes in the cement and to evaluate the use of this methodology. Cylindrical specimens were produced according to ABNT - NBR 5738 standards. The volume relation of sand and cement was 3:1, 10% and 30% of waste was incorporated in cement specimens. X-Rays images were obtained of cylindrical specimens in front projection. The images showed that the distribution of the waste is homogeneous, consistent with what was intended in this type of incorporation, which can provide uniformity in test results of compressive strength. (author)

  10. In Vivo Measurement of Glenohumeral Joint Contact Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey MichaelJ


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe a technique for measuring in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact patterns during dynamic activities and to demonstrate application of this technique. The experimental technique calculated joint contact patterns by combining CT-based 3D bone models with joint motion data that were accurately measured from biplane x-ray images. Joint contact patterns were calculated for the repaired and contralateral shoulders of 20 patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair. Significant differences in joint contact patterns were detected due to abduction angle and shoulder condition (i.e., repaired versus contralateral. Abduction angle had a significant effect on the superior/inferior contact center position, with the average joint contact center of the repaired shoulder 12.1% higher on the glenoid than the contralateral shoulder. This technique provides clinically relevant information by calculating in-vivo joint contact patterns during dynamic conditions and overcomes many limitations associated with conventional techniques for quantifying joint mechanics.

  11. Biomechanical design of escalading lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints. (United States)

    Zhang, Guoan; Liu, Gangfeng; Ma, Sun; Wang, Tianshuo; Zhao, Jie; Zhu, Yanhe


    In this paper, an obstacle-surmounting-enabled lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints that perfectly mimicked human motions was proposed. Currently, most lower exoskeletons that use linear actuators have a direct connection between the wearer and the controlled part. Compared to the existing joints, the novel linkage joint not only fitted better into compact chasis, but also provided greater torque when the joint was at a large bend angle. As a result, it extended the angle range of joint peak torque output. With any given power, torque was prioritized over rotational speed, because instead of rotational speed, sufficiency of torque is the premise for most joint actions. With insufficient torque, the exoskeleton will be a burden instead of enhancement to its wearer. With optimized distribution of torque among the joints, the novel linkage method may contribute to easier exoskeleton movements.

  12. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  13. Angle imaging: Advances and challenges (United States)

    Quek, Desmond T L; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin


    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard. PMID:21150037

  14. Eesti Vabariigi 89. aastapäeva tähistamine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti iseseisvuspäeva tähistamisest Londonis. 20. veebruaril 2007 korraldas Eesti Vabariigi suursaatkond vastuvõtu Crown Plaza hotellis, kus ligi 300 külalist tervitas president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. 19. veebruaril 2007 külastas president Oxfordi, kus ta esines kõnega üliõpilastele. Lisatud foto, millel on kujutatud president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, kolonelleitnant Lauri Einre ja Eesti Vabariigi saadik Londonis dr. Margus Laidre

  15. Pidupäevaüritused olid Eestile ilus kingitus / Andris Tammela, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammela, Andris


    Ülevaade EV 90. aastapäeva juubeliüritusest Pärnus. Vt. samas: Vabariigi juubel värvis Pärnu sinimustvalgeks; Head emotsioonid Eesti aastapäevalt: Are vallavanem Jaanus Männik, Euroopa Parlamendi liige Marianne Mikko, Pärnu linnavolikogu liikmed Valter Parve ja Raul Sarandi ja Pärnu maavanem Toomas Kivimägi

  16. Eva Giberti: trayectoria institucional, científica y cívica


    Giberti, Eva; Escardó, Vita; Invernizzi, Hernán; Maffia, Diana; Maldavsky, David


    Abstract: In spite of the diversity of perspectives approached by the authors, this text –which presents the institutional, scientific, and civic trajectory of Eva Giberti– highlights her landmarks and facets: her academic activity, her trajectory integrating different responsibilities, her clinical labor, her civic participation, her contributions in the mass media (where she was the pioneer in the spreading of psychoanalysis), and her publications (among them, the ones about the demystific...

  17. Tähistame Helen Kelleri 130. sünniaastapäeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keskküla, Raissa


    Helen Kellerist ja tema sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest, samuti Eesti Pimekurtide Tugiliidu ettevõtmistest: koostöölepingust Eesti Kujurite Ühendusega, punktkirjas väljaantud raamatust "Õppimise ime", Hilton/Perkins programmi kaasabil Eesti pimekurtide ja nägemis-liitpuudega lastega töötavate õpetajate ning töötajate koolitamiset

  18. Thermodynamical analysis of an ADAM/EVA-process for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, K.F.; Tsatsaronis, G.; Loehrer, F.


    In this article, the so-called ADAM/EVA-process for long-range heat transport is presented as an alternative method of electricity generation, as being interesting from the purely thermodynamic point of view. For various variants of this process, extensive mass and energy balances are calculated. With the help of exact energy balances, the irreversibilities of the individual parts of the plant are determined and evaluated by comparison. (orig.) [de

  19. EVA measure and ability of the firm to create shareholder wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chmelíková


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the possibilities of Economic Value Added index usage in the conditions of Czech food-processing industry and is trying to provide independent empirical evidence on the indicator’s qualities. The EVA proponents attach to it a superiority compared to other common performance measures. The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between Economic Value Added, traditional performance measures (ROA and ROE and ability of creation of shareholder wealth for food-processing firms in the Czech Republic. The way of intended comparison is not dissimilar to the main world studies, which are quoted in this paper. A critical point of the EVA’s application in the conditions of Czech economy is a lack of good quality information from capital market, which at the same time, serve as an exogenous criterion for assessing the quality of the examined measures in the mentioned studies. In the absence of quality capital market information, a criterion for assessing the information content of performance measures suitable for conditions of Czech economy is developed in this paper. This also shows how to circumvent the handicap of the available data.The intent of this article is fulfilled by providing a simple regression test of the hypothesis, that the EVA measure is more associated with improved shareholder wealth than traditional performance measures ROA and ROE. The results of regression analysis show higher quality information content of EVA indicator in the relationship to the ability of shareholder wealth creation than traditional performance measures. This fact supports the tested hypothesis as well as the conclusions of corporate finance theory, that from the theoretical point of view EVA is seen as a superior performance metric.

  20. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.


    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  1. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  2. Temperature dependence of Brewster's angle. (United States)

    Guo, Wei


    In this work, a dielectric at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms moving randomly around where they are trapped. Light reflection from the dielectric is then discussed in terms of atomic radiation. Specific calculation demonstrates that because of the atoms' thermal motion, Brewster's angle is, in principle, temperature-dependent, and the dependence is weak in the low-temperature limit. What is also found is that the Brewster's angle is nothing but a result of destructive superposition of electromagnetic radiation from the atoms.

  3. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study (United States)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard; Blanco, Raul; Sipila, Stephanie


    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  4. Synergistic effects of EB irradiation and heat on EVA electrical insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, S [' Valachia' University of Ta-hat rgoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Targoviste (Romania); Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Zaharescu, T [Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Marcuta, M [ICPE ELECTROSTATICA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Setnescu, R [' Valachia' University of Ta-hat rgoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Targoviste (Romania); Gorghiu, L M [' Valachia' University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Ta-hat rgoviste (Romania); Dumitrescu, C [' Valachia' University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences, 1 Carol I Av., Targoviste (Romania)


    Radiation/thermal degradation is discussed as a successful endurance check. EVA samples were subjected to electron beam irradiation at 12, 30, 60 and 90kGy. Heat treatment was performed in air at 120{sup o}C for 72h and 120h. Chemiluminescence (CL) investigations on EVA specimens were carried out at 200, 210 and 220{sup o}C. Several kinetic parameters such as oxidation induction time (t{sub i}), half-oxidation time (t{sub 1/2}), maximum oxidation rate (v{sub ox}{sup max}), maximum time of thermal oxidation (t{sub max}) and other chemiluminescence features were obtained from the time dependencies of the CL intensity. While the ageing factors of processed EVA samples reveal a constant value for two testing temperatures (200 and 210{sup o}C), the co-operative factors that describe a combined (synergistic) degradation present higher than unity values, either for the oxidation rates or for the maximum CL intensity measured for all irradiation doses. They increase linearly with dose.

  5. Quebra de dormência de gemas de macieira cv. Eva tratadas com cianamida hidrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A maioria das cultivares de macieiras plantadas no Brasil apresentam deficiência e desuniformidade de brotação, devido à má distribuição e/ou baixo número de horas de frio abaixo de 7,2masculine C, constituindo-se num entrave à produtividade. Mesmo utilizando-se de cultivares de baixa exigência de frio invernal, como a cultivar Eva, tem-se verificado a necessidade de se fazer a quebra de dormência para uniformizar a brotação, compatibilizar o florescimento e antecipar e melhorar a produção em regiões com invernos amenos ou anos de baixo acúmulo de frio. Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada em três diferentes concentrações (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 % associada ao óleo mineral (3% na brotação de gemas laterais e terminais de macieiras da cv. Eva, e a fenologia das cvs. Eva e Anabela. Concluiu-se que a concentração de cianamida hidrogenada influi na percentagem de gemas laterais e terminais brotadas, sendo a concentração de 1,5% de cianamida hidrogenada associada a 3% de óleo mineral a mais efetiva na quebra da dormência das gemas

  6. Comparison of Assemblies of Four-Link Structural Groups of 3rd Class on the Transmission Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyuk I.N.


    Full Text Available Comparison of various assemblies of four-link structural group of 3rd class with revolute joints on the transmission angle is performed. Equations of the trajectories of plug points of one of the groups of joint are obtained to determine transmission angles. Derived functions of these equations enable to determine the values of transmission angles for each assembly group. It is shown that only two assemblies of maximum possible assembling number of such group (six have practical value. The solution of this problem was performed with the help of Mathcad program.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to highlight the role of EVA – an indicator measuring the financial performance of a hotel company from the Romanian seaside. EVA is one of the most appreciated indicators in terms of achieving performance that involve all used resources; this indicator can be adopted for the decentralization of management decisions. In order to highlight the importance of the EVA assessment method, we performed a case study on a representative hotel company that gets positive financial results pursuant to conventional methods, aiming to outline the correlation between EVA and the traditional methods for performance assessment

  8. Improved crystallinity and dynamic mechanical properties of reclaimed waste tire rubber/EVA blends under the influence of electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Ramarad, Suganti; Ratnam, Chantara T.; Khalid, Mohammad; Chuah, Abdullah Luqman; Hanson, Svenja


    Dependence on automobiles has led to a huge amount of waste tires produced annually around the globe. In this study, the feasibility of recycling these waste tires by blending reclaimed waste tire rubber (RTR) with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and electron beam irradiation was studied. The RTR/EVA blends containing 100-0 wt% of RTR were prepared in the internal mixer followed by electron beam (EB) irradiation with doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy. The processing torques, calorimetric and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends were studied. Blends were found to have lower processing torque indicating easier processability of RTR/EVA blends compared to EVA. RTR domains were found to be dispersed in EVA matrix, whereas, irradiation improved the dispersion of RTR into smaller domains in EVA matrix. Results showed the addition of EVA improves the efficiency of irradiation induced crosslink formation and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends at the expense of the calorimetric properties. Storage and loss modulus of 50 wt% RTR blend was higher than RTR and EVA, suggesting partial miscibility of the blend. Whereas, electron beam irradiation improved the calorimetric properties and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends through redistribution of RTR in smaller domain sizes within EVA.

