WorldWideScience

Sample records for euv engineering test

  1. First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Malinowski, Michael E.; Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, W. Miles; Steinhaus, Chip; Leung, Alvin H.; Haney, Steven J.

    2001-08-01

    The first environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has been collected. Excellent control of high-mass hydrocarbons has been observed. This control is a result of extensive outgas testing of components and materials, vacuum compatible design of the ETS, careful cleaning of parts and pre-baking of cables and sub assemblies where possible, and clean assembly procedures. As a result of the hydrocarbon control, the residual ETS vacuum environment is rich in water vapor. Analysis of witness plate data indicates that the ETS environment does not pose a contamination risk to the optics in the absence of EUV irradiation. However, with EUV exposure, the water rich environment can lead to EUV- induced water oxidation of the Si-terminated Mo/Si optics. Added ethanol can prevent optic oxidation, allowing carbon growth via EUV cracking of low-level residual hydrocarbons to occur. The EUV environmental issues are understood, mitigation approaches have been validated, and EUV optic contamination appears to be manageable.

  2. System integration and performance of the EUV engineering test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Replogle, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Rockett, Paul D.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Jefferson, Karen L.; Leung, Alvin H.; Wronosky, John B.; Hale, Layton C.; Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard; Blaedel, Kenneth; Sommargren, Gary E.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Batson, Phillip J.; Attwood, David T.; Jackson, Keith H.; Hector, Scott D.; Gwyn, Charles W.; Yan, Pei-Yang; Yan, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a developmental lithography tool designed to demonstrate full-field EUV imaging and provide data for commercial-tool development. In the first phase of integration, currently in progress, the ETS is configured using a developmental projection system, while fabrication of an improved projection system proceeds in parallel. The optics in the second projection system have been fabricated to tighter specifications for improved resolution and reduced flare. The projection system is a 4-mirror, 4x-reduction, ring-field design having a numeral aperture of 0.1, which supports 70 nm resolution at a k 1 of 0.52. The illuminator produces 13.4 nm radiation from a laser-produced plasma, directs the radiation onto an arc-shaped field of view, and provides an effective fill factor at the pupil plane of 0.7. The ETS is designed for full-field images in step-and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, magnetically levitated, scanning stages. This paper describes system performance observed during the first phase of integration, including static resist images of 100 nm isolated and dense features

  3. Development of a EUV Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Pavelitz, Steve; Kobayashi, Ken; Robinson, Brian; Cirtain, Johnathan; Gaskin, Jessica; Winebarger, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe a new EUV test facility that is being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test EUV telescopes. Two flight programs, HiC - high resolution coronal imager (sounding rocket) and SUVI - Solar Ultraviolet Imager (GOES-R), set the requirements for this new facility. This paper will discuss those requirements, the EUV source characteristics, the wavelength resolution that is expected and the vacuum chambers (Stray Light Facility, Xray Calibration Facility and the EUV test chamber) where this facility will be used.

  4. Enhancing native defect sensitivity for EUV actinic blank inspection: optimized pupil engineering and photon noise study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yow-Gwo; Neureuther, Andrew; Naulleau, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the impact of optimized pupil engineering and photon noise on native defect sensitivity in EUV actinic blank inspection. Native defects include phase-dominated defects, absorber defects, and defects with a combination of phase and absorption behavior. First, we extend the idea of the Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) method and study the impact of optimum phase shift in the pupil plane on native defect sensitivity, showing a 23% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement compare to bright field (BF) for a phase defect with 20% absorption. We also describe the possibility to increase target defect SNR on target defect sizes at the price of losing the sensitivity on smaller (non-critical) defects. Moreover, we show the advantage of the optimized phase contrast (OZPC) method over BF EUV actinic blank inspection. A single focus scan from OZPC has better inspection efficiency over BF. Second, we make a detailed comparison between the phase contrast with apodization (AZPC) method and dark field (DF) method based on defect sensitivity in the presence of both photon shot noise and camera noise. Performance is compared for a variety of photon levels, mask roughness conditions, and combinations of defect phase and absorption.

  5. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  6. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine TestingEngines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  7. The engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Becraft, W.R.; Sager, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF. (orig.)

  8. Engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Becraft, W.R.; Sager, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper described the design status of the ETF

  9. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  10. Pistons and engine testing

    CERN Document Server

    GmbH, Mahle

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing demands placed on combustion engines are just as great when it comes to this centerpiece - the piston. Achieving less weight or friction, or even greater wear resistance, requires in-depth knowledge of the processes taking place inside the engine, suitable materials, and appropriate design and machining processes for pistons, including the necessary testing measures. It is no longer possible for professionals in automotive engineering to manage without specific know-how of this kind, whether they work in the field of design, development, testing, or maintenance. This techni

  11. Pistons and engine testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The ever-increasing demands placed on combustion engines are just as great when it comes to this centerpiece—the piston. Achieving less weight or friction, or even greater wear resistance, requires in-depth knowledge of the processes taking place inside the engine, suitable materials, and appropriate design and manufacturing processes for pistons, including the necessary testing measures. It is no longer possible for professionals in automotive engineering to manage without specific expertise of this kind, whether they work in the field of design, development, testing, or maintenance. This technical book answers these questions in detail and in a very clear and comprehensible way. In this second, revised edition, every chapter has been revised and expanded. The chapter on “Engine testing”, for example, now include extensive results in the area of friction power loss measurement and lube oil consumption measurement. Contents Piston function, requirements, and types Design guidelines Simulation of the ope...

  12. EUV lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Bakshi, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the principal lithography technology-beyond the current 193-nm-based optical lithography-aiming to manufacture computer chips, and recent progress has been made on several fronts: EUV light sources, scanners, optics, contamination control, masks and mask handling, and resists. This book covers the fundamental and latest status of all aspects of EUVL used in the field. Since 2008, when SPIE Press published the first edition of EUVL Lithography, much progress has taken place in the development of EUVL as the choice technology for next-generation lithography. In 2008, EUVL was a prime contender to replace 193-nm-based optical lithography in leading-edge computer chip making, but not everyone was convinced at that point. Switching from 193-nm to 13.5-nm wavelengths was a much bigger jump than the industry had attempted before. It brought several difficult challenges in all areas of lithography-light source, scanner, mask, mask handling, optics, optics metrology, resist, c...

  13. Space Electronic Test Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch at NASA Glenn Research center has the important duty of controlling electronic test engineering services. These services include test planning and early assessment of Space projects, management and/or technical support required to safely and effectively prepare the article and facility for testing, operation of test facilities, and validation/delivery of data to customer. The Space Electronic Test Engineering Branch is assigned electronic test engineering responsibility for the GRC Space Simulation, Microgravity, Cryogenic, and Combustion Test Facilities. While working with the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch I am working on several different assignments. My primary assignment deals with an electrical hardware unit known as Sunny Boy. Sunny Boy is a DC load Bank that is designed for solar arrays in which it is used to convert DC power form the solar arrays into AC power at 60 hertz to pump back into the electricity grid. However, there are some researchers who decided that they would like to use the Sunny Boy unit in a space simulation as a DC load bank for a space shuttle or even the International Space Station hardware. In order to do so I must create a communication link between a computer and the Sunny Boy unit so that I can preset a few of the limits (such power, set & constant voltage levels) that Sunny Boy will need to operate using the applied DC load. Apart from this assignment I am also working on a hi-tech circuit that I need to have built at a researcher s request. This is a high voltage analog to digital circuit that will be used to record data from space ion propulsion rocket booster tests. The problem that makes building this circuit so difficult is that it contains high voltage we must find a way to lower the voltage signal before the data is transferred into the computer to be read. The solution to this problem was to transport the signal using infrared light which will lower

  14. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  15. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  16. Iterative procedure for in-situ EUV optical testing with an incoherent source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaka, Ryan; Naulleau, Patrick; Zakhor, Avideh

    2009-12-01

    We propose an iterative method for in-situ optical testing under partially coherent illumination that relies on the rapid computation of aerial images. In this method a known pattern is imaged with the test optic at several planes through focus. A model is created that iterates through possible aberration maps until the through-focus series of aerial images matches the experimental result. The computation time of calculating the through-focus series is significantly reduced by a-SOCS, an adapted form of the Sum Of Coherent Systems (SOCS) decomposition. In this method, the Hopkins formulation is described by an operator S which maps the space of pupil aberrations to the space of aerial images. This operator is well approximated by a truncated sum of its spectral components.

  17. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  18. Evaluating EUV mask pattern imaging with two EUV microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Takase, Kei; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Han, Hakseung; Barty, Anton; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Hamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Aerial image measurement plays a key role in the development of patterned reticles for each generation of lithography. Studying the field transmitted (reflected) from EUV masks provides detailed information about potential disruptions caused by mask defects, and the performance of defect repair strategies, without the complications of photoresist imaging. Furthermore, by measuring the continuously varying intensity distribution instead of a thresholded, binary resist image, aerial image measurement can be used as feedback to improve mask and lithography system modeling methods. Interest in EUV, at-wavelength, aerial image measurement lead to the creation of several research tools worldwide. These tools are used in advanced mask development work, and in the evaluation of the need for commercial at-wavelength inspection tools. They describe performance measurements of two such tools, inspecting the same EUV mask in a series of benchmarking tests that includes brightfield and darkfield patterns. One tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) operating on a bending magnet beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. The AIT features an EUV Fresnel zoneplate microscope that emulates the numerical aperture of a 0.25-NA stepper, and projects the aerial image directly onto a CCD camera, with 700x magnification. The second tool is an EUV microscope (EUVM) operating at the NewSUBARU synchrotron in Hyogo, Japan. The NewSUBARU tool projects the aerial image using a reflective, 30x Schwarzschild objective lens, followed by a 10-200x x-ray zooming tube. The illumination conditions and the imaging etendue are different for the two tools. The benchmarking measurements were used to determine many imaging and performance properties of the tools, including resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), aberration magnitude, aberration field-dependence (including focal-plane tilt), illumination uniformity, line-edge roughness, and flare

  19. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  20. Tokamak engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1975-07-01

    The design criteria for a tokamak engineering test reactor can be met by operating in the two-component mode with reacting ion beams, together with a new blanket-shield design based on internal neutron spectrum shaping. A conceptual reactor design achieving a neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 is presented. The tokamak has a major radius of 3.05 m, the plasma cross-section is noncircular with a 2:1 elongation, and the plasma radius in the midplane is 55 cm. The total wall area is 149 m 2 . The plasma conditions are T/sub e/ approximately T/sub i/ approximately 5 keV, and ntau approximately 8 x 10 12 cm -3 s. The plasma temperature is maintained by injection of 177 MW of 200-keV neutral deuterium beams; the resulting deuterons undergo fusion reactions with the triton-target ions. The D-shaped toroidal field coils are extended out to large major radius (7.0 m), so that the blanket-shield test modules on the outer portion of the torus can be easily removed. The TF coils are superconducting, using a cryogenically stable TiNb design that permits a field at the coil of 80 kG and an axial field of 38 kG. The blanket-shield design for the inner portion of the torus nearest the machine center line utilizes a neutron spectral shifter so that the first structural wall behind the spectral shifter zone can withstand radiation damage for the reactor lifetime. The energy attenuation in this inner blanket is 8 x 10 -6 . If necessary, a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8 can be achieved using liquid lithium cooling in the []outer blanket only. The overall power consumption of the reactor is about 340 MW(e). A neutron wall loading greater than 1 MW/m 2 can be achieved by increasing the maximum magnetic field or the plasma elongation. (auth)

  1. Fundamentals of EUV resist-inorganic hardmask interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Glodde, Martin; De Silva, Anuja; Sheshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Lionti, Krystelle; Magbitang, Teddie

    2017-03-01

    High resolution Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) patterning is currently limited by EUV resist thickness and pattern collapse, thus impacting the faithful image transfer into the underlying stack. Such limitation requires the investigation of improved hardmasks (HMs) as etch transfer layers for EUV patterning. Ultrathin (<5nm) inorganic HMs can provide higher etch selectivity, lower post-etch LWR, decreased defectivity and wet strippability compared to spin-on hybrid HMs (e.g., SiARC), however such novel layers can induce resist adhesion failure and resist residue. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of EUV resist-inorganic HM interactions is needed in order to optimize the EUV resist interfacial behavior. In this paper, novel materials and processing techniques are introduced to characterize and improve the EUV resist-inorganic HM interface. HM surface interactions with specific EUV resist components are evaluated for open-source experimental resist formulations dissected into its individual additives using EUV contrast curves as an effective characterization method to determine post-development residue formation. Separately, an alternative adhesion promoter platform specifically tailored for a selected ultrathin inorganic HM based on amorphous silicon (aSi) is presented and the mitigation of resist delamination is exemplified for the cases of positive-tone and negative-tone development (PTD, NTD). Additionally, original wafer priming hardware for the deposition of such novel adhesion promoters is unveiled. The lessons learned in this work can be directly applied to the engineering of EUV resist materials and processes specifically designed to work on such novel HMs.

  2. Engineering test facility design center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The ETF would provide a test bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This section describes the status of this design

  3. Solar-Thermal Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen; Salvail, Pat; Haynes, Davy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A solar-thermal engine serves as a high-temperature solar-radiation absorber, heat exchanger, and rocket nozzle. collecting concentrated solar radiation into an absorber cavity and transferring this energy to a propellant as heat. Propellant gas can be heated to temperatures approaching 4,500 F and expanded in a rocket nozzle, creating low thrust with a high specific impulse (I(sub sp)). The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) solar-thermal engine is made of 100 percent chemical vapor deposited (CVD) rhenium. The engine 'module' consists of an engine assembly, propellant feedline, engine support structure, thermal insulation, and instrumentation. Engine thermal performance tests consist of a series of high-temperature thermal cycles intended to characterize the propulsive performance of the engines and the thermal effectiveness of the engine support structure and insulation system. A silicone-carbide electrical resistance heater, placed inside the inner shell, substitutes for solar radiation and heats the engine. Although the preferred propellant is hydrogen, the propellant used in these tests is gaseous nitrogen. Because rhenium oxidizes at elevated temperatures, the tests are performed in a vacuum chamber. Test data will include transient and steady state temperatures on selected engine surfaces, propellant pressures and flow rates, and engine thrust levels. The engine propellant-feed system is designed to Supply GN2 to the engine at a constant inlet pressure of 60 psia, producing a near-constant thrust of 1.0 lb. Gaseous hydrogen will be used in subsequent tests. The propellant flow rate decreases with increasing propellant temperature, while maintaining constant thrust, increasing engine I(sub sp). In conjunction with analytical models of the heat exchanger, the temperature data will provide insight into the effectiveness of the insulation system, the structural support system, and the overall engine performance. These tests also provide experience on operational

  4. Performance of one hundred watt HVM LPP-EUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Abe, Tamotsu; Nowak, Krzysztof M.; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukio; Hori, Tsukasa; Kodama, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Soumagne, Georg; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Taku; Okazaki, Shinji; Saitou, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    We have been developing CO2-Sn-LPP EUV light source which is the most promising solution as the 13.5nm high power light source for HVM EUVL. Unique and original technologies such as: combination of pulsed CO2 laser and Sn droplets, dual wavelength laser pulses shooting, and mitigation with magnetic field, have been developed in Gigaphoton Inc. The theoretical and experimental data have clearly showed the advantage of our proposed strategy. Based on these data we are developing first practical source for HVM - "GL200E". This data means 250W EUV power will be able to realize around 20kW level pulsed CO2 laser. We have reported engineering data from our recent test such around 43W average clean power, CE=2.0%, with 100kHz operation and other data 19). We have already finished preparation of higher average power CO2 laser more than 20kW at output power cooperate with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation 14). Recently we achieved 92W with 50kHz, 50% duty cycle operation 20). We have reported component technology progress of EUV light source system. We report promising experimental data and result of simulation of magnetic mitigation system in Proto #1 system. We demonstrated several data with Proto #2 system: (1) emission data of 140W in burst under 70kHz 50% duty cycle during 10 minutes. (2) emission data of 118W in burst under 60kHz 70% duty cycle during 10 minutes. (3) emission data of 42W in burst under 20kHz 50% duty cycle (10000pls/0.5ms OFF) during 3 hours (110Mpls). Also we report construction of Pilot #1 system. Final target is week level operation with 250W EUV power with CE=4%, more than 27kW CO2 laser power by the end of Q2 of 2015.

  5. Turbine Engine Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    English climate. (c) Functional Testing Functional testing is a ’catch all’ title for the multitude of tests required to examine and confirm or correct the...rage I I I , I ’s slot envs Atar ONK propulsent les Miraiges IV de la levce A~rientic Strat~giqiie l-vanlaisc, tanilis tilit leg mcters Atar 91K50 sent...moignent. Irtuwi Atar 9 ~K50 est tine version MANv~ du motenr Atar 9K proptilsant le hirdaceur vi1 *c ~Ik (lttur 11 et dest in 5 6qtiiper I ’avion polyvalent

  6. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  7. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek

    2017-10-01

    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  8. Introduction to nuclear test engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Paquette, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The basic information in this report is from a vu-graph presentation prepared to acquaint new or prospective employees with the Nuclear Test Engineering Division (NTED). Additional information has been added here to enhance a reader's understanding when reviewing the material after hearing the presentation, or in lieu of attending a presentation

  9. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  10. Oxide Nanoparticle EUV (ONE) Photoresists: Current Understanding of the Unusual Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Yu, Mufei; Li, Li; Neisser, Mark; Sung Chun, Jun; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 SPST. In the past few years, industry has made significant progress to deliver a stable high power EUV scanner and a 100 W light source is now being tested on the manufacuring scale. The success of a high power EUV source demands a fast and high resolution EUV resist. However, chemcially amplied resists encounter unprecedented challenges beyond the 22 nm node due to resolution, roughness and sensitivity tradeoffs. Unless novel solutions for EUV resists are proposed and further optimzed, breakthroughs can hardly be achieved. Oxide nanoparticle EUV (ONE) resists stablized by organic ligands were originally proposed by Ober et al. Recently this work attracts more and more attention due to its extraordinanry EUV sensitivity. This new class of photoresist utilizes ligand cleavage with a ligand exchange mechanism to switch its solubilty for dual-tone patterning. Therefore, ligand selection of the nanoparticles is extremely important to its EUV performance.

  11. Virtual Turbine Engine Test Bench Using MGET Test Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Seonghee; Kong, Changduk; Ki, Jayoung

    2015-05-01

    Test device using virtual engine simulator can help reduce the number of engine tests through tests similar to the actual engine tests and repeat the test under the same condition, and thus reduce the engine maintenance and operating costs [1]. Also, as it is possible to easily implement extreme conditions in which it is hard to conduct actual tests, it can prevent engine damages that may happen during the actual engine test under such conditions. In this study, an upgraded MGET test device was developed that can conduct both real and virtual engine test by applying real-time engine model to the existing MGET test device that was developed and has been sold by the Company. This newly developed multi-purpose MGET test device is expected to be used for various educational and research purposes.

  12. Engineering test facility design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  13. Software engineers and nuclear engineers: teaming up to do testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.; Cote, N.; Shepard, T.

    2007-01-01

    The software engineering community has traditionally paid little attention to the specific needs of engineers and scientists who develop their own software. Recently there has been increased recognition that specific software engineering techniques need to be found for this group of developers. In this case study, a software engineering group teamed with a nuclear engineering group to develop a software testing strategy. This work examines the types of testing that proved to be useful and examines what each discipline brings to the table to improve the quality of the software product. (author)

  14. Engine Test Cell Aeroacoustics and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tam, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Ground testing of turbojet engines in test cells necessarily involves very high acoustic amplitudes, often enough and severe enough that testing is interrupted and facility hardware and test articles are damaged...

  15. Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, V Y; Swinkels, G H P M; Koshelev, K N

    2011-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil very high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which requires the following new developments. - The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high-temperature emitting plasmas. - The light transport, mainly refractive for deep ultraviolet (DUV), should be reflective for EUV. - The source specifications as derived from the customer requirements on wafer throughput mean that the output EUV source power has to be hundreds of watts. This in its turn means that tens to hundreds of kilowatts of dissipated power has to be managed in a relatively small volume. - In order to keep lithography costs as low as possible, the lifetime of the components should be as long as possible and at least of the order of thousands of hours. This poses a challenge for the sources, namely how to design and manufacture components robust enough to withstand the intense environment of high heat dissipation, flows of several keV ions as well as the atomic and particular debris within the source vessel. - As with all lithography tools, the imaging requirements demand a narrow illumination bandwidth. Absorption of materials at EUV wavelengths is extreme with extinguishing lengths of the order of tens of nanometres, so the balance between high transmission and spectral purity requires careful engineering. All together, EUV lithography sources present technological challenges in various fields of physics such as plasma, optics and material science. These challenges are being tackled by the source manufacturers and investigated extensively in the research facilities around the world. An overview of the published results on the topic as well as the analyses of the physical processes behind the proposed solutions will be presented in this paper. (topical review)

  16. Simulation and material testing of jet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA software engine simulator version U 1.7a beta has been used for simulation and material testing of jet engines. Specifications of Modem Jet Engines are stated, and then engine simulator is applied on these specifications. This simulator can simulate turbojet, afterburner, turbofan and ram jet. The material of many components of engine may be varied. Conventional and advanced materials for jet engines can be simulated and tested. These materials can be actively cooled to increase the operating temperature limit. As soon as temperature of any engine component exceeds the temperature limit of material, a warning message flashes across screen. Temperature Limits Exceeded. This flashing message remainst here until necessaryc hangesa re carried out in engine operationp rocedure. Selection Criteria of Engines is stated for piston prop, turboprop, turbofan, turbojet, and turbojet with afterburner and Ramjet. Several standard engines are modeled in Engine Simulator. These engines can. be compared by several engineering specifications. The design, modeling, simulation and testing of engines helps to better understand different types of materials used in jet engines. (author)

  17. Radiometry for the EUV lithography; Radiometrie fuer die EUV-Lithographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholze, Frank [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' EUV-Radiometrie' ; Laubis, Christian; Barboutis, Annett; Buchholz, Christian; Fischer, Andreas; Puls, Jana; Stadelhoff, Christian

    2014-12-15

    The EUV reflectrometry at the PTB storage BESSY I and BESSY II is described. Results on the reflectivities of some EUV mirrors are presented. Finally the spectral sensitivities of different photodiodes used as EUV detectors are presented. (HSI)

  18. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    -to-Aerial printability) analysis of every defect. First, a defect-free or reference mask SEM is rendered from the post-OPC design, and the defective signature is detected from the defect-reference difference image. These signatures help assess the true nature of the defect as evident in e-beam imaging; for example, excess or missing absorber, line-edge roughness, contamination, etc. Next, defect and reference contours are extracted from the grayscale SEM images and fed into the simulation engine with an EUV scanner model to generate corresponding EUV defect and reference aerial images. These are then analyzed for printability and dispositioned using an Aerial Image Analyzer (AIA) application to automatically measure and determine the amount of CD errors. Thus by integrating EUV ADC and S2A applications together, every defect detection is characterized for its type and printability which is essential for not only determining which defects to repair, but also in monitoring the performance of EUV mask process tools. The accuracy of the S2A print modeling has been verified with other commercially-available simulators, and will also be verified with actual wafer print results. With EUV lithography progressing towards volume manufacturing at 5nm technology, and the likelihood of EBMI inspectors approaching the horizon, the EUV ADC-S2A system will continue serving an essential role of dispositioning defects off e-beam imaging.

  19. Engineered Barrier Test Facility status report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Adams, M.R.; Gilbert, T.W.; Meinhardt, C.C.; Mitchell, R.M.; Waugh, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    This report provides a general summary of activities completed to date at the Hanford Engineered Barrier Test Facility. This facility is used to test and compare construction practices and performance of alternative designs of engineered barrier cover systems. These cover systems are being evaluated for potential use for isolation and confinement of buried waste disposal structures

  20. Role of well testing in civil engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of well testing is to derive a value of the permeability of the geologic medium or to measure the velocity or quantity of fluid flow. The types of tests typically employed on civil engineering projects are simple borehole tests, packer or pressure tests in boreholes, permeameter tests, well pumping tests, and in-hole tests using well flow meters or tracer tests. New problem areas which demand new approaches are mentioned

  1. Advanced Turbine Engine Seal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    Transpiration- Cooled Shroud Segments. 67. ATEST Shroud Rub Pin Heights and Mid-Chord Runout . 68. Locations of Nine-Point Runout Check on Shroud Surface...69. ATEST Shroud Leading Edge Runout . 70. ATEST Shroud Trailing Edge Runout . 71. ATEST Shroud Support Posttest Runout . 72. ATEST Shroud Flow Zones...at General Electric on many prior engines with good success. It Involves the use of a grinding wheel in conjunction with a cutting fluid which is

  2. EUV multilayer mirrors with enhanced stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Nicolas; Yulin, Sergiy; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert

    2006-08-01

    The application of multilayer optics in EUV lithography requires not only the highest possible normal-incidence reflectivity but also a long-term thermal and radiation stability at operating temperatures. This requirement is most important in the case of the collector mirror of the illumination system close to the EUV source where a short-time decrease in reflectivity is most likely. Mo/Si multilayer mirrors, designed for high normal reflectivity at the wavelength of 13.5 nm and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, were directly exposed to EUV radiation without mitigation system. They presented a loss of reflectivity of more than 18% after only 8 hours of irradiation by a Xe-discharge source. Another problem of Mo/Si multilayers is the instability of reflectivity and peak wavelength under high heat load. It becomes especially critical at temperatures above 200°C, where interdiffusion between the molybdenum and the silicon layers is observed. The development of high-temperature multilayers was focused on two alternative Si-based systems: MoSi II/Si and interface engineered Mo/C/Si/C multilayer mirrors. The multilayer designs as well as the deposition parameters of all systems were optimized in terms of high peak reflectivity (>= 60 %) at a wavelength of 13.5 nm and high thermal stability. Small thermally induced changes of the MoSi II/Si multilayer properties were found but they were independent of the annealing time at all temperatures examined. A wavelength shift of -1.7% and a reflectivity drop of 1.0% have been found after annealing at 500°C for 100 hours. The total degradation of optical properties above 650°C can be explained by a recrystallization process of MoSi II layers.

  3. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  4. Engineering model cryocooler test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skimko, M.A.; Stacy, W.D.; McCormick, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent testing of diaphragm-defined, Stirling-cycle machines and components has demonstrated cooling performance potential, validated the design code, and confirmed several critical operating characteristics. A breadboard cryocooler was rebuilt and tested from cryogenic to near-ambient cold end temperatures. There was a significant increase in capacity at cryogenic temperatures and the performance results compared will with code predictions at all temperatures. Further testing on a breadboard diaphragm compressor validated the calculated requirement for a minimum axial clearance between diaphragms and mating heads

  5. Altitude Testing of Large Liquid Propellant Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Bryon T.; Raines, Nickey G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration entered a new age on January 14, 2004 with President Bush s announcement of the creation the Vision for Space Exploration that will take mankind back to the Moon and on beyond to Mars. In January, 2006, after two years of hard, dedicated labor, engineers within NASA and its contractor workforce decided that the J2X rocket, based on the heritage of the Apollo J2 engine, would be the new engine for the NASA Constellation Ares upper stage vehicle. This engine and vehicle combination would provide assured access to the International Space Station to replace that role played by the Space Shuttle and additionally, would serve as the Earth Departure Stage, to push the Crew Excursion Vehicle out of Earth Orbit and head it on a path for rendezvous with the Moon. Test as you fly, fly as you test was chosen to be the guiding philosophy and a pre-requisite for the engine design, development, test and evaluation program. An exhaustive survey of national test facility assets proved the required capability to test the J2X engine at high altitude for long durations did not exist so therefore, a high altitude/near space environment testing capability would have to be developed. After several agency concepts the A3 High Altitude Testing Facility proposal was selected by the J2X engine program on March 2, 2007 and later confirmed by a broad panel of NASA senior leadership in May 2007. This facility is to be built at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center located near Gulfport, Mississippi. 30 plus years of Space Shuttle Main Engine development and flight certification testing makes Stennis uniquely suited to support the Vision For Space Exploration Return to the Moon. Propellant handling infrastructure, engine assembly facilities, a trained and dedicated workforce and a broad and varied technical support base will all ensure that the A3 facility will be built on time to support the schedule needs of the J2X engine and the ultimate flight

  6. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Beatty, J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents selected preliminary results obtained during the first 54 days of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The test described is a precursor to the Engineered Barrier Systems Field Tests (EBSFT). The EBSFT will consist of in situ tests of the geohydrologic and geochemical environment in the near field (within a few meters) of heaters emplaced in welded tuff to simulate the thermal effects of waste packages. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The paper discusses the evolution of hydrothermal behavior during the prototype test, including rock temperatures, changes in rock moisture content, air permeability of fractures, gas pressures, and rock mass gas-phase humidity. 10 refs., 12 figs

  7. The EUVE Mission at UCB: Squeezing More From Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B. A.; Cullison, J. L.; McDonald, K. E.; Nevitt, R.; Malina, R. F.

    2000-05-01

    With 8 years on orbit, and over three years in an outsourced mode at U.C. Berkeley (UCB), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) continues to be a highly mature and productive scientific mission. The EUVE satellite is extremely stable and exhibits little degradation in its original scientific capabilities, and science data return continues to be at the >99% level. The Project's very small, dedicated, innovative, and relatively cheap ( \\$1 million/year) support team at UCB continues to validate the success of NASA's outsourcing "experiment" while providing a very high science-per-dollar return on NASA's investment with no significant additional risk to the flight systems. The EUVE mission still has much more to offer in terms of important and exciting scientific discoveries as well as mission operations innovations. To highlight this belief the EUVE team at UCB continues to find creative ways to do more with less -- to squeeze the maximum out of available funds -- in NASA's "cheaper, better, faster" environment. This paper provides an overview of the EUVE mission's past, current, and potential future efforts toward automating and integrating its multi-functional data processing systems in proposal management, observation planning, mission operations and engineering, and the processing, archival, and delivery of raw telemetry and science data products. The paper will also discuss the creative allocation of the Project's few remaining personnel resources who support both core mission functions and new innovations, while at the same time minimizing overall risk and stretching the available budget. This work is funded through NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  8. High-voltage engineering and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Hugh M

    2013-01-01

    This 3rd edition of High Voltage Engineering Testing describes strategic developments in the field and reflects on how they can best be managed. All the key components of high voltage and distribution systems are covered including electric power networks, UHV and HV. Distribution systems including HVDC and power electronic systems are also considered.

  9. Conceptual studies of plasma engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Toru; Tazima, Teruhiko; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Kasai, Masao; Shinya, Kichiro

    1979-04-01

    Conceptual studies have been made of a Plasma Engineering Test Facility, which is to be constructed following JT-60 prior to the experimental power reactor. The physical aim of this machine is to examine self-ignition conditions. This machine possesses all essential technologies for reactor plasma, i.e. superconducting magnet, remote maintenance, shielding, blanket test modules, tritium handling. Emphasis in the conceptual studies was on structural consistency of the machine and whether the machine would be constructed practically. (author)

  10. Doublet III construction and engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Progress during FY-78 on the construction and operation of the Doublet III is reported. Detailed discussions about the installation and testing of various components and subsystems, including the B-coil, E-coil, F-coils and support structure, vacuum vessel, vacuum pumping system, limiter, thermal insulation blanket, control system, B-coil power system, E-coil power system, F-coil power system, and motor-generator, are presented. A brief review of the engineering test operation is given

  11. Contrast matching of line gratings obtained with NXE3XXX and EUV- interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Zuhal; Mochi, Iacopo; Olvera, Karen Garrido; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Yildirim, Oktay; Custers, Rolf; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Fallica, Roberto; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-10-01

    Extreme UV lithography (EUVL) has gained considerable attention for several decades as a potential technology for the semiconductor industry and it is now close to being adopted in high-volume manufacturing. At Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), we have focused our attention on EUV resist performance issues by testing available high-performance EUV resists in the framework of a joint collaboration with ASML. For this purpose, we use the grating-based EUV-IL setup installed at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at PSI, in which a coherent beam with 13.5 nm wavelength is used to produce a periodic aerial image with virtually 100% contrast and large depth of focus. Interference lithography is a relatively simple technique and it does not require many optical components, therefore the unintended flare is minimized and the aerial image is well-defined sinusoidal pattern. For the collaborative work between PSI and ASML, exposures are being performed on the EUV-IL exposure tool at PSI. For better quantitative comparison to the NXE scanner results, it is targeted to determine the actual NILS of the EUV-IL exposure tool at PSI. Ultimately, any resist-related metrology must be aligned and compared with the performance of EUV scanners. Moreover, EUV-IL is a powerful method for evaluating the resist performance and a resist which performs well with EUV-IL, shows, in general, also good performance with NXE scanners. However, a quantitative prediction of the performance based on EUV-IL measurements has not been possible due to the differences in aerial image formation. In this work, we aim to study the performance of EUV resists with different aerial images. For this purpose, after the real interference pattern exposure, we overlay a flat field exposure to emulate different levels of contrast. Finally, the results are compared with data obtained from EUV scanner. This study will enable not only match the data obtained from EUV- IL at PSI with the performance of NXE scanners, but also a

  12. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implications of remaining weaknesses of these tools. We believe that a principled engineering approach to designing...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  13. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  14. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands in front of a 'pathfinder' rocket engine with Orbital Sciences Corp. President and Chief Operating Officer J.R. Thompson (left) and Aerojet President Scott Seymour during a Feb. 24 news briefing at the south Mississippi facility. The leaders appeared together to announce a partnership for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines at Stennis. The engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. During the event, the Stennis partnership with Orbital was cited as an example of the new direction of NASA to work with commercial interests for space travel and transport.

  15. Quality engineering in FFTF irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplinger, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of an irradiation test for the Fast Flux Test Facility are planned, controlled and documented in accordance with the Department of Energy standards. Tests built by Westinghouse Hanford Company are further controlled and guided by a series of increasingly specific documents, including guidelines for program control, procedures for engineering operations, standard practices and detailed operating procedures. In response to this guidance, a series of five documents is prepared covering each step of the experiment from conception through fabrication and assembly. This paper describes the quality assurance accompanying these five steps

  16. 40 CFR 90.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 90.410 Section 90... Procedures § 90.410 Engine test cycle. (a) Follow the appropriate 6-mode test cycle for Class I, I-B and II engines and 2-mode test cycle for Class I-A, III, IV, and V engines when testing spark-ignition engines...

  17. At-wavelength interferometry of high-NA diffraction-limited EUV optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick; Rekawa, Senajith; Denham, Paul; Liddle, J. Alexander; Anderson, Erik; Jackson, Keith; Bokor, Jeffrey; Attwood, David

    2003-08-01

    Recent advances in all-reflective diffraction-limited optical systems designed for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography have pushed numerical aperture (NA) values from 0.1 to 0.3, providing Rayleigh resolutions of 27-nm. Worldwide, several high-NA EUV optics are being deployed to serve in the development of advanced lithographic techniques required for EUV lithography, including the creation and testing of new, high-resolution photoresists. One such system is installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. Sub{angstrom}-accuracy optical testing and alignment techniques, developed for use with the previous generations of EUV lithographic optical systems, are being extended for use at high NA. Considerations for interferometer design and use are discussed.

  18. At-wavelength interferometry of high-NA diffraction-limited EUV optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick; Rekawa, Senajith; Denham, Paul; Liddle, J. Alexander; Anderson, Erik; Jackson, Keith; Bokor, Jeffrey; Attwood, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in all-reflective diffraction-limited optical systems designed for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography have pushed numerical aperture (NA) values from 0.1 to 0.3, providing Rayleigh resolutions of 27-nm. Worldwide, several high-NA EUV optics are being deployed to serve in the development of advanced lithographic techniques required for EUV lithography, including the creation and testing of new, high-resolution photoresists. One such system is installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. Sub(angstrom)-accuracy optical testing and alignment techniques, developed for use with the previous generations of EUV lithographic optical systems, are being extended for use at high NA. Considerations for interferometer design and use are discussed

  19. Integrated approach to improving local CD uniformity in EUV patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Andrew; Hermans, Jan; Tran, Timothy; Viatkina, Katja; Liang, Chen-Wei; Ward, Brandon; Chuang, Steven; Yu, Jengyi; Harm, Greg; Vandereyken, Jelle; Rio, David; Kubis, Michael; Tan, Samantha; Dusa, Mircea; Singhal, Akhil; van Schravendijk, Bart; Dixit, Girish; Shamma, Nader

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is crucial to enabling technology scaling in pitch and critical dimension (CD). Currently, one of the key challenges of introducing EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing (HVM) is throughput, which requires high source power and high sensitivity chemically amplified photoresists. Important limiters of high sensitivity chemically amplified resists (CAR) are the effects of photon shot noise and resist blur on the number of photons received and of photoacids generated per feature, especially at the pitches required for 7 nm and 5 nm advanced technology nodes. These stochastic effects are reflected in via structures as hole-to-hole CD variation or local CD uniformity (LCDU). Here, we demonstrate a synergy of film stack deposition, EUV lithography, and plasma etch techniques to improve LCDU, which allows the use of high sensitivity resists required for the introduction of EUV HVM. Thus, to improve LCDU to a level required by 5 nm node and beyond, film stack deposition, EUV lithography, and plasma etch processes were combined and co-optimized to enhance LCDU reduction from synergies. Test wafers were created by depositing a pattern transfer stack on a substrate representative of a 5 nm node target layer. The pattern transfer stack consisted of an atomically smooth adhesion layer and two hardmasks and was deposited using the Lam VECTOR PECVD product family. These layers were designed to mitigate hole roughness, absorb out-of-band radiation, and provide additional outlets for etch to improve LCDU and control hole CD. These wafers were then exposed through an ASML NXE3350B EUV scanner using a variety of advanced positive tone EUV CAR. They were finally etched to the target substrate using Lam Flex dielectric etch and Kiyo conductor etch systems. Metrology methodologies to assess dimensional metrics as well as chip performance and defectivity were investigated to enable repeatable patterning process development. Illumination

  20. Diagnostic system for EUV radiation measurements from dense xenon plasma generated by MPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Solyakov, D.G.; Marchenko, A.K.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Ladygina, M.S.; Staltsov, V.V.; Yelisyeyev, D.V.; Hassanein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) of compact geometry has been designed and tested as a source of EUV radiation. In present paper diagnostic system for registration of EUV radiation is described. It was applied for radiation measurements in different operation modes of MPC. The registration system was designed on the base of combination of different types of AXUV photodiodes. Possibility to minimize the influence of electrons and ions flows from dense plasma stream on AXUV detector performance and results of the measurements has been discussed.

  1. Studies of EUV contamination mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Samual, Jr.; Malinowski, Michael E.; Steinhaus, Chip; Grunow, Philip A.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2002-07-01

    Carbon contamination removal was investigated using remote RF-O2, RF-H2, and atomic hydrogen experiments. Samples consisted of silicon wafers coated with 100 Angstrom sputtered carbon, as well as bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to atomic hydrogen or RF plasma discharges at 100 W, 200 W, and 300 W. Carbon removal rate, optic oxidation rate, at-wavelength (13.4 nm) peak reflectance, and optic surface roughness were characterized. Data show that RF- O2 removes carbon at a rate approximately 6 times faster RF- H2 for a given discharge power. However, both cleaning techniques induce Mo/Si optic degradation through the loss of reflectivity associated with surface oxide growth for RF-O2 and an unknown mechanism with hydrogen cleaning. Atomic hydrogen cleaning shows carbon removal rates sufficient for use as an in-situ cleaning strategy for EUVoptics with less risk of optic degradation from overexposures than RF-discharge cleaning. While hydrogen cleaning (RF and atomic) of EUV optics has proven effective in carbon removal, attempts to dissociate hydrogen in co-exposures with EUV radiation have resulted in no detectable removal of carbon contamination.

  2. Towards a contamination-tolerant EUV power sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, J. van; Putten, M. van; Nieuwkoop, E.; Huijser, T.; Maas, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In EUV Lithography short-, mid- and long-term control over in-band EUV power is needed for high-yield IC production. Existing sensors can be unstable over time due to contamination and/or degradation. TNO goal: to conceive a stable EUV power sensor. Sensitive to in-band EUV, negligible degradation,

  3. 40 CFR 89.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 89.410 Section 89... Procedures § 89.410 Engine test cycle. (a) Emissions shall be measured using one of the test cycles specified...) through (a)(4) of this section. These cycles shall be used to test engines on a dynamometer. (1) The 8...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.405 - Test engine preparation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has undergone a stabilization step (or in-use operation). If the engine has not already been... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test engine preparation and...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Selection, Preparation, and Maintenance § 1065...

  5. Update on EUV radiometry at PTB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubis, Christian; Barboutis, Annett; Buchholz, Christian; Fischer, Andreas; Haase, Anton; Knorr, Florian; Mentzel, Heiko; Puls, Jana; Schönstedt, Anja; Sintschuk, Michael; Soltwisch, Victor; Stadelhoff, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The development of technology infrastructure for EUV Lithography (EUVL) still requires higher levels of technology readiness in many fields. A large number of new materials will need to be introduced. For example, development of EUV compatible pellicles to adopt an approved method from optical lithography for EUVL needs completely new thin membranes which have not been available before. To support these developments, PTB with its decades of experience [1] in EUV metrology [2] provides a wide range of actinic and non actinic measurements at in-band EUV wavelengths as well as out of band. Two dedicated, complimentary EUV beamlines [3] are available for radiometric [4,5] characterizations benefiting from small divergence or from adjustable spot size respectively. The wavelength range covered reaches from below 1 nm to 45 nm [6] for the EUV beamlines [7] to longer wavelengths if in addition the VUV beamline is employed. The standard spot size is 1 mm by 1 mm with an option to go as low as 0.1 mm to 0.1 mm. A separate beamline offers an exposure setup. Exposure power levels of 20 W/cm2 have been employed in the past, lower fluencies are available by attenuation or out of focus exposure. Owing to a differential pumping stage, the sample can be held under defined gas conditions during exposure. We present an updated overview on our instrumentation and analysis capabilities for EUV metrology and provide data for illustration.

  6. Relationship between resist outgassing and EUV witness sample contamination in NXE outgas qualification using electrons and EUV photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollentier, I.; Tirumala Venkata, A.; Gronheid, R.

    2014-04-01

    EUV photoresists are considered as a potential source of optics contamination, since they introduce irradiation-induced outgassing in the EUV vacuum environment. Therefore, before these resists can be used on e.g. ASML NXE:3100 or NXE:3300, they need to be tested in dedicated equipment according to a well-defined procedure, which is based on exposing a witness sample (WS) in the vicinity of a simultaneously exposed resist as it outgasses. Different system infrastructures are used at multiple sites (e.g. NIST, CNSE, Sematech, EIDEC, and imec) and were calibrated to each other by a detailed test plan. Despite this detailed tool qualifications, a first round robin comparison of identical materials showed inconsistent outgas test results, and required further investigation by a second round robin. Since the resist exposure mode is different at the various locations (some sites are using EUV photons while others use E-gun electrons), this difference has always a point of concern for variability of test results. In this work we compare the outgas test results from EUV photon and electron exposure using the resist materials of the second round robin. Since the imec outgas tester allows both exposure methods on the resist, a within-system comparison is possible and showed limited variation between photon and electron exposure mode. Therefore the system-to-system variability amongst the different outgas test sites is expected to be related to other parameters than the electron/photon exposure mode. Initial work showed that the variability might be related to temperature, E-gun emission excursion, and/or residual outgassing scaled by different wafer areas at the different sites.

  7. 40 CFR 91.410 - Engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine test cycle. 91.410 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.410 Engine test cycle. (a) The 5-mode cycle specified in Table 2 in appendix A to this subpart shall be followed...

  8. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN 2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  9. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

    1991-08-01

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT

  10. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Wilder, D.G.

    1991-02-01

    This progress report presents the interpretation of data obtained (up to November 1, 1988) from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test site. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for the field tests for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities, at a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site in Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the tests is to provide the basis for determining whether tests planned for Yucca Mountain have the potential to be successful. Thirteen chapters discuss the following: mapping the electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of the rock mass; changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe; characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the heater borehole; electrical resistance heater installed in a 30-cm borehole; relative humidity measurements; the operation, design, construction, calibration, and installation of a microwave circuit that might provide partial pressure information at temperatures in excess of 200 degree C (392 degree F); pressure and temperature measurements in the G-Tunnel; the moisture collection system, which attempts to collect steam that migrates into the heater borehole; The borehole television and borescope surveys that were performed to map the location, orientation, and aperture of the fractures intersecting the boreholes; preliminary scoping calculations of the hydrothermal conditions expected for this prototype test; the Data Acquisition System; and the results of the PEBSFT, preliminary interpretations of these results, and plans for the remainder of the test. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC) is committed to quality testing and inspection services that are delivered on time and...

  12. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  13. 14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system and..., reliability, and durability. (c) Each unpressurized hydraulic fluid tank may not fail or leak when subjected... hydraulic fluid tank must meet the requirements of § 33.64. (d) For an engine type certificated for use in...

  14. Solar EUV irradiance for space weather applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar EUV irradiance is an important driver of space weather models. Large changes in EUV and x-ray irradiances create large variability in the ionosphere and thermosphere. Proxies such as the F10.7 cm radio flux, have provided reasonable estimates of the EUV flux but as the space weather models become more accurate and the demands of the customers become more stringent, proxies are no longer adequate. Furthermore, proxies are often provided only on a daily basis and shorter time scales are becoming important. Also, there is a growing need for multi-day forecasts of solar EUV irradiance to drive space weather forecast models. In this presentation we will describe the needs and requirements for solar EUV irradiance information from the space weather modeler's perspective. We will then translate these requirements into solar observational requirements such as spectral resolution and irradiance accuracy. We will also describe the activities at NOAA to provide long-term solar EUV irradiance observations and derived products that are needed for real-time space weather modeling.

  15. The SPHINX reactor for engineering tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Artamkin, K.N.; Bovin, A.P.; Bulkin, Y.M.; Kartashev, E.F.; Korneev, A.A.; Stenbok, I.A.; Terekhov, A.S.; Khmel'Shehikov, V.V.; Cherkashov, Y.M.

    1990-01-01

    A research reactor known as SPHINX is under development in the USSR. The reactor will be used mainly to carry out tests on mock-up power reactor fuel assemblies under close-to-normal parameters in experimental loop channels installed in the core and reflector of the reactor, as well as to test samples of structural materials in ampoule and loop channels. The SPHINX reactor is a channel-type reactor with light-water coolant and moderator. Maximum achievable neutron flux density in the experimental channels (cell composition 50% Fe, 50% H 2 O) is 1.1 X 10 15 neutrons/cm 2 · s for fast neutrons (E > 0.1 MeV) and 1.7 X 10 15 for thermal neutrons at a reactor power of 200 MW. The design concepts used represent a further development of the technical features which have met with approval in the MR and MIR channel-type engineering test reactors currently in use in the USSR. The 'in-pond channel' construction makes the facility flexible and eases the carrying out of experimental work while keeping discharges of radioactivity into the environment to a low level. The reactor and all associated buildings and constructions conform to modern radiation safety and environmental protection requirements

  16. Laboratory Test of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    Control Module (ECM) torque horsepower engine speed boost turbocharger throttle injector power curve...13 2.4 Calibration ............................................................................. 14...Control Units (ECU). Originally, diesel engines were naturally aspirated, but most have evolved to include forced induction devices (turbochargers

  17. Design of a fusion engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The fusion Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is being designed to provide for engineering testing capability in a program leading to the demonstration of fusion as a viable energy option. It will combine power-reactor-type components and subsystems into an integrated tokamak system and provide a test bed to test blanket modules in a fusion environment. Because of the uncertainties in impurity control two basic designs are being developed: a design with a bundle divertor (Design 1) and one with a poloidal divertor (Design 2). The two designs are similar where possible, the latter having somewhat larger toroidal field (TF) coils to accommodate removal of the larger torus sectors required for the single-null poloidal divertor. Both designs have a major radius of 5.4 m, a minor radius of 1.3 m, and a D-shaped plasma with an elongation of 1.6. Ten TF coils are incorporated in both designs, producing a toroidal field of 5.5 T on-axis. The ohmic heating and equilibrium field (EF) coils supply sufficient volt-seconds to produce a flat-top burn of 100 s and a duty cycle of 135 s, including a start of 12 s, a burn termination of 10 s, and a pumpdown of 13 s. The total fusion power during burn is 750 MW, giving a neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m 2 . In Design 1 of the poloidal field (PF) coils except the fast-response EF coils are located outside the FT coils and are superconducting. The fast-response coils are located inside the TF coil bore near the torus and are normal conducting so that they can be easily replaced.In Design 2 all of the PF coils are located outside the TF coils and are superconducting. Ignition is achieved with 60 MW of neutral beam injection at 150 keV. Five megawatts of radio frequency heating (electron cyclotron resonance heating) is used to assist in the startup and limit the breakdown requirement to 25 V

  18. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at rated speed and maximum power for 25 to 30 minutes; (iv) Option. For four-stroke engines, where... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 91.409... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.409...

  19. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...

  20. Compact laser-produced plasma EUV sources for processing polymers and nanoimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P.

    2010-01-01

    should be applicable in biomedical engineering. The compact laser plasma EUV source has been also used in a microscope based on a Fresnel optics for nanoimaging. Quasi-monochromatic EUV radiation at 13.8 nm was obtained by selection of a single line from the argon plasma spectrum produced using the argon gas puff target. The Mo/Si ellipsoidal mirror of 80 nm in diameter and the 45 deg incidence angle was applied as the selector. Using the Fresnel lens with the outer zone width of 50 nm the spatial resolution (half-pitch) of 70 nm was obtained. Acknowledgements. The research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the EUREKA project E 3892 ModPolEUV, the Foundation for Polish Science under the HOMING 2009 Program (grant number HOM2009/14B) and the EC's 7. Framework Program (LASERLAB-EUROPE, ELI-PP and COST Action MP0601).

  1. A New Relationship Between Soft X-Rays and EUV Flare Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are the result of magnetic reconnection in the solar corona which converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy resulting in the rapid heating of solar plasma. As this plasma cools, it emits radiation at different EUV wavelengths when the dropping temperature passes a line’s temperature of formation. This results in a delay in the emissions from cooler EUV lines relative to hotter EUV lines. Therefore, characterizing how this hot plasma cools is important for understanding how the corresponding geo-effective extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance evolves in time. I present a simple new framework in which to study flare cooling by using a Lumped Element Thermal Model (LETM). LETM is frequently used in science and engineering to simplify a complex multi-dimensional thermal system by reducing it to a 0-D thermal circuit. For example, a structure that conducts heat out of a system is simplified with a resistive element and a structure that allows a system to store heat is simplified with a capacitive element. A major advantage of LETM is that the specific geometry of a system can be ignored, allowing for an intuitive analysis of the major thermal processes. I show that LETM is able to accurately reproduce the temporal evolution of cooler flare emission lines based on hotter emission line evolution. In particular, it can be used to predict the evolution of EUV flare light curves using the NOAA X-Ray Sensor (XRS).

  2. Initial testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems Program, NASA Lewis Research Center is evaluating variable-stroke control for Stirling engines. The engine being tested is the Advenco Stirling engine; this engine was manufactured by Philips Research Laboratories of the Netherlands and uses a variable-angle swash-plate drive to achieve variable stroke operation. The engine is described, initial steady-state test data taken at Lewis are presented, a major drive system failure and subsequent modifications are described. Computer simulation results are presented to show potential part-load efficiency gains with variable-stroke control.

  3. Ionospheric Change and Solar EUV Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Schunk, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The ionosphere has been quantitatively monitored for the past six solar cycles. The past few years of observations are showing trends that differ from the prior cycles! Our good statistical relationships between the solar radio flux index at 10.7 cm, the solar EUV Irradiance, and the ionospheric F-layer peak density are showing indications of divergence! Present day discussion of the Sun-Earth entering a Dalton Minimum would suggest change is occurring in the Sun, as the driver, followed by the Earth, as the receptor. The dayside ionosphere is driven by the solar EUV Irradiance. But different components of this spectrum affect the ionospheric layers differently. For a first time the continuous high cadence EUV spectra from the SDO EVE instrument enable ionospheric scientists the opportunity to evaluate solar EUV variability as a driver of ionospheric variability. A definitive understanding of which spectral components are responsible for the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere will enable assessments of how over 50 years of ionospheric observations, the solar EUV Irradiance has changed. If indeed the evidence suggesting the Sun-Earth system is entering a Dalton Minimum periods is correct, then the comprehensive EVE solar EUV Irradiance data base combined with the ongoing ionospheric data bases will provide a most fortuitous fiduciary reference baseline for Sun-Earth dependencies. Using the EVE EUV Irradiances, a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and 50 plus years of ionospheric observation from Wallops Island (Virginia) the above Sun-Earth ionospheric relationship will be reported on.

  4. Off reactor testings. Technological engineering applicative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doca, Cezar

    2001-01-01

    By the end of year 2000 over 400 nuclear electro-power units were operating world wide, summing up a 350,000 MW total capacity, with a total production of 2,300 TWh, representing 16% of the world's electricity production. Other 36 units, totalizing 28,000 MW, were in construction, while a manifest orientation towards nuclear power development was observed in principal Asian countries like China, India, Japan and Korea. In the same world's trend one find also Romania, the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 generating electrical energy into the national system beginning with 2 December 1996. Recently, the commercial contract was completed for finishing the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and launching it into operation by the end of year 2004. An important role in developing the activity of research and technological engineering, as technical support for manufacturing the CANDU type nuclear fuel and supplying with equipment the Cernavoda units, was played by the Division 7 TAR of the INR Pitesti. Qualification testings were conducted for: - off-reactor CANDU type nuclear fuel; - FARE tools, pressure regulators, explosion proof panels; channel shutting, as well as functional testing for spare pushing facility as a first step in the frame of the qualification tests for the charging/discharging machine (MID) 4 and 5 endings. Testing facilities are described, as well as high pressure hot/cool loops, measuring chains, all of them fulfilling the requirements of quality assurance. The nuclear fuel off-reactor tests were carried out to determine: strength; endurance; impact, pressure fall and wear resistance. For Cernavoda NPP equipment testings were carried out for: the explosion proof panels, pressure regulators, behaviour to vibration and wear of the steam generation tubings, effects of vibration upon different electronic component, channel shutting (for Cernavoda Unit 2), MID operating at 300 and 500 cycles. A number of R and D programs were conducted in the frame of division 7 TAR of INR

  5. Optimized qualification protocol on particle cleanliness for EUV mask infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donck, J. C. J.; Stortelder, J. K.; Derksen, G. B.

    2011-11-01

    With the market introduction of the NXE:3100, Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) enters a new stage. Now infrastructure in the wafer fabs must be prepared for new processes and new materials. Especially the infrastructure for masks poses a challenge. Because of the absence of a pellicle reticle front sides are exceptionally vulnerable to particles. It was also shown that particles on the backside of a reticle may cause tool down time. These effects set extreme requirements to the cleanliness level of the fab infrastructure for EUV masks. The cost of EUV masks justifies the use of equipment that is qualified on particle cleanliness. Until now equipment qualification on particle cleanliness have not been carried out with statistically based qualification procedures. Since we are dealing with extreme clean equipment the number of observed particles is expected to be very low. These particle levels can only be measured by repetitively cycling a mask substrate in the equipment. Recent work in the EUV AD-tool presents data on added particles during load/unload cycles, reported as number of Particles per Reticle Pass (PRP). In the interpretation of the data, variation by deposition statistics is not taken into account. In measurements with low numbers of added particles the standard deviation in PRP number can be large. An additional issue is that particles which are added in the routing outside the equipment may have a large impact on the testing result. The number mismatch between a single handling step outside the tool and the multiple cycling in the equipment makes accuracy of measurements rather complex. The low number of expected particles, the large variation in results and the combined effect of added particles inside and outside the equipment justifies putting good effort in making a test plan. Without a proper statistical background, tests may not be suitable for proving that equipment qualifies for the limiting cleanliness levels. Other risks are that a

  6. Engineered Barrier Testing at the INEEL Engineered Barriers Test Facility: FY-1997 and FY-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, K. N.; Porro, I.

    1998-01-01

    Engineered barriers of two designs are being tested at the Engineered Barriers Test Facility (EBTF) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report describes the test facility, barrier designs, and instruments used to monitor the test plots. Wetting tests conducted on the test plots in FY-97 are described and data collected from monitoring the test plots before, during and after the wetting tests are used to evaluate the performance of the covers during FY-97 and FY-98. Replicates of two engineered barrier designs were constructed in the EBTF cells. The first design comprises a thick, vegetated soil cover. The second design incorporates a capillary/biobarrier within the vegtated soil cover. The capillary barrier uses the textural break between an upper, fine textured soil and a lower, coarser-textured gravel layer to inhibit drainage under unsaturated conditions while increasing soil moisture storage in the root zone. Evaporation and transpiration by plants (although the test plots have not yet been vegetated) are used to recycle water stored in the soil back to the atmosphere. A geotextile fabric is used to maintain separation of the soil and gravel layers. A thick layer of cobbles beneath the gravel layer serves as a biobarrier to prevent intrusion of plant roots and burrowing animals into underlying waste (there is no waste in the test plots). Each test plot was instrumented with time domain reflectometry probes and neutron probe access tubes to measure moisture contents, tensiometers, heat dissipation sensors, and thermocouple psychrometers to measure matric potentials, thermocouples to measure soil temperature, and ion-exchange resin beads to monitor tracer movement. Each drainage sump is equipped with a tipping bucket instrument and pressure transducer to measure drainage. Precipitation is measured using a heated rain gauge located at the EBTF. Instrument calibration equation coefficients are presented, and data reduction

  7. Engine Performance Test of the 1975 Chrysler - Nissan Model CN633 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An engine test of the Chrysler-Nissan Model CN633 diesel engine was performed to determine its steady-state fuel consumption and emissions (HC, CO, NOx) maps. The data acquired are summarized in this report.