  9. The Correlation Between Q-angle (Clinical and TTTGdistance (Axial Computed thomography in Firuzgar Hospital, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yeganeh


    Full Text Available Background:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the Q angle with respect to the patella position. We assess the correlation between the Q angles(calculated by clinical exam in different positions and CT indices (with more impression on TTTG.Method: Atotal number of 68 knee joints of 50 cases entered the study. Clinical examination was used to measure Q angle (in 3 positions of sitting, standing and supine. CT scan performed in 2 axial view of proximal tibia, and distal femor for   measurement of Tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG and other CT   indices. Correlation between main variables calculated.and analysed with spss.Results: Supine Q angle were strongly correlated with standing Q angles and moderately with sitting Q angle.Sitting Q angle was moderately correlated with supine and standing Q angle and weakly with PTA.we found no other significant correlation between Q angle and CT indexes.Discussion: Our findings suggest that Q angle is not a valuable index for predicting the presence of patelofemoral malalignment.  

  10. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik


    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  11. Femoral varus: what's the angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas

    angles were calculated using Microsoft Excel for the three previously reported techniques and a novel method, which we believed would be more reliable. Reliability between readings was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and repeatability coefficient, and the effect of angulation...

  12. Study of the Peak Shear Strength of a Cement-Filled Hard Rock Joint (United States)

    She, Cheng-Xue; Sun, Fu-Ting


    The peak shear strength of a cement-filled hard rock joint is studied by theoretical analysis and laboratory testing. Based on the concept of the shear resistance angle, by combining the statistical method and fractal theory, three new parameters are proposed to characterize the three-dimensional joint morphology, reflecting the effects of the average roughness, multi-scale asperities and the dispersion degree of the roughness distribution. These factors are independent of the measurement scale, and they reflect the anisotropy of the joint roughness. Compressive shear tests are conducted on cement-filled joints. Because joints without cement can be considered special cement-filled joints in which the filling degree of cement is zero, they are also tested. The cement-filled granite joint fails primarily along the granite-cement interfaces. The filling degree of cement controls the joint failure and affects its mechanical behaviour. With a decrease in the filling degree of cement, the joint cohesion decreases; however, the dilatancy angle and the basic friction angle of the interface increase. As the filling degree approaches zero, the cohesion approaches zero, while the dilatancy angle and the basic friction angle increase to those of the joint without cement. A set of formulas is proposed to evaluate the peak shear strength of the joints with and without cement. The formulas are shown to be reasonable by comparison with the tested peak shear strength, and they reflect the anisotropy of the strength. This research deepens the understanding of cement-filled joints and provides a method to evaluate their peak shear strength.

  13. Evidence for intermuscle difference in slack angle in human triceps surae. (United States)

    Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Miyamoto, Naokazu


    This study examined whether the slack angle (i.e., the joint angle corresponding to the slack length) varies among the synergists of the human triceps surae in vivo. By using ultrasound shear wave elastography, shear modulus of each muscle of the triceps surae was measured during passive stretching from 50° of plantar flexion in the knee extended position at an angular velocity of 1°/s in 9 healthy adult subjects. The slack angle of each muscle was determined from the ankle joint angle-shear modulus relationship as the first increase in shear modulus. The slack angle was significantly greater in the medial gastrocnemius (20.7±6.7° plantarflexed position) than in the lateral gastrocnemius (14.9±6.7° plantarflexed position) and soleus (2.0±4.8° dorsiflexed position) and greater in the lateral gastrocnemius than in the soleus. This study provided evidence that the slack angle differs among the triceps surae; the medial gastrocnemius produced passive force at the most plantarflexed position while the slack angle of the soleus was the most dorsiflexed position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of Sideslip Angle Based on Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Huang


    Full Text Available The sideslip angle plays an extremely important role in vehicle stability control, but the sideslip angle in production car cannot be obtained from sensor directly in consideration of the cost of the sensor; it is essential to estimate the sideslip angle indirectly by means of other vehicle motion parameters; therefore, an estimation algorithm with real-time performance and accuracy is critical. Traditional estimation method based on Kalman filter algorithm is correct in vehicle linear control area; however, on low adhesion road, vehicles have obvious nonlinear characteristics. In this paper, extended Kalman filtering algorithm had been put forward in consideration of the nonlinear characteristic of the tire and was verified by the Carsim and Simulink joint simulation, such as the simulation on the wet cement road and the ice and snow road with double lane change. To test and verify the effect of extended Kalman filtering estimation algorithm, the real vehicle test was carried out on the limit test field. The experimental results show that the accuracy of vehicle sideslip angle acquired by extended Kalman filtering algorithm is obviously higher than that acquired by Kalman filtering in the area of the nonlinearity.

  15. Anthropometric characterisation of elbow angles and lines among Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Awasthi


    Full Text Available Background: For understanding injuries in paediatric elbow and checking the degree of reduction after manipulation, various radiological criteria using anthropometric parameters are used. Since anthropometric parameters of Caucasians are different from European and Mongoloids, their parameters cannot be applied on our population. Hence, there is a need to characterise anthropometric parameters of elbow among children in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised all cases of injury to the elbow joint between 3 and 13 years of age reporting to the Department of Orthopaedics during the study. The X-rays films were preserved, and the angles and lines (as anthropometric parameters were drawn on the radiographs. Results: Mean ± (standard deviation [SD] for Baumann angle in children included in this study was 75° ± 4.70°. Mean ± (SD of Baumann angle in males was 76° ± 4.44° and females was 74° ± 5.37°. Mean ± (SD for lateral capitellohumeral angle in children from 3 to 13 years of age was 49 ± 5.75. Conclusions: As the values of normal side have been found to affect the functional and cosmetic outcome of the affected extremity, slight changes in values of our population in comparison to that of the Western population can significantly affect the outcome.

  16. Facet joint orientation and tropism in lumbar degenerative disc disease and spondylolisthesis. (United States)

    Pichaisak, Witchate; Chotiyarnwong, Chayaporn; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong


    Although degenerative disc disease (DDD) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) are two common causes of back pain in elderly, the association between the lumbarfacet joint angle and tropism in these conditions are still unclear. To evaluate the difference in facet joint angles between normal population and lumbar degenerative disc disease and spondylolisthesis patient. The angle of lumbar facet joints were retrospectively measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a difference between degenerative diseases. MRI of patients with DDD, DS, and control group at facet joint between L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S1 level were measured in axial view (60 subjects in each group). There was no difference infacetjoint angle in DDD (44.1 ± 11.9) and control (45.6 ± 8.9), but differed in DS (40.1 ± 10. 7) and control group (p = 0.010) at L4-5 level. Facet tropism showed difference between degenerative groups and control group at L4-5 level. DS group showed difference in facet joints angle and tropism when compared with control population, while DDD showed difference only in facet tropism. In addition, longitudinal studies are needed to understand the clinical significant between facet joint angle and tropism in spinal degenerative diseases.

  17. Techniques for assessing knee joint pain in arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract The assessment of pain is of critical importance for mechanistic studies as well as for the validation of drug targets. This review will focus on knee joint pain associated with arthritis. Different animal models have been developed for the study of knee joint arthritis. Behavioral tests in animal models of knee joint arthritis typically measure knee joint pain rather indirectly. In recent years, however, progress has been made in the development of tests that actually evaluate the sensitivity of the knee joint in arthritis models. They include measurements of the knee extension angle struggle threshold, hind limb withdrawal reflex threshold of knee compression force, and vocalizations in response to stimulation of the knee. A discussion of pain assessment in humans with arthritis pain conditions concludes this review.

  18. Contact angles on stretched solids (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco


    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  19. Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, F.


    Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle may present by symptoms like vertigo, hearing problems, affection of the trigeminal or facial nerve. Ipsilateral ataxia and contralateral hemiparesis develop in case of a rather large tumor in this region and display an involvement of the cerebellum and/or brainstem. However, some of these typical symptoms are not recognized by the patient. Thus, in case of a suspicion of a disorder of the cerebellopontine angle the relevant functions have to be tested clinically. In addition, electrophysiology can confirm dysfunction of these cranial nerves. Mainstay of the therapy should be the treatment of the underlying cause. Nevertheless, not seldom it is necessary to treat symptoms like vertigo or facial pain. (orig.) [de

  20. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Kayser, B.; Sphicas, P.


    The angle γ at least as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This conclusion certainly depends crucially on the assumed trigger and tagging efficiencies and also on the expected backgrounds. The work summarized here represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle. The theoretical developments during the workshop have resulted in a clearer understanding of the quantities studied. On the experimental side, new decay modes (i.e. in addition to the traditional ρK s decay) have resulted in expections for observing CP violation in B s decays which are not unreasonable. It is conceivable that a dedicated B experiment can probe a fundamental aspect of the Standard Model, the CKM matrix, in multiple ways. In the process, new physics can appear anywhere along the line

  1. Mechanics of Suture Joints (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz Group/DMSE/MIT Team; Boyce Group/ME/MIT Team


    Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

  2. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Intellectual Capital (IC dan Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap Harga Saham Perusahaan Manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fauzi


    Full Text Available This study aims at finding out if The Influence of Intellectual Capital (ICand Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The hypothesis of this study is : There is Influence of Intellectual Capital (IC and Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The method used is the author of the survey method with a quantitative approach . This study population is the entire manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange in 2012 his sampling technique is random sampling as many as 36 samples .. Correlation Coefficient significance test ( Test A of 0.512 , indicating that there is a middle relationship between IC and EVA on Stock Price. The results of the coefficient of determination ( R2 Test stated that R2 is 0.262 or 26.2% . This shows that the percentage contribution of the effect of independent variables ( IC and EVA on the dependent variable ( stock price of 26.2 % . Or variations of the independent variables used in the model ( IC and EVA are able to explain 26.2% of variation in the dependent variable ( stock price . While the remaining 73.8 % are influenced or explained by other variables not included in this research model .

  3. Analisis Determinasi Financial Performance Perusahaan Industri Manufaktur Makanan Dan Minuman Yang Go Public Suatu Pendekatan Metode Economic Value Added (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Affandi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to obtain empirical evidence concerning the effect of Financial Performance Determinant (Capital Structure and Profit Margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA method at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors. The results of this study is expected to contribute for the development of financial management and strategic management. The study was carried out at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The characteristic of this study is confirmatory research. The research method used is associative and explanatory, and to hypothesis testing of the research has used multiple regression. Sampling method is used purposive sampling with total sample are 15 corporate registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia during 2006-2007 period. While for data processing is used SPSS 14.0 for windows programs. The result of this study is: The first hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of capital structure on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. The second hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of profit margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. So, in the EVA predicting can used capital structure and profit margin indicators, because capital structure and profit margin both have a significant effect on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA.