  8. Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) induced surface chemistry on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Feng; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    EUV photon induced surface chemistry can damage multilayer mirrors causing reflectivity loss and faster degradation. EUV photo chemistry involves complex processes including direct photon induced surface chemistry and secondary electron radiation chemistry. Current cleaning techniques include dry

  9. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  10. Design and fabrication of advanced EUV diffractive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2003-11-16

    As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography approaches commercial reality, the development of EUV-compatible diffractive structures becomes increasingly important. Such devices are relevant to many aspects of EUV technology including interferometry, illumination, and spectral filtering. Moreover, the current scarcity of high power EUV sources makes the optical efficiency of these diffractive structures a paramount concern. This fact has led to a strong interest in phase-enhanced diffractive structures. Here we describe recent advancements made in the fabrication of such devices.

  11. Imaging and Patterning on Nanometer Scale Using Coherent EUV Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachulak, P.W.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Marconi, M.C.; Menoni, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) covers wavelength range from about 5 nm to 50 nm. That is why EUV is especially applicable for imaging and patterning on nanometer scale length. In the paper periodic nanopatterning realized by interference lithography and high resolution holographic nanoimaging performed in a Gabor in-line scheme are presented. In the experiments a compact table top EUV laser was used. Preliminary studies on using a laser plasma EUV source for nanoimaging are presented as well. (author)

  12. Engine testing the design, building, modification and use of powertrain test facilities

    CERN Document Server

    MARTYR, A J

    2012-01-01

    Engine Testing is a unique, well-organized and comprehensive collection of the different aspects of engine and vehicle testing equipment and infrastructure for anyone involved in facility design and management, physical testing and the maintenance, upgrading and trouble shooting of testing equipment. Designed so that its chapters can all stand alone to be read in sequence or out of order as needed, Engine Testing is also an ideal resource for automotive engineers required to perform testing functions whose jobs do not involve engine testing on a regular basis. This recognized standard refer

  13. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  14. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  15. EUV polarimetry for thin film and surface characterization and EUV phase retarder reflector development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, A E H; Nicolosi, P; Ahmed, Nadeem; Jimenez, K; Pettinari, G; Gerardino, A; Zuppella, P

    2018-01-01

    The knowledge and the manipulation of light polarization state in the vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral regions play a crucial role from materials science analysis to optical component improvements. In this paper, we present an EUV spectroscopic ellipsometer facility for polarimetry in the 90-160 nm spectral range. A single layer aluminum mirror to be used as a quarter wave retarder has been fully characterized by deriving the optical and structural properties from the amplitude component and phase difference δ measurements. The system can be suitable to investigate the properties of thin films and optical coatings and optics in the EUV region.

  16. Initial tests of thermoacoustic space power engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (Wikg). Thennoacoustic engines at the -1-kW scale have converted high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, thennoacoustic engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thennoacoustic engine to a low mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Conversion efficiency data will be presented on a demonstration thennoacoustic engine designed for the 1 00-Watt power range.

  17. The EUV Helium Spectrum in the Quiet Sun: A By-Product of Coronal Emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, Vincenzo; DelZanna, Giulio; Jordan, Stuart D.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we test one of the mechanisms proposed to explain the intensities and other observed properties of the solar helium spectrum, and in particular of its Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) resonance lines. The so-called Photoionisation-Recombination (P-R) mechanism involves photoionisation of helium atoms and ions by EUV coronal radiation, followed by recombination cascades. We present calibrated measurements of EUV flux obtained with the two CDS spectrometers on board SOHO, in quiescent solar regions. We were able to obtain an essentially complete estimate of the total photoionizing flux in the wavelength range below 504 A (the photoionisation threshold for He(I)), as well as simultaneous measurements with the same instruments of the intensities of the strongest EUV helium lines: He(II) lambda304, He(I) lambda584, and He(I) lambda537. We find that there are not enough EUV photons to account for the observed helium line intensities. More specifically, we conclude that He(II) intensities cannot be explained by the P-R mechanism. Our results, however, leave open the possibility that the He(I) spectrum could be formed by the P-R mechanism, with the He(II) lambda304 line as a significant photoionizating source.

  18. Test plan for engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.C.

    1993-02-01

    This test plan describes experimental details of an engineering-scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration to be performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-93. This demonstration will investigate, in the engineering scale, the feasibility of using electrostatic enclosures and devices to control the spread of contaminants during transuranic waste handling operations. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the FY-93 experiments are included in this plan

  19. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1R Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The subsystem includes an ion engine, power processing unit, feed system components, and thruster gimbal. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing in 2006 to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. The engine was reworked to address most of these findings, renamed PM1R, and the environmental test sequence was repeated. Thruster functional testing was performed before and after the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 min in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included three thermal cycles from 120 to 215 C with hot engine re-starts. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in a few engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. There were no significant changes in engine performance as characterized by engine operating parameters, ion optics performance measurements, and beam current density measurements, indicating no significant changes to the hardware as a result of the environmental testing. The NEXT PM1R engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. The redesigned cathode heater terminations successfully survived the vibration environments. Based on the results of this test

  20. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supplied to the engine, the fuel temperature, the intake air humidity, and the observed barometric pressure... permitted to precondition the engine at rated speed and maximum horsepower until the oil and water... completion of the test. (3) It is permissible to change filter elements between test modes. (4) A leak check...

  1. Phase 1 Development Testing of the Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Nicholas L.; Eddleman, David E.; Calvert, Marty R.; Bullard, David B.; Martin, Michael A.; Wall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Development Breadboard Engine (BBE) is a pressure-fed liquid oxygen/pump-fed liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) expander cycle engine that was built and operated by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center's East Test Area. The breadboard engine was conceived as a technology demonstrator for the additive manufacturing technologies for an advanced upper stage prototype engine. The components tested on the breadboard engine included an ablative chamber, injector, main fuel valve, turbine bypass valve, a main oxidizer valve, a mixer and the fuel turbopump. All parts minus the ablative chamber were additively manufactured. The BBE was successfully hot fire tested seven times. Data collected from the test series will be used for follow on demonstration tests with a liquid oxygen turbopump and a regeneratively cooled chamber and nozzle.

  2. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  3. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Yu, Mufei; Ober, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have

  4. Oxidation and metal contamination of EUV optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The next generation photolithography will use 13.5 nm Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) for printing smaller features on chips. One of the hallenges is to optimally control the contamination of the multilayer mirrors used in the imaging system. The aim of this project is generating fundamental understanding

  5. Objective for EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth W.; Efthimion, Philip

    2016-05-03

    Disclosed is an imaging apparatus for EUV spectroscopy, EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging. This new imaging apparatus could, in particular, make significant contributions to EUV lithography at wavelengths in the range from 10 to 15 nm, which is presently being developed for the manufacturing of the next-generation integrated circuits. The disclosure provides a novel adjustable imaging apparatus that allows for the production of stigmatic images in x-ray imaging, EUV imaging, and EUVL. The imaging apparatus of the present invention incorporates additional properties compared to previously described objectives. The use of a pair of spherical reflectors containing a concave and convex arrangement has been applied to a EUV imaging system to allow for the image and optics to all be placed on the same side of a vacuum chamber. Additionally, the two spherical reflector segments previously described have been replaced by two full spheres or, more precisely, two spherical annuli, so that the total photon throughput is largely increased. Finally, the range of permissible Bragg angles and possible magnifications of the objective has been largely increased.

  6. First-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of people watch the first-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. The spectacular test marked Stennis Space Center's 20th anniversary celebration of the first Space Shuttle mission.

  7. Definition study for variable cycle engine testbed engine and associated test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdoviak, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The product/study double bypass variable cycle engine (VCE) was updated to incorporate recent improvements. The effect of these improvements on mission range and noise levels was determined. This engine design was then compared with current existing high-technology core engines in order to define a subscale testbed configuration that simulated many of the critical technology features of the product/study VCE. Detailed preliminary program plans were then developed for the design, fabrication, and static test of the selected testbed engine configuration. These plans included estimated costs and schedules for the detail design, fabrication and test of the testbed engine and the definition of a test program, test plan, schedule, instrumentation, and test stand requirements.

  8. J-2 Engine ready to go into test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Two technicians watch carefully as cables prepare to lift a J-2 engine into a test stand. The J-2 powered the second stage and the third stage of the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  9. F-1 Engine for Saturn V Undergoing a Static Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    The flame and exhaust from the test firing of an F-1 engine blast out from the Saturn S-IB Static Test Stand in the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center. A Cluster of five F-1 engines, located in the S-IC (first) stage of the Saturn V vehicle, provided over 7,500,000 pounds of thrust to launch the giant rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  10. MANUFACTURING AND TESTING OF A V-TYPE STIRLING ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Demir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a V-type Stirling engine with 163 cc total swept volume was designed and manufactured. Air was used as working fluid. Performance tests were conducted at the range of 1-3 bar charge pressure and within the range of hot source temperature 700-1050 °C. Experimental results are given. Variation of engine power and torque with hot source temperature at various air charge pressure are tested. Also variation of engine torque with engine speed for different air charge pressure are tested. According to experimental analysis, the maximum engine power was obtained as 21.334 W at 1050 ˚C hot source temperature and 1.5 bars charge pressure.

  11. EPE fundamentals and impact of EUV: Will traditional design-rule calculations work in the era of EUV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Allen H.; Brendler, Andrew C.; Brunner, Timothy A.; Chen, Xuemei; Culp, James A.; Levinson, Harry J.

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between edge placement error, semiconductor design-rule determination and predicted yield in the era of EUV lithography is examined. This paper starts with the basics of edge placement error and then builds up to design-rule calculations. We show that edge placement error (EPE) definitions can be used as the building blocks for design-rule equations but that in the last several years the term "EPE" has been used in the literature to refer to many patterning errors that are not EPE. We then explore the concept of "Good Fields"1 and use it predict the n-sigma value needed for design-rule determination. Specifically, fundamental yield calculations based on the failure opportunities per chip are used to determine at what n-sigma "value" design-rules need to be tested to ensure high yield. The "value" can be a space between two features, an intersect area between two features, a minimum area of a feature, etc. It is shown that across chip variation of design-rule important values needs to be tested at sigma values between seven and eight which is much higher than the four-sigma values traditionally used for design-rule determination. After recommending new statistics be used for design-rule calculations the paper examines the impact of EUV lithography on sources of variation important for design-rule calculations. We show that stochastics can be treated as an effective dose variation that is fully sampled across every chip. Combining the increased within chip variation from EUV with the understanding that across chip variation of design-rule important values needs to not cause a yield loss at significantly higher sigma values than have traditionally been looked at, the conclusion is reached that across-wafer, wafer-to-wafer and lot-to-lot variation will have to overscale for any technology introducing EUV lithography where stochastic noise is a significant fraction of the effective dose variation. We will emphasize stochastic effects on edge placement

  12. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Plug the canister port that is normally connected to the fuel tank. (ii) Prepare the engine... test should be performed. (2) Connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and... turned off, turn off the engine cooling fan(s) if used, and the CVS blower (or disconnect the exhaust...

  14. Tests Of A Stirling-Engine Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, George

    1995-01-01

    Report describes acceptance tests of power converter consisting of pair of opposed free-piston Stirling engines driving linear alternators. Stirling engines offer potential for extremely long life, high reliability, high efficiency at low hot-to-cold temperature ratios, and relatively low heater-head temperatures.

  15. Applying the design-build-test paradigm in microbiome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang Long; Ho, Chun Loong; Wong, Adison; Lee, Yung Seng; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2017-12-01

    The recently discovered roles of human microbiome in health and diseases have inspired research efforts across many disciplines to engineer microbiome for health benefits. In this review, we highlight recent progress in human microbiome research and how modifications to the microbiome could result in implications to human health. Furthermore, we discuss the application of a 'design-build-test' framework to expedite microbiome engineering efforts by reviewing current literature on three key aspects: design principles to engineer the human microbiome, methods to engineer microbiome with desired functions, and analytical techniques to examine complex microbiome samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the quality of test results from selected civil engineering material testing laboratories in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbawala, SJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil and geotechnical engineering material testing laboratories are expected to produce accurate and reliable test results. However, the ability of laboratories to produce accurate and reliable test results depends on many factors, among others...

  17. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The on-ground and Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) provides a system architecture and software tools for performing diagnostics...

  18. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building...

  19. Engineering testing requirements in FED/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Nygren, R.E.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Wire, G.; Oppermann, E.; Puigh, R.; Gold, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    The FED/INTOR critical issues activity has addressed three key testing requirements that have the largest impact on the design, operation and cost of FED/INTOR. These are: (1) the total testing time (fluence) during the device lifetime, (2) the minimum number of back-to-back cycles, and (3) the neutron wall load (power density in the first wall/blanket). The testing program activities were structured into three tasks in order to define the benefits, and in some cases, costs and risks of these testing requirements. The three tasks were carried out with wide participation of experts from a number of organizations in the United States. Similar effort was performed by Japan, the European Community and the Soviet Union

  20. Plasma-based EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  1. Built-In Test Engine For Memory Test

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, Paul; Farrell, Ronan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will present an on-chip method for testing high performance memory devices, that occupies minimal area and retains full flexibility. This is achieved through microcode test instructions and the associated on-chip state machine. In addition, the proposed methodology will enable at-speed testing of memory devices. The relevancy of this work is placed in context with an introduction to memory testing and the techniques and algorithms generally used today.

  2. EUV sources for the alpha-tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankert, Joseph; Apetz, Rolf; Bergmann, Klaus; Damen, Marcel; Derra, Günther; Franken, Oliver; Janssen, Maurice; Jonkers, Jeroen; Klein, Jürgen; Kraus, Helmar; Krücken, Thomas; List, Andreas; Loeken, Micheal; Mader, Arnaud; Metzmacher, Christof; Neff, Willi; Probst, Sven; Prümmer, Ralph; Rosier, Oliver; Schwabe, Stefan; Seiwert, Stefan; Siemons, Guido; Vaudrevange, Dominik; Wagemann, Dirk; Weber, Achim; Zink, Peter; Zitzen, Oliver

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent progress of the Philips Extreme UV source. The Philips source concept is based on a discharge plasma ignited in a Sn vapor plume that is ablated by a laser pulse. Using rotating electrodes covered with a regenerating tin surface, the problems of electrode erosion and power scaling are fundamentally solved. Most of the work of the past year has been dedicated to develop a lamp system which is operating very reliably and stable under full scanner remote control. Topics addressed were the development of the scanner interface, a dose control system, thermo-mechanical design, positional stability of the source, tin handling, and many more. The resulting EUV source-the Philips NovaTin(R) source-can operate at more than 10kW electrical input power and delivers 200W in-band EUV into 2π continuously. The source is very small, so nearly 100% of the EUV radiation can be collected within etendue limits. The lamp system is fully automated and can operate unattended under full scanner remote control. 500 Million shots of continuous operation without interruption have been realized, electrode lifetime is at least 2 Billion shots. Three sources are currently being prepared, two of them will be integrated into the first EUV Alpha Demonstration tools of ASML. The debris problem was reduced to a level which is well acceptable for scanner operation. First, a considerable reduction of the Sn emission of the source has been realized. The debris mitigation system is based on a two-step concept using a foil trap based stage and a chemical cleaning stage. Both steps were improved considerably. A collector lifetime of 1 Billion shots is achieved, after this operating time a cleaning would be applied. The cleaning step has been verified to work with tolerable Sn residues. From the experimental results, a total collector lifetime of more than 10 Billion shots can be expected.

  3. History and Benefits of Engine Level Testing Throughout the Space Shuttle Main Engine Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHooser, Katherine; Kan, Kenneth; Maddux, Lewis; Runkle, Everett

    2010-01-01

    Rocket engine testing is important throughout a program s life and is essential to the overall success of the program. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) testing can be divided into three phases: development, certification, and operational. Development tests are conducted on the basic design and are used to develop safe start and shutdown transients and to demonstrate mainstage operation. This phase helps form the foundation of the program, demands navigation of a very steep learning curve, and yields results that shape the final engine design. Certification testing involves multiple engine samples and more aggressive test profiles that explore the boundaries of the engine to vehicle interface requirements. The hardware being tested may have evolved slightly from that in the development phase. Operational testing is conducted with mature hardware and includes acceptance testing of flight assets, resolving anomalies that occur in flight, continuing to expand the performance envelope, and implementing design upgrades. This paper will examine these phases of testing and their importance to the SSME program. Examples of tests conducted in each phase will also be presented.

  4. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 minutes in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included a deep cold soak of the engine to temperatures of -168 C and thermal cycling from -120 to 203 C. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in some engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. In general, the NEXT PM1 engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. After resolution of the findings from this test program the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence.

  5. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen B.K.; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John G.H.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S.K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes. Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

  6. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-12-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

  7. High performance EUV multilayer structures insensitive to capping layer optical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina; Suman, Michele; Monaco, Gianni; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Windt, David L

    2008-09-15

    We have designed and tested a-periodic multilayer structures containing protective capping layers in order to obtain improved stability with respect to any possible changes of the capping layer optical properties (due to oxidation and contamination, for example)-while simultaneously maximizing the EUV reflection efficiency for specific applications, and in particular for EUV lithography. Such coatings may be particularly useful in EUV lithographic apparatus, because they provide both high integrated photon flux and higher stability to the harsh operating environment, which can affect seriously the performance of the multilayer-coated projector system optics. In this work, an evolutive algorithm has been developed in order to design these a-periodic structures, which have been proven to have also the property of stable performance with respect to random layer thickness errors that might occur during coating deposition. Prototypes have been fabricated, and tested with EUV and X-ray reflectometry, and secondary electron spectroscopy. The experimental results clearly show improved performance of our new a-periodic coatings design compared with standard periodic multilayer structures.

  8. Lean mixture engine testing and evaluation program. [for automobile engine pollution and fuel performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Hoehn, F. W.; Griffin, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results for fuel consumption and emissions are presented for a 350 CID (5.7 liter) Chevrolet V-8 engine modified for lean operation with gasoline. The lean burn engine achieved peak thermal efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.75 and a spark advance of 60 deg BTDC. At this condition the lean burn engine demonstrated a 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption compared with the stock engine; however, NOx and hydrocarbon emissions were higher. With the use of spark retard and/or slightly lower equivalence ratios, the NOx emissions performance of the stock engine was matched while showing a 6% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption. Hydrocarbon emissions exceeded the stock values in all cases. Diagnostic data indicate that lean performance in the engine configuration tested is limited by ignition delay, cycle-to-cycle pressure variations, and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.

  9. Alvar engine. An engine with variable compression ratio. Experiments and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Olof

    1998-09-01

    This report is focused on tests with Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engines, according to the Alvar engine principle. Variable compression ratio means an engine design where it is possible to change the nominal compression ratio. The purpose is to increase the fuel efficiency at part load by increasing the compression ratio. At maximum load, and maybe supercharging with for example turbocharger, it is not possible to keep a high compression ratio because of the knock phenomena. Knock is a shock wave caused by self-ignition of the fuel-air mix. If knock occurs, the engine will be exposed to a destructive load. Because of the reasons mentioned it would be an advantage if it would be possible to change the compression ratio continuously when the load changes. The Alvar engine provides a solution for variable compression ratio based on well-known engine components. This paper provides information about efficiency and emission characteristics from tests with two Alvar engines. Results from tests with a phase shift mechanism (for automatic compression ratio control) for the Alvar engine are also reviewed Examination paper. 5 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs, 5 appendices

  10. Highly Stable, Large Format EUV Imager, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Higher detection efficiency and better radiation tolerance imagers are needed for the next generation of EUV instruments. Previously, CCD technology has demonstrated...

  11. Analytical techniques for mechanistic characterization of EUV photoresists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeskowiak, Steven; Narasimhan, Amrit; Murphy, Michael; Ackerman, Christian; Kaminsky, Jake; Brainard, Robert L.; Denbeaux, Greg

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) lithography is the prospective technology for high volume manufacturing by the microelectronics industry. Significant strides towards achieving adequate EUV source power and availability have been made recently, but a limited rate of improvement in photoresist performance still delays the implementation of EUV. Many fundamental questions remain to be answered about the exposure mechanisms of even the relatively well understood chemically amplified EUV photoresists. Moreover, several groups around the world are developing revolutionary metal-based resists whose EUV exposure mechanisms are even less understood. Here, we describe several evaluation techniques to help elucidate mechanistic details of EUV exposure mechanisms of chemically amplified and metal-based resists. EUV absorption coefficients are determined experimentally by measuring the transmission through a resist coated on a silicon nitride membrane. Photochemistry can be evaluated by monitoring small outgassing reaction products to provide insight into photoacid generator or metal-based resist reactivity. Spectroscopic techniques such as thin-film Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can measure the chemical state of a photoresist system pre- and post-EUV exposure. Additionally, electrolysis can be used to study the interaction between photoresist components and low energy electrons. Collectively, these techniques improve our current understanding of photomechanisms for several EUV photoresist systems, which is needed to develop new, better performing materials needed for high volume manufacturing.

  12. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Samuel, Jr.; Steinhaus, Charles A.; Clift, W. Miles; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Bajt, Sasa

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have been conducted to investigate the use of atomic hydrogen as an in-situ contamination removal method for EUV optics. In these experiments, a commercial source was used to produce atomic hydrogen by thermal dissociation of molecular hydrogen using a hot filament. Samples for these experiments consisted of silicon wafers coated with sputtered carbon, Mo/Si optics with EUV-induced carbon, and bare Si-capped and Ru-B4C-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to an atomic hydrogen source at a distance of 200 - 500 mm downstream and angles between 0-90° with respect to the source. Carbon removal rates and optic oxidation rates were measured using Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. In addition, at-wavelength peak reflectance (13.4 nm) was measured using the EUV reflectometer at the Advanced Light Source. Data from these experiments show carbon removal rates up to 20 Å/hr for sputtered carbon and 40 Å/hr for EUV deposited carbon at a distance of 200 mm downstream. The cleaning rate was also observed to be a strong function of distance and angular position. Experiments have also shown that the carbon etch rate can be increased by a factor of 4 by channeling atomic hydrogen through quartz tubes in order to direct the atomic hydrogen to the optic surface. Atomic hydrogen exposures of bare optic samples show a small risk in reflectivity degradation after extended periods. Extended exposures (up to 20 hours) of bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics show a 1.2% loss (absolute) in reflectivity while the Ru-B4C-capped Mo/Si optics show a loss on the order of 0.5%. In order to investigate the source of this reflectivity degradation, optic samples were exposed to atomic deuterium and analyzed using low energy ion scattering direct recoil spectroscopy to determine any reactions of the hydrogen with the multilayer stack. Overall, the results show that the risk of over-etching with atomic hydrogen is much less than previous studies using RF discharge cleaning

  13. Spacecraft Testing Programs: Adding Value to the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Keith J.; Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Testing has long been recognized as a critical component of spacecraft development activities - yet many major systems failures may have been prevented with more rigorous testing programs. The question is why is more testing not being conducted? Given unlimited resources, more testing would likely be included in a spacecraft development program. Striking the right balance between too much testing and not enough has been a long-term challenge for many industries. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the barriers, enablers, and best practices for developing and sustaining a strong test program and testing team. This paper will also explore the testing decision factors used by managers; the varying attitudes toward testing; methods to develop strong test engineers; and the influence of behavior, culture and processes on testing programs. KEY WORDS: Risk, Integration and Test, Validation, Verification, Test Program Development

  14. MCO Engineering Test Report Fuel Basket Handling Grapple Acceptance Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Acceptance testing of the production SNF Fuel Basket lift grapples to the required 150 percent maximum lift load is documented herein. The report shows the results affirming the proof test passage. The primary objective of this test was to confirm the load rating of the grapple per applicable requirements of ANSI 14 6 American National Standard For Radioactive Materials Special Lifting Devices for Shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 pounds (4500kg) or More. The above Standard requires a load test of 150% of the design load which must be held for a minimum of 10 minutes followed by a Liquid Penetrant or Magnetic Particle examination of critical areas and welds in accordance with the ANSI/ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 1989 Section 111 Division 1 section NF 5350

  15. The Design and Testing of a Miniature Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.; Murray, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Off-the-shelf jet propulsion in the 50 - 500 lb thrust class sparse. A true twin-spool turbofan in this range does not exist. Adapting an off-the-shelf turboshaft engine is feasible. However the approx.10 Hp SPT5 can t quite make 50 lbs. of thrust. Packaging and integration is challenging, especially the exhaust. Building on our engine using a 25 Hp turboshaft seems promising if the engine becomes available. Test techniques used, though low cost, adequate for the purpose.

  16. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  17. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  18. Use of molecular oxygen to reduce EUV-induced carbon contamination of optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Michael E.; Grunow, Philip A.; Steinhaus, Chip; Clift, W. Miles; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-08-01

    Carbon deposition and removal experiments on Mo/Si multilayer mirror (MLM) samples were performed using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light on Beamline 12.0.1.2 of the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Carbon (C) was deposited onto Mo/Si multilayer mirror (MLM) samples when hydrocarbon vapors where intentionally introduced into the MLM test chamber in the presence of EUV at 13.44 nm (92.3eV). The carbon deposits so formed were removed by molecular oxygen + EUV. The MLM reflectivities and photoemission were measured in-situ during these carbon deposition and cleaning procedures. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) sputter-through profiling of the samples was performed after experimental runs to help determine C layer thickness and the near-surface compositional-depth profiles of all samples studied. EUV powers were varied from ~0.2mW/mm2 to 3mW/mm2(at 13.44 nm) during both deposition and cleaning experiments and the oxygen pressure ranged from ~5x10-5 to 5x10-4 Torr during the cleaning experiments. C deposition rates as high as ~8nm/hr were observed, while cleaning rates as high as ~5nm/hr could be achieved when the highest oxygen pressure were used. A limited set of experiments involving intentional oxygen-only exposure of the MLM samples showed that slow oxidation of the MLM surface could occur.

  19. Critical parameters influencing the EUV-induced damage of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S B; Ermanoski, I; Tarrio, C; Lucatorto, T B; Madey, T E; Bajt, S; Fang, M; Chandhok, M

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing endurance testing of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors (MLMs) at the NIST synchrotron facility has revealed that the damage resulting from EUV irradiation does not always depend on the exposure conditions in an intuitive way. Previous exposures of Ru-capped MLMs to EUV radiation in the presence of water vapor demonstrated that the mirror damage rate actually decreases with increasing water pressure. We will present results of recent exposures showing that the reduction in damage for partial pressures of water up to 5 x 10 -6 Torr is not the result of a spatially uniform decrease in damage across the Gaussian intensity distribution of the incident EUV beam. Instead we observe a drop in the damage rate in the center of the exposure spot where the intensity is greatest, while the reflectivity loss in the wings of the intensity distribution appears to be independent of water partial pressure. (See Fig. 1.) We will discuss how the overall damage rate and spatial profile can be influenced by admixtures of carbon-containing species (e.g., CO, CO 2 , C 6 H 6 ) at partial pressures one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than the water vapor partial pressure. An investigation is underway to find the cause of the non-Gaussian damage profile. Preliminary results and hypotheses will be discussed. In addition to high-resolution reflectometry of the EUV-exposure sites, the results of surface analysis such as XPS will be presented. We will also discuss how the bandwidth and time structure of incident EUV radiation may affect the rate of reflectivity degradation. Although the observations presented here are based on exposures of Ru-capped MLMs, unless novel capping layers are similarly characterized, direct application of accelerated testing results could significantly overestimate mirror lifetime in the production environment

  20. Systematic study of ligand structures of metal oxide EUV nanoparticle photoresists

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2015-03-19

    Ligand stabilized metal oxide nanoparticle resists are promising candidates for EUV lithography due to their high sensitivity for high-resolution patterning and high etching resistance. As ligand exchange is responsible for the patterning mechanism, we systematically studied the influence of ligand structures of metal oxide EUV nanoparticles on their sensitivity and dissolution behavior. ZrO2 nanoparticles were protected with various aromatic ligands with electron withdrawing and electron donating groups. These nanoparticles have lower sensitivity compared to those with aliphatic ligands suggesting the structures of these ligands is more important than their pka on resist sensitivity. The influence of ligand structure was further studied by comparing the nanoparticles’ solubility for a single type ligand to mixtures of ligands. The mixture of nanoparticles showed improved pattern quality. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. R and D needs assessment for the Engineering Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF), planned to be the next major US magnetic fusion device, has its mission (1) to provide the capability for moving into the engineering phase of fusion development and (2) to provide a test-bed for reactor components in a fusion environment. The design, construction, and operation of the ETF requires an increasing emphasis on certain key research and development (R and D) programs in magnetic fusion in order to provide the necessary facility design base. This report identifies these needs and discusses the apparent inadequacies of the presently planned US program to meet them, commensurate with the ETF schedule

  2. Modeling and fuzzy control of the engine coolant conditioning system in an IC engine test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Shirazi, Farzad A.; Javaheri, Ahmad; Nava, Ghodrat Hamze

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical and thermodynamical performance of internal combustion engines is significantly affected by the engine working temperature. In an engine test bed, the internal combustion engines are tested in different operating conditions using a dynamometer. It is required that the engine temperature be controlled precisely, particularly in transient states. This precise control can be achieved by an engine coolant conditioning system mainly consisting of a heat exchanger, a control valve, and a controller. In this study, constitutive equations of the system are derived first. These differential equations show the second- order nonlinear time-varying dynamics of the system. The model is validated with the experimental data providing satisfactory results. After presenting the dynamic equations of the system, a fuzzy controller is designed based on our prior knowledge of the system. The fuzzy rules and the membership functions are derived by a trial and error and heuristic method. Because of the nonlinear nature of the system the fuzzy rules are set to satisfy the requirements of the temperature control for different operating conditions of the engine. The performance of the fuzzy controller is compared with a PI one for different transient conditions. The results of the simulation show the better performance of the fuzzy controller. The main advantages of the fuzzy controller are the shorter settling time, smaller overshoot, and improved performance especially in the transient states of the system

  3. Analysis and test of insulated components for rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Patrick R.; Doup, Douglas; Kamo, Roy

    1989-01-01

    The direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) rotary engine, while attractive for aviation applications due to its light weight, multifuel capability, and potentially low fuel consumption, has until now required a bulky and heavy liquid-cooling system. NASA-Lewis has undertaken the development of a cooling system-obviating, thermodynamically superior adiabatic rotary engine employing state-of-the-art thermal barrier coatings to thermally insulate engine components. The thermal barrier coating material for the cast aluminum, stainless steel, and ductile cast iron components was plasma-sprayed zirconia. DISC engine tests indicate effective thermal barrier-based heat loss reduction, but call for superior coefficient-of-thermal-expansion matching of materials and better tribological properties in the coatings used.

  4. Physical and engineering aspects of a fusion engineering test facility based on mirror confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, T.; Hirayama, S.; Hojo, H.; Kozaki, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    Controlled fusion research has accomplished great progress in the field of confinement of high-density and high-temperature plasmas and breakeven experiments are expected before the end of the 1980s. Many experiments have been proposed as the next step for fusion research. Among them is the study of ignited plasmas and another is the study of fusion engineering. Some of the important studies in fusion engineering are the integrated test in a fusion reactor environment as well as tests of first-wall materials and of the reactor structures, and test for tritium breeding and blanket modules or submodules. An ideal neutron source for the study of fusion engineering is the deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasma itself. A neutron facility based on a D-T-burning plasma consists of all of the components that a real fusion power reactor would have, so eventually the integrated test for fusion reactor engineering can be done as well as the tests for each engineering component

  5. Plasma sources for EUV lithography exposure tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, Vadim; Moors, Roel

    2004-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil extremely high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength in the range 13-14 nm, which requires a major re-thinking of state-of-the-art lithography systems operating in the DUV range. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for DUV, should become reflective for EUV. The source specifications are derived from the customer requirements for the complete tool, which are: throughput, cost of ownership (CoO) and imaging quality. The EUVL system is considered as a follow up of the existing DUV based lithography technology and, while improving the feature resolution, it has to maintain high wafer throughput performance, which is driven by the overall CoO picture. This in turn puts quite high requirements on the collectable in-band power produced by an EUV source. Increased, due to improved feature resolution, critical dimension (CD) control requirements, together with reflective optics restrictions, necessitate pulse-to-pulse repeatability, spatial stability control and repetition rates, which are substantially better than those of current optical systems. All together the following aspects of the source specification will be addressed: the operating wavelength, the EUV power, the hot spot size, the collectable angle, the repetition rate, the pulse-to-pulse repeatability and the debris induced lifetime of components

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-07-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of compressor and engine is presented. The superior performance of these two products arises from the superior performance of rotating supersonic shock-wave compression. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A High Risk Technology review was conducted and evaluated by a team of 20 senior engineers and scientists representing various branches of the federal government. The conceptual design of a compression test rig, test rotors, and test cell adaptor was completed. The work conducted lays the foundation for the completed design and testing of the compression test rig, and the design of a supersonic shock-wave compressor matched to a conventional combustor and turbine.

  7. Utilization of fission reactors for fusion engineering testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deis, G.A.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactors can be used to conduct some of the fusion nuclear engineering tests identified in the FINESSE study. To further define the advantages and disadvantages of fission testing, the technical and programmatic constraints on this type of testing are discussed here. This paper presents and discusses eight key issues affecting fission utilization. Quantitative comparisons with projected fusion operation are made to determine the technical assets and limitations of fission testing. Capabilities of existing fission reactors are summarized and compared with technical needs. Conclusions are then presented on the areas where fission testing can be most useful

  8. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.96 Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which...

  9. Tests of the Daimler D-IVa Engine at a High Altitude Test Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, W G

    1920-01-01

    Reports of tests of a Daimler IVa engine at the test-bench at Friedrichshafen, show that the decrease of power of that engine, at high altitudes, was established, and that the manner of its working when air is supplied at a certain pressure was explained. These tests were preparatory to the installation of compressors in giant aircraft for the purpose of maintaining constant power at high altitudes.

  10. Latest developments on EUV reticle and pellicle research and technology at TNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Rogier; Koster, Norbert; te Sligte, Edwin; Staring, Wilbert

    2017-06-01

    At TNO an extensive EUV optics life time program has been running for over 15 years together with our partners ASML and Carl Zeiss. This has contributed to the upcoming introduction of EUV High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). To further help the industry with the introduction of EUV, TNO has worked on extending their facilities with a number of reticle and pellicle research infrastructure facilities. In this paper we will show some of the facilities that are available at TNO and shortly introduce their capabilities. Recently we have opened our EBL2 facility, which is an EUV Beam Line (EBL2) meant for studying the effects of high power EUV illumination on optics, reticles and pellicles up to the power roadmap of 500 W at intermediate Focus (IF). This facility is open to users from all over the world and is beneficial for the industry in helping developing alternative capping layers and contamination control strategies for optics lifetime, new absorber materials, pellicles and resists. The EBL2 system has seen first light in December 2016 and is now in the final stage of acceptance testing and qualification. It is expected that the system will be fully operational in the third quarter of 2017, and available for users. It is possible to transfer reticles to and from the EBL2 by means of the reticle handler using the dual pod interface. This secures backside cleanliness to NXE standards and thus enables wafer printing on a NXE tool in a later stage after the exposures and inspection at EBL2. Besides EBL2, a high performance and ultra-clean reticle handler is available at TNO. This handler incorporates our particle scanner Rapid Nano 4 for front side inspection of reticle blanks with a detection limit down to 20 nm particles. Attached to the handler is also an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) inspection tool for back-side reticle or pellicle inspection with a resolution down to 1 micron.

  11. Software for Preprocessing Data from Rocket-Engine Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chiu-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Three computer programs have been written to preprocess digitized outputs of sensors during rocket-engine tests at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The programs apply exclusively to the SSC E test-stand complex and utilize the SSC file format. The programs are the following: Engineering Units Generator (EUGEN) converts sensor-output-measurement data to engineering units. The inputs to EUGEN are raw binary test-data files, which include the voltage data, a list identifying the data channels, and time codes. EUGEN effects conversion by use of a file that contains calibration coefficients for each channel. QUICKLOOK enables immediate viewing of a few selected channels of data, in contradistinction to viewing only after post-test processing (which can take 30 minutes to several hours depending on the number of channels and other test parameters) of data from all channels. QUICKLOOK converts the selected data into a form in which they can be plotted in engineering units by use of Winplot (a free graphing program written by Rick Paris). EUPLOT provides a quick means for looking at data files generated by EUGEN without the necessity of relying on the PV-WAVE based plotting software.

  12. e-beam induced EUV photomask repair: a perfect match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiblinger, M.; Kornilov, K.; Hofmann, T.; Edinger, K.

    2010-05-01

    Due to the updated ITRS roadmap EUV might enter the market as a productive solution for the 32 nm node1. Since the EUV-photomask is used as mirror and no longer as transitive device the severity of different defect types has changed significantly. Furthermore the EUV-photomask material stack is much more complex than the conventional 193nm photomask materials which expand the field of critical defect types even further. In this paper we will show, that "classical" 193 mask repair processes cannot be applied to EUV material. We will show the performance of a new repair process based on the novel ebeam repair tool MeRiT® HR 32. Furthermore this process will be applied on real EUV mask defects and the success of these repairs confirmed by wafer prints.

  13. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  14. Evaluation of EUV resist performance using interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, E.; Yildirim, O.; Verspaget, C.; Tsugama, N.; Hoefnagels, R.; Rispens, G.; Ekinci, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) stands as the most promising solution for the fabrication of future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, the successful introduction of EUVL into the extremely competitive and stringent high-volume manufacturing (HVM) phase remains uncertain partly because of the still limiting performance of EUV resists below 16 nm half-pitch (HP) resolution. Particularly, there exists a trade-off relationship between resolution (half-pitch), sensitivity (dose) and line-edge roughness (LER) that can be achieved with existing materials. This trade-off ultimately hampers their performance and extendibility towards future technology nodes. Here we present a comparative study of highly promising chemically amplified resists (CARs) that have been evaluated using the EUV interference lithography (EUV-IL) tool at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). In this study we have focused on the performance qualification of different resists mainly for 18 nm and 16 nm half-pitch line/space resolution (L/S = 1:1). Among the most promising candidates tested, there are a few choices that allow for 16 nm HP resolution to be achieved with high exposure latitude (up to ~ 33%), low LER (down to 3.3 nm or ~ 20% of critical dimension CD) and low dose-to-size (or best-energy, BE) < 41 mJ/cm2 values. Patterning was even demonstrated down to 12 nm HP with one of CARs (R1UL1) evaluated for their extendibility beyond the 16 nm HP resolution. 11 nm HP patterning with some pattern collapse and well resolved patterns down 12 nm were also demonstrated with another CAR (R15UL1) formulated for 16 nm HP resolution and below. With such resist it was possible even to obtain a small process window for 14 nm HP processing with an EL ~ 8% (BE ~ 37 mJ/cm2, LER ~ 4.5 nm). Though encouraging, fulfilling all of the requirements necessary for high volume production, such as high resolution, low LER, high photon

  15. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  16. Novel EUV photoresist for sub-7nm node (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tsuyoshi; Naruoka, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Miyata, Hiromu; Shiratani, Motohiro; Hori, Masafumi; Dei, Satoshi; Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Hishiro, Yoshi; Nagai, Tomoki

    2017-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has been recognized as a promising candidate for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices as LS and CH pattern for 7nm node and beyond. EUV lithography is ready for high volume manufacturing stage. For the high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices, significant improvement of sensitivity and line edge roughness (LWR) and Local CD Uniformity (LCDU) is required for EUV resist. It is well-known that the key challenge for EUV resist is the simultaneous requirement of ultrahigh resolution (R), low line edge roughness (L) and high sensitivity (S). Especially high sensitivity and good roughness is important for EUV lithography high volume manufacturing. We are trying to improve sensitivity and LWR/LCDU from many directions. From material side, we found that both sensitivity and LWR/LCDU are simultaneously improved by controlling acid diffusion length and efficiency of acid generation using novel resin and PAG. And optimizing EUV integration is one of the good solution to improve sensitivity and LWR/LCDU. We are challenging to develop new multi-layer materials to improve sensitivity and LWR/LCDU. Our new multi-layer materials are designed for best performance in EUV lithography system. From process side, we found that sensitivity was substantially improved maintaining LWR applying novel type of chemical amplified resist (CAR) and process. EUV lithography evaluation results obtained for new CAR EUV interference lithography. And also metal containing resist is one possibility to break through sensitivity and LWR trade off. In this paper, we will report the recent progress of sensitivity and LWR/LCDU improvement of JSR novel EUV resist and process.

  17. Stennis Holds Last Planned Space Shuttle Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With 520 seconds of shake, rattle and roar on July 29, 2009 NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center marked the end of an era for testing the space shuttle main engines that have powered the nation's Space Shuttle Program for nearly three decades.

  18. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    During a penetration test on the physical security of an organization, if social engineering is used, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not done properly can upset the employees, violate their privacy or damage

  19. Engineering development testing of the GPHS-RTG converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockfield, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The GPHS-RTG will provide electrical power for the Galileo orbiter and for the two spacecraft of the International Solar Polar Mission. The GPHS-RTG consists of two primary assemblies: the General Purpose Heat Source, and the converter. This paper deals only with the converter, and highlights engineering tests that provide support for its design development

  20. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4

  1. New engine method for biodiesel cetane number testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Substitution of fossil fuels with fuels that come from part renewable sources has been a subject of many studies and researches in the past decade. Considering the higher cost and limits of production resources, a special attention is focused on raising the energy efficiency of biofuel usage, mainly through optimization of the combustion process. Consequently, in biofuel applications, there is a need for determination of auto-ignition quality expressed by cetane number as a dominant characteristic that influences combustion parameters. The fact that the method for cetane number determination is comparative in nature has led us to try to develop substitute engine method for cetane number determination, by the use of the available laboratory equipment and serial, mono-cylinder engine with direct injection, DMB LDA 450. Description of the method, results of optimization of engine’s working parameters for conduction of the test and method’s Accuracy estimation are given in the paper. The paper also presents the results of domestic biodiesel fuels cetane number testing with the application of described engine method, developed at the Laboratory for internal combustion engines and fuels and lubricants of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac, Serbia.

  2. Optical Methods For Automatic Rating Of Engine Test Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James R.; Moss, Brian C.

    1989-03-01

    In recent years, increasing commercial and legislative pressure on automotive engine manufacturers, including increased oil drain intervals, cleaner exhaust emissions and high specific power outputs, have led to increasing demands on lubricating oil performance. Lubricant performance is defined by bench engine tests run under closely controlled conditions. After test, engines are dismantled and the parts rated for wear and accumulation of deposit. This rating must be consistently carried out in laboratories throughout the world in order to ensure lubricant quality meeting the specified standards. To this end, rating technicians evaluate components, following closely defined procedures. This process is time consuming, inaccurate and subject to drift, requiring regular recalibration of raters by means of international rating workshops. This paper describes two instruments for automatic rating of engine parts. The first uses a laser to determine the degree of polishing of the engine cylinder bore, caused by the reciprocating action of piston. This instrument has been developed to prototype stage by the NDT Centre at Harwell under contract to Exxon Chemical, and is planned for production within the next twelve months. The second instrument uses red and green filtered light to determine the type, quality and position of deposit formed on the piston surfaces. The latter device has undergone feasibility study, but no prototype exists.

  3. Potential Errors and Test Assessment in Software Product Line Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Lackner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Software product lines (SPL are a method for the development of variant-rich software systems. Compared to non-variable systems, testing SPLs is extensive due to an increasingly amount of possible products. Different approaches exist for testing SPLs, but there is less research for assessing the quality of these tests by means of error detection capability. Such test assessment is based on error injection into correct version of the system under test. However to our knowledge, potential errors in SPL engineering have never been systematically identified before. This article presents an overview over existing paradigms for specifying software product lines and the errors that can occur during the respective specification processes. For assessment of test quality, we leverage mutation testing techniques to SPL engineering and implement the identified errors as mutation operators. This allows us to run existing tests against defective products for the purpose of test assessment. From the results, we draw conclusions about the error-proneness of the surveyed SPL design paradigms and how quality of SPL tests can be improved.

  4. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  5. Present status of high temperature engineering test and research, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    High temperature gas-cooled reactors have excellent features such as the generation of high temperature close to 1000degC, very high inherent safety and high fuel burnup. By the advanced basic research under high temperature irradiation condition, the creation of various new technologies which become the momentum of future technical innovation can be expected. The construction of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) was decided in 1987, which aims at the thermal output of 30 MW and the coolant temperature at reactor exit of 950degC. The initial criticality is scheduled in 1998. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has advanced the high temperature engineering test and research, and plans the safety verifying test of the HTTR, the test of connecting heat utilization plants and so on. In this report, mainly the results obtained for one year from May, 1993 are summarized. The outline of the high temperature engineering test and development of the HTTR technologies are reported. (K.I.)

  6. 40 CFR 1048.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines? 1048.301 Section 1048.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce engines...

  7. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Y. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  8. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Y. (Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States))

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  9. Design and study of Engineering Test Facility - Helium Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Huijing; Ye Ping; Zhao Gang; Geng Yinan; Wang Jie

    2015-01-01

    Helium circulator is one of the key equipment of High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Pebble-bed Module (HTR-PM). In order to simulate most normal and accident operating conditions of helium circulator in HTR-PM, a full scale, rated flow rate and power, engineering test loop, which was called Engineering Test Facility - Helium Circulator (ETF-HC), was designed and established. Two prototypes of helium circulator, which was supported by Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) or sealed by dry gas seals, would be tested on ETF-HC. Therefore, special interchangeable design was under consideration. ETF-HC was constructed compactly, which consisted of eleven sub-systems. In order to reduce the flow resistance of the circuit, special ducts, elbows, valves and flowmeters were selected. Two stages of heat exchange loops were designed and a helium - high pressure pure water heat exchanger was applied to ensure water wouldn't be vaporized while simulating accident conditions. Commissioning tests were carried out and operation results showed that ETF-HC meets the requirement of helium circulator operation. On this test facility, different kinds of experiments were supposed to be held, including mechanical and aerodynamic performance tests, durability tests and so on. These tests would provide the features and performance of helium circulator and verify its feasibility, availability and reliability. (author)

  10. Absorption and Emission of EUV Radiation by the Local ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paresce, F.

    1984-01-01

    The Berkeley extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) telescope flown on the Apollo Soyuz mission in July, 1975 established the existence of a measurable flux of EUV (100 lambda or = or = 1000 A) originating from sources outside the solar system. White dwarfs, flare stars and cataclysmic variables were dicovered to be relatively intense compact sources of EUV photons. Moreover, this and other subsequent experiments have strongly suggested the presence of a truly diffuse component of the FUV radiation field possibly due to thermal emission from hot interstellar gas located in the general vicinity of the Sun. Closer to the H1, 912 A edge, the effect of a few hot O and B stars has been shown to be very important in establishing the interstellar flux density. All these results imply that the local interstellar medium (ISM) is immersed in a non-negligible EUV radiation field which, because of the strong coupling between EUV photons and matter, will play a crucial role in determining its physical structure. The available information on the local ISM derived from the limited EUV observations carried out so far is assembled and analyzed. These include measurements of the spectra of bright EUV sources that reveal clear evidence of H photo absorption at lambda 400 A and of the He ionization edge at 228 A.

  11. EUV laser produced and induced plasmas for nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    EUV produced plasma sources are being extensively studied for the development of new technology for computer chips production. Challenging tasks include optimization of EUV source efficiency, producing powerful source in 2 percentage bandwidth around 13.5 nm for high volume manufacture (HVM), and increasing the lifetime of collecting optics. Mass-limited targets, such as small droplet, allow to reduce contamination of chamber environment and mirror surface damage. However, reducing droplet size limits EUV power output. Our analysis showed the requirement for the target parameters and chamber conditions to achieve 500 W EUV output for HVM. The HEIGHTS package was used for the simulations of laser produced plasma evolution starting from laser interaction with solid target, development and expansion of vapor/plasma plume with accurate optical data calculation, especially in narrow EUV region. Detailed 3D modeling of mix environment including evolution and interplay of plasma produced by lasers from Sn target and plasma produced by in-band and out-of-band EUV radiation in ambient gas, used for the collecting optics protection and cleaning, allowed predicting conditions in entire LPP system. Effect of these conditions on EUV photon absorption and collection was analyzed. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, PIRE project.

  12. Mechanisms Engineering Test Loop - Phase 1 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kultgen, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hvasta, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lisowski, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Toter, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Borowski, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report documents the current status of the Mechanisms Engineering Test Loop (METL) as of the end of FY2016. Currently, METL is in Phase I of its design and construction. Once operational, the METL facility will test small to intermediate-scale components and systems in order to develop advanced liquid metal technologies. Testing different components in METL is essential for the future of advanced fast reactors as it will provide invaluable performance data and reduce the risk of failures during plant operation.

  13. Analysis and characterization of contamination in EUV reticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Dittmar, Kornelia; Fahr, Torsten; Wallow, Tom; La Fontaine, Bruno; Wood, Obert; Holfeld, Christian; Bubke, Karsten; Peters, Jan-Hendrik

    2010-04-01

    A host of complementary imaging techniques (Scanning Electron Microscopy), surface analytical technique (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, AES), chemical analytical and speciation techniques (Grazing Incidence Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, GIR-FTIR; and Raman spectroscopy) have been assessed for their sensitivity and effectiveness in analyzing contamination on three EUV reticles that were contaminated to varying degrees. The first reticle was contaminated as a result of its exposure experience on the SEMATECH EUV Micro Exposure Tool (MET) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, where it was exposed to up to 80 hours of EUV radiation. The second reticle was a full-field reticle, specifically designed to monitor molecular contamination, and exposed to greater than 1600J/cm2 of EUV radiation on the ASML Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) in Albany Nanotech in New York. The third reticle was intentionally contaminated with hydrocarbons in the Microscope for Mask Imaging and Contamination Studies (MIMICS) tool at the College of Nanoscale Sciences of State University of New York at Albany. The EUV reflectivities of some of these reticles were measured on the Advanced Light Source EUV Reflectomer at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories and PTB Bessy in Berlin, respectively. Analysis and characterization of thin film contaminants on the two EUV reticles exposed to varying degrees of EUV radiation in both MET and ADT confirm that the two most common contamination types are carbonization and surface oxidation, mostly on the exposed areas of the reticle, and with the MET being significantly more susceptible to carbon contamination than the ADT. While AES in both surface scanning and sputter mode is sensitive and efficient in analyzing thin contaminant films (of a few nanometers), GIRFTIR is sensitive to thick films (of order of a 100 nm or more on non-infra-red reflecting substrates), Raman spectroscopy is not compatible with analyzing such contaminants because of

  14. Physics and engineering assessments of spherical torus component test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.-K.M.; Neumeyer, C.A.; Kessel, C.; Rutherford, P.; Mikkelsen, D.; Bell, R.; Menard, J.; Gates, D.; Schmidt, J.; Synakowski, E.; Grisham, L.; Fogarty, P.J.; Strickler, D.J.; Burgess, T.W.; Tsai, J.; Nelson, B.E.; Sabbagh, S.; Mitarai, O.; Cheng, E.T.; El-Guebaly, L.

    2005-01-01

    A broadly based study of the fusion engineering and plasma science conditions of a Component Test Facility (CTF), using the Spherical Torus or Spherical Tokamak (ST) configuration, have been carried out. The chamber systems testing conditions in a CTF are characterized by high fusion neutron fluxes Γ n > 4.4x10 13 n/s/cm 2 , over size scales > 10 5 cm 2 and depth scales > 50 cm, delivering > 3 accumulated displacement per atom (dpa) per year. The desired chamber conditions can be provided by a CTF with R 0 1.2 m, A = 1.5, elongation ∼ 3.2, I p ∼ 9 MA, B T ∼ 2.5 T, producing a driven fusion burn using 36 MW of combined neutral beam and RF power. Relatively robust ST plasma conditions are adequate, which have been shown achievable [4] without active feedback manipulation of the MHD modes. The ST CTF will test the single-turn, copper alloy center leg for the toroidal field coil without an induction solenoid and neutron shielding, and require physics data on solenoid-free plasma current initiation, ramp-up, and sustainment to multiple MA level. A new systems code that combines the key required plasma and engineering science conditions of CTF has been prepared and utilized as part of this study. The results show high potential for a family of lowercost CTF devices to suit a variety of fusion engineering science test missions. (author)

  15. Definition study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and associated test program and test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Definition Study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and Associated Test Program and Test Plan, was initiated to identify the most cost effective program for a follow-on to the AST Test Bed Program. The VCEE Study defined various subscale VCE's based on different available core engine components, and a full scale VCEE utilizing current technology. The cycles were selected, preliminary design accomplished and program plans and engineering costs developed for several program options. In addition to the VCEE program plans and options, a limited effort was applied to identifying programs that could logically be accomplished on the AST Test Bed Program VCE to extend the usefulness of this test hardware. Component programs were provided that could be accomplished prior to the start of a VCEE program.

  16. Test-Driven, Model-Based Systems Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan

    Hearing systems have evolved over many years from simple mechanical devices (horns) to electronic units consisting of microphones, amplifiers, analog filters, loudspeakers, batteries, etc. Digital signal processors replaced analog filters to provide better performance end new features. Central....... This thesis concerns methods for identifying, selecting and implementing tools for various aspects of model-based systems engineering. A comprehensive method was proposed that include several novel steps such as techniques for analyzing the gap between requirements and tool capabilities. The method...... was verified with good results in two case studies for selection of a traceability tool (single-tool scenario) and a set of modeling tools (multi-tool scenarios). Models must be subjected to testing to allow engineers to predict functionality and performance of systems. Test-first strategies are known...

  17. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  18. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS91001 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK)2 that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness.

  19. The EUV spectrophotometer on Atmosphere Explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinteregger, H. E.; Bedo, D. E.; Manson, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrophotometer for measurements of solar radiation at wavelengths ranging from 140 to 1850 A will be included in the payload of each of the three Atmosphere-Explorer (AE) missions, AE-C, -D, and -E. The instrument consists of 24 grating monochromators, 12 of which can be telecommanded either to execute 128-step scans each covering a relatively small section of the total spectrophotometer wavelength range or to maintain fixed (command-selected) wavelength positions. The remaining 12 nonscan monochromators operate at permanently fixed wavelengths and view only a small fraction of the solar disk except for one viewing the whole sun in H Lyman alpha. Ten of the 12 scan-capable monochromators also view the entire solar disk since their primary function is to measure the total fluxes independent of the distribution of sources across the solar disk.

  20. EUV and radio spectrum of coronal holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiuderi Drago, F [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy)

    1980-03-01

    From the intensity of 19 EUV lines whose formation temperature anti T ranges from 3 x 10/sup 4/ to 1.4 x 10/sup 6/, two different models of the transition region and corona for the cell-centre and the network are derived. It is shown that both these models give radio brightness temperatures systematically higher than the observed ones. An agreement with radio data can be found only with lines formed at low temperature (anti T < 8.5 x 10/sup 5/) by decreasing the coronal temperature and the emission measure. The possibility of resolving the discrepancy by using different ion abundances has also been investigated with negative results.

  1. Spectroscopic modeling for tungsten EUV spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Sasaki, Akira; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Koike, Fumihiro

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed an atomic model for tungsten extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra to reconstruct characteristic spectral feature of unresolved transition array (UTA) observed at 4-7 nm for tungsten ions. In the tungsten atomic modeling, we considered fine-structure levels with the quantum principal number n up to 6 as the atomic structure and calculated the electron-impact collision cross sections by relativistic distorted-wave method, using HULLAC atomic code. We measured tungsten EUV spectra in Large Helical Device (LHD) and Compact Electron Beam Ion Trap device (CoBIT) and compared them with the model calculation. The model successfully explain series of emission peaks at 1.5-3.5 nm as n=5-4 and 6-4 transitions of W"2"4"+ - W"3"2"+ measured in CoBIT and LHD and the charge state distributions were estimated for LHD plasma. The UTA feature observed at 4-7 nm was also successfully reconstructed with our model. The peak at ∼5 nm is produced mainly by many 4f-4d transition of W"2"2"+ - W"3"5"+ ions, and the second peak at ∼6 nm is produced by 4f-4d transition of W"2"5"+ - W"2"8"+ ions, and 4d-4p inner-shell transitions, 4p"54d"n"+"1 - 4p"64d"n, of W"2"9"+ - W"3"5"+ ions. These 4d-4p inner-shell transitions become strong since we included higher excited states such as 4p"54d"n4f state, which ADAS atomic data set does not include for spectroscopic modeling with fine structure levels. (author)

  2. Plasma Surface Interactions Common to Advanced Fusion Wall Materials and EUV Lithography - Lithium and Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzic, D. N.; Alman, D. A.; Jurczyk, B. E.; Stubbers, R.; Coventry, M. D.; Neumann, M. J.; Olczak, W.; Qiu, H.