  4. Estimation of carrying angle based on CT images in preoperative surgical planning for cubitus deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Shinsuk; Kim, Eugene


    Conventionally, the carrying angle of the elbow is measured using simple two-dimensional radiography or goniometry, which has questionable reliability. This study proposes a novel method for estimating carrying angles using computed tomography that can enhance the reliability of the angle measurement. Data of CT scans from 25 elbow joints were processed to build segmented three-dimensional models. The cross-sectional centerlines of the ulna and the humerus were traced from the 3D models, and the angle between 2 vectors formed from the centerlines of the humerus and the ulna was defined as the 'three-dimensional carrying angle.' These angles were compared with those measured by simple radiograph. Two cases of angular deformity were underwent surgery based on this preoperative surgical planning, and the postoperative 3D carrying angles were evaluated using the proposed method. The mean value of the calculated three-dimensional carrying angle was 20.7deg±3.61, while it was 16.3deg±3.21 based on simple radiography without statistical difference. Based on the 3D carrying angle estimations, 2 surgical cases of cubitus deformities were planned by comparison with the normal contra-lateral elbow. Postoperative angle estimations confirmed that the corrected angles were nearly identical to the planned angles for both cases. The results of this study showed that the carrying angle can be accurately estimated using three-dimensional CT and that the proposed method is useful in evaluating deformities of the elbow with high reliability. (author)

  5. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.


    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  6. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.


    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  7. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team


    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  8. Light Scattering at Various Angles (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.


    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  9. Angle comparison using an autocollimator (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti


    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish


    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  11. Polarized Line Formation in Arbitrary Strength Magnetic Fields Angle-averaged and Angle-dependent Partial Frequency Redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India); Stenflo, J. O., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere leave their fingerprints in the polarized spectrum of the Sun via the Hanle and Zeeman effects. While the Hanle and Zeeman effects dominate, respectively, in the weak and strong field regimes, both these effects jointly operate in the intermediate field strength regime. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer equation, including the combined influence of Hanle and Zeeman effects. Furthermore, it is required to take into account the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in scattering when dealing with strong chromospheric lines with broad damping wings. In this paper, we present a numerical method to solve the problem of polarized PRD line formation in magnetic fields of arbitrary strength and orientation. This numerical method is based on the concept of operator perturbation. For our studies, we consider a two-level atom model without hyperfine structure and lower-level polarization. We compare the PRD idealization of angle-averaged Hanle–Zeeman redistribution matrices with the full treatment of angle-dependent PRD, to indicate when the idealized treatment is inadequate and what kind of polarization effects are specific to angle-dependent PRD. Because the angle-dependent treatment is presently computationally prohibitive when applied to realistic model atmospheres, we present the computed emergent Stokes profiles for a range of magnetic fields, with the assumption of an isothermal one-dimensional medium.

  12. SU-E-T-171: Evaluation of the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm in a Small Finger Joint Phantom Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, J; Owrangi, A; Jiang, R


    Purpose: This study investigated the performance of the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in dose calculation in radiotherapy concerning a small finger joint. Monte Carlo simulation (EGSnrc code) was used in this dosimetric evaluation. Methods: Heterogeneous finger joint phantom containing a vertical water layer (bone joint or cartilage) sandwiched by two bones with dimension 2 × 2 × 2 cm 3 was irradiated by the 6 MV photon beams (field size = 4 × 4 cm 2 ). The central beam axis was along the length of the bone joint and the isocenter was set to the center of the joint. The joint width and beam angle were varied from 0.5–2 mm and 0°–15°, respectively. Depth doses were calculated using the AAA and DOSXYZnrc. For dosimetric comparison and normalization, dose calculations were repeated in water phantom using the same beam geometry. Results: Our AAA and Monte Carlo results showed that the AAA underestimated the joint doses by 10%–20%, and could not predict joint dose variation with changes of joint width and beam angle. The calculated bone dose enhancement for the AAA was lower than Monte Carlo and the depth of maximum dose for the phantom was smaller than that for the water phantom. From Monte Carlo results, there was a decrease of joint dose as its width increased. This reflected the smaller the joint width, the more the bone scatter contributed to the depth dose. Moreover, the joint dose was found slightly decreased with an increase of beam angle. Conclusion: The AAA could not handle variations of joint dose well with changes of joint width and beam angle based on our finger joint phantom. Monte Carlo results showed that the joint dose decreased with increase of joint width and beam angle. This dosimetry comparison should be useful to radiation staff in radiotherapy related to small bone joint

  13. Processing of nanocomposites EVA/PVC/MMT in twin-screw extruder; Processamento de nanocompositos EVA/PVC/MMT em extrusora dupla rosca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlen, A.; Barbutti Filho, W.R.; Francisquetti, E.L.; Andrade, M.Z.; Zattera, A.J., E-mail: ajzatter@ucs.b [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Polimeros


    Polymeric nanocomposites have some superior properties when compared to conventional polymer composites and is one of the most promising fields in the nanotechnology research. In a EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) /PVC (poly vinyl chloride) matrix was incorporated different types of montmorillonite clays (an inorganic (Na{sup +}) and two organic modified (15A and 30B nanoclays). The mixtures were processed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder at processing speeds of 200 and 400 rpm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shown that the inorganic and organic modified clays promoted a shift to higher temperatures in the degradation temperature., X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) shows a possible intercalation with the 15A clay, exfoliation with the 30B clay and formation of clusters in the Na{sup +} clay. For all clays studied, the increase in shear rate does not promote significant changes. (author)

  14. Root Cause Investigation of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly on the International Space Station (United States)

    Taylor, Deneen; Enriquez, Carlos; McCann, David; McFatter, Justin


    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high current draw. Later inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the case hardened steel race ring on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken, comprising metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The investigation found that the race ring damage had been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors.

  15. Measuring the Viewing Angle of GW170817 with Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves (United States)

    Finstad, Daniel; De, Soumi; Brown, Duncan A.; Berger, Edo; Biwer, Christopher M.


    The joint detection of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 ushered in a new era of multi-messenger astronomy. Joint GW–EM observations can be used to measure the parameters of the binary with better precision than either observation alone. Here, we use joint GW–EM observations to measure the viewing angle of GW170817, the angle between the binary’s angular momentum and the line of sight. We combine a direct measurement of the distance to the host galaxy of GW170817 (NGC 4993) of 40.7 ± 2.36 Mpc with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo GW data and find that the viewing angle is {32}-13+10 +/- 1.7 degrees (90% confidence, statistical, and systematic errors). We place a conservative lower limit on the viewing angle of ≥13°, which is robust to the choice of prior. This measurement provides a constraint on models of the prompt γ-ray and radio/X-ray afterglow emission associated with the merger; for example, it is consistent with the off-axis viewing angle inferred for a structured jet model. We provide for the first time the full posterior samples from Bayesian parameter estimation of LIGO/Virgo data to enable further analysis by the community.

  16. The Effect of Confluence Angle on the Flow Pattern at a Rectangular Open-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rooniyan


    Full Text Available Flow connection in channels is a phenomenon which frequently happens in rivers, water and drainage channels and urban sewage systems. The phenomenon appears to be more complex in rivers than in channels, especially at the y-junction bed joint that causes erosion and sedimentation at some areas resulting to morphological changes. Flow behavior at the channel junction area depends on variables such as channel geometry, discharge ratio, tributary width and y-junction connection angle of the channel, bed level changes at the bed joint, flow characteristic at the bed joint upstream and flow Froude number in different sections. In this research, fluent numerical model and junction angles of 30o, 45o & 60o are used to analyze and evaluate the effect of channel junction geometry on the flow pattern and the flow separation zone dimensions in different ratios of flow discharge (upstream channel discharge to total discharge of the flow. Results for two ratios of flow discharge are represented. Results are in agreement with earlier studies and it is shown that the change of the channel crossing angle affects the flow pattern in the main channel and also that the dimensions of the created separation zone in the main channel become larger when the crossing angle increases. This phenomenon can also be observed when the flow discharge ratio is lower. Analysis showed that the least dimension of the separation zone will be at the crossing angle of 45o .

  17. Uso de EVA Modificado com Grupos Mercaptana na Compatibilização de Misturas NBR/EPDM The Use of Mercapto-Modified EVA as Compatibilizing Agent for NBR/EPDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia G. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Copolímeros de etileno - acetato de vinila com diferentes teores de acetato de vinila - foram funcionalizados com grupos mercaptana e utilizados como agentes compatibilizantes reativos em misturas envolvendo borracha nitrílica e copolímeros de etileno-propileno-dieno (EPDM. Foi investigada a influência das características estruturais dos copolímeros funcionalizados no processo de vulcanização, propriedades mecânicas e dinâmico-mecânicas bem como resistência ao envelhecimento. A adição de pequena porção desses copolímeros resultou em tempos de cura menores. Copolímeros funcionalizados, obtidos a partir da transesterificação de EVA com ácido mercaptoacético (EVASH, apresentaram desempenho melhor como compatibilizante do que aquele obtido a partir da esterificação de EVA hidrolisado com o mesmo ácido (EVALSH. As misturas compatibilizadas com o primeiro sistema apresentaram melhores propriedades mecânicas além de uma morfologia mais refinada e uniforme. A presença dos grupos mercaptana nesses agentes compatibilizantes resultou em uma melhora na resistência ao envelhecimento das misturas.Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA copolymers with different amounts of vinyl acetate have been functionalized with mercapto groups and these reactive compounds were used as compatibilizing agent for nitrile rubber (NBR/ ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM blends. The effects from the structural properties of mercapto-modified EVA compounds on the vulcanizing characteristics, mechanical properties, aging resistance and dynamic-mechanical properties were investigated. The addition of low amounts of mercapto-modified EVA resulted in a decrease of curing time. The functionalized copolymer obtained through transesterification reaction between mercaptoacetic acid and EVA (EVASH presented better compatibilizing action than that obtained from esterification of hydrolyzed EVA and mercaptoacetic acid (EVALSH. Blends compatibilized with the former

  18. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a new drug carrier for 3D printed medical drug delivery devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Hollander, Jenny; Jukarainen, Harri


    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the printability of different grades of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers as new feedstock material for fused-deposition modeling (FDM™)-based 3D printing technology in fabrication of custom-made T-shaped intrauterine systems (IUS......) and subcutaneous rods (SR). The goal was to select an EVA grade with optimal properties, namely vinyl acetate content, melting index, flexural modulus, for 3D printing of implantable prototypes with the drug incorporated within the entire matrix of the medical devices. Indomethacin was used as a model drug...... affected the drug release profiles from the filaments and printed prototype products: faster release from the prototypes over 30 days in the in vitro tests. To conclude, this study indicates that certain grades of EVA were applicable feedstock material for 3D printing to produce drug-loaded implantable...

  19. Fatores anteriores ao ingresso como preditivos de evasão nos anos iniciais dos cursos superiores de tecnologia


    Rafaela de Menezes Souza Brissac


    Resumo: A evasão de estudantes do ensino superior evidencia-se como fenômeno complexo, com conseqüências de ordem pessoal, institucional e social. Entre os estudos que buscam aprofundar o conhecimento sobre este fenômeno encontram-se os que se detém a pesquisar as causas e fatores associados à evasão de alunos neste nível de ensino. No que se refere às variáveis associadas à ocorrência da evasão, os estudos têm mostrado que é possível localizar fatores que são anteriores ao ingresso do estuda...