    2004-09-01

    Advanced plasma facing components (PFCs) are needed to protect walls in future high power fusion devices. In the semiconductor industry, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources are needed for next generation lithography. Lithium and tin are candidate materials in both areas, with liquid Li and Sn plasma material interactions being critical. The Plasma Material Interaction Group at the University of Illinois is leveraging liquid metal experimental and computational facilities to benefit both fields. The Ion surface InterAction eXperiment (IIAX) has measured liquid Li and Sn sputtering, showing an enhancement in erosion with temperature for light ion bombardment. Surface Cleaning of Optics by Plasma Exposure (SCOPE) measures erosion and damage of EUV mirror samples, and tests cleaning recipes with a helicon plasma. The Flowing LIquid surface Retention Experiment (FLIRE) measures the He and H retention in flowing liquid metals, with retention coefficients varying between 0.001 at 500 eV to 0.01 at 4000 eV.

  3. Scientific investigation plan for initial engineered barrier system field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunan Lin.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) is to describe tests known as Initial Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (IEBSFT) and identified by Work Breakdown Structure as WBS 1.2.2.2.4. The IEBSFT are precursors to the Engineered Barrier System Field Test (EBSFT), WBS 1.2.2.2.4, to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The EBSFT and IEBSFT are designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers) and the surrounding rock mass, its vadose water, and infiltrated water. Heater assemblies will be installed in drifts or boreholes openings and heated to measure moisture movement during heat-up and subsequent cool-down of the rock mass. In some of the tests, infiltration of water into the heated rock mass will be studied. Throughout the heating and cooling cycle, instruments installed in the rock will monitor such parameters as temperature, moisture content, concentration of some chemical species, and stress and strain. Rock permeability measurements, rock and fluid (water and gas) sampling, and fracture pattern measurements will also be made before and after the test

  4. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Viola, Franca; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  5. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Corazzari, Ingrid; Fenoglio, Ivana; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Viola, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  6. Characterization of laser-produced plasma EUV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Endo, Akira; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Sasaki, Akira; Komori, Hiroshi; Suganuma, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Resolution of optical microlithography process becomes smaller and smaller. Wavelength of the light source for these optical lithography reduced from KrF, ArF to F2 to meet the resolution requirement. Recently EUV is spotlighted as promising candidate for next generation lithography light source. This paper summarizes the requirement and studies of experiments and simulation to improve the convention efficiency of EUV light source. (author)

  7. ILT optimization of EUV masks for sub-7nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kevin; Kuechler, Bernd; Kazarian, Aram; Xiao, Guangming; Lucas, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The 5nm and 7nm technology nodes will continue recent scaling trends and will deliver significantly smaller minimum features, standard cell areas and SRAM cell areas vs. the 10nm node. There are tremendous economic pressures to shrink each subsequent technology, though in a cost-effective and performance enhancing manner. IC manufacturers are eagerly awaiting EUV so that they can more aggressively shrink their technology than they could by using complicated MPT. The current 0.33NA EUV tools and processes also have their patterning limitations. EUV scanner lenses, scanner sources, masks and resists are all relatively immature compared to the current lithography manufacturing baseline of 193i. For example, lens aberrations are currently several times larger (as a function of wavelength) in EUV scanners than for 193i scanners. Robustly patterning 16nm L/S fully random logic metal patterns and 40nm pitch random logic rectangular contacts with 0.33NA EUV are tough challenges that will benefit from advanced OPC/RET. For example, if an IC manufacturer can push single exposure device layer resolution 10% tighter using improved ILT to avoid using DPT, there will be a significant cost and process complexity benefit to doing so. ILT is well known to have considerable benefits in finding flexible 193i mask pattern solutions to improve process window, improve 2D CD control, improve resolution in low K1 lithography regime and help to delay the introduction of DPT. However, ILT has not previously been applied to EUV lithography. In this paper, we report on new developments which extend ILT method to EUV lithography and we characterize the benefits seen vs. traditional EUV OPC/RET methods.

  8. 40 CFR 90.1204 - Maintenance, aging and testing of engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines. 90.1204 Section 90.1204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... sample unless that engine experiences catastrophic mechanical failure or safety concerns requiring major... for engines with the amount of service and age of the test engine. (d) After aging each engine to at...

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

  10. Public views evening engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past year, more than 20,000 people came to Stennis Space Center to witness the 'shake, rattle and roar' of one of the world's most sophisticated engines. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi is NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing. StenniSphere, the visitor center for Stennis Space Center, hosted more than 250,000 visitors in its first year of operation. Of those visitors, 26.4 percent were from Louisiana.

  11. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines...

  12. 40 CFR 1048.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1048.305 Section 1048.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? This...

  13. 40 CFR 1051.301 - When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles or engines? 1051.301 Section 1051.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.301 When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines? (a...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce...

  15. Environmental assessment for Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET): Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is for the proposed installation and operation of an integrated breeder fuel reprocessing test system in the shielded cells of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford and the associated modifications to the FMEF to accommodate BRET. These modifications would begin in FY-1986 subject to Congressional authorization. Hot operations would be scheduled to start in the early 1990's. The system, called the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET), is being designed to provide a test capability for developing the demonstrating fuel reprocessing, remote maintenance, and safeguards technologies for breeder reactor fuels. This EA describes (1) the action being proposed, (2) the existing environment which would be affected, (3) the potential environmental impacts from normal operations and severe accidents from the proposed action, (4) potential conflicts with federal, state, regional, and/or local plans for the area, and (5) environmental implications of alternatives considered to the proposed action. 41 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs

  16. Thermal Environmental Testing of NSTAR Engineering Model Ion Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.; Becker, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium program will fly a xenon ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 Mission. Tests were conducted under NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) Program with 3 different engineering model ion thrusters to determine thruster thermal characteristics over the NSTAR operating range in a variety of thermal environments. A liquid nitrogen-cooled shroud was used to cold-soak the thruster to -120 C. Initial tests were performed prior to a mature spacecraft design. Those results and the final, severe, requirements mandated by the spacecraft led to several changes to the basic thermal design. These changes were incorporated into a final design and tested over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  17. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) Implementation in Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Walker, Mark; Kapadia, Ravi; Venkatesh, Meera

    2010-01-01

    A pilot operational ISHM capability has been implemented for the E-2 Rocket Engine Test Stand (RETS) and a Chemical Steam Generator (CSG) test article at NASA Stennis Space Center. The implementation currently includes an ISHM computer and a large display in the control room. The paper will address the overall approach, tools, and requirements. It will also address the infrastructure and architecture. Specific anomaly detection algorithms will be discussed regarding leak detection and diagnostics, valve validation, and sensor validation. It will also describe development and use of a Health Assessment Database System (HADS) as a repository for measurements, health, configuration, and knowledge related to a system with ISHM capability. It will conclude with a discussion of user interfaces, and a description of the operation of the ISHM system prior, during, and after testing.

  18. Engineering test station for TFTR blanket module experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Leinoff, S.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design has been carried out for an Engineering Test Station (ETS) which will provide structural support and utilities/instrumentation services for blanket modules positioned adjacent to the vacuum vessel of the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor). The ETS is supported independently from the Test Cell floor. The ETS module support platform is constructed of fiberglass to eliminate electromagnetic interaction with the pulsed tokamak fields. The ETS can hold blanket modules with dimensions up to 78 cm in width, 85 cm in height, and 105 cm in depth, and with a weight up to 4000 kg. Interfaces for all utility and instrumentation requirements are made via a shield plug in the TFTR igloo shielding. The modules are readily installed or removed by means of TFTR remote handling equipment

  19. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation for the Automated Flight Test Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.

  20. Development Testing of 1-Newton ADN-Based Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anflo, K.; Gronland, T.-A.; Bergman, G.; Nedar, R.; Thormählen, P.

    2004-10-01

    With the objective to reduce operational hazards and improve specific and density impulse as compared with hydrazine, the Research and Development (R&D) of a new monopropellant for space applications based on AmmoniumDiNitramide (ADN), was first proposed in 1997. This pioneering work has been described in previous papers1,2,3,4 . From the discussion above, it is clear that cost savings as well as risk reduction are the main drivers to develop a new generation of reduced hazard propellants. However, this alone is not enough to convince a spacecraft builder to choose a new technology. Cost, risk and schedule reduction are good incentives, but a spacecraft supplier will ask for evidence that this new propulsion system meets a number of requirements within the following areas: This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a storable liquid monopropellant blend, based on AND, and its specific rocket engines. After building and testing more than 20 experimental rocket engines, the first Engineering Model (EM-1) has now accumulated more than 1 hour of firing-time. The results from test firings have validated the design. Specific impulse, combustion stability, blow-down capability and short pulse capability are amongst the requirements that have been demonstrated. The LMP-103x propellant candidate has been stored for more than 1 year and initial material compatibility screening and testing has started. 1. Performance &life 2. Impact on spacecraft design &operation 3. Flight heritage Hereafter, the essential requirements for some of these areas are outlined. These issues are discussed in detail in a previous paper1 . The use of "Commercial Of The Shelf" (COTS) propulsion system components as much as possible is essential to minimize the overall cost, risk and schedule. This leads to the conclusion that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 has been reached for the thruster and propellant. Furthermore, that the concept of ADN-based propulsion is feasible.

  1. Synchrotron radiation losses in Engineering Test Reactors (ETRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    In next-generation Engineering Test Reactors (ETRs), one major objective is envisioned to be a long-pulse or steady-state burn using noninductive current drive. At the high temperatures needed for efficient current drive, synchrotron radiation could represent a large power loss, especially if wall reflectivity (R) is very low. Many INTOR-class ETR designs [Fusion Engineering Reactor (FER), Next European Torus (NET), OTR, Tokamak Ignition/Burn Engineering Reactor (TIBER), etc.] call for carbon-covered surfaces for which wall reflectivity is uncertain. Global radiation losses are estimated for these devices using empirical expressions given by Trubnikov (and others). Various operating scenarios are evaluated under the assumption that the plasma performance is limited by either the density limit (typical of the ignition phase) or the beta limit (typical of the current drive phase). For a case with ≥90% wall reflectivity, synchrotron radiation is not a significant contribution to the overall energy balance (the ratio of synchrotron to alpha power is less than 10 to 20%, even at ∼ 30 keV) and thus should not adversely alter performance in these devices. In extreme cases with 0% wall reflectivity, the ratio of synchrotron radiation to alpha power may approach 30 to 60% (depending on the device and limiting operating scenario), adversely affecting the performance characteristics. 12 refs., 7 tabs

  2. Testing and Development of a Shrouded Gas Turbine Engine in a Freejet Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Hector

    2000-01-01

    .... The combined cycle engine (CCE) could be incorporated into a variety of applications. The building of a new freejet facility and engine test rig at the Naval Postgraduate School enabled dynamic testing of the ongoing development of a turboramjet...

  3. Preliminary site design for the SP-100 ground engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Miller, W.C.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1986-04-01

    In November, 1985, Hanford was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the preferred site for a full-scale test of the integrated nuclear subsystem for SP-100. The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, was assigned as the lead contractor for the Test Site. The nuclear subsystem, which includes the reactor and its primary heat transport system, will be provided by the System Developer, another contractor to be selected by DOE in late FY-1986. In addition to reactor operations, test site responsibilities include preparation of the facility plus design, procurement and installation of a vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a secondary heat transport system to dispose of the reactor heat, a facility control system, and postirradiation examination. At the conclusion of the test program, waste disposal and facility decommissioning are required. The test site must also prepare appropriate environmental and safety evaluations. This paper summarizes the preliminary design requirements, the status of design, and plans to achieve full power operation of the test reactor in September, 1990

  4. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  5. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  6. Actinic inspection of multilayer defects on EUV masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, A; Liu, Y; Gullikson, E; Taylor, J S; Wood, O

    2005-01-01

    The production of defect-free mask blanks, and the development of techniques for inspecting and qualifying EUV mask blanks, remains a key challenge for EUV lithography. In order to ensure a reliable supply of defect-free mask blanks, it is necessary to develop techniques to reliably and accurately detect defects on un-patterned mask blanks. These inspection tools must be able to accurately detect all critical defects whilst simultaneously having the minimum possible false-positive detection rate. There continues to be improvement in high-speed non-actinic mask blank inspection tools, and it is anticipated that these tools can and will be used by industry to qualify EUV mask blanks. However, the outstanding question remains one of validating that non-actinic inspection techniques are capable of detecting all printable EUV defects. To qualify the performance of non-actinic inspection tools, a unique dual-mode EUV mask inspection system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In high-speed inspection mode, whole mask blanks are scanned for defects using 13.5-nm wavelength light to identify and map all locations on the mask that scatter a significant amount of EUV light. In imaging, or defect review mode, a zone plate is placed in the reflected beam path to image a region of interest onto a CCD detector with an effective resolution on the mask of 100-nm or better. Combining the capabilities of the two inspection tools into one system provides the unique capability to determine the coordinates of native defects that can be used to compare actinic defect inspection with visible light defect inspection tools under commercial development, and to provide data for comparing scattering models for EUV mask defects

  7. Sublimator Driven Coldplate Engineering Development Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.

    2010-01-01

    The Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) is a unique piece of thermal control hardware that has several advantages over a traditional thermal control scheme. The principal advantage is the possible elimination of a pumped fluid loop, potentially increasing reliability and reducing complexity while saving both mass and power. Because the SDC requires a consumable feedwater, it can only be used for short mission durations. Additionally, the SDC is ideal for a vehicle with small transport distances and low heat rejection requirements. An SDC Engineering Development Unit was designed and fabricated. Performance tests were performed in a vacuum chamber to quantify and assess the performance of the SDC. The test data was then used to develop correlated thermal math models. Nonetheless, an Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate (ISDC) concept is being developed. The ISDC couples a coolant loop with the previously described SDC hardware. This combination allows the SDC to be used as a traditional coldplate during long mission phases and provides for dissimilar system redundancy

  8. PERSISTENCE MAPPING USING EUV SOLAR IMAGER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Young, C. A., E-mail: barbara.j.thompson@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We describe a simple image processing technique that is useful for the visualization and depiction of gradually evolving or intermittent structures in solar physics extreme-ultraviolet imagery. The technique is an application of image segmentation, which we call “Persistence Mapping,” to isolate extreme values in a data set, and is particularly useful for the problem of capturing phenomena that are evolving in both space and time. While integration or “time-lapse” imaging uses the full sample (of size N ), Persistence Mapping rejects ( N − 1)/ N of the data set and identifies the most relevant 1/ N values using the following rule: if a pixel reaches an extreme value, it retains that value until that value is exceeded. The simplest examples isolate minima and maxima, but any quantile or statistic can be used. This paper demonstrates how the technique has been used to extract the dynamics in long-term evolution of comet tails, erupting material, and EUV dimming regions.

  9. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  10. 40 CFR 1051.501 - What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles or engines? 1051.501 Section 1051.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Test Procedures § 1051.501 What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines? This section describes test...

  11. 40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. 86....335-79 Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. (a) The following test sequence shall be followed in... operating the engine at the higher approved load setting during cycle 1 and at the lower approved load...

  12. Design of high temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Sudo, Yukio

    1994-09-01

    Construction of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is now underway to establish and upgrade basic technologies for HTGRs and to conduct innovative basic research at high temperatures. The HTTR is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW in thermal output and outlet coolant temperature of 850degC for rated operation and 950degC for high temperature test operation. It is planned to conduct various irradiation tests for fuels and materials, safety demonstration tests and nuclear heat application tests. JAERI received construction permit of HTTR reactor facility in February 1990 after 22 months of safety review. This report summarizes evaluation of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic characteristics, design outline of major systems and components, and also includes relating R and D result and safety evaluation. Criteria for judgment, selection of postulated events, major analytical conditions for anticipated operational occurrences and accidents, computer codes used in safety analysis and evaluation of each event are presented in the safety evaluation. (author)

  13. Testing and Characterization of Engineered Forms of Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The E mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, E MST and E mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight (∼10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower (∼0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of E MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the E MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of E MST and the post-peroxide treated E mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated E mMST has a higher Sr and Np capacity, but

  14. TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERED FORMS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-05-14

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The {sup E}mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, {sup E}MST and {sup E}mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight ({approx}10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower ({approx}0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of {sup E}MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the {sup E}MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of {sup E}MST and the post-peroxide treated {sup E}mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated

  15. Engineered Barrier System Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01

  16. The FENIX [Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental] test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Chaplin, M.R.; Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental Magnet Facility (FENIX), under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a significant step forward in meeting the testing requirements necessary for the development of superconductor for large-scale, superconducting magnets. A 14-T, transverse field over a test volume of 150 x 60 x 150 mm in length will be capable of testing conductors the size of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Proposed conductors for ITER measure ∼35 mm on one side and will operate at currents of up to 40 kA at fields of ∼14 T. The testing of conductors and associated components, such as joints, will require large-bore, high-field magnet facilities. FENIX is being constructed using the existing A 2o and A 2i magnets from the idle MFTF. The east and west A 2 pairs will be mounted together to form a split-pair solenoid. The pairs of magnets will be installed in a 4.0-m cryostat vessel located in the HFTF building at LLNL. Each magnet is enclosed in its own cryostat, the existing 4.0-m vessel serving only as a vacuum chamber. 4 refs., 8 figs

  17. EUV tools: hydrogen gas purification and recovery strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, Cristian; Succi, Marco; Applegarth, Chuck; Riddle Vogt, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The technological challenges that have been overcome to make extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) a reality have been enormous1. This vacuum driven technology poses significant purity challenges for the gases employed for purging and cleaning the scanner EUV chamber and source. Hydrogen, nitrogen, argon and ultra-high purity compressed dry air (UHPCDA) are the most common gases utilized at the scanner and source level. Purity requirements are tighter than for previous technology node tools. In addition, specifically for hydrogen, EUV tool users are facing not only gas purity challenges but also the need for safe disposal of the hydrogen at the tool outlet. Recovery, reuse or recycling strategies could mitigate the disposal process and reduce the overall tool cost of operation. This paper will review the types of purification technologies that are currently available to generate high purity hydrogen suitable for EUV applications. Advantages and disadvantages of each purification technology will be presented. Guidelines on how to select the most appropriate technology for each application and experimental conditions will be presented. A discussion of the most common approaches utilized at the facility level to operate EUV tools along with possible hydrogen recovery strategies will also be reported.

  18. Ni-Al Alloys as Alternative EUV Mask Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Luong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet (EUV lithography is being industrialized as the next candidate printing technique for high-volume manufacturing of scaled down integrated circuits. At mask level, the combination of EUV light at oblique incidence, absorber thickness, and non-uniform mirror reflectance through incidence angle, creates photomask-induced imaging aberrations, known as mask 3D (M3D effects. A possible mitigation for the M3D effects in the EUV binary intensity mask (BIM, is to use mask absorber materials with high extinction coefficient κ and refractive coefficient n close to unity. We propose nickel aluminide alloys as a candidate BIM absorber material, and characterize them versus a set of specifications that a novel EUV mask absorber must meet. The nickel aluminide samples have reduced crystallinity as compared to metallic nickel, and form a passivating surface oxide layer in neutral solutions. Composition and density profile are investigated to estimate the optical constants, which are then validated with EUV reflectometry. An oxidation-induced Al L2 absorption edge shift is observed, which significantly impacts the value of n at 13.5 nm wavelength and moves it closer to unity. The measured optical constants are incorporated in an accurate mask model for rigorous simulations. The M3D imaging impact of the nickel aluminide alloy mask absorbers, which predict significant M3D reduction in comparison to reference absorber materials. In this paper, we present an extensive experimental methodology flow to evaluate candidate mask absorber materials.

  19. Automatic testing devices for diesel engines for the quality control in engine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, R; Homilius, K

    1979-01-01

    A device which generates the torque for the brakes is the most important functional group in engine test stands. Hydraulic dynamometric brakes are serially produced for power ranges from 210 up to 70000 kw and maximum revolutions up to 10000 rpm. Eddy current brakes can be supplied for the power range of 40 to 3600 kW. Compared to the hydraulic dynamometric brake they have a larger rev-range for control while both have the same torque. Electric machines used as dynamometric brakes make it possible to recuperate electric energy. The properties of the individual braking devices are compared. Torque and number of revolutions are calculated digitally. Test methods are automatised as far as possible. There are four control methods: time plan, perforated strip, magnetic tape or computer.

  20. Comparative tests of bench equipment for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendaleva, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The relevance of interlaboratory comparative researches is confirmed by attention of world metrological community to this field of activity. Use of the interlaboratory comparative research methodology not only for single gages collation, but also for bench equipment complexes, such as modeling stands for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine, is offered. In this case a comparative measure of different bench equipment will be the control fuel pump. Ensuring traceability of measuring result received at test benches of various air enterprises, development and introduction of national standards to practice of bench tests and, eventually, improvement of quality and safety of a aircraft equipment is result of this approach.

  1. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, K. L.; Rawlinson, K. S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program has, as one of its program elements, the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program's goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia's Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  2. Evolution of a test article handling system for the SP-100 ground engineering system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.; Schweiger, L.J.; Miller, W.C.; Gluck, R.; Devies, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A simulated space environment test of a flight prototypic SP-100 reactor, control system, and flight shield will be conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The flight prototypic components and the supporting primary heat removal system are collectively known as the Nuclear Assembly Test Article (TA). The unique configuration and materials of fabrication for the Test Article require a specialized handling facility to support installation, maintenance, and final disposal operations. Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Test Site Operator, working in conjunction with General Electric Company, the Test Article supplier, developed and evaluated several handling concepts resulting in the selection of a reference Test Article Handling System. The development of the reference concept for the handling system is presented

  3. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  4. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  5. Reactivity control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yukio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Nakazawa, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    The reactivity control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) consists of a control rod system and a reserve shutdown system. During normal operation, reactivity is controlled by the control rod system, which consists of 32 control rods (16 pairs) and 16 control rod drive mechanisms except for the case when the center control rods are removed to perform an irradiation test. In an unlikely event that the control rods fail to be inserted, reserve shutdown system is provided to insert pellets of neutron-absorbing material into the core. Alloy 800H is chosen for the metallic parts of the control rods. Because the maximum temperature of the control rods reaches about 900 deg. C at reactor scrams, structural design guideline and design material data on Alloy 800H are needed for the high temperature design. The design guideline for the HTTR control rod is based on ASME Code Case N-47-21. Design material data is also determined and shown in this paper. Observing the guideline, temperature and stress analysis were conducted; it can be confirmed that the target life of the control rods of 5 years can be achieved. Various tests conducted for the control rod system and the reserve shutdown system are also described

  6. Improved Nanomechanical Test Techniques for Surface Engineered Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goodes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of a wide range of innovative nanomechanical test techniques to solve tribological problems in applications as diverse as biomedical and automotive are described in this review. For improved wear resistance and durability, the importance of understanding the system response rather than the coating-only properties is emphasized. There are many applications involving mechanical contact where the key to understanding the problem is to test at higher load and to combine reliable measurements taken across different length scales using both nano- and micro-indentation and related wear measurement techniques which more closely simulate contact conditions to fully understand the mechanical behaviour and hence deliver improved application performance. Results are presented with the NanoTest platform for applications for biomedical devices and surface engineering of lightweight alloys for the automotive industry. By combining results with different techniques it is possible to postulate predictive design rules – based on the elastic and plastic deformation energies involved in contact - to aid the reliable optimisation of mechanical properties in the various contact situations in the different applications.

  7. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.340-79 Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to gasoline...

  8. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar 629 -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report describes the history of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Hangar 629. The hangar was built to test the possibility of linking jet engine technology with nuclear power. The history of the project is described along with the development and eventual abandonment of the Flight Engine Test hangar. The report contains historical photographs and architectural drawings.

  9. Action Memorandum for the Engineering Test Reactor under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared adn released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessol. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface.

  10. Action Memorandum for Decommissioning the Engineering Test Reactor Complex under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-01

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared and released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessel. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface

  11. Role of testing in requalifying Transamerica Delaval, Inc., engines for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Dingee, D.A.; Laity, W.W.

    1985-03-01

    This paper discusses the role of testing in requalifying Transamerica Delaval, Inc. (TDI) diesel generators for use as emergency standby power sources at nuclear power plants. ''Lead'' engine tests (to confirm the design adequacy of key engine components under conditions that could induce high-cycle fatigue) and ''following'' engine tests (for engines of the same model and equipped with the same components as the ''lead'' engine) have been conducted at several nuclear power plants. The tests conducted by Duke Power Company (Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1) and Long Island Lighting Company (Shoreham Nuclear Power Station Unit 1) are discussed. 2 refs

  12. Design decisions from the history of the EUVE science payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the design issues that arose during the development of the EUVE science payload and solutions to the problems involved are examined. In particular, attention is given to the use of parallel and serial busses, the selection of the the ROM approach for software storage and execution, implementation of memory error detection and correction, and the selection of command structures. The early design decisions paid off in the timely delivery of the scientific payload and in the successful completion of the survey phase of the EUVE science mission.

  13. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  14. 40 CFR 1051.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.325 What happens if an engine... for an engine family if it fails under § 1051.315. The suspension may apply to all facilities producing vehicles or engines from an engine family, even if you find noncompliant vehicles or engines only...

  15. Advanced Materials Test Methods for Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stubbs, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Phase I final report developed under SBIR contract for Topic # AF00-149, "Durability of Turbine Engine Materials/Advanced Material Test Methods for Improved Use Prediction of Turbine Engine Components...

  16. Alternate Material Pallet, 40" x 48", MIL-STD-1660, Engineering Evaluation Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV) conducted Engineering Evaluation Tests to determine if the Alternate Material Pallet manufactured by Hunter Paine Enterprise, Inc...

  17. Near Earth Asteroid Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 30x20x10cm (6U) cubesat reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m2 solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA will launch to date. NEA Scout is a secondary payload currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis furthered understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system and matured an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. This paper will address design, fabrication, and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. From optical properties of the sail material to folding and spooling the single 86m2 sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  18. Trajectory control sensor engineering model detailed test objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekome, Kent; Barr, Joseph Martin

    1991-01-01

    The concept employed in an existing Trajectory Control Sensor (TCS) breadboard is being developed into an engineering model to be considered for flight on the Shuttle as a Detailed Test Objective (DTO). The sensor design addresses the needs of Shuttle/SSF docking/berthing by providing relative range and range rate to 1500 meters as well as the perceived needs of AR&C by relative attitude measurement over the last 100 meters. Range measurement is determined using a four-tone ranging technique. The Doppler shift on the highest frequency tone will be used to provide direct measurement of range rate. Bearing rate and attitude rates will be determined through back differencing of bearing and attitude, respectively. The target consists of an isosceles triangle configuration of three optical retroreflectors, roughly one meter and one-half meter in size. After target acquisition, the sensor continually updates the positions of the three retros at a rate of about one hertz. The engineering model is expected to weigh about 25 pounds, consume 25-30 watts, and have an envelope of about 1.25 cubic feet. The following concerns were addressed during the presentation: are there any concerns with differentiating attitude and bearing to get attitude and bearing rates? Since the docking scenario has low data bandwidth, back differencing is a sufficient approximation of a perfect differentiator for this application. Could range data be obtained if there were no retroreflectors on the target vehicle? Possibly, but only at close range. It would be dependent on target characteristics.

  19. In situ vitrification engineering-scale test ES-INEL-5 test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1952, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). RWMC is located on approximately 144 acres in the southwestern corner of the INEL site and was established as a controlled area for the burial of solid low-level wastes generated by INEL operations. In 1954, the 88-acre Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of RWMC began accepting solid transuranic-contaminated waste. From 1954 to 1970, transuranic-contaminated waste was accepted from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Golden, CO, as well as from other US Department of Energy (DOE) locations. In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. This In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-5 Test Plan considers the data needs of engineering, regulatory, health, and safety activities for all sampling and analysis activities in support of engineering scale test ES-INEL-5. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Engineering Model Powerplant. Test Report: Benchmark Tests in Three Spatial Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the leading candidate to replace the aging alkaline fuel cell technology, currently used on the Shuttle, for future space missions. This test effort marks the final phase of a 5-yr development program that began under the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, transitioned into the Next Generation Launch Technologies (NGLT) Program, and continued under Constellation Systems in the Exploration Technology Development Program. Initially, the engineering model (EM) powerplant was evaluated with respect to its performance as compared to acceptance tests carried out at the manufacturer. This was to determine the sensitivity of the powerplant performance to changes in test environment. In addition, a series of tests were performed with the powerplant in the original standard orientation. This report details the continuing EM benchmark test results in three spatial orientations as well as extended duration testing in the mission profile test. The results from these tests verify the applicability of PEM fuel cells for future NASA missions. The specifics of these different tests are described in the following sections.

  1. Scoping the parameter space for demo and the engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W R.

    1999-01-01

    In our IFE development plan, we have set a goal of building an Engineering Test Facility (ETF) for a total cost of $2B and a Demo for $3B. In Mike Campbell s presentation at Madison, we included a viewgraph with an example Demo that had 80 to 250 MWe of net power and showed a plausible argument that it could cost less than $3B. In this memo, I examine the design space for the Demo and then briefly for the ETF. Instead of attempting to estimate the costs of the drivers, I pose the question in a way to define R ampersand D goals: As a function of key design and performance parameters, how much can the driver cost if the total facility cost is limited to the specified goal? The design parameters examined for the Demo included target gain, driver energy, driver efficiency, and net power output. For the ETF; the design parameters are target gain, driver energy, and target yield. The resulting graphs of allowable driver cost determine the goals that the driver R ampersand D programs must seek to meet

  2. High field, low current operation of engineering test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.; Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Williams, J.E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Steady state engineering test reactors with high field, low current operation are investigated and compared to high current, lower field concepts. Illustrative high field ETR parameters are R = 3 m, α ∼ 0.5 m, B ∼ 10 T, β = 2.2% and I = 4 MA. For similar wall loading the fusion power of an illustrative high field, low current concept could be about 50% that of a lower field device like TIBER II. This reduction could lead to a 50% decrease in tritium consumption, resulting in a substantial decrease in operating cost. Furthermore, high field operation could lead to substantially reduced current drive requirements and cost. A reduction in current drive source power on the order of 40 to 50 MW may be attainable relative to a lower field, high current design like TIBER II implying a possible cost savings on the order of $200 M. If current drive is less efficient than assumed, the savings could be even greater. Through larger β/sub p/ and aspect ratio, greater prospects for bootstrap current operation also exist. Further savings would be obtained from the reduced size of the first wall/blanket/shield system. The effects of high fields on magnet costs are very dependent on technological assumptions. Further improvements in the future may lie with advances in superconducting and structural materials

  3. Performance of 100-W HVM LPP-EUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Abe, Tamotsu; Nowak, Krzysztof M.; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukio; Hori, Tsukasa; Kodama, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Soumagne, Georg; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Taku; Okazaki, Shinji; Saitou, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    At Gigaphoton Inc., we have developed unique and original technologies for a carbon dioxide laser-produced tin plasma extreme ultraviolet (CO2-Sn-LPP EUV) light source, which is the most promising solution for high-power high-volume manufacturing (HVM) EUV lithography at 13.5 nm. Our unique technologies include the combination of a pulsed CO2 laser with Sn droplets, the application of dual-wavelength laser pulses for Sn droplet conditioning, and subsequent EUV generation and magnetic field mitigation. Theoretical and experimental data have clearly shown the advantage of our proposed strategy. Currently, we are developing the first HVM light source, `GL200E'. This HVM light source will provide 250-W EUV power based on a 20-kW level pulsed CO2 laser. The preparation of a high average-power CO2 laser (more than 20 kW output power) has been completed in cooperation with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Recently, we achieved 140 W at 50 kHz and 50% duty cycle operation as well as 2 h of operation at 100 W of power level. Further improvements are ongoing. We will report the latest status and the challenge to reach stable system operation of more than 100 W at about 4% conversion efficiency with 20-μm droplets and magnetic mitigation.

  4. Modular EUV Source for the next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublemontier, O.; Rosset-Kos, M.; Ceccotti, T.; Hergott, J.F.; Auguste, Th.; Normand, D.; Schmidt, M.; Beaumont, F.; Farcage, D.; Cheymol, G.; Le Caro, J.M.; Cormont, Ph.; Mauchien, P.; Thro, P.Y.; Skrzypczak, J.; Muller, S.; Marquis, E.; Barthod, B.; Gaurand, I.; Davenet, M.; Bernard, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present work, performed in the frame of the EXULITE project, was dedicated to the design and characterization of a laser-plasma-produced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source prototype at 13.5 nm for the next generation lithography. It was conducted in cooperation with two laboratories from CEA, ALCATEL and THALES. One of our approach originalities was the laser scheme modularity. Six Nd:YAG laser beams were focused at the same time on a xenon filament jet to generate the EUV emitting plasma. Multiplexing has important industrial advantages and led to interesting source performances in terms of in-band power, stability and angular emission properties with the filament jet target. A maximum conversion efficiency (CE) value of 0.44% in 2π sr and 2% bandwidth was measured, which corresponds to a maximum in band EUV mean power of 7.7 W at a repetition rate of 6 kHz. The EUV emission was found to be stable and isotropic in these conditions. (authors)

  5. Negating HIO-induced metal and carbide EUV surface contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Gleeson, Michael; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Lee, Christopher James; Kleyn, A.W.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The next generation photolithography will use 13.5 nm Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) light in order to reduce feature sizes in semiconductor manufactoring. Lens materials for this wavelength do not exist: image projection requires multilayer mirrors that act as an artificial Bragg crystal.

  6. The EUV Spectrum of Sunspot Plumes Observed by SUMER on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. We present results from sunspot observations obtained by. SUMER on SOHO. In sunspot plumes the EUV spectrum differs from the quiet Sun; continua are observed with different slopes and intensities; emission lines from molecular hydrogen and many unidentified species indicate unique plasma conditions ...

  7. Sub 20nm particle inspection on EUV mask blanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, P.G.W.; Volatier, J.B.; Walle, P. van der; Fritz, E.C.; Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Nano is a particle inspection system developed by TNO for the qualification of EUV reticle handling equipment. The detection principle of this system is dark-field microscopy. The performance of the system has been improved via model-based design. Through our model of the scattering

  8. Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, An; Rizo, P.J.; Zoethout, E.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Lee, Christopher James; Banine, V.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Defects in graphene greatly affect its properties1-3. Radiation induced-defects may reduce the long-term survivability of graphene-based nano-devices. Here, we expose few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5nm) radiation and show there is a power-dependent increase in defect density. We

  9. Formation dynamics of UV and EUV induced hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, A.A.; Lee, Christopher James; Yakushev, O.; Lopaev, D.V.; Abrikosov, A.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Zotovich, A.; Bijkerk, F.

    2014-01-01

    The comparative study of the dynamics of ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) induced hydrogen plasma was performed. It was shown that for low H2 pressures and bias voltages, the dynamics of the two plasmas are significantly different. In the case of UV radiation, the plasma above the

  10. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs

  11. PROJECTION EFFECTS IN CORONAL DIMMINGS AND ASSOCIATED EUV WAVE EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissauer, K.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Vanninathan, K. [IGAM/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Magdalenić, J., E-mail: karin.dissauer@uni-graz.at [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence-SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-20

    We investigate the high-speed ( v > 1000 km s{sup −1}) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from NOAA active region 11283 on 2011 September 6 (SOL2011-09-06T22:12). This EUV wave features peculiar on-disk signatures; in particular, we observe an intermittent “disappearance” of the front for 120 s in Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/AIA 171, 193, 211 Å data, whereas the 335 Å filter, sensitive to hotter plasmas ( T ∼ 2.5 MK), shows a continuous evolution of the wave front. The eruption was also accompanied by localized coronal dimming regions. We exploit the multi-point quadrature position of SDO and STEREO-A , to make a thorough analysis of the EUV wave evolution, with respect to its kinematics and amplitude evolution and reconstruct the SDO line-of-sight (LOS) direction of the identified coronal dimming regions in STEREO-A . We show that the observed intensities of the dimming regions in SDO /AIA depend on the structures that are lying along their LOS and are the combination of their individual intensities, e.g., the expanding CME body, the enhanced EUV wave, and the CME front. In this context, we conclude that the intermittent disappearance of the EUV wave in the AIA 171, 193, and 211 Å filters, which are channels sensitive to plasma with temperatures below ∼2 MK is also caused by such LOS integration effects. These observations clearly demonstrate that single-view image data provide us with limited insight to correctly interpret coronal features.

  12. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of this...

  13. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-fueled engines are covered in § 86.340. (b) The temperature of the air supplied to the engine shall be... engine at rated speed and maximum horsepower until the oil and water temperatures are stabilized. The... segments. (4) A leak check is permitted between test segments. (5) A hang-up check is permitted between...

  14. EUV high resolution imager on-board solar orbiter: optical design and detector performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halain, J. P.; Mazzoli, A.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Stockman, Y.; Berghmans, D.; BenMoussa, A.; Auchère, F.

    2017-11-01

    The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The HRI channel is based on a compact two mirrors off-axis design. The spectral selection is obtained by a multilayer coating deposited on the mirrors and by redundant Aluminum filters rejecting the visible and infrared light. The detector is a 2k x 2k array back-thinned silicon CMOS-APS with 10 μm pixel pitch, sensitive in the EUV wavelength range. Due to the instrument compactness and the constraints on the optical design, the channel performance is very sensitive to the manufacturing, alignments and settling errors. A trade-off between two optical layouts was therefore performed to select the final optical design and to improve the mirror mounts. The effect of diffraction by the filter mesh support and by the mirror diffusion has been included in the overall error budget. Manufacturing of mirror and mounts has started and will result in thermo-mechanical validation on the EUI instrument structural and thermal model (STM). Because of the limited channel entrance aperture and consequently the low input flux, the channel performance also relies on the detector EUV sensitivity, readout noise and dynamic range. Based on the characterization of a CMOS-APS back-side detector prototype, showing promising results, the EUI detector has been specified and is under development. These detectors will undergo a qualification program before being tested and integrated on the EUI instrument.

  15. Operation, test, research and development of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). (FY2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is the first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan, which is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW of thermal power. The full power operation of 30 MW was attained in December, 2001, and then JAERI (JAEA) received the commissioning license for the HTTR in March, 2002. Since 2002, we have been carrying out rated power operation, safety demonstration tests and several R and Ds, etc., and conducted the high-temperature test operation of 950degC in April, 2004. In fiscal 2005 year, periodical inspection and overhaul of reactivity control system were conducted, and safety demonstration tests were promoted. This report summarizes activities and test results on HTTR operation and maintenance as well as safety demonstration tests and several R and Ds, which were carried out in the fiscal year of 2005. (author)

  16. Operation, test, research and development of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). FY2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) constructed at the Oarai Research Establishment of The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is the first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan, which is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30MW of thermal power. Coolant of helium-gas circulates under the pressure of about 4Mpa, and the reactor inlet and outlet temperature are 395degC and 950degC (maximum), respectively coated particle fuel is used as fuel, and the HTTR core is composed of graphite prismatic blocks. The full power operation of 30MW was attained in December, 2001, and then JAERI received the commissioning license for the HTTR in March, 2002. Since 2002, we have been carrying out rated power operation, safety demonstration tests and several R and Ds, etc., and conducted the high-temperature test operation of 950degC in April, 2004. This report summarizes activities and test results on HTTR operation and maintenance as well as safety demonstration tests and several R and Ds, which were carried out in the fiscal year of 2003 before the high temperature test operation of 950degC. (author)

  17. Physics analysis of the TIBER-II engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Dory, R.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-11-01

    Confinement capability, burn characteristics, heating and fueling requirements, and fast alpha particle effects are assessed for the TIBER-II engineering test reactor (ETR/ITER). Confinement predictions for a wide variety of empirical scaling laws show that ignition in TIBER-II (or similar ETR-like devices) is marginal at 10 MA, whereas the design goal to achieve noninductively driven, steady-state burn with Q > 5 can easily be attained. Operation at the higher plasma currents being discussed for ITER or the attainment of higher density limits and/or favorable H-mode scalings improves the ignition capability. Pellet penetration calculations indicate that density profile control with pellets may not be feasible even for pellet velocities up to about 50 km/s, however, density peaking could result from inward pinch effects, as frequently inferred from experiments. The fast alpha contribution to pressure is substantial (10 to 30%) at TIBER (or any ETR/ITER) burn temperatures (8 to 20 keV). A relatively low level of fast alpha radial diffusion or a modest level of thermal alpha buildup significantly influences the ignition and steady-state burn capability. The fast alpha population can also modify the background plasma ballooning mode stability boundaries, lowering the beta limit β/sub crit/ - in particular, operation at the high electron temperatures needed for efficient current drive can exacerbate this effect. The use of high-energy neutral beams offers the promise of two important improvements in projected performance: an effective method for noninductive current drive and a means for controlling the current density profile deep within the plasma, as required for stable operation at high beta levels. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. Physics analysis of the TIBER-II engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Dory, R.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    Confinement capability, burn characteristics, heating and fueling requirements, and fast-alpha particle effects are assessed for the TIBER-II engineering test reactor (ETR/ITER). Confinement predictions for a wide variety of empirical scaling laws show that ignition on TIBER-II (or similar ETR-like devices) is marginal at 10 MA, whereas the design goal to achieve noninductively driven, steady-state burn with Q > 5 can easily be attained. Operation at the higher plasma currents being discussed for ITER or the attainment of higher density limits and/or favorable H-mode scalings improves the ignition capability. Pellet penetration calculations indicate that density profile control with pellets may not be feasible even for pellet velocities up to bout 50 km/s; however, density peaking could result from inward pinch effects, as frequently inferred from experiments. The fast alpha contribution to pressure is substantial (10-30%) at TIBER (or any ETR/ITER) burn temperatures (8-20 keV). A relatively low level of fast alpha radial diffusion or a modest level of thermal alpha buildup significantly influences the ignition and steady-state burn capability. The fast alpha population can also modify the background plasma ballooning mode stability boundaries, lowering the beta limit β/sub crit/ - in particular, operation at the high electron temperatures needed for efficient current drive can exacerbate this effect. The use of high-energy neutral beams offers the promise of two important improvements in projected performance: an effective method for noninductive current drive and a means for controlling the current density profile deep within the plasma, as required for stable operation at high beta levels

  19. The laboratory test rig with miniature jet engine to research aviation fuels combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig, that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples of measurement results obtained during the realization of the initial tests have been included, presenting the capabilities of the test rig.

  20. Application of Laser Plasma Sources of Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) in Imaging, Processing Materials and Photoionization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P. W.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Ahad, I. U.; Fok, T.; Szczurek, A.; Wȩgrzyński, Ł.

    In the paper we present new applications of laser plasma sources of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) in various areas of plasma physics, nanotechnology and biomedical engineering. The sources are based on a gas puff target irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from commercial Nd: YAG lasers, generating pulses with time duration from 1 to 10 ns and energies from 0.5 to 10 J at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The targets are produced with the use of a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which allows for high conversion efficiency of laser energy into soft X-rays and EUV without degradation of the nozzle. The sources are equipped with various optical systems to collect soft X-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beam. New applications of these sources in imaging, including EUV tomography and soft X-ray microscopy, processing of materials and photoionization studies are presented.

  1. Final Physics Report for the Engineering Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, I. B.

    1956-01-01

    This report is a summary of the physics design work performed on the Engineering Test Reactor. The ETR presents computational difficulties not found in other reactors because of the large number of experimental holes in the core. The physics of the ETR depends strongly upon the contents of the in-core experimental facilities. In order to properly evaluate the reactor' taking into account the experiments in the core, multi-region, two-dimensional calculations are required. These calculations require the use of a large computer such as the Remington Rand Univac and are complex and expensive enough to warrant a five-stage program: 1. In the early stages of design, only preliminary two-dimensional calculations were performed .in order to obtain a rough idea of the general behavior of the reactor and its critical mass with tentative experiments in place. 2. A large amount of work was carried out in which the reactor was approximated as one with a uniform homogeneous core. With this model, detailed studies were carried out to investigate the feasibility and to obtain general design data on such points as the design and properties of the gray and black control rods, the design of the beryllium reflector, gamma and neutron heating, the use of burnable poisons, etc. In performing these calculations, use was made of the IBM 650 PROD code obtained from KAPL. 3. With stages 1 and 2 carried out, two-dimensional calculations of the core at start-up conditions were performed on the Univac computer. 4. Detailed two-dimensional calculations of the properties of the ETR with a proposed first set of experiments in place were carried out. 5. A series of nuclear tests were performed at the reactivity measurements facility at the MTR site in order to confirm the validity of the analytical techniques in physics analysis. In performing the two-dimensional Univac calculations, the MUG code developed by KAPL and the Cuthill code developed at the David Taylor Model Basin were utilized. In

  2. Planning for Plume Diagnostics for Ground Testing of J-2X Engines at the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SaintCyr, William W.; Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; SaintCyr, William W.

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is the premier test facility for liquid rocket engine development and certification for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Therefore, it is no surprise that the SSC will play the most prominent role in the engine development testing and certification for the J-2X engine. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine has been selected by the Constellation Program to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage in NASA s strategy of risk mitigation for hardware development by building on the Apollo program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. Accordingly, J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development and testing efforts. In order to leverage SSC s successful and innovative expertise in the plume diagnostics for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) health monitoring,1-10 this paper will present a blueprint for plume diagnostics for various proposed ground testing activities for J-2X at SSC. Complete description of the SSC s test facilities, supporting infrastructure, and test facilities is available in Ref. 11. The A-1 Test Stand is currently being prepared for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions. The A-2 Test Stand is currently being used for testing the SSME and may also be used for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions in the future. Very recently, ground-breaking ceremony for the new A-3 rocket engine test stand took place at SSC on August 23, 2007. A-3 is the first large - scale test stand to be built at the SSC since the A and B stands were constructed in the 1960s. The A-3 Test Stand will be used for testing J-2X engines under vacuum conditions simulating high altitude operation at approximately 30,480 m (100,000 ft

  3. Data on test results of vessel cooling system of high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikusa, Akio; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    2003-02-01

    High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is the first graphite-moderated helium gas cooled reactor in Japan. The rise-to-power test of the HTTR started on September 28, 1999 and thermal power of the HTTR reached its full power of 30 MW on December 7, 2001. Vessel Cooling System (VCS) of the HTTR is the first Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) applied for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors. The VCS cools the core indirectly through the reactor pressure vessel to keep core integrity during the loss of core flow accidents such as depressurization accident. Minimum heat removal of the VCS to satisfy its safety requirement is 0.3MW at 30 MW power operation. Through the performance test of the VCS in the rise-to-power test of the HTTR, it was confirmed that the VCS heat removal at 30 MW power operation was higher than 0.3 MW. This paper shows outline of the VCS and test results on the VCS performance. (author)

  4. Operating experiences since rise-to-power test in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shuji; Motegi, Toshihiro; Kawano, Shuichi; Kameyama, Yasuhiko; Sekita, Kenji; Kawasaki, Kozo

    2007-03-01

    The rise-to-power test of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was actually started in April 2000. The rated thermal power of 30MW and the rated reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC were achieved in the middle of Dec. 2001. After that, the reactor thermal power of 30MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 950degC were achieved in the final rise-to-power test in April 2004. After receiving the operation licensing at 850degC, the safety demonstration tests have conducted to demonstrate inherent safety features of the HTGRs as well as to obtain the core and plant transient data for validation of safety analysis codes and for establishment of safety design and evaluation technologies. This paper summarizes the HTTR operating experiences for six years from start of the rise-to-power test that are categorized into (1) Operating experiences related to advanced gas-cooled reactor design, (2) Operating experiences for improvement of the performance, (3) Operating experiences due to fail of system and components. (author)

  5. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  6. 412th Test Engineering Group Vision for Future Knowledge Management (KM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-17

    Presentation 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 May 2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 412th Test Engineering Group Vision for Future Knowledge Management (KM... Engineering Group 307 E. Popson Ave Edwards AFB, CA 93523 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 412TW-PA...centers for the TENG test customers to allow the data to be readily available within minutes of a flight, for the data to be organized so that the engineer

  7. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  8. 40 CFR 86.1327-96 - Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device, the exhaust pipe must be the same diameter as found in-use for at least 4 pipe diameters upstream... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1327-96 Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview. (a) The engine.... The exhaust emissions are diluted with ambient air and a continuous proportional sample is collected...

  9. Successful testing of an emergency diesel generator engine at very low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, A.; Loeper, St.

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the nuclear power industry has been concerned about the ability of emergency diesel generator sets (EDGs) to operate for extended periods of time at low loads (typically less than 33% of design rating) and still be capable of meeting their design safety requirement. Most diesel engine manufacturers today still caution owners and operators to avoid running their diesel engines for extended periods of time at low loads. At one nuclear power plant, the emergency electrical bus arrangement only required approximately 25% of the EDG's design rating, which necessitated that the plant operators monitor EDG operating hours and periodically increase electrical load. In order to eliminate the plant operations burden of periodically loading the EDGs, the nuclear power plant decided to conduct a low-load test of a ''spare'' diesel engine. A SACM Model UD45V16S5D diesel engine was returned to the factory in Mulhouse, France where the week long testing at rated speed and 3% of design rating was completed. The test demonstrated that the engine was capable of operating for seven days (168 hours) at very low loads, with no loss of performance and no unusual internal wear or degradation. The planning and inspections associated with preparing the diesel engine for the test, the engine monitoring performed during the test, the final test results, and the results and material condition of the engine following the test are described. The successful diesel engine low-load test resulted in the elimination of unnecessary nuclear power plant operation restrictions that were based on old concerns about long-term, low-load operation of diesel engines. The paper describes the significance of this diesel engine test to the nuclear power plant and the entire nuclear power industry. (author)

  10. Incorporating comparative genomics into the design-test-learn cycle of microbial strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Maria; Gasch, Audrey P

    2017-08-01

    Engineering microbes with new properties is an important goal in industrial engineering, to establish biological factories for production of biofuels, commodity chemicals and pharmaceutics. But engineering microbes to produce new compounds with high yield remains a major challenge toward economically viable production. Incorporating several modern approaches, including synthetic and systems biology, metabolic modeling and regulatory rewiring, has proven to significantly advance industrial strain engineering. This review highlights how comparative genomics can also facilitate strain engineering, by identifying novel genes and pathways, regulatory mechanisms and genetic background effects for engineering. We discuss how incorporating comparative genomics into the design-test-learn cycle of strain engineering can provide novel information that complements other engineering strategies. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Optical, UV, and EUV Oscillations of SS Cygni in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2004-07-01

    I provide a review of observations in the optical, UV (HST), and EUV (EUVE and Chandra LETG) of the rapid periodic oscillations of nonmagnetic, disk-accreting, high mass-accretion rate cataclysmic variables (CVs), with particular emphasis on the dwarf nova SS Cyg in outburst. In addition, I drawn attention to a correlation, valid over nearly six orders of magnitude in frequency, between the frequencies of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries. This correlation identifies the high frequency quasi-coherent oscillations (so-called ``dwarf nova oscillations'') of CVs with the kilohertz QPOs of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), and the low frequency and low coherence QPOs of CVs with the horizontal branch oscillations (or the broad noise component identified as such) of LMXBs. Assuming that the same mechanisms produce the QPOs of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries, this correlation has important implications for QPO models.

  12. EUV lithographic radiation grafting of thermo-responsive hydrogel nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquet, Patrick; Padeste, Celestino; Solak, Harun H.; Guersel, Selmiye Alkan; Scherer, Guenther G.; Wokaun, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructures of the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and of PNIPAAm-block-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers were produced on poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-ethyelene) (ETFE) films using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic exposure with subsequent graft-polymerization. The phase transition of PNIPAAm nanostructures at the low critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32 deg. C was imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase contrast measurements in pure water. Results show a higher phase contrast for samples measured below the LCST temperature than for samples above the LCST, proving that the soft PNIPAAm hydrogel transforms into a much more compact conformation above the LCST. EUV lithographic exposures were combined with the reversible addition-fragment chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization using cyanoisopropyl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain transfer agent to synthesize PNIPAAm block-copolymer nanostructures

  13. Driving down defect density in composite EUV patterning film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Luciana; Petrillo, Karen; De Silva, Anuja; Arnold, John; Felix, Nelson; Johnson, Richard; Murray, Cody; Hubbard, Alex; Durrant, Danielle; Hontake, Koichi; Huli, Lior; Lemley, Corey; Hetzer, Dave; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Matsunaga, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is one of the leading candidates for enabling the next generation devices, for 7nm node and beyond. As the technology matures, further improvement is required in the area of blanket film defectivity, pattern defectivity, CD uniformity, and LWR/LER. As EUV pitch scaling approaches sub 20 nm, new techniques and methods must be developed to reduce the overall defectivity, mitigate pattern collapse and eliminate film related defect. IBM Corporation and Tokyo Electron Limited (TELTM) are continuously collaborating to develop manufacturing quality processes for EUVL. In this paper, we review key defectivity learning required to enable 7nm node and beyond technology. We will describe ongoing progress in addressing these challenges through track-based processes (coating, developer, baking), highlighting the limitations of common defect detection strategies and outlining methodologies necessary for accurate characterization and mitigation of blanket defectivity in EUV patterning stacks. We will further discuss defects related to pattern collapse and thinning of underlayer films.

  14. American chestnut: A test case for genetic engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila Pinchot

    2014-01-01

    The thought of genetically engineered (GE) trees might conjure images of mutant trees with unnatural and invasive tendencies, but there is much more to the story. GE trees are a new reality that, like it or not, will probably be part of the future of forestry. The basic inclination of most Forest Guild stewards is to reject GE trees as violating our principle to...

  15. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the Production AMA Durability Program, the engine families covered by an application for...) Method of carburetor sealing. (iii) Method of air cleaner sealing. (iv) Vapor storage working capacity... and light-duty trucks, but does not apply to the production vehicles selected under paragraph (h) of...

  16. TESIS experiment on EUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ignatiev, A. P.; Mitrofanov, A. M.; Slemzin, V. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Bugaenko, O. I.

    2009-03-01

    TESIS is a set of solar imaging instruments in development by the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, to be launched aboard the Russian spacecraft CORONAS-PHOTON in December 2008. The main goal of TESIS is to provide complex observations of solar active phenomena from the transition region to the inner and outer solar corona with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution in the EUV and Soft X-ray spectral bands. TESIS includes five unique space instruments: the MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH) with spherical bent crystal mirror, for observations of the Sun in the monochromatic MgXII 8.42 Å line; the EUV Spectoheliometer (EUSH) with grazing incidence difraction grating, for the registration of the full solar disc in monochromatic lines of the spectral band 280-330 Å; two Full-disk EUV Telescopes (FET) with multilayer mirrors covering the band 130-136 and 290-320 Å; and the Solar EUV Coronagraph (SEC), based on the Ritchey-Chretien scheme, to observe the inner and outer solar corona from 0.2 to 4 solar radii in spectral band 290-320 Å. TESIS experiment will start at the rising phase of the 24th cycle of solar activity. With the advanced capabilities of its instruments, TESIS will help better understand the physics of solar flares and high-energy phenomena and provide new data on parameters of solar plasma in the temperature range 10-10K. This paper gives a brief description of the experiment, its equipment, and its scientific objectives.

  17. The Diagnostics of the kappa-Distributions from EUV Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Kulinová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 263, 1-2 (2010), s. 25-41 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1705 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0069/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : EUV spectra * non- thermal distributions * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2010

  18. Overcoming etch challenges related to EUV based patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Andrew W.; Cottle, Hongyun; Honda, Masanobu; Morikita, Shinya; Kumar, Kaushik A.; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Research and development activities related to Extreme Ultra Violet [EUV] defined patterning continue to grow for cost and extreme process control challenges of Self-Aligned Quad Patterning [SAQP] with continued momentum for EUV ecosystem readiness could provide cost advantages in addition to improved intra-level overlay performance relative to multiple patterning approaches. However, Line Edge Roughness [LER] and Line Width Roughness [LWR] performance of EUV defined resist images are still far from meeting technology needs or ITRS spec performance. Furthermore, extreme resist height scaling to mitigate flop over exacerbates the plasma etch trade-offs related to traditional approaches of PR smoothing, descum implementation and maintaining 2D aspect ratios of short lines or elliptical contacts concurrent with ultra-high photo resist [PR] selectivity. In this paper we will discuss sources of LER/LWR, impact of material choice, integration, and innovative plasma process techniques and describe how TELTM VigusTM CCP Etchers can enhance PR selectivity, reduce LER/LWR, and maintain 2D aspect ratio of incoming patterns. Beyond traditional process approaches this paper will show the utility of: [1] DC Superposition in enhancing EUV resist hardening and selectivity, increasing resistance to stress induced PR line wiggle caused by CFx passivation, and mitigating organic planarizer wiggle; [2] Quasi Atomic Layer Etch [Q-ALE] for ARC open eliminating the tradeoffs between selectivity, CD, and shrink ratio control; and [3] ALD+Etch FUSION technology for feature independent CD shrink and LER reduction. Applicability of these concepts back transferred to 193i based lithography is also confirmed.

  19. EUV source development for high-volume chip manufacturing tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe; Yoshioka, Masaki; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen; Ziener, Christian; Schriever, Guido; Schürmann, Max C.; Hergenhan, Guido; Borisov, Vladimir M.