  20. Use of the Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) for coordinated IVA-EVA astronaut training and evaluation. (United States)

    Cater, J P; Huffman, S D


    This paper presents a unique virtual reality training and assessment tool developed under a NASA grant, "Research in Human Factors Aspects of Enhanced Virtual Environments for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Training and Simulation." The Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) was created to train and evaluate the verbal, mental and physical coordination required between the intravehicular (IVA) astronaut operating the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and the EVA astronaut standing in foot restraints on the end of the RMS. The RAVEN system currently allows the EVA astronaut to approach the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) under control of the IVA astronaut and grasp, remove, and replace the Wide Field Planetary Camera drawer from its location in the HST. Two viewpoints, one stereoscopic and one monoscopic, were created all linked by Ethernet, that provided the two trainees with the appropriate training environments.

  1. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja; Han, Beon Hee


    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length of

  2. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)


    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length

  3. A Pansharpening Method Based on HCT and Joint Sparse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ning


    Full Text Available A novel fusion method based on the hyperspherical color transformation (HCT and joint sparsity model is proposed for decreasing the spectral distortion of fused image further. In the method, an intensity component and angles of each band of the multispectral image is obtained by HCT firstly, and then the intensity component is fused with the panchromatic image through wavelet transform and joint sparsity model. In the joint sparsity model, the redundant and complement information of the different images can be efficiently extracted and employed to yield the high quality results. Finally, the fused multi spectral image is obtained by inverse transforms of wavelet and HCT on the new lower frequency image and the angle components, respectively. Experimental results on Pleiades-1 and WorldView-2 satellites indicate that the proposed method achieves remarkable results.

  4. Entre Lilith y Eva: Björk canta E. E. Cummings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mas López


    del poeta norteamericano en Sun In My Mouth y el resto de composiciones de Vespertine. Frente a la inequívoca exaltación del héroe solar de Cummings, Björk utiliza una mirada femenina que duda entre los referentes de Lilith, la mujer que encuentra su libertad fuera de la sociedad, y Eva, aquella cuya sumisión es socialmente productiva. El resultado es un discurso de gran valor artístico, pero sujeto, en lo ideológico, a las limitaciones que imponen los motivos de partida

  5. Using EVA Method to Assess Achievement of BEJ Registered Retail Trade Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono


    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the the achievement in terms of the company finance, on whether it adds value or not to shareholders and investors in generating profit on top of used capital or normally mentioned as the method of EVA. This research was carried out against 10 retail trade companies that registered in BEJ during the finance year of 2005 by using the documentary or secondary data obtained from the Centre of the Pasar Modal Reference (PRPM in the Building of Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ. Evaluation results suggested 6 companies for future investment.

  6. Eesti Vabariigi 90. aastapäeva tähistamise muljeid / Vello Helk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helk, Vello, 1923-2014


    Eesti Vabariigi juubeliaasta tähistamisest, endiste riigijuhtide mälestuse austamisest. Käsitletud on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnesid kindral Johan Laidoneri mälestusloengul Viimsi mõisas 12. veebruaril 2008, Ajutise Valitsuse liikmete büstide näituse avamisel 14. veebruaril 2008 Eesti Pangas, Eesti Vabariigi väljakuulutamise monumendi avamisel Pärnus 23. veebruaril 2008 ja Eesti Vabariigi väljakuulutamise 90. aastapäeva pidulikul kontsertaktusel 24. veebruaril 2008. Ilmunud ka: Eesti Elu 15. aug. 2008, lk. 5; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm) 28. aug. 2008, lk. 3

  7. Kuidas tähistame TÜ 375. aastapäeva? / Varje Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Varje, 1946-


    TÜ 375. aastapäeva tähistamise ürituste seas ka kontserdid: 5. okt. Vanemuise kontserdimajas "Kuningas Gustavi gala" (esinevad ülikoori esinduskoorid koos Vanemuise Sümfooniaorkestriga ja Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia kultuurikollektiivid, sh. muusikud), 6. okt. AthenasTRÜ ansamblid Rajacas, Rentaablus, Meedium ja Fix, 3. sept. Raekoja platsil uue kooliaasta alguse kontsert, 5. okt. üliõpilasmajas heategevuskontsert, sept. lõpus esitavad ülikoolide koorid Tallinnas ja Pärnus Carl Orffi lavakantaadi "Carmina BUrana"

  8. The Use of Human Modeling of EVA Tasks as a Systems Engineering Tool (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Schmidt, Henry J.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)


    Computer-generated human models have been used in aerospace design for a decade. They have come to be highly reliable for worksite analysis of certain types of EVA tasks. In many design environments, this analysis comes after the structural design is largely complete. However, the use of these models as a development tool is gaining acceptance within organizations that practice good systems engineering processes. The design of the United States Propulsion Module for the International Space Station provides an example of this application. The Propulsion Module will provide augmentation to the propulsion capability supplied by the Russian Service Module Zvezda. It is a late addition to the set of modules provided by the United States to the ISS Program, and as a result, faces design challenges that result from the level of immaturity of its integration into the Station. Among these are heat dissipation and physical envelopes. Since the rest of the Station was designed to maximize the use of the cooling system, little margin is available for the addition of another module. The Propulsion Module will attach at the forward end of the Station, and will be between the Orbiter and the rest of ISS. Since cargo must be removed from the Payload Bay and transferred to Station by the Canadarm, there is a potential for protrusions from the module, such as thruster booms, to interfere with robotic operations. These and similar engineering issues must be addressed as part of the development. In the implementation of good system design, all design solutions should be analyzed for compatibility with all affected subsystems. Human modeling has been used in this project to provide rapid input to system trades of design concepts. For example, the placement of radiators and avionics components for optimization of heat dissipation had to be examined for feasibility of EVA translation paths and worksite development. Likewise, the location of and mechanism for the retraction of thruster

  9. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.


    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  10. 13. Sacroiliac joint pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanelderen, P.; Szadek, K.M.; Cohen, S.P.; Witte, J.; Lataster, A.; Patijn, J.; Mekhail, N.; van Kleef, M.; van Zundert, J.


    The sacroiliac joint accounts for approximately 16% to 30% of cases of chronic mechanical low back pain. Pain originating in the sacroiliac joint is predominantly perceived in the gluteal region, although pain is often referred into the lower and upper lumbar region, groin, abdomen, and/ or lower

  11. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik


    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...

  12. Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements. (United States)

    Parsons, Marie

    The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

  13. Joint Hub Network Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.


    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once.

  14. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole


    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...

  15. Bistable Articulated Joint (United States)

    Graighead, Norwood D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D.


    Joint with four-bar-linkage geometry has following attributes: Springs to fully extended fully folded positions. Automatically locks in its extended position. Joint combines zero backlash, positive locking, and centerline pivoting. Used in folding tool handles, portable antenna booms, and many other deployable structures.

  16. MP Joint Arthritis (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required ...

  17. Creep of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.


    A creep analysis has been performed on nailed, toothed-plates and split-ring joints in a varying uncontrolled climate. The load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average ultimate short term strength of these joints, tested in accordance with ISO 6891. The climate in which the tests were

  18. MR diagnosis of temporomandibular joint. A study of joint effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu


    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)

  19. Generalised joint hypermobility and knee joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Henriksen, Peter; Hansen, Sebrina


    . Respondents with GJHk and KJH reported lower HRQoL. CONCLUSION: GJHk and KJH were frequently reported in the Danish adult population, mostly in women. Respondents with GJHk and KJH were two times more likely to report knee joint-related symptoms such as pain, reduced performance of usual activity and lower...

  20. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.P.


    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  1. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.


    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  2. Design a Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Rotary Flexible Joint Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalani Jamaludin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design a fuzzy logic feedback controller (FLC in order to control a desired tip angle position a rotary flexible joint robotic arm. The FLC is also employed to dampen the vibration emanated from a rotary flexible joint robotic arm when reaching a desired tip angle position. The performance of FLC is tested in simulation and experiment. It is found that the FLC is successfully designed, applied and tested. The results show that fuzzy logic controller performed satisfactorily control a desired tip angle position and reduce the oscillations.

  3. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.


    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  4. Quality Assessment of Scarf Joints Considering the Acoustic Parameters: A Nondestructive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yavari


    Full Text Available The present research studied the acoustic properties of 40 oak timber samples (Quercus castaneifolia: the acoustic coefficient (K and acoustic conversion efficiency (ACE in free vibration mode, using the free-free bar method with different planes of vibration, i.e., tangential (LT and radial (LR. These acoustic parameters were considered for both primary virgin wooden beams and modified beams carrying a single scarf joint in four different bonding angles (60°, 65°, 70°, and 75°, individually glued with two different adhesives (isocyanate and polyvinyl acetate. Comparing the acoustic properties of primary solid beams with scarf jointed beams of oak wood in LT and LR planes, the steeper joint angles of 70° and 75° did not result in any serious changes with polyvinyl acetate adhesive. Scarf-jointed beams with smaller joint angles (60° and 65° had significant effect on the acoustic properties relative to larger angles. Thus, beams having larger joint angles and beams glued using polyvinyl acetate may have enhanced acoustic properties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pahlawan


    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis: (1 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham (2 pengaruh Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham (3 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham antara variabel kinerja keuangan industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada periode 2007-2012. Kegunaan teoritis adalah untuk memberikan kontribusi tentang pengetahuan manajemen keuangan, yang dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk penelitian berikutnya kinerja keuangan terutama tentang industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Kegunaan praktis adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap kinerja keuangan untuk kontribusi memberi kepada manajemen properti umum dalam mengelola variabel kinerja industri properti Bursa Efek Indonesia.Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang dikumpulkan dari data Bursa Efek Indonesia, dan Departemen Riset menurut sifat laporan keuangan pada periode 2007-2012. Sampel adalah 54 variabel dan dianalisis dengan regresi berganda metode statistik linier. Total nilai determinasi adalah 0,368, artinya ini adalah 36,8% informasi dalam data dapat dijelaskan oleh model dan 63,2% di bawah variabel lain dan error. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 Variabel Economic Value Added (EVA berpengaruh positif terhadap return saham; (2 Variabel Market Value Added (MVA memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap Return Saham; Mengacu pada kesimpulan penelitian diatas maka disarankan adalah: (1 Dioptimalkan Economic Value Added (EVA untuk mencapai pendapatan dan keuntungan dari return saham (2 Mengelola Variabel Market Value Added (MVA pada kondisi baik untuk menjaga stabilitas keuangan dan mendapatkan dipercaya dari investor Bursa Efek Indonesia (3 Fokus ke Manajemen Risiko, Jasa, perusahaan Visi & Misi, dan Active keterampilan dan pengetahuan karyawan perusahaan yang lebih tinggi untuk

  6. Radiographic Relevance of the Distal Medial Cuneiform Angle in Hallux Valgus Assessment. (United States)

    Hatch, Daniel J; Smith, Abigail; Fowler, Troy


    The angle formed by the distal articular facet of the medial cuneiform has been evaluated and discussed by various investigators. However, no consistent method has been available to radiograph and measure this entity. The wide variability of the angle is not conducive to comparative analysis. Additionally, investigators have noted that the angles observed (obliquity) vary greatly because of changes in radiographic angle, foot position, rotation of the first ray, and declination of the first metatarsal. Recognizing that these variables exist, we propose a reproducible assessment using digital radiography and application of deformity of correction principles. Our results have indicated a mean distal medial cuneiform angle of 20.69° in normal feet, 23.51° with moderate hallux valgus, and 20.41° with severe hallux valgus deformity. The radiograph beam was kept at 15° from the coronal plane. An inverse relationship was found between the distal medial cuneiform angle and bunion severity. This was in contrast to our expected hypothesis. The overall angle of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform did, however, correlate with the severity of the bunion deformity (p hallux valgus. A better indicator appears to be the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform angle. This pathologic entity is a 3-dimensional one that incorporates the joint morphology of the first ray, triplane osseous positioning, and soft tissue imbalances. Perhaps, 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging will provide better insight into this entity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quasi-stiffness of the knee joint in flexion and extension during the golf swing. (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan


    Biomechanical understanding of the knee joint during a golf swing is essential to improve performance and prevent injury. In this study, we quantified the flexion/extension angle and moment as the primary knee movement, and evaluated quasi-stiffness represented by moment-angle coupling in the knee joint. Eighteen skilled and 23 unskilled golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras and two force platforms were used to record a swing motion. The anatomical angle and moment were calculated from kinematic and kinetic models, and quasi-stiffness of the knee joint was determined as an instantaneous slope of moment-angle curves. The lead knee of the skilled group had decreased resistance duration compared with the unskilled group (P golf swing and developing rehabilitation strategies following surgery.

  8. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations (United States)


    promulgate command-specific policy and guidance for EMS use, the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL) process, the joint communications–electronics...joint communications–electronics operating instructions (JCEOI) and joint restricted frequency list (JRFL). Examples of FM include providing the...joint restricted frequency list Figure III-4. Joint Frequency Management Office Spectrum Management Process Chapter III III-10 JP 6-01 assignments

  9. Physicochemical and enzimatic transformations of "eva" apples stored under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Betsy Thomas


    Full Text Available The need for a permanent market supply of fresh fruit has generated great interest in postharvest techniques that can promote useful life and quality of the fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of atmospheric modification using different polymeric films in maintaining postharvest quality and prolonging the shelf life of Eva (Mallus sp apples. For this, fruits from the city of Barbacena - MG, selected and sanitized were packed in plastic trays and wrapped in the corresponding films. The films used were: polypropylene - 20 µm, low-density polyethylene - 14 µm and high-density polyethylene - 7 µm. Another group of fruits (control was not submitted to a modified atmosphere. Subsequently, all the the packages were stored under refrigeration (0 ° C ± 0.5 for 210 days and the evaluations of the following variables were performed every 30 days of storage: hydrogen potential (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, weight loss, firmness, total pectin, soluble pectin, pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase. The work was conducted in a completely randomized design (4x8, with 4 treatments and 8 experimental times. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and each experimental unit consisted of six fruits. The results were submitted to variance analysis and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability and regression analysis. The low density polyethylene (14 µm packaging provided the best conservation of the Eva cultivar apple textural characteristics.

  10. The contribution of quasi-joint stiffness of the ankle joint to gait in patients with hemiparesis. (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Muraki, Takayuki; Kuramatsu, Yuko; Furusawa, Yoshihito; Izumi, Shin-Ichi


    The role of ankle joint stiffness during gait in patients with hemiparesis has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of quasi-joint stiffness of the ankle joint to spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters regarding gait in patients with hemiparesis due to brain tumor or stroke and healthy individuals. Spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters regarding gait in twelve patients with hemiparesis due to brain tumor or stroke and nine healthy individuals were measured with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Quasi-joint stiffness was calculated from the slope of the linear regression of the moment-angle curve of the ankle joint during the second rocker. There was no significant difference in quasi-joint stiffness among both sides of patients and the right side of controls. Quasi-joint stiffness on the paretic side of patients with hemiparesis positively correlated with maximal ankle power (r=0.73, Phemiparesis. In contrast, healthy individuals might decrease quasi-joint stiffness to avoid deceleration of forward tilt of the tibia. Our findings might be useful for selecting treatment for increased ankle stiffness due to contracture and spasticity in patients with hemiparesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Different Hip Joint Centre Locations on Hip and Knee Joint Kinetics and Kinematics During the Squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan


    Full Text Available Identification of the hip joint centre (HJC is important in the biomechanical examination of human movement. However, there is yet to be any published information regarding the influence of different HJC locations on hip and knee joint kinetics during functional tasks. This study aimed to examine the influence of four different HJC techniques on 3- D hip and knee joint kinetics/kinematics during the squat. Hip and knee joint kinetics/kinematics of the squat were obtained from fifteen male participants using an eight camera motion capture system. The 3-D kinetics/kinematics of the squat were quantified using four hip joint centre estimation techniques. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare the discrete parameters as a function of each HJC location. The results show that significant differences in joint angles and moment parameters were evident at both the hip and knee joint in the coronal and transverse planes. These observations indicate that when calculating non-sagittal joint kinetics/kinematics during the squat, researchers should carefully consider their HJC method as it may significantly affect the interpretation of their data.

  12. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. G. D'Antona


    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte, o comportamento mecânico desse compósito - concreto asfáltico, empregado como revestimento nas vias urbanas da Capital do Estado do Amazonas. Os ligantes (virgem e modificado foram caracterizados conforme a especificação da ANP e a metodologia Superpave. As misturas asfálticas foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de fluência por compressão axial, com carregamento dinâmico à temperatura de 40 ºC. O material asfáltico modificado com EVA (AMP EVA demonstrou melhores propriedades reológicas ou equivalentes ao asfalto convencional (REMAN, ao longo de todos os ensaios de caracterização. As misturas alternativas compostas com o CAP modificado (SEVA obtiveram desempenho mecânico superior ao de misturas com cimento asfáltico habitualmente comercializado na região (SMAN.In this research we investigated alternative materials to build urban pavements in Manaus, seeking for pavements with longer lifetime for usage and suitable mechanical properties to withstand the local temperatures. The asphaltic mixtures contained a regional binder, namely CAP 50/70, mixed with 4% of EVA polymer. The incorporation of the latter polymer was aimed at improving the rheological properties of asphaltic concrete used in roads in the Amazonas' capital. The asphalt binders (original and modified were characterized in accordance with the ANP (National Petroleum Agency specification and the Superpave methodology. The asphalt mixtures had their mechanical properties

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Joint Geometric Configurations on the Mechanical Properties of Intermittent Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Fan, Pengxian; Xu, Nuwen; Dong, Lu


    Intermittent joints in rock mass are quite sensitive to cyclic loading conditions. Understanding the fatigue mechanical properties of jointed rocks is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering projects. This study experimentally investigated the influences of joint geometry (i.e., dip angle, persistency, density and spacing) on the fatigue mechanism of synthetic jointed rock models. Our results revealed that the stress-strain curve of jointed rock under cyclic loadings is dominated by its curve under monotonic uniaxial loadings; the terminal strain in fatigue curve is equal to the post-peak strain corresponding to the maximum cyclic stress in the monotonic stress-strain curve. The four joint geometrical parameters studied significantly affect the fatigue properties of jointed rocks, including the irreversible strains, the fatigue deformation modulus, the energy evolution, the damage variable and the crack coalescence patterns. The higher the values of the geometrical parameters, the lower the elastic energy stores in this jointed rock, the higher the fatigue damage accumulates in the first few cycles, and the lower the fatigue life. The elastic energy has certain storage limitation, at which the fatigue failure occurs. Two basic micro-cracks, i.e., tensile wing crack and shear crack, are observed in cyclic loading and unloading tests, which are controlled principally by joint dip angle and persistency. In general, shear cracks only occur in the jointed rock with higher dip angle or higher persistency, and the jointed rock is characterized by lower fatigue strength, larger damage variable and lower fatigue life.

  14. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders


    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...... and sports participation at all. It is concluded that the use of Q angle measurements is questionable....

  15. Joint Quantum Institute (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  16. Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (United States)

    ... Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Learn what those dental words mean. Check out how your teeth and mouth ...

  17. Hip joint replacement (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  18. Knee joint replacement (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  19. Concrete pavement joint deterioration. (United States)


    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  20. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. (United States)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Arslan, Ahmet; Koç, Omer Nadir; Dalkiliç, Turker; Naderi, Sait


    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a disorder presenting with low back and groin pain. It should be taken into consideration during the preoperative differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis and facet syndrome. Four cases with sacroiliac dysfunction are presented. The clinical and radiological signs supported the evidence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and exact diagnosis was made after positive response to sacroiliac joint block. A percutaneous sacroiliac fixation provided pain relief in all cases. The mean VAS scores reduced from 8.2 to 2.2. It is concluded that sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosis requires a careful physical examination of the sacroiliac joints in all cases with low back and groin pain. The diagnosis is made based on positive response to the sacroiliac block. Sacroiliac fixation was found to be effective in carefully selected cases.

  1. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean


    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  2. The MADD-3 LAMMER Kinase Interacts with a p38 MAP Kinase Pathway to Regulate the Display of the EVA-1 Guidance Receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena A D'Souza


    Full Text Available The proper display of transmembrane receptors on the leading edge of migrating cells and cell extensions is essential for their response to guidance cues. We previously discovered that MADD-4, which is an ADAMTSL secreted by motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, interacts with an UNC-40/EVA-1 co-receptor complex on muscles to attract plasma membrane extensions called muscle arms. In nematodes, the muscle arm termini harbor the post-synaptic elements of the neuromuscular junction. Through a forward genetic screen for mutants with disrupted muscle arm extension, we discovered that a LAMMER kinase, which we call MADD-3, is required for the proper display of the EVA-1 receptor on the muscle's plasma membrane. Without MADD-3, EVA-1 levels decrease concomitantly with a reduction of the late-endosomal marker RAB-7. Through a genetic suppressor screen, we found that the levels of EVA-1 and RAB-7 can be restored in madd-3 mutants by eliminating the function of a p38 MAP kinase pathway. We also found that EVA-1 and RAB-7 will accumulate in madd-3 mutants upon disrupting CUP-5, which is a mucolipin ortholog required for proper lysosome function. Together, our data suggests that the MADD-3 LAMMER kinase antagonizes the p38-mediated endosomal trafficking of EVA-1 to the lysosome. In this way, MADD-3 ensures that sufficient levels of EVA-1 are present to guide muscle arm extension towards the source of the MADD-4 guidance cue.

  3. Effect of the High-Energy Electron Beam Irradiation on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of PE/EVA Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi Aghjeh, M. K.