    2007-03-01

    Xenon-fueled gas discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources were integrated into Micro Exposure Tools already in 2004. Operation of these tools in a research environment gave early learning for the development of EUV sources for Alpha and Beta-Tools. Further experiments with these sources were performed for basic understanding on EUV source technology and limits, especially the achievable power and reliability. The intermediate focus power of Alpha-Tool sources under development is measured to values above 10 W. Debris mitigation schemes were successfully integrated into the sources leading to reasonable collector mirror lifetimes with target of 10 billion pulses due to the effective debris flux reduction. Source collector mirrors, which withstand the radiation and temperature load of Xenon-fueled sources, have been developed in cooperation with MediaLario Technologies to support intermediate focus power well above 10 W. To fulfill the requirements for High Volume chip Manufacturing (HVM) applications, a new concept for HVM EUV sources with higher efficiency has been developed at XTREME technologies. The discharge produced plasma (DPP) source concept combines the use of rotating disk electrodes (RDE) with laser exited droplet targets. The source concept is called laser assisted droplet RDE source. The fuel of these sources has been selected to be Tin. The conversion efficiency achieved with the laser assisted droplet RDE source is 2-3x higher compared to Xenon. Very high pulse energies well above 200 mJ / 2π sr have been measured with first prototypes of the laser assisted droplet RDE source. If it is possible to maintain these high pulse energies at higher repetition rates a 10 kHz EUV source could deliver 2000 W / 2π sr. According to the first experimental data the new concept is expected to be scalable to an intermediate focus power on the 300 W level.

  20. Inner shell transitions of BrI in the EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoni, M [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Pettini, M [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy)

    1981-10-12

    The EUV line spectrum originating from transitions of the inner 3d shell of neutral atomic bromine has been observed in absorption. Fano parameters have been derived for the three autoionized resonances nd/sup 10/(n + 1)s/sup 2/(n + 1)p/sup 5/ /sup 2/P-nd/sup 9/(n + 1)s/sup 2/(n + 1)p/sup 62/D observed in both bromine (n = 3) and iodine (n = 4) spectra.

  1. Operation, test, research and development of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). FY2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30MW of thermal power, constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is the first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan. The HTTR was attained at the full power operation of 30MW in December 2001 and achieved the 950degC of outlet coolant temperature at the outside the reactor pressure vessel in June 2004. To establish and upgrade basic technologies for HTGRs, we have obtained demonstration test data necessary for several R and Ds, and accumulated operation and maintenance experience of HTGRs throughout the HTTR's operation such as rated power operations, safety demonstration tests and long-term high temperature operations, and so on. In fiscal year 2013, we started to prepare the application document of reactor installation license for the HTTR to prove conformity with the new research reactor's safety regulatory requirements taken effect from December 2013. We had been making effort to restart the HTTR which was stopped since the 2011 when the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (2011.3.11) occurred. This report summarizes activities and results of HTTR operation, maintenance, and several R and Ds, which were carried out in the fiscal year 2013. (author)

  2. Operation, test, research and development of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). FY2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW of thermal power, constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency is the first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan. The HTTR was attained at the full power operation of 30 MW in December 2001 and achieved the 950degC of coolant outlet temperature at outside of the reactor pressure vessel in June 2004. To establish and upgrade basic technologies for HTGRs, we have obtained demonstration test data necessary for several R and Ds, and accumulated operation and maintenance experience of HTGRs throughout the HTTR's operation such as rated power operations, safety demonstration tests and long-term high temperature operations, and so on. In fiscal year 2014, we started to apply the application document of reactor installation license for the HTTR to prove conformity with the new research reactor's safety regulatory requirements taken effect from December 2013. We had been making effort to restart the HTTR which was stopped since the 2011 by the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. This report summarizes activities and results of HTTR operation, maintenance, and several R and Ds, which were carried out in the fiscal year 2014. (author)

  3. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  4. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19–20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ∼280 km s −1 . During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ∼8 G.

  5. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19-20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ˜280 km s-1. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ˜8 G.

  6. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yan, Xiaoli [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Xue, Jianchao, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-05-20

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19–20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ∼280 km s{sup −1}. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ∼8 G.

  7. High-Resolution EUV Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We compare results of high-resolution EUV spectroscopic measurements of the isolated white dwarf G191-B2B and the binary system Feige 24 obtained with the J-PEX (Joint Plasmadynamic Experiment), which was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and NASA. J-PEX delivers the world's highest resolution in EUV and does so at high effective area (e.g., more effective area in a sounding rocket than is available with Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach). The capability J-PEX represents is applicable to the astrophysics of hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the ISM. G191-B2B and Feige 24 are quite distinct hot white dwarf systems having in common that they are bright in the portion of the EUV where He emission features and edges occur, hence they can be exploited to probe both the stellar atmosphere and the ISM, separating those components by model-fitting that sums over all relevant (He) spectral features in the band. There is evidence from these fits that atmospheric He is being detected but the result is more conservatively cast as a pair of upper limits. We discuss how longer duration satellite observations with the same instrumentation could increase exposure to detect atmospheric He in these and other nearby hot white dwarfs.

  8. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  9. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly and Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway

  10. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  11. The development and testing of ceramic components in piston engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntire, B.J. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.; Willis, R.W.; Southam, R.E. [TRW, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Within the past 10--15 years, ceramic hardware has been fabricated and tested in a number of piston engine applications including valves, piston pins, roller followers, tappet shims, and other wear components. It has been shown that, with proper design and installation, ceramics improve performance, fuel economy, and wear and corrosion resistance. These results have been obtained using rig and road tests on both stock and race engines. Selected summaries of these tests are presented in this review paper.

  12. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established within EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine the applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. In examination of the ISV process for applicability to SDA waste, this In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan identifies the following: sampling and analysis strategy; sampling procedures; methods to conduct analyses; equipment; and procedures to ensure data quality. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  13. A CAMAC and FASTBUS engineering test environment supported by a MicroVAX/MicroVMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C.A.

    1987-10-01

    A flexible, multiuser engineering test environment has been established for the engineers in SLAC's Electronic Instrumentation Engineering group. The system hardware includes a standard MicroVAX II and MicroVAX I with multiple CAMAC, FASTBUS, and GPIB instrumentation buses. The system software components include MicroVMS licenses with DECNET/SLACNET, FORTRAN, PASCAL, FORTH, and a versatile graphical display package. In addition, there are several software utilities available to facilitate FASTBUS and CAMAC prototype hardware debugging. 16 refs., 7 figs

  14. Test results of the Chrysler upgraded automotive gas turbine engine: Initial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, D.; Ribble, G. H., Jr.; Warren, E. L.; Wood, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The upgraded engine as built to the original design was deficient in power and had excessive specific fuel consumption. A high instrumented version of the engine was tested to identify the sources of the engine problems. Analysis of the data shows the major problems to be low compressor and power turbine efficiency and excessive interstage duct losses. In addition, high HC and CO emission were measured at idle, and high NOx emissions at high energy speeds.

  15. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.; Adams, M.R.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  16. 40 CFR 1048.401 - What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines that have gone into service? 1048.401 Section 1048.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing In-use Engines § 1048.401 What testing requirements apply to my engines that have...

  17. 40 CFR 1048.410 - How must I select, prepare, and test my in-use engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... my in-use engines? 1048.410 Section 1048.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing In-use Engines § 1048.410 How must I select, prepare, and test my in-use engines? (a) You...

  18. Development of a non-engine fuel injector deposit test for alternative fuels (ENIAK-project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel Waerme Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Deposit formation in and on the injectors of diesel engines may lead to injector malfunction, resulting in a loss in power, rough engine operation and poor emission levels. Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, good housekeeping when using biodiesel is required, and all additives have to pass a no-harm test concerning injector fouling. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: The XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine and cannot reproduce internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 1 per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The ENIAK-Project is funded by the FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources) and conducted in cooperation with AGQM, ASG and ERC. Its main goal is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses a complete common rail system. The injection takes place in a self-designed reactor instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle, leading to a low amount of fuel required. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. (orig.)

  19. 40 CFR 85.1506 - Inspection and testing of imported motor vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles and engines. 85.1506 Section 85.1506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1506 Inspection and testing of imported motor vehicles and...

  20. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  1. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  2. Sims Prototype System 2 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The testing, problems encountered, and the results and conclusions obtained from tests performed on the IBM Prototype System, 2, solar hot water system, at the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Test Facility was described. System 2 is a liquid, non draining solar energy system for supplying domestic hot water to single residences. The system consists of collectors, storage tank, heat exchanger, pumps and associated plumbing and controls.

  3. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  4. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. B. Culp

    2006-01-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning

  5. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  6. 40 CFR 1048.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1048.505 Section 1048.505 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1048.505 How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles... some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these...

  7. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    Based on an analysis of previously developed test oriented languages and a study of test language requirements, a high order language was designed to enable test and flight engineers to checkout and operate the proposed space shuttle and other NASA vehicles and experiments. The language is called ALOFT (a language oriented to flight engineering and testing). The language is described, its terminology is compared to similar terms in other test languages, and its features and utilization are discussed. The appendix provides the specifications for ALOFT.

  8. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  9. Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proctor, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    .... To address engine manufacturers' concerns about the heat generation and power loss from these contacting seals, brush, finger, and labyrinth seals were tested in the NASA High Speed, High Temperature...

  10. Multicamera High Dynamic Range High-Speed Video of Rocket Engine Tests and Launches

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-speed video recording of rocket engine tests has several challenges. The scenes that are imaged have both bright and dark regions associated with plume emission...

  11. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  12. Air Force Research Laboratory's Rocket Engine Program Enters Fast-Paced Test Phase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornburg, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    .... Recent tests of the Integrated Powerhead Demonstration project here established a technical first for the United States and mark the first advancements in boost engine technology since the space...

  13. 40 CFR 1068.415 - How do I test my engines/equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068... for the year, you may test a minimum of one per 24-hour period. If you request and justify it, we may...

  14. Estimation and control of large-scale systems with an application to adaptive optics for EUV lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haber, A.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) lithography is a new technology for production of integrated circuits. In EUV lithographic machines, optical elements are heated by absorption of exposure energy. Heating induces thermoelastic deformations of optical elements and consequently, it creates wavefront

  15. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    the traditionally applied, and determination of different exposure fractions such as the concentration of dissolved ions from ENPs and body burdens. Although these approaches are scientifically exploratory by nature, the aim is to generate data applicable for regulatory hazard identification of ENPs. The focus has......Within the last few decades, major advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) for various applications and consumer products already available on the market. ENPs may exhibit unique and novel properties compared to their bulk counterparts...... and the response axes. The actual exposure experienced by organisms may not be reflected by the ENPconcentration in medium, commonly applied as the exposure metric, and the responses of organisms may result from various toxic and non-toxic mechanisms occurring simultaneously. In this thesis, the challenges related...

  16. Results from tests of a Stirling engine and wood chips gasifier plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell; Werling, J.

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification and a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants based on biomass, because the need for gas cleaning is eliminated and problems with fouling of the Stirling engine heater are considerably reduced....... Furthermore, the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a small CHP plant based on a Stirling engine and an updraft gasifier has been developed and tested successfully. The advantages of updraft gasifiers are the simplicity and that the amount...... of the Stirling engine reduces the problems with tar to a minor problem in the design of the burner. The Stirling engine, which has an electric power output of 35 kW, is specifically designed for utilisation of fuels with a content of particles. The gas burner for the engine is designed for low specific energy...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... select and test one more engine. Then, calculate the required sample size for the model year as described.... It defines 95% confidence intervals for a one-tail distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission test results of the sample. STD = Emission...

  18. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Competency Test Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document contains the competency test package for three sections of a general mechanical repair course: minor automotive maintenance, small engine mechanics, and welding. Following a list of the common essential elements for trade and industrial education, competency tests for the three sections are provided. Each test includes unit name,…

  19. FJ44 Turbofan Engine Test at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Joel T.; McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Harley, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A Williams International FJ44-3A 3000-lb thrust class turbofan engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. This report presents the test set-up and documents the test conditions. Farfield directivity, in-duct unsteady pressures, duct mode data, and phased-array data were taken and are reported separately.

  20. NATO Guidelines on Human Engineering Testing and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    1980s and is known as Manpower, Personnel, and Training Integration (MANPRINT). The objective of this comprehensive management and technical effort is...systems under benign test conditions, using test subjects who are considerably more knowledeable of the system than the eventual users of the system will...Technical Management , Aeronautical Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command. Itoh, Y., Hayashi, Y., Tsukui, L, and Saito, S. (1989). Heart rate

  1. SIMS prototype system 1 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The space and domestic water solar heating system designated SIMS Prototype Systems 1 was evaluated. The test system used 720 ft (gross) of Solar Energy Products Air Collectors, a Solar Control Corporation SAM 20 Air Handler with Model 75-175 control unit, a Jackson Solar Storage tank with Rho Sigma Mod 106 controller, and 20 tons of rack storage. The test data analysis performed evaluates the system performance and documents the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 1 hardware for field installation.

  2. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  3. Design and Implementation of the Control System of an Internal Combustion Engine Test Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Koç

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate tests and performance analysis of engines are required to minimize measurement errors and so the use of the advanced test equipment is imperative. In other words, the reliable test results depend on the measurement of many parameters and recording the experimental data accurately which is depended on engine test unit. This study aims to design the control system of an internal combustion engine test unit. In the study, the performance parameters of an available internal combustion engine have been transferred to computer in real time. A data acquisition (DAQ card has been used to transfer the experimental data to the computer. Also, a user interface has been developed for performing the necessary procedures by using LabVIEW. The dynamometer load, the fuel consumption, and the desired speed can easily be adjusted precisely by using DAQ card and the user interface during the engine test. Load, fuel consumption, and temperature values (the engine inlet-outlet, exhaust inlet-outlet, oil, and environment can be seen on the interface and also these values can be recorded to the computer. It is expected that developed system will contribute both to the education of students and to the researchers’ studies and so it will eliminate a major lack.

  4. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  5. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Colman, Ben; Grieger, Khara; Hendren, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomater...

  6. Test plan for In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test No. 6, EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., Job Number 318230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The objectives of the test included the effects of in situ vitrification on containerized sludge contained in a simulated randomly-disposed array. From this arrangement, the test results obtained the following data applicable to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Large Field Testing: canister burst pressure and temperature, canister depressurization rate, melt encapsulation rate of the canister and the hood area plenum temperatures, pressures, compositional analyses, and flows as affected by gas releases. 10 figs., 1 tab

  7. EUV spectrum of highly charged tungsten ions in electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, H.A.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Nakamura, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra was investigated for electron energy from 540 to 1370 eV. Previously unreported lines were presented in the EUV range, and comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations identified them. (author)

  8. Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juequan; Lee, Christopher James; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; Kunze, Reinhard; Schmidt, Hagen; Schneider, Dieter; Moors, Roel

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of carbon layers on the surfaces of optics exposed to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation has been observed in EUV lithography. It has become of critical importance to detect the presence of the carbon layer in the order of nanometer thickness due to carbon's extremely strong

  9. EUV multilayer mirror, optical system including a multilayer mirror and method of manufacturing a multilayer mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; de Boer, Meint J.; von Blanckenhagen, G.

    2016-01-01

    A multilayer mirror (M) reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a first wave-length range in a EUV spectral region comprises a substrate (SUB) and a stack of layers (SL) on the substrate, the stack of layers comprising layers comprising a low index material and a high index material, the

  10. Characterizing dusty argon-acetylene plasmas as a first step to understand dusty EUV environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, van de F.M.J.H.; Nijdam, S.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2012-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, ionic and particulate debris coming from the plasma source plays an important role. We started up a project looking at the principles of particle formation in plasmas and the interaction with EUV radiation. To this end, we study a low-pressure (10 Pa)

  11. Enabling laboratory EUV research with a compact exposure tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Tempeler, Jenny; Kim, Hyun-su; Loosen, Peter; Juschkin, Larissa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the capabilities of the designed and realized extreme ultraviolet laboratory exposure tool (EUVLET) which has been developed at the RWTH-Aachen, Chair for the Technology of Optical Systems (TOS), in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT) and Bruker ASC GmbH. Main purpose of this laboratory setup is the direct application in research facilities and companies with small batch production, where the fabrication of high resolution periodic arrays over large areas is required. The setup can also be utilized for resist characterization and evaluation of its pre- and post-exposure processing. The tool utilizes a partially coherent discharge produced plasma (DPP) source and minimizes the number of other critical components to a transmission grating, the photoresist coated wafer and the positioning system for wafer and grating and utilizes the Talbot lithography approach. To identify the limits of this approach first each component is analyzed and optimized separately and relations between these components are identified. The EUV source has been optimized to achieve the best values for spatial and temporal coherence. Phase-shifting and amplitude transmission gratings have been fabricated and exposed. Several commercially available electron beam resists and one EUV resist have been characterized by open frame exposures to determine their contrast under EUV radiation. Cold development procedure has been performed to further increase the resist contrast. By analyzing the exposure results it can be demonstrated that only a 1:1 copy of the mask structure can be fully resolved by the utilization of amplitude masks. The utilized phase-shift masks offer higher 1st order diffraction efficiency and allow a demagnification of the mask structure in the achromatic Talbot plane.

  12. Summary of Altitude Pulse Testing of a 100-lbf L02/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, liquid oxygen-liquid methane (LO2/LCH4) has been considered as a potential "green" propellant alternative for future exploration missions. The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project has been tasked by NASA to develop this propulsion combination to enable safe and cost effective exploration missions. To date, limited experience with such combinations exist, and as a result a comprehensive test program is critical to demonstrating the viability of implementing such a system. The NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted a test program of a 100-lbf (445-N) reaction control engine (RCE) at the center s Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), focusing on altitude testing over a wide variety of operational conditions. The ACS facility includes a unique propellant conditioning feed system (PCFS) which allows precise control of propellant inlet conditions to the engine. Engine performance as a result of these inlet conditions was examined extensively during the test program. This paper is a companion to the previous specific impulse testing paper, and discusses the pulsed mode operation portion of testing, with a focus on minimum impulse bit (I-bit) and repeatable pulse performance. The engine successfully demonstrated target minimum impulse bit performance at all conditions, as well as successful demonstration of repeatable pulse widths. Some anomalous conditions experienced during testing are also discussed, including a double pulse phenomenon which was not noted in previous test programs for this engine.

  13. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions

  16. Surface modification by EUV laser beam based on capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.

    -, č. 58 (2011), s. 484-487 ISSN 2010-376X. [International Conference on Fusion and Plasma Physics. Bali, Indonésie, 26.10.2011-28.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : soft x-ray * EUV * laser * radiation * source * capillary * discharge * plasma * ablation * surface modification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v58/v58-99.pdf

  17. Discharge plasmas as EUV Sources for Future Micro Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruecken, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Future extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will require very high radiation intensities in a narrow wavelength range around 13.5 nm, which is most efficiently emitted as line radiation by highly ionized heavy particles. Currently the most intense EUV sources are based on xenon or tin gas discharges. After having investigated the limits of a hollow cathode triggered xenon pinch discharge Philips Extreme UV favors a laser triggered tin vacuum spark discharge. Plasma and radiation properties of these highly transient discharges will be compared. Besides simple MHD-models the ADAS software package has been used to generate important atomic and spectral data of the relevant ion stages. To compute excitation and radiation properties, collisional radiative equilibria of individual ion stages are computed. For many lines opacity effects cannot be neglected. In the xenon discharges the optical depths allow for a treatment based on escape factors. Due to the rapid change of plasma parameters the abundancies of the different ionization stages must be computed dynamically. This requires effective ionization and recombination rates, which can also be supplied by ADAS. Due to very steep gradients (up to a couple orders of magnitude per mm) the plasma of tin vacuum spark discharges is very complicated. Therefore we shall describe here only some technological aspects of our tin EUV lamp: The electrode system consists of two rotating which are pulled through baths of molten tin such that a tin film remains on their surfaces. With a laser pulse some tin is ablated from one of the wheels and travels rapidly through vacuum towards the other rotating wheel. When the tin plasma reaches the other electrodes it ignites and the high current phase starts, i.e. the capacitor bank is unloaded, the plasma is pinched and EUV is radiated. Besides the good spectral properties of tin this concept has some other advantages: Erosion of electrodes is no severe problem as the tin film is

  18. SIMS prototype System 3 test results: engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The results obtained during testing of a closed hydronic drain down solar system designed for space and hot water heating are presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 3 for field installation.

  19. SIMS prototype system 3 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained during testing of a closed hydronic drain down solar system designed for space and hot water heating is presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 3 for field installation.

  20. Development of prototype virtual testing system for ultrasonic examination engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohji, Hajime; Hide, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of inspection results is affected by the skill of examination personnel, particularly with regard to manual ultrasonic testing (UT). The number and design of test specimens are among the most important points to be considered during training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. For training, a simulated UT training system using a computer mouse or touch sensor was proposed. However, this system proved to be inadequate as a replacement with for actual UT work. In this study, we have developed a novel virtual UT system that simulates actual UT work for piping welds. This system (Tool for Realistic UltraSound Testing) consists of a dummy UT probe, dummy piping, a computer system, and a 3D position detection system. It can detect the state of the dummy probe (3D position, skewing angle), and displays recorded A-scan data corresponding to the dummy probe status with random noise. Furthermore, it does not display A-scan data if the dummy probe is not in contact with the pipe. Thus, in this way, the system simulates actual UT work. Using this system, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of test specimens being utilized for training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. Additionally, highly efficient training and certification will be achieved through this system. (author)

  1. EUV lithography for 22nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, LWR, and sensitivity tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Leeson, Michael; Caudillo, Roman; Bacuita, Terence; Shah, Uday; Chandhok, Manish

    2011-04-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 22nm half pitch node and beyond. According to recent assessments made at the 2010 EUVL Symposium, the readiness of EUV materials remains one of the top risk items for EUV adoption. The main development issue regarding EUV resists has been how to simultaneously achieve high resolution, high sensitivity, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes our strategy, the current status of EUV materials, and the integrated post-development LWR reduction efforts made at Intel Corporation. Data collected utilizing Intel's Micro- Exposure Tool (MET) is presented in order to examine the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=22nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=11.3mJ/cm2 with <=3nm LWR.

  2. From powerful research platform for industrial EUV photoresist development, to world record resolution by photolithography: EUV interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Fallica, Roberto; Fan, Daniel; Karim, Waiz; Vockenhuber, Michaela; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL, λ = 13.5 nm) has been shown to be a powerful technique not only for academic, but also for industrial research and development of EUV materials due to its relative simplicity yet record high-resolution patterning capabilities. With EUV-IL, it is possible to pattern high-resolution periodic images to create highly ordered nanostructures that are difficult or time consuming to pattern by electron beam lithography (EBL) yet interesting for a wide range of applications such as catalysis, electronic and photonic devices, and fundamental materials analysis, among others. Here, we will show state-of the-art research performed using the EUV-IL tool at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). For example, using a grating period doubling method, a diffraction mask capable of patterning a world record in photolithography of 6 nm half-pitch (HP), was produced. In addition to the description of the method, we will give a few examples of applications of the technique. Well-ordered arrays of suspended silicon nanowires down to 6.5 nm linewidths have been fabricated and are to be studied as field effect transistors (FETs) or biosensors, for instance. EUV achromatic Talbot lithography (ATL), another interference scheme that utilizes a single grating, was shown to yield well-defined nanoparticles over large-areas with high uniformity presenting great opportunities in the field of nanocatalysis. EUV-IL is in addition, playing a key role in the future introduction of EUV lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM) of semiconductor devices for the 7 and 5 nm logic node (16 nm and 13 nm HP, respectively) and beyond while the availability of commercial EUV-tools is still very much limited for research.

  3. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  4. Mechanical testing of hydrogels in cartilage tissue engineering: beyond the compressive modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghua; Friis, Elizabeth A; Gehrke, Stevin H; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Injuries to articular cartilage result in significant pain to patients and high medical costs. Unfortunately, cartilage repair strategies have been notoriously unreliable and/or complex. Biomaterial-based tissue-engineering strategies offer great promise, including the use of hydrogels to regenerate articular cartilage. Mechanical integrity is arguably the most important functional outcome of engineered cartilage, although mechanical testing of hydrogel-based constructs to date has focused primarily on deformation rather than failure properties. In addition to deformation testing, as the field of cartilage tissue engineering matures, this community will benefit from the addition of mechanical failure testing to outcome analyses, given the crucial clinical importance of the success of engineered constructs. However, there is a tremendous disparity in the methods used to evaluate mechanical failure of hydrogels and articular cartilage. In an effort to bridge the gap in mechanical testing methods of articular cartilage and hydrogels in cartilage regeneration, this review classifies the different toughness measurements for each. The urgency for identifying the common ground between these two disparate fields is high, as mechanical failure is ready to stand alongside stiffness as a functional design requirement. In comparing toughness measurement methods between hydrogels and cartilage, we recommend that the best option for evaluating mechanical failure of hydrogel-based constructs for cartilage tissue engineering may be tensile testing based on the single edge notch test, in part because specimen preparation is more straightforward and a related American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard can be adopted in a fracture mechanics context.

  5. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...

  6. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  7. Engineering scale tests of an FFTF fission gas delay bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabele, T.J.; Bohringer, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic adsorption coefficient of 85 Kr on activated charcoal from a nitrogen carrier gas was measured at -80 and -120 0 C at pressures of zero and 30 psig. The effects of the presence of impurities in the nitrogen carrier gas (1 percent oxygen, and 100 vppm carbon dioxide) on the adsorption coefficient of 85 Kr were also measured. The 85 Kr adsorption coefficient increased with decreasing temperature, and increased with increasing pressure. The presence of oxygen and carbon dioxide impurities in the nitrogen carrier gas had no discernible effect upon the adsorption coefficient. The adsorption coefficient for 85 Kr from nitrogen gas was lower than for adsorption of 85 Kr from an argon gas stream. The work concluded a test program which provided design data for the fission gas delay beds which will be installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). (U.S.)

  8. Modal Testing of the NPSAT1 Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    erkläre ich, dass die vorliegende Master Arbeit von mir selbstständig und nur unter Verwendung der angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel angefertigt...logarithmic scale . As 5 Figure 2 shows, natural frequencies are indicated by large values of the first CMIF (peaks), and multiple modes can be detected by...structure’s behavior. Ewins even states, “that no large- scale modal test should be permitted to proceed until some preliminary SDOF analyses have

  9. HEAT ENGINEERING TESTING OF AIR COOLING UNIT OF HORIZONTAL TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Rohachov, Valerii Andriiovych; Semeniako, Oleksandr Volodymyrovych; Лазоренко, Р. О.; Середа, Р. М.; Parafeinyk, Volodymyr Petrovych

    2018-01-01

    The results of the thermal tests of the section of air cooler, the heat-exchange surface of which is made up of chess package of bimetal finned tubes are presented. The methods of research are presented, the experimental stand is described, the measurement errors are given. The efficiency of the experimental stand and the accuracy of the experimental data on it are confirmed. Proposed to use the stand for researches of air cooling units with other types and sections of finned tubes.

  10. Thermal Development Test of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R.; Snyder, John S.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is a next-generation high-power ion propulsion system under development by NASA as a part of the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program. NEXT is designed for use on robotic exploration missions of the solar system using solar electric power. Potential mission destinations that could benefit from a NEXT Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) system include inner planets, small bodies, and outer planets and their moons. This range of robotic exploration missions generally calls for ion propulsion systems with deep throttling capability and system input power ranging from 0.6 to 25 kW, as referenced to solar array output at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU). Thermal development testing of the NEXT prototype model 1 (PM1) was conducted at JPL to assist in developing and validating a thruster thermal model and assessing the thermal design margins. NEXT PM1 performance prior to, during and subsequent to thermal testing are presented. Test results are compared to the predicted hot and cold environments expected missions and the functionality of the thruster for these missions is discussed.

  11. EUV-angle resolved scatter (EUV-ARS): a new tool for the characterization of nanometre structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, Analía.; Mentzel, Heiko; Soltwisch, Victor; Jaroslawzew, Sina; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The advance of the semiconductor industry requires new metrology methods, which can deal with smaller and more complex nanostructures. Particularly for inline metrology a rapid, sensitive and non destructive method is needed. Small angle X-ray scattering under grazing incidence has already been investigated for this application and delivers significant statistical information which tracks the profile parameters as well as their variations, i.e. roughness. However, it suffers from the elongated footprint at the sample. The advantage of EUV radiation, with its longer wavelengths, is that larger incidence angles can be used, resulting in a significant reduction of the beam footprint. Targets with field sizes of 100 μm and smaller are accessible with our experimental set-up. We present a new experimental tool for the measurement of small structures based on the capabilities of soft X-ray and EUV scatterometry at the PTB soft X-ray beamline at the electron storage ring BESSY II. PTB's soft X-ray radiometry beamline uses a plane grating monochromator, which covers the spectral range from 0.7 nm to 25 nm and was especially designed to provide highly collimated radiation. An area detector covers the scattered radiation from a grazing exit angle up to an angle of 30° above the sample horizon and the fluorescence emission can be detected with an energy dispersive X-ray silicon drift detector. In addition, the sample can be rotated and linearly moved in vacuum. This new set-up will be used to explore the capabilities of EUV-scatterometry for the characterization of nanometre-sized structures.