    The main objective of the present work was to study the effect of electron beam irradiation on the morphology and mechanical properties of PE/EVA blends. The melt compounding of the blends were carried out in an internal mixer. The small amount of the prepared blend samples were rapidly quenched in liquid nitrogen and the remained were compression molded into sheets. Sheets and quenched samples were then irradiated by a 10 MeV electron beam accelerator using different dose levels. The morphological studies for both, sheeted and quenched blends were performed on cryogenically fractured surfaces by using SEM technique. The mechanical properties of the sheeted samples were evaluated according to ASTM D638. The results of mechanical properties showed that, increasing in irradiation dose increases the tensile strength and decreases the elongation at break in all blend compositions. On the other hand, it was found that, for PE/EVA blends the extent of tensile strength increase, and elongation at break decrease, are more appreciable in compare to the neat PE and EVA. These results suggest that, the blend interface is more susceptible for irradiation induced crosslinking. This is because of more affinity of PE and EVA macroradicals to termination with together in compare to own macroradicals.The results of morphological studies showed that, irradiation can stabilize the blend morphology especially in co-continues regions, where the morphology is more unstable due to the heat coarsening

  4. Kodutus Eestis - kas indiviidi või ühiskonna probleem? / Jüri Kõre, Riina Kiik, Eva Kõiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõre, Jüri, 1953-


    Kodutuse ajaloolisest taustast ja põhjustest. Tartu linna kodutute hulgas 2003.-2004. a. tehtud uurimusest ning Eva Kõivu magistritööst "Kodutus Tartu linnas: Põhjused ja võimalikud lahendused". Diagrammid: Tartu koduta inimeste jaotus kodutuse kestuse järgi; Intervjueeritute sissetulekuallikad

  5. Pühapäeva hommik : [luuletused] / Wallace Stevens ; tõlk. Hasso Krull, Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevens, Wallace


    Sisu: Pühapäeva hommik ; Peter Quince klahvide ees ; Mozart, 1935 ; Postkaart vulkaanist ; Moodsast luulest ; Paks punane mees loeb ette ; Seesmise armukese viimane üksikõne ; Ühe üksikasja kulg. Elu- ja loomeloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 531-532

  6. Flame retardancy and thermal behavior of intumescent flame-retardant EVA composites with an efficient triazine-based charring agent (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Ma, Wen; Wu, Xiao; Qian, Lijun; Jiang, Shan


    Intumescent flame retardant (IFR) EVA composites were prepared based on a hyperbranched triazine charring-foaming agent (HTCFA) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). The synergistic effect of HTCFA and APP on the flame retardancy and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated through flammability tests, cone calorimeter measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) including evolved gas analysis (TG-IR) and residue analysis (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)). The flammability test results showed HTCFA/APP (1/3) system presented the best synergistic effect in flame-retardant EVA composites with the highest LOI value and UL-94 V-0 rating. As for cone calorimeter results, IFR changed the combustion behavior of EVA and resulted in remarkable decrease of flammability and smoke product. TGA results showed the synergistic effect between APP and HTCFA could strengthen the char-forming ability of composites. TG-IR results indicated the melt viscosities and gas release with increasing temperature were well-correlated for EVA/IFR composite. The residue analysis results from SEM, LRS, FT-IR and XPS revealed IFR promoted forming more compact graphitic char layer, connected by rich P–O–C and P–N structures.

  7. Muusikamaailm : "Musica Nova" Helsingis. Revueltase tähtpäeva-aasta. Pendereckile elutööauhind / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-


    Helsingi uue muusika festivalist "Musica Nova" 3.-11. märtsini. Möödus sajand S. Revueltase sünnist, tähtpäeva üritustest USAs. MIDEMi muusikamess Cannes'is andis viiendat korda välja eriauhinna väljapaistvale kaasaja heliloojale ئ seekord K. Pendereckile

  8. Functional assessment of allelic variants in the SLC26A4 gene involved in Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic EVA (United States)

    Pera, Alejandra; Dossena, Silvia; Rodighiero, Simona; Gandía, Marta; Bottà, Guido; Meyer, Giuliano; Moreno, Felipe; Nofziger, Charity; Hernández-Chico, Concepción; Paulmichl, Markus


    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, with malformations of the inner ear, ranging from enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) to Mondini malformation, and deficient iodide organification in the thyroid gland. Nonsyndromic EVA (ns-EVA) is a separate type of sensorineural hearing loss showing normal thyroid function. Both Pendred syndrome and ns-EVA seem to be linked to the malfunction of pendrin (SLC26A4), a membrane transporter able to exchange anions between the cytosol and extracellular fluid. In the past, the pathogenicity of SLC26A4 missense mutations were assumed if the mutations fulfilled two criteria: low incidence of the mutation in the control population and substitution of evolutionary conserved amino acids. Here we show that these criteria are insufficient to make meaningful predictions about the effect of these SLC26A4 variants on the pendrin-induced ion transport. Furthermore, we functionally characterized 10 missense mutations within the SLC26A4 ORF, and consistently found that on the protein level, an addition or omission of a proline or a charged amino acid in the SLC26A4 sequence is detrimental to its function. These types of changes may be adequate for predicting SLC26A4 functionality in the absence of direct functional tests. PMID:19017801

  9. Influence of inclination angles on intra- and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking. (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wun; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Li, Jia-Da; Wang, Ting-Ming; Ho, Wei-Ping; Lu, Tung-Wu


    Uphill walking is an inevitable part of daily living, placing more challenges on the locomotor system with greater risk of falls than level walking does. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of inclination angles on the inter-joint and inter-limb load-sharing during uphill walking in terms of total support moment and contributions of individual joint moments to the total support moment. Fifteen young adults walked up walkways with 0°, 5°, 10° and 15° of slope while kinematic and kinetic data were collected and analyzed. With increasing inclination angles, the first peak of the total support moment was increased with unaltered individual joint contributions, suggesting an unaltered inter-joint control pattern in the leading limb to meet the increased demands. The second peak of the total support moment remained unchanged with increasing inclination angles primarily through a compensatory redistribution of the hip and knee moments. During DLS, the leading limb shared the majority of the whole body support moments. The current results reveal basic intra- and inter-limb load-sharing patterns of uphill walking, which will be helpful for a better understanding of the control strategies adopted and for subsequent clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of acetabular cup abduction angle on wear of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene in hip simulator testing. (United States)

    Korduba, Laryssa A; Essner, Aaron; Pivec, Robert; Lancin, Perry; Mont, Michael A; Wang, Aiguo; Delanois, Ronald E


    The effect of acetabular component positioning on the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene articulations has not been extensively studied. Placement of acetabular cups at abduction angles of more than 40° has been noted as a possible reason for early failure caused by increased wear. We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of different acetabular cup abduction angles on polyethylene wear rate, wear area, contact pressure, and contact area. Our in vitro study used a hip joint simulator and finite element analysis to assess the effects of cup orientation at 4 angles (0°, 40°, 50°, 70°) on wear and contact properties. Polyethylene bearings with 28-mm cobalt-chrome femoral heads were cycled in an environment mimicking in vivo joint fluid to determine the volumetric wear rate after 10 million cycles. Contact pressure and contact area for each cup abduction angle were assessed using finite element analysis. Results were correlated with cup abduction angles to determine if there were any differences among the 4 groups. The inverse relationship between volumetric wear rate and acetabular cup inclination angle demonstrated less wear with steeper cup angles. The largest abduction angle (70°) had the lowest contact area, largest contact pressure, and smallest head coverage. Conversely, the smallest abduction angle (0°) had the most wear and most head coverage. Polyethylene wear after total hip arthroplasty is a major cause of osteolysis and aseptic loosening, which may lead to premature implant failure. Several studies have found that high wear rates for cups oriented at steep angles contributed to their failure. Our data demonstrated that larger cup abduction angles were associated with lower, not higher, wear. However, this potentially "protective" effect is likely counteracted by other complications of steep cup angles, including impingement, instability, and edge loading. These factors may be more relevant in explaining why implants fail at a higher rate if

  11. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha L Rao


    Full Text Available Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC. But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects, above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3 and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3. Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16% and superior quadrants (15% of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%. Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1. Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments.

  12. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Mungale, Sachin C; Kumbar, Tukaram; Parikh, Rajul S; Garudadri, Chandra S


    Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC) angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC). But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects), above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3) and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3). Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16%) and superior quadrants (15%) of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%). Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1). Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments. PMID:23202393

  13. Functional range of movement of the hand: declination angles to reachable space. (United States)

    Pham, Hai Trieu; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Caelli, Terry


    The measurement of the range of hand joint movement is an essential part of clinical practice and rehabilitation. Current methods use three finger joint declination angles of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. In this paper we propose an alternate form of measurement for the finger movement. Using the notion of reachable space instead of declination angles has significant advantages. Firstly, it provides a visual and quantifiable method that therapists, insurance companies and patients can easily use to understand the functional capabilities of the hand. Secondly, it eliminates the redundant declination angle constraints. Finally, reachable space, defined by a set of reachable fingertip positions, can be measured and constructed by using a modern camera such as Creative Senz3D or built-in hand gesture sensors such as the Leap Motion Controller. Use of cameras or optical-type sensors for this purpose have considerable benefits such as eliminating and minimal involvement of therapist errors, non-contact measurement in addition to valuable time saving for the clinician. A comparison between using declination angles and reachable space were made based on Hume's experiment on functional range of movement to prove the efficiency of this new approach.

  14. Joint Hub Network Development


    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.


    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once. Rather, the partners will have a more cautious attitude and build the hub facilities one-by-one. In the proposed framework, every time a new hub is introduced, partners will have the opportunity to dec...

  15. Prosthetic Joint Infections (United States)

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.


    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  16. Portable mini-chamber for temperature dependent studies using small angle and wide angle x-ray scattering (United States)

    Dev, Arun Singh; Kumar, Dileep; Potdar, Satish; Pandit, Pallavi; Roth, Stephan V.; Gupta, Ajay


    The present work describes the design and performance of a vacuum compatible portable mini chamber for temperature dependent GISAXS and GIWAXS studies of thin films and multilayer structures. The water cooled body of the chamber allows sample annealing up to 900 K using ultra high vacuum compatible (UHV) pyrolytic boron nitride heater, thus making it possible to study the temperature dependent evolution of structure and morphology of two-dimensional nanostructured materials. Due to its light weight and small size, the chamber is portable and can be accommodated at synchrotron facilities worldwide. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the chamber has been demonstrated at beamline P03, PETRA-III, DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Temperature dependent grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements were performed on oblique angle deposited Co/Ag multilayer structure, which jointly revealed that the surface diffusion in Co columns in Co/Ag multilayer enhances by increasing temperature from RT to ˜573 K. This results in a morphology change from columnar tilted structure to densely packed morphological isotropic multilayer.

  17. Benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Słowińska


    Full Text Available Benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS, commonly known as loose ligament syndrome, is a non-inflammatory rheumatic condition. It is characterised by a greater than normal range of motion of the joints of the limbs and spine. The prevalence of the syndrome in preschool-age children is estimated to be between 2% and 30%, depending on ethnic background (with higher prevalence in Asian and African populations, occurring most often in families with a history of the condition and more frequently in girls. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old girl. A broad differential diagnostic approach to recurrent joint inflammation with joint effusion and pain made it possible to establish a diagnosis of benign joint hypermobility syndrome. The child met the Brighton criteria; her Beighton score was 7 out of 9. Patient education aimed at eliminating abnormal joint movement and an appropriate rehabilitation programme play key roles in the treatment of BJHS.

  18. Shoulder joint loading and posture during medicine cart pushing task. (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; Boyer, Jon


    Excessive physical loads and awkward shoulder postures during pushing and pulling are risk factors for shoulder pain. Pushing a medicine cart is a major component of a work shift for nurses and medical assistants in hospitals and other health care facilities. A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of common factors (e.g., lane congestion, cart load stability, floor surface friction) on shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle of participants during cart pushing. Participants pushed a medicine cart on straight tracks and turning around right-angle corners. Peak shoulder joint moments reached 25.1 Nm, 20.3 Nm, and 26.8 Nm for initial, transition, and turning phases of the pushing tasks, indicating that shoulder joint loading while pushing a medical cart is comparable to levels previously reported from heavy manual activities encountered in industry (e.g., garbage collection). Also, except for user experience, all other main study factors, including congestion level, cart load stability, location of transition strip, shoulder tendency, surface friction, and handedness, significantly influenced shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle. The findings provide a better understanding of shoulder exposures associated with medicine cart operations and may be helpful in designing and optimizing the physical environment where medicine carts are used.

  19. Accuracy of a Custom Physical Activity and Knee Angle Measurement Sensor System for Patients with Neuromuscular Disorders and Gait Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Feldhege


    Full Text Available Long-term assessment of ambulatory behavior and joint motion are valuable tools for the evaluation of therapy effectiveness in patients with neuromuscular disorders and gait abnormalities. Even though there are several tools available to quantify ambulatory behavior in a home environment, reliable measurement of joint motion is still limited to laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel inertial sensor system for ambulatory behavior and joint motion measurement in the everyday environment. An algorithm for behavior classification, step detection, and knee angle calculation was developed. The validation protocol consisted of simulated daily activities in a laboratory environment. The tests were performed with ten healthy subjects and eleven patients with multiple sclerosis. Activity classification showed comparable performance to commercially available activPAL sensors. Step detection with our sensor system was more accurate. The calculated flexion-extension angle of the knee joint showed a root mean square error of less than 5° compared with results obtained using an electro-mechanical goniometer. This new system combines ambulatory behavior assessment and knee angle measurement for long-term measurement periods in a home environment. The wearable sensor system demonstrated high validity for behavior classification and knee joint angle measurement in a laboratory setting.

  20. Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint (United States)

    Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)


    A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.

  1. Unilateral spondylolysis and the presence of facet joint tropism. (United States)

    Rankine, James J; Dickson, Robert A


    Retrospective review of the CT scans performed in a group of patients examined for a possible spondylolysis. To investigate whether there is an association between unilateral spondylolysis and facet joint tropism. Spondylolysis is a fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis of great importance in sports injury. The demonstration of a unilateral spondylolysis is important because there is a potential for full healing if the athletic activity is modified, whereas bilateral spondylolysis frequently leads to established nonunion. Coronally orientated facet joints are known to predispose to spondylolysis by increasing the point loading of the pars interarticularis. The importance of this finding has not been investigated in unilateral spondylolysis. A review of patients with low back pain and a possible diagnosis of spondylolysis who were investigated with multislice CT was performed. The coronal orientation of the facet joints at L4/5 and L5/S1 was measured and comparison was done between those with and without a spondylolysis. The coronal angle of 140 facet joints in 35 patients was recorded. Of 35 patients, 23 had a spondylolysis which was unilateral in 12 patients. The facet joint angle was significantly more coronally orientated in the presence of a spondylolysis when compared with an intact pars (means, 53° and 43°, respectively; P spondylolysis, the facet joint was significantly more coronally orientated on the side of the spondylolysis (means, 52° and 45°, respectively; P spondylolysis. Asymmetric facet joints do increase the force through one side of the spine, with a unilateral spondylolysis occurring on the side of the more coronally orientated facet joint.

  2. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development (United States)


    transferred to the Joint Staff. 13 DOD’s instinct to “overly centralize planning, organization, and management.”20 The authors contend that this...2. 3 John F. Schank and others, Who is Joint? Reevaluating the Joint Duty Assignment List : A Study Prepared for the Joint Staff, by the RAND...and code those billets as such. Once identified, DOD must expand the Joint Duty Assignment List (JDAL) to include billets that offer enlisted personnel

  3. Estimation of continuous thumb angle and force using electromyogram classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Siddiqi


    Full Text Available Human hand functions range from precise minute handling to heavy and robust movements. Remarkably, 50% of all hand functions are made possible by the thumb. Therefore, developing an artificial thumb that can mimic the actions of a real thumb precisely is a major achievement. Despite many efforts dedicated to this area of research, control of artificial thumb movements in resemblance to our natural movement still poses as a challenge. Most of the development in this area is based on discontinuous thumb position control, which makes it possible to recreate several of the most important functions of the thumb but does not result in total imitation. This work looks into the classification of electromyogram signals from thumb muscles for the prediction of thumb angle and force during flexion motion. For this purpose, an experimental setup is developed to measure the thumb angle and force throughout the range of flexion and simultaneously gather the electromyogram signals. Further, various features are extracted from these signals for classification and the most suitable feature set is determined and applied to different classifiers. A “piecewise discretization” approach is used for continuous angle prediction. Breaking away from previous research studies, the frequency-domain features performed better than the time-domain features, with the best feature combination turning out to be median frequency–mean frequency–mean power. As for the classifiers, the support vector machine proved to be the most accurate classifier giving about 70% accuracy for both angle and force classification and close to 50% for joint angle–force classification.

  4. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.


    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  5. EVA: Exome Variation Analyzer, an efficient and versatile tool for filtering strategies in medical genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutant Sophie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole exome sequencing (WES has become the strategy of choice to identify a coding allelic variant for a rare human monogenic disorder. This approach is a revolution in medical genetics history, impacting both fundamental research, and diagnostic methods leading to personalized medicine. A plethora of efficient algorithms has been developed to ensure the variant discovery. They generally lead to ~20,000 variations that have to be narrow down to find the potential pathogenic allelic variant(s and the affected gene(s. For this purpose, commonly adopted procedures which implicate various filtering strategies have emerged: exclusion of common variations, type of the allelics variants, pathogenicity effect prediction, modes of inheritance and multiple individuals for exome comparison. To deal with the expansion of WES in medical genomics individual laboratories, new convivial and versatile software tools have to implement these filtering steps. Non-programmer biologists have to be autonomous combining themselves different filtering criteria and conduct a personal strategy depending on their assumptions and study design. Results We describe EVA (Exome Variation Analyzer, a user-friendly web-interfaced software dedicated to the filtering strategies for medical WES. Thanks to different modules, EVA (i integrates and stores annotated exome variation data as strictly confidential to the project owner, (ii allows to combine the main filters dealing with common variations, molecular types, inheritance mode and multiple samples, (iii offers the browsing of annotated data and filtered results in various interactive tables, graphical visualizations and statistical charts, (iv and finally offers export files and cross-links to external useful databases and softwares for further prioritization of the small subset of sorted candidate variations and genes. We report a demonstrative case study that allowed to identify a new candidate gene

  6. Modification of PE/PP Polymer Blend Nanocomposites with EPR and EVA Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenčić, J.


    Full Text Available During the last decade, the use of polyolephinic polymers has been growing in a wide range of fields of applicability and the most widely used polymers are polyethylene and polypropylene. They can be processed separately to produce items with certain properties as well as in the form of blends, where special combinations of properties and price are intended. As it is known, polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP are incompatible and the weak interfacial bond strength between the phases directly linked to the blend morphology and results in poor mechanical properties. The properties of many polymer blends arise from the fine-scale structural arrangements or blend morphologies obtained during processing in addition to the proportion of each polymer type present. Compounding PE/PP blends with a single compatibilizer or their combination or some other additives as nanofiller, results in multi-component composites of great interest to research as they enable simultaneous improvement in the final properties of the blend. In addition, it is well known that the extrusion process has a significant effect on the dispersion of the filler in the blends. In this work, the mutual effect of the nanofiller silicium-dioxide (SiO2 and the compatibilizers ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPR and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA on the properties of blends based on polyethylene and polypropylene were studied. The morphology of the samples prepared with nanofiller and compatibilizers is much finer in comparison to the virgin blend. Better dispersion of nanofiller will result in better stability of the polymer blend and decrease in polymer flammability. The addition of the nanofiller and compatibilizers produced an increase in the elasticity especially for the samples prepared in the two-stage extrusion process where the nanofiller was first extruded with PE matrix and then with other polymers of the blends. SEM micrographs confirm finer morphology of samples

  7. The paediatric Bohler's angle and crucial angle of Gissane: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Haemish A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane can be used to assess calcaneal fractures. While the normal adult values of these angles are widely known, the normal paediatric values have not yet been established. Our aim is to investigate Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane in a paediatric population and establish normal paediatric reference values. Method We measured Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane using normal plain ankle radiographs of 763 patients from birth to 14 years of age completed over a five year period from July 2003 to June 2008. Results In our paediatric study group, the mean Bohler's angle was 35.2 degrees and the mean crucial angle of Gissane was 111.3 degrees. In an adult comparison group, the mean Bohler's angle was 39.2 degrees and the mean crucial angle of Gissane was 113.8 degrees. The differences in Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane between these two groups were statistically significant. Conclusion We have presented the normal values of Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane in a paediatric population. These values may provide a useful comparison to assist with the management of the paediatric calcaneal fracture.

  8. Acromioclavicular joint separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Pandya, BS


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department as a trauma activation after a motorcycle accident. The patient was the helmeted rider of a motorcycle traveling at an unknown speed when he lost control and was thrown off his vehicle. He denied loss of consciousness, nausea, or vomiting. The patient’s vital signs were stable and his only complaint was pain around his left shoulder. On exam, the patient had a prominent left clavicle without skin compromise. He had adequate range of motion in the left shoulder with moderate pain, and his left upper extremity was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: Plain films of the left shoulder showed elevation of the left clavicle above the acromion. There was an increase in the acromioclavicular (AC and coracoclavicular (CC distances (increased joint distances marked with red and blue arrows, respectively. A normal AC joint measures 1-3 mm whereas a normal CC distance measures 11-13 mm.1 The injury was classified as a Rockwood type III AC joint separation. Discussion: The AC joint is a synovial joint between an oval facet on the acromion and a similar facet on the distal end of the clavicle. Horizontal stability is provided by the AC joint while axial stability is provided by the CC joint.2,3 AC joint injuries account for about 9%-12% of shoulder girdle injuries, and the most common mechanism is direct trauma.4,5 Initial evaluation with imaging includes plain films with three views: the anterior-posterior (AP view with the shoulder in internal and external rotation as well as an axillary, or scapula-Y view (sensitivity 40%, specificity 90% for all films.6,7 AC joint injuries are classified by the Rockwood system.8 Type I involves a sprain or incomplete tear of the AC ligaments with an intact CC ligament. The AC joint appears normal on X-ray, but can become widened with stress, achieved by having the patient hold a 10-15 pound weight from each

  9. Muscle contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness in preparation for sudden external arm perturbations. (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W R; Keir, Peter J


    Understanding joint stiffness and stability is beneficial for assessing injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine joint rotational stiffness for individual muscles contributing to elbow joint stability. Fifteen male participants maintained combinations of three body orientations (standing, supine, sitting) and three hand preloads (no load, solid tube, fluid filled tube) while a device imposed a sudden elbow extension. Elbow angle and activity from nine muscles were inputs to a biomechanical model to determine relative contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness, reported as percent of total stiffness. A body orientation by preload interaction was evident for most muscles (Psafety.

  10. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints which includes spectral parameters as roughness measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulatilake, P.H.S.W.; Shou, G.; Huang, T.H.


    Most of the natural rock joint surface profiles do not belong to the self similar fractal category. In general, roughness profiles of rock joints consist of non-stationary and stationary components. At the simplest level, only one parameter is sufficient to quantify non-stationary joint roughness. The average inclination angle I, along with the direction considered for the joint surface, is suggested to capture the non-stationary roughness. It is shown that even though the fractal dimension D is a useful parameter, it alone is insufficient to quantify the stationary roughness of non-self similar profiles

  11. EVA Suitport (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Suitports replace or augment the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress...

  12. Antarctica EVA (United States)

    Love, Stan


    NASA astronaut Stan Love shared his experiences with the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET), an annual expedition to the southern continent to collect valuable samples for research in planetary science. ANSMET teams operate from isolated, remote field camps on the polar plateau, where windchill factors often reach -40? F. Several astronaut participants have noted ANSMET's similarity to a space mission. Some of the operational concepts, tools, and equipment employed by ANSMET teams may offer valuable insights to designers of future planetary surface exploration hardware.

  13. Imageological measurement of the sternoclavicular joint and its clinical application. (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yong; Qin, Shi-Ji; Zhang, Ying-Ze


    Dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is rare. However, posterior dislocation compressing important structures in the mediastinum may be fatal. Early diagnosis and prompt therapy of sternoclavicular joint dislocation are important. Computed tomography (CT) is an optimal means to investigate sternoclavicular joint anatomy; however, there are few reports on the imageological anatomical features of the sternoclavicular joint. The study investigated imageological anatomical features, and a new plate was devised according to these data to treat sternoclavicular joint dislocation. Fifty-three healthy Chinese volunteers examined with chest CT were included in the study. The coronal, sagittal, and axial images of the sternoclavicular region were reconstructed. The sternal head diameter in the inferolateral-to-superomedial direction, length of the clavicular notch, and angle between the clavicular notch and sternum were measured on coronal images. The angle between the presternum and trunk was measured on sagittal images. The following dimensions were measured on axial images: anteroposterior dimensions of the sternal head, clavicular notch, and presternum; width of the sternoclavicular joint; distance between bilateral clavicles; and minimal distance from the presternum to the underlying structures in the thoracic cavity. A new plate was designed according to the above data and was used to repair six sternoclavicular joint dislocations. All cases were followed up with a range of 9 to 12 months. The proximal clavicle is higher than the presternum in a horizontal position. On axial images, the anteroposterior dimension of the sternal head was longer than the presternum, and the center region of the presternum was thinner than the edges. The left sternoclavicular joint space was (0.82 ± 0.21) cm, and the right was (0.87 ± 0.22) cm. Among the structures behind the sternum, the left bilateral innominate vein ran nearest to the presternum. The distance from the anterior

  14. Assessment of the hip reduction angle for predicting osteoarthritis of the hip in the Labrador Retriever. (United States)

    Corfield, G S; Read, R A; Eastley, K A; Richardson, J L; Robertson, I D; Day, R


    Hip palpation has been used to provide semiquantitative information regarding passive joint laxity and susceptibility to hip dysplasia. The purpose of this study was to: (1) evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner repeatability of the hip reduction angle measured at 4 months of age by three examiners using manual goniometry and an electromagnetic tracking system; (2) compare the hip reduction angle measured with manual goniometry to the hip reduction angle measured with the electromagnetic tracking system; and (3) evaluate the hip reduction angle, distraction index and Ortolani manoeuvre at 4 months of age as predictors of the development of hip osteoarthritis at 12 months of age in 11 Labrador Retriever dogs. Intra- and inter-examiner repeatability was demonstrated for both the manual and electromagnetic goniometric measurement of the hip reduction angle (coefficient of variation goniometry was moderately correlated to the hip reduction angle measured by the electromagnetic tracking system (r = 0.603, P goniometry was a poor predictor of osteoarthritis at 12 months of age (r = 0.231, P < 0.062, and r = 0.321, P < 0.01). The distraction index was moderately correlated with the development of osteoarthritis by 12 months of age (r = 0.493, P < 0.0000). The Ortolani sign was sensitive (100%) but not specific (41%) for the development of osteoarthritis at 12 months of age. The hip reduction angle did not further quantify the Ortolani manoeuvre as a predictor of osteoarthritis in Labrador Retrievers.

  15. Estimating anatomical wrist joint motion with a robotic exoskeleton. (United States)

    Rose, Chad G; Kann, Claudia K; Deshpande, Ashish D; O'Malley, Marcia K


    Robotic exoskeletons can provide the high intensity, long duration targeted therapeutic interventions required for regaining motor function lost as a result of neurological injury. Quantitative measurements by exoskeletons have been proposed as measures of rehabilitative outcomes. Exoskeletons, in contrast to end effector designs, have the potential to provide a direct mapping between human and robot joints. This mapping rests on the assumption that anatomical axes and robot axes are aligned well, and that movement within the exoskeleton is negligible. These assumptions hold well for simple one degree-of-freedom joints, but may not be valid for multi-articular joints with unique musculoskeletal properties such as the wrist. This paper presents an experiment comparing robot joint kinematic measurements from an exoskeleton to anatomical joint angles measured with a motion capture system. Joint-space position measurements and task-space smoothness metrics were compared between the two measurement modalities. The experimental results quantify the error between joint-level position measurements, and show that exoskeleton kinematic measurements preserve smoothness characteristics found in anatomical measures of wrist movements.

  16. CT patellar cortex tilt angle: A radiological method to measure patellar tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza Toluei, F.; Afshar, A.; Salarilak, S.; Sina, A.


    Background/Objectives: the role of patellar tilt in the anterior knee pain is indisputable. Traditionally. the lateral patello-femoral angle of Laurin has been defined in both the axial view and CT images for measuring the tilt of patella. We present a new angle. which is independent of the morphology of patella and directly relates to clinical assessment of the tilt. which is appreciated from palpation of the edges of the patella. Patients and Methods: 38 patients with anterior knee pain and forty normal control subjects were examined using CT scan of patello-femoral joint in 15 degrees of knee flexion. The amount of lateral patellar tilt was quantitatively assessed using the lateral patello-femoral angle, as described by Laurin et al, and the newly defined patellar cortex tilt angle. This angle is subtended by the line drawn along the posterior femoral condyles and the one parallel to the subchondral bone of patellar cortex. The fifteen-degree tilt was taken as normal cut-off point for patellar cortex tilt angle in the control group. Results: in patients, the average tilt of patella. using the patellar cortex tilt angle was 15.26 versus 7.05 in the control group. Using Student's t test, the difference between the two means was significant (P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of patellar cortex tilt angle were 40 and 90 percent, respectively There was a moderate agreement between our presented test and the lateral tilt angle test (kappa=0.40. P<0.001). Conclusion: our results indicate that patellar tilt can also be detected using patellar cortex tilt angle. We need more specific studies ta determine the validity of the test

  17. A thermodynamic model of contact angle hysteresis. (United States)

    Makkonen, Lasse


    When a three-phase contact line moves along a solid surface, the contact angle no longer corresponds to the static equilibrium angle but is larger when the liquid is advancing and smaller when the liquid is receding. The difference between the advancing and receding contact angles, i.e., the contact angle hysteresis, is of paramount importance in wetting and capillarity. For example, it determines the magnitude of the external force that is required to make a drop slide on a solid surface. Until now, fundamental origin of the contact angle hysteresis has been controversial. Here, this origin is revealed and a quantitative theory is derived. The theory is corroborated by the available experimental data for a large number of solid-liquid combinations. The theory is applied in modelling the contact angle hysteresis on a textured surface, and these results are also in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Forming a multinational joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.


    This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned

  19. MR findings associated with positive distraction of the hip joint achieved by axial traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, Aline; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Maier, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Dora, Claudio [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)


    To determine which MR-arthrography findings are associated with positive hip joint distraction. One hundred patients with MR arthrography of the hip using axial traction were included. Traction was applied during the MR examination with an 8 kg (females) or 10 kg (males) water bag, attached to the ankle over a deflection pulley. Fifty patients showing joint space distraction were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group of 50 patients that did not show a joint distraction under axial traction. Two radiologists assessed the neck-shaft angle, lateral and anterior center-edge (CE) angles, CE angles in the transverse plane, extrusion index of the femoral head, acetabular depth, alpha angle, acetabular version, ligamentum teres, joint capsule and ligaments, iliopsoas tendon and the labrum. Mean joint space distraction in the study group was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. Patients with positive joint space distraction had significantly higher neck-shaft angles (control group 131.6 ± 5.4 /study group 134.1 ± 6.1 , p < 0.05), smaller lateral CE angles (38.1 ± 5.9 /34.6 ± 7.2 , p < 0.05), smaller overall transverse CE angles (161.4 ± 9.9 /153.6 ± 9.6 , p < 0.001), smaller acetabular depth (4.1 ± 2.4 mm/5.8 ± 2.5 mm, p < 0.01), higher alpha angles (53.5 ± 7.8 /59.2 ± 10.1 , p < 0.01) and a thicker ligamentum teres (4.7 ± 1.4 mm/5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05). The other parameters revealed no significant differences. ICC values for interobserver agreement were 0.71-0.95 and kappa values 0.43-0.92. Increased neck-shaft angles, small CE angles, small acetabular depth, higher alpha angles and a thick ligamentum teres are associated with positive joint distraction. (orig.)

  20. MR findings associated with positive distraction of the hip joint achieved by axial traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Aline; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Maier, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Dora, Claudio


    To determine which MR-arthrography findings are associated with positive hip joint distraction. One hundred patients with MR arthrography of the hip using axial traction were included. Traction was applied during the MR examination with an 8 kg (females) or 10 kg (males) water bag, attached to the ankle over a deflection pulley. Fifty patients showing joint space distraction were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group of 50 patients that did not show a joint distraction under axial traction. Two radiologists assessed the neck-shaft angle, lateral and anterior center-edge (CE) angles, CE angles in the transverse plane, extrusion index of the femoral head, acetabular depth, alpha angle, acetabular version, ligamentum teres, joint capsule and ligaments, iliopsoas tendon and the labrum. Mean joint space distraction in the study group was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. Patients with positive joint space distraction had significantly higher neck-shaft angles (control group 131.6 ± 5.4 /study group 134.1 ± 6.1 , p < 0.05), smaller lateral CE angles (38.1 ± 5.9 /34.6 ± 7.2 , p < 0.05), smaller overall transverse CE angles (161.4 ± 9.9 /153.6 ± 9.6 , p < 0.001), smaller acetabular depth (4.1 ± 2.4 mm/5.8 ± 2.5 mm, p < 0.01), higher alpha angles (53.5 ± 7.8 /59.2 ± 10.1 , p < 0.01) and a thicker ligamentum teres (4.7 ± 1.4 mm/5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05). The other parameters revealed no significant differences. ICC values for interobserver agreement were 0.71-0.95 and kappa values 0.43-0.92. Increased neck-shaft angles, small CE angles, small acetabular depth, higher alpha angles and a thick ligamentum teres are associated with positive joint distraction. (orig.)