  12. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper

  13. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.

  14. Integral characteristics of spectra of ions important for EUV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karazija, R; Kucas, S; Momkauskaite, A

    2006-01-01

    The emission spectrum corresponding to the 4p 5 4d N+1 + 4p 6 4d N-1 4f → 4p 6 4d N transition array is concentrated in a narrow interval of wavelengths. That is due to the existence of an approximate selection rule and quenching of some lines by configuration mixing. Thus such emission of elements near Z = 50 is considered to be the main candidate for the EUV lithography source at λ = 13.5 nm. In the present work the regularities of these transition arrays are considered using their integral characteristics: average energy, total line strength, variance and interval of array containing some part of the total transition probability. Calculations for various ions of elements In, Sn, Sb, Te, I and Xe have been performed in a two-configuration pseudorelativistic approximation, which describes fairly well the main features of the spectra. The variation in the values of the main integral characteristics of the spectra with atomic number and ionization degree gives the possibility of comparing quantitatively the suitability of the emission of various ions for EUV lithography

  15. Uncertainties in (E)UV model atmosphere fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.

    2008-04-01

    Context: During the comparison of synthetic spectra calculated with two NLTE model atmosphere codes, namely TMAP and TLUSTY, we encounter systematic differences in the EUV fluxes due to the treatment of level dissolution by pressure ionization. Aims: In the case of Sirius B, we demonstrate an uncertainty in modeling the EUV flux reliably in order to challenge theoreticians to improve the theory of level dissolution. Methods: We calculated synthetic spectra for hot, compact stars using state-of-the-art NLTE model-atmosphere techniques. Results: Systematic differences may occur due to a code-specific cutoff frequency of the H I Lyman bound-free opacity. This is the case for TMAP and TLUSTY. Both codes predict the same flux level at wavelengths lower than about 1500 Å for stars with effective temperatures (T_eff) below about 30 000 K only, if the same cutoff frequency is chosen. Conclusions: The theory of level dissolution in high-density plasmas, which is available for hydrogen only should be generalized to all species. Especially, the cutoff frequencies for the bound-free opacities should be defined in order to make predictions of UV fluxes more reliable.

  16. Observations and predictions of EUV emission from classical novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.; Krautter, J.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical modeling of novae in outburst predicts that they should be active emitters of radiation both in the EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths twice during the outburst. The first time is very early in the outburst when only an all sky survey can detect them. This period lasts only a few hours. They again become bright EUV and soft X-ray emitters late in the outburst when the remnant object becomes very hot and is still luminous. The predictions imply both that a nova can remain very hot for months to years and that the peak temperature at this time strongly depends upon the mass of the white dwarf. It is important to observe novae at these late times because a measurement of both the flux and temperature can provide information about the mass of the white dwarf, the tun-off time scale, and the energy budget of the outburst. We review the existing observations of novae in late stages of their outburst and present some newly obtained data for GQ Mus 1983. We then provide results of new hydrodynamic simulations of novae in outburst and compare the predictions to the observations. 43 refs., 6 figs

  17. Numerical analysis of hydrogen and methane propagation during testing of combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The research of gas-fuelled combustion engines using hydrogen or methane require accordingly equipped test benches which take respect to the higher dangerous of self ignition accidents. This article deals with numerical calculations of flow in laboratory during simulated leakage of gas-fuel from fuel system of tested engine. The influences of local suction and influences of roof exhausters on the flow in the laboratory and on the gas propagation are discussed. Results obtained for hydrogen and for methane are compared. Conclusions for design and performance of suction devices and test benches are deduced from these results.

  18. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work

  19. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion programme would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. To initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work. (author)

  20. First-wall, blanket, and shield engineering test program for magnetically confined fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The key engineering areas identified for early study relate to FW/B/S system thermal-hydraulics, thermomechnics, nucleonics, electromagnetics, assembly, maintenance, and repair. Programmatic guidance derived frm planning exercises involving over thirty organizations (laboratories, industries, and universities) has indicated (1) that meaningful near term engineering testing should be feasible within the bounds of a modest funding base, (2) that there are existing facilities and expertise which can be profitably utilized in this testing, and (3) that near term efforts should focus on the measurement of engineering data and the verification/calibration of predictive methods for anticipated normal operational and transient FW/B/S conditions. The remainder of this paper discusses in more detail the planning strategies, proposed approach to near term testing, and longer range needs for integrated FW/B/S test facilities

  1. Overview of the main challenges for the engineering design of the test facilities system of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-01-01

    High intense radiation fields were demanded to IFMIF to address the lack of information on effects in materials due to radiation fields with fusion reactor features. Such intense radiation fields will also produce a number of unwanted effects in exposed materials and components. The main difficulties to achieve a reliable engineering design of the Test Facilities System during the Engineering Validation and the Engineering Design phase of IFMIF now under development are reviewed in this paper. The most challenging activities will be the design of the high flux test module, the creep fatigue test module, the test cell and the remote handling system. The intense radiation fields in the irradiation area and the high availability required for IFMIF (70%) are the main reasons for these difficulties.

  2. Feasibility of compensating for EUV field edge effects through OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Word, James; Fenger, Germain L.; Niroomand, Ardavan; Lorusso, Gian F.; Jonckheere, Rik; Hendrickx, Eric; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-04-01

    As EUV Lithography (EUVL) continues to evolve, it offers a possible solution to the problems of additional masks and lithography steps that drive up the cost and complexity of 193i multiple patterning. EUVL requires a non-telecentric reflective optical system for operation. This requirement causes EUV specific effects such as shadowing. The absorber physically shadows the reflective multilayer (ML) on an EUV reticle resulting in pattern fidelity degradation. To reduce this degradation, a thinner absorber may help. Yet, as the absorber thickness decreases, reflectivity increases in the `dark' region around the image field, resulting in a loss of contrast. The region around the edge of the die on the mask of unpatterned absorber material deposited on top of ML, known as the image border, is also susceptible to undesirable reflections in an ideally dark region. For EUVL to be enabled for high-volume manufacturing (HVM), reticle masking (REMA) blades are used to shield light from the image border to allow for the printing of densely spaced die. When die are printed densely, the image border of each neighboring die will overlap with the edge of a given die resulting in an increase of dose that overexposes features at the edge of the field. This effect is convolved with a fingerprint from the edge of the REMA blades. This phenomenon will be referred to as a field edge effect. One such mitigation strategy that has been investigated to reduce the field edge effect is to fully remove the ML along the image border to ensure that no actinic-EUV radiation can be reflected onto neighboring die. This has proven to suppress the effect, but residual out-of-band radiation still provides additional dose to features near the image border, especially in the corners where three neighboring fields overlap. Measurements of dense contact holes (CHs) have been made along the image border with and without a ML-etched border at IMEC in collaboration with Micron using the ASML NXE:3100. The

  3. Buffer mass test - Rock drilling and civil engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1982-09-01

    The buffer mass test (BMT) is being run in the former 'ventilation drift' in which a number of rock investigations were previously conducted. A number of vertical pilot holes were drilled from the tunnel floor to get information of the water inflow in possible heater hole position. The final decision of the location of the heater holes was then made, the main principle being that much water should be available in each hole with the possible exception of one of the holes. Thereafter, the diameter 0.76 m heater holes were drilled to a depth of 3-3.3 m. Additional holes were then drilled for rock anchoring of the lids of the four outer heater holes, for the rock mechanical investigation, as well as for a number of water pressure gauges. The inner, about 12 m long part of the tunnel, was separated from the outer by bulwark. The purpose of this construction was to confine a backfill, the requirements of the bulwark being to withstand the swelling pressure as well as the water pressure. Outside the bulwark an approximately 1.5-1.7 m thick concrete slab was cast on the tunnel floor, extending about 24.7 m from the bulwark. Boxing-outs with the same height as the slab and with the horizontal dimensions 1.8 x 1.8 m, were made and rock-anchored concrete lids were cast on top of them after backfilling. The slab which thus represents 'rock', also forms a basal support of the bulwark. The lids permits access to the backfill as well as to the underlying, highly compacted bentonite for rapid direct determination of the water distributin at the intended successive test stops. The construction of the slab and lids will be described in this report. (Author)

  4. The development and testing of pulsed detonation engine ground demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Philip Koshy

    2008-10-01

    The successful implementation of a PDE running on fuel and air mixtures will require fast-acting fuel-air injection and mixing techniques, detonation initiation techniques such as DDT enhancing devices or a pre-detonator, an effective ignition system that can sustain repeated firing at high rates and a fast and capable, closed-loop control system. The control system requires high-speed transducers for real-time monitoring of the PDE and the detection of the detonation wave speed. It is widely accepted that the detonation properties predicted by C-J detonation relations are fairly accurate in comparison to experimental values. The post-detonation flow properties can also be expressed as a function of wave speed or Mach number. Therefore, the PDE control system can use C-J relations to predict the post-detonation flow properties based on measured initial conditions and compare the values with those obtained from using the wave speed. The controller can then vary the initial conditions within the combustor for the subsequent cycle, by modulating the frequency and duty cycle of the valves, to obtain optimum air and fuel flow rates, as well as modulate the energy and timing of the ignition to achieve the required detonation properties. Five different PDE ground demonstrators were designed, built and tested to study a number of the required sub-systems. This work presents a review of all the systems that were tested, along with suggestions for their improvement. The PDE setups, ranged from a compact PDE with a 19 mm (3/4 in.) i.d., to two 25 mm (1 in.) i.d. setups, to a 101 mm (4 in.) i.d. dual-stage PDE setup with a pre-detonator. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in the smaller PDEs. In the dual-stage PDE, propane-oxygen was used in the pre-detonator, while propane-air mixtures were used in the main combustor. Both rotary valves and solenoid valve injectors were studied. The rotary valves setups were tested at 10 Hz, while the solenoid valves were tested at up to 30 Hz

  5. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourmouli, A.; Valenti, M.; van Rijn, E.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Biskos, G.

    2018-01-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test,

  6. Field tests on migration of TRU-nuclide, (2). Migration test for engineered barrier materials in aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshikatsu; Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    Field tests on migration of radionuclides for engineered barrier materials such as bentonite and cementitious materials were performed. The tests were run under both wet conditions with artificial rainfall and dry conditions with natural rainfall. Laboratory experiments such as batch adsorption tests were also conducted to analyze the result of field test. The results of field tests agreed with the predicted moisture conditions and the migration behaviors observed at the laboratory experiment that is reported so far. For bentonite material, the movements of the tracer were calculated using known information such as the results of batch sorption tests and migration mechanism. Comparing the result of field test and calculations, it is suggested that tracer migration behavior in bentonite material in field can be evaluated quantitatively by the known migration mechanism and the results of laboratory experiments such as batch sorption test. (author)

  7. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  8. Educational digital resource for data analysis of Civil Engineering laboratory tests

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Nalon; Paulo Sergio de Almeida Barbosa; Walcyr Duarte Nascimento

    2018-01-01

    This work aims to implement and evaluate an interactive educational software that helps Civil Engineering students to perform and analyze the calculations related to different Soil Mechanics laboratory tests. This experience consists of an attempt to incorporate information and communication technologies (ICTs) into the engineering teaching-learning process. The content of the program is distributed into three different modules: “Compaction test”, “Consolidation test”, and “Direct shear test”...

  9. Development and Testing of a Rotating Detonation Engine Run on Hydrogen and Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Jay Rutledge (Member) Date v AFIT/GAE/ENY/12-M36 Abstract Rotating detonation engines ( RDEs ) have the potential for greater...efficiencies over conventional engines by utilizing pressure gain combustion. A new modular RDE (6 in diameter) was developed and successfully run on...hydrogen and standard air. The RDE allows for variation of injection scheme and detonation channel widths. Tests provided the operational space of the

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Engines [As stated in § 60.4210(g), manufacturers of fire pump engines may use the following test cycle... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  11. 40 CFR 1051.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line vehicles or engines? 1051.305 Section 1051.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.305 How must I prepare and test my production...

  12. Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket-Engine Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Freddie; Bourgeois, Edit Kaminsky

    2005-01-01

    The Highly Accurate Cost Estimating Model (HACEM) is a software system for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center. HACEM is built on a foundation of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) a hybrid software concept that combines the adaptive capabilities of neural networks with the ease of development and additional benefits of fuzzy-logic-based systems. In ANFIS, fuzzy inference systems are trained by use of neural networks. HACEM includes selectable subsystems that utilize various numbers and types of inputs, various numbers of fuzzy membership functions, and various input-preprocessing techniques. The inputs to HACEM are parameters of specific tests or series of tests. These parameters include test type (component or engine test), number and duration of tests, and thrust level(s) (in the case of engine tests). The ANFIS in HACEM are trained by use of sets of these parameters, along with costs of past tests. Thereafter, the user feeds HACEM a simple input text file that contains the parameters of a planned test or series of tests, the user selects the desired HACEM subsystem, and the subsystem processes the parameters into an estimate of cost(s).

  13. Surface Inhomogeneities of the White Dwarf in the Binary EUVE J2013+400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennes, Stephane

    We propose to study the white dwarf in the binary EUVE J2013+400. The object is paired with a dMe star and new extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations will offer critical insights into the properties of the white dwarf. The binary behaves, in every other aspects, like its siblings EUVE J0720-317 and EUVE J1016-053 and new EUV observations will help establish their class properties; in particular, EUV photometric variations in 0720-317 and 1016-053 over a period of 11 hours and 57 minutes, respectively, are indicative of surface abundance inhomogeneities coupled with the white dwarfs rotation period. These variations and their large photospheric helium abundance are best explained by a diffusion-accretion model in which time-variable accretion and possible coupling to magnetic poles contribute to abundance variations across the surface and possibly as a function of depth. EUV spectroscopy will also enable a study of the helium abundance as a function of depth and a detailed comparison with theoretical diffusion profile.

  14. Durability Testing of Biomass Based Oxygenated Fuel Components in a Compression Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baumgardner, Marc E. [Gonzaga University; Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam [Colorado State University; Olsen, Daniel B. [Colorado State University; Marchese, Anthony J. [Colorado State University

    2017-10-18

    Blending cellulosic biofuels with traditional petroleum-derived fuels results in transportation fuels with reduced carbon footprints. Many cellulosic fuels rely on processing methods that produce mixtures of oxygenates which must be upgraded before blending with traditional fuels. Complete oxygenate removal is energy-intensive and it is likely that such biofuel blends will necessarily contain some oxygen content to be economically viable. Previous work by our group indicated that diesel fuel blends with low levels (<4%-vol) of oxygenates resulted in minimal negative effects on short-term engine performance and emissions. However, little is known about the long-term effects of these compounds on engine durability issues such as the impact on fuel injection, in-cylinder carbon buildup, and engine oil degradation. In this study, four of the oxygenated components previously tested were blended at 4%-vol in diesel fuel and tested with a durability protocol devised for this work consisting of 200 hrs of testing in a stationary, single-cylinder, Yanmar diesel engine operating at constant load. Oil samples, injector spray patterns, and carbon buildup from the injector and cylinder surfaces were analyzed. It was found that, at the levels tested, these fuels had minimal impact on the overall engine operation, which is consistent with our previous findings.

  15. Performance Testing of Diesel Engine using Cardanol-Kerosene oil blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of environmental pollution and fossil fuel depletion has necessitated the use of biofuels in engines which have a relatively cleaner emissions. Cardanol is a biofuel, abundantly available in India, which is a by-product of cashew processing industries. In this study performance of raw Cardanol blended with kerosene has been tested in diesel engine. Volumetric blend BK30 (30% kerosene and 70% Cardanol has been used for the test. The properties like flash point, viscosity and calorific value of the blend have been determined. The test was carried out in four stroke diesel engine connected with an eddy current dynamometer. Performance of the engine has been analysed by finding the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and brake thermal efficiency (BTE. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the blend is 29.87%, with less CO and smoke emission compared to diesel. The results were also compared with the performance of Cardanol diesel blend and Cardanol camphor oil blend, which were already tested in diesel engines by other researchers. Earlier research work reveals that the blend of 30% camphor oil and 70% Cardanol performs very closer to diesel fuel with a thermal efficiency of 29.1%. Similarly, higher brake thermal efficiency was obtained for 20% Cardanol and 80% diesel blend.

  16. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  17. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  18. The Application of Hardware in the Loop Testing for Distributed Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George L.; Culley, Dennis E.; Brand, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The essence of a distributed control system is the modular partitioning of control function across a hardware implementation. This type of control architecture requires embedding electronics in a multitude of control element nodes for the execution of those functions, and their integration as a unified system. As the field of distributed aeropropulsion control moves toward reality, questions about building and validating these systems remain. This paper focuses on the development of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test techniques for distributed aero engine control, and the application of HIL testing as it pertains to potential advanced engine control applications that may now be possible due to the intelligent capability embedded in the nodes.

  19. Long term durability tests of small engines fueled with bio-ethanol / gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippayawong, N.; Kundhawiworn, N.; Jompakdee, W.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the result of an ongoing research to evaluate performance and wear of small, single cylinder, naturally aspirated, agricultural spark ignition engines using biomass-derived ethanol and gasoline blends. The reference gasoline fuel was selected to be representative of gasoline typically available in Thailand. Long-term engine tests of 10% and 20% ethanol / gasoline blends as well as the reference fuel were performed at a constant speed of 2300 rpm under part load condition up to 200 operation hours for each fuel type. Engine brake power, specific fuel consumption, carbon deposits and surface wear were measured and compared between neat gasoline and ethanol/ gasoline blends. It was found that blended fuels appeared to affect the engine performance in a similar way and compared well with the base gasoline fuel. From the results obtained, it was found that engine brake power and specific fuel consumption changed slightly with running time and were not found to have any significant change between different fuel blends. There were carbon deposits buildup on the spark plug, the intake port and exhaust valve stem for all fuels used. Surface wear was not significantly different in the test engines between neat gasoline or ethanol/gasoline blend fuelling

  20. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  1. Nondestructive testing on graphite structures for high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Kambe, Mamoru; Tsuji, Nobumasa.

    1994-01-01

    The application of ultrasonic (for internal defects) and eddy current testing (for surface defects) were investigated on the structures of nuclear-grade IG-110 and PGX graphite for the HTTR. The equipment were developed in order to detect the specific configuration of graphite blocks and the testing conditions were defined as the practical testing methods. The established testing methods are being used for the acceptance tests of graphite structures in the HTTR. (author)

  2. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  3. Rise-to-power test in High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor. Test progress and summary of test results up to 30 MW of reactor thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Shimakawa, Satoshi

    2002-08-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is a graphite moderated and gas cooled reactor with the thermal power of 30 MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC/950degC. Rise-to-power test in the HTTR was performed from April 23rd to June 6th in 2000 as phase 1 test up to 10 MW in the rated operation mode, from January 29th to March 1st in 2001 as phase 2 test up to 20 MW in the rated operation mode and from April 14th to June 8th in 2001 as phase 3 test up to 20 MW in the high temperature test the mechanism of the reactor outlet coolant temperature becomes 850degC at 30 MW in the rated operation mode and 950degC in the high temperature test operation mode. Phase 4 rise-to-power test to achieve the thermal reactor power of 30 MW started on October 23rd in 2001. On December 7th in 2001 it was confirmed that the thermal reactor power and the reactor outlet coolant temperature reached to 30 MW and 850degC respectively in the single loaded operation mode in which only the primary pressurized water cooler is operating. Phase 4 test was performed until March 6th in 2002. JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) obtained the certificate of the pre-operation test from MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture Sports Science and Technology) after all the pre-operation tests by MEXT were passed successfully with the reactor transient test at an abnormal event as a final pre-operation test. From the test results of the rise-up-power test up to 30 MW in the rated operation mode, performance of the reactor and cooling system were confirmed, and it was also confirmed that an operation of reactor facility can be performed safely. Some problems to be solved were found through the tests. By solving them, the reactor operation with the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 950degC will be achievable. (author)

  4. Verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Zhang Xiaobin; Lu Xiaowu; Dong Jingling; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    The verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator was implemented. The test items include performance determination for the system when solid wastes (include resins) or spent oil were incinerating and off gas was cleaning, tracer test for determining decontamination factor and 72 h continuos running test. 500 h tests verify the reliability and feasibility of designs of technological process, main structure, instrument control and system safety. The incineration system ran smoothly, devices and instruments worked stably. The specifications such as capacity, volume reduction factor, carbon remainder in ash and decontamination factor all meet the design requirements

  5. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer Ground Testing on a C-17 Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Roger P.; Lekki, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center was tested for the first time in an aircraft engine environment as part of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research (VIPR) program. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. Sensor system malfunction is a significant contributor to propulsion in flight shutdowns (IFSD) which can lead to aircraft accidents when the issue is compounded with an inappropriate crew response. The development of the SDA is important for both reducing the IFSD rate, and hence reducing the rate at which this component failure type can put an aircraft in jeopardy, and also as a critical enabling technology for future automated malfunction diagnostic systems. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to making vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. In an effort toward demonstrating the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C-17 aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The two SDA attachment conditions used were fully tight and loose. The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first time the robustness of the SDA in an engine environment characterized by high vibration levels.

  6. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

  7. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwinska, Katarzyna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Słoma, Jacek; Tucki, Karol; Zaleski, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine) in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  8. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  9. Rocket-borne EUV-visible emission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Baker, K.D.; Stasek, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two rocket-borne experiments for measuring EUV atmospheric emissions have been conducted. The first measured emissions at 391.4 nm and 557.7 nm, and the second measured emissions in the range from 50 to 650 nm. Height profiles of selected auroral emissions from atomic oxygen at 130.4 nm (exhibiting resonant radiation diffusion) and from atomic oxygen at 557.7 nm, and from neutral and ionized molecular nitrogen are shown. Some details of the recorded spectra are given. In the shorter wavelength regions, emissions from atomic oxygen and nitrogen dominate. Over 140 nm, Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands, second positive bands and Vegard-Kaplan bands of molecular nitrogen contribute most strongly except for some atomic lines. The Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands of molecular nitrogen are relatively weak during the auroral arc as compared to the diffuse aurora

  10. Impulsive EUV bursts observed in C IV with OSO-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Athay, R.; White, O.R.; Lites, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Time sequences of profiles of the lambda 1548 line of C IV containing 51 EUV bursts observed in or near active regions are analyzed to determine the brightness. Doppler shift and line broadening characteristics of the bursts. The bursts have mean lifetimes of approximately 150s, and mean increases in brightness at burst maximum of four-fold as observed with a field of view of 2'' x 20''. Mean burst diameters are estimated to be 3'', or smaller. All but three of the bursts show Doppler shift with velocities sometimes exceeding 75 km s -1 ; 31 are dominated by red shifts and 17 are dominated by blue shifts. Approximately half of the latter group have red-shifted precursors. We interpret the bursts as prominence material, such as surges and coronal rain, moving through the field of view of the spectrometer. (orig.)

  11. Actinic inspection of EUV reticles with arbitrary pattern design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochi, Iacopo; Helfenstein, Patrick; Rajeev, Rajendran; Fernandez, Sara; Kazazis, Dimitrios; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-10-01

    The re ective-mode EUV mask scanning lensless imaging microscope (RESCAN) is being developed to provide actinic mask inspection capabilities for defects and patterns with high resolution and high throughput, for 7 nm node and beyond. Here we, will report on our progress and present the results on programmed defect detection on random, logic-like patterns. The defects we investigated range from 200 nm to 50 nm size on the mask. We demonstrated the ability of RESCAN to detect these defects in die-to-die and die-to-database mode with a high signal to noise ratio. We also describe future plans for the upgrades to increase the resolution, the sensitivity, and the inspection speed of the demo tool.

  12. Economic testing of large integrated switching circuits - a challenge to the test engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreinberg, W.

    1978-01-01

    With reference to large integrated switching circuits, one can use an incoming standard programme test or the customer's switching circuits. The author describes the development of suitable, extensive and economical test programmes. (orig.) [de

  13. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5)× 10 22 Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4)× 10 22 Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  14. Etch bias inversion during EUV mask ARC etch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajn, Alexander; Rolff, Haiko; Wistrom, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing is now within reach for 7nm technology node and beyond (1), at least for some steps. The scheduling is in transition from long to mid-term. Thus, all contributors need to focus their efforts on the production requirements. For the photo mask industry, these requirements include the control of defectivity, CD performance and lifetime of their masks. The mask CD performance including CD uniformity, CD targeting, and CD linearity/ resolution, is predominantly determined by the photo resist performance and by the litho and etch processes. State-of-the-art chemically amplified resists exhibit an asymmetric resolution for directly and indirectly written features, which usually results in a similarly asymmetric resolution performance on the mask. This resolution gap may reach as high as multiple tens of nanometers on the mask level in dependence of the chosen processes. Depending on the printing requirements of the wafer process, a reduction or even an increase of this gap may be required. A potential way of tuning via the etch process, is to control the lateral CD contribution during etch. Aside from process tuning knobs like pressure, RF powers and gases, which usually also affect CD linearity and CD uniformity, the simplest knob is the etch time itself. An increased over etch time results in an increased CD contribution in the normal case. , We found that the etch CD contribution of ARC layer etch on EUV photo masks is reduced by longer over etch times. Moreover, this effect can be demonstrated to be present for different etch chambers and photo resists.

  15. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Liu, Y., E-mail: clowder@solar.physics.montana.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5)× 10{sup 22} Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4)× 10{sup 22} Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  16. Stellar observations with the Voyager EUV objective grating spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holberg, J.B.; Polidan, R.S.; Barry, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    During the periods of interplanetary cruise the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers are used to provide unique and otherwise unobtainable observations in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 500 to 1200) and the far ultraviolet (FUV, 912 to 1220 A). These observations include the spectra of hot stellar sources as well as emission from the interplanetary medium. Recent results of note include: (1) extensive spectrophotometric coverage of a superoutburst of the dwarf nova VW Hydri, which showed a clear 1/2 day delay in the outburst at 1000 A relative to that observed in the optical and a curious dip in the FUV light curve near maximum light. The Voyager observations were part of a comprehensive and highly successful campaign involving EXOSAT, IUE and ground based observations of this dwarf nova; (2) a comprehensive study of Be star spectra and variability. These results show the critical importance of FUV observations in the study of the effects of stellar rotation in hot stars; (3) the detection of a strong O VI absorption feature in the spectrum of the PG 1159-like object H1504+65. This detection along with the optical identification of weak O IV lines was a key to the interpretation of this object; which is of extremely high (>150,000K) temperature and appears to be a unique example of a stellar atmosphere devoid of H and He; (4) an analysis of an extremely long duration spectrum of the EUV and FUV sky background, which establishes important new upper limits on both continuum and line emission. This result also provide the first detection of interplanetary Lyman gamma

  17. Analysis of a Failed Eclipse Plasma Ejection Using EUV Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Bazin, C.

    2018-03-01

    The photometry of eclipse white-light (W-L) images showing a moving blob is interpreted for the first time together with observations from space with the PRoject for On Board Autonomy (PROBA-2) mission (ESA). An off-limb event seen with great details in W-L was analyzed with the SWAP imager ( Sun Watcher using Active pixel system detector and image Processing) working in the EUV near 174 Å. It is an elongated plasma blob structure of 25 Mm diameter moving above the east limb with coronal loops under. Summed and co-aligned SWAP images are evaluated using a 20-h sequence, in addition to the 11 July, 2010 eclipse W-L images taken from several sites. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) recorded the event suggesting a magnetic reconnection near a high neutral point; accordingly, we also call it a magnetic plasmoid. The measured proper motion of the blob shows a velocity up to 12 km s^{-1}. Electron densities of the isolated condensation (cloud or blob or plasmoid) are photometrically evaluated. The typical value is 108 cm^{-3} at r=1.7 R_{⊙}, superposed on a background corona of 107 cm^{-3} density. The mass of the cloud near its maximum brightness is found to be 1.6×10^{13} g, which is typically 0.6×10^{-4} of the overall mass of the corona. From the extrapolated magnetic field the cloud evolves inside a rather broad open region but decelerates, after reaching its maximum brightness. The influence of such small events for supplying material to the ubiquitous slow wind is noticed. A precise evaluation of the EUV photometric data, after accurately removing the stray light, suggests an interpretation of the weak 174 Å radiation of the cloud as due to resonance scattering in the Fe IX/X lines.

  18. Detecting EUV transients in near real time with ALEXIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Dupre`, D.; Bloch, J.J.; Theiler, J.; Pfafman, T.; Beauchesne, B.

    1995-12-31

    The Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) experiment consists of a mini-satellite containing six wide angle EUV/ultrasoft X-ray telescopes (Priedhorsky et al. 1989, and Bloch et al. 1994). Its scientific objective is to map out the sky in three narrow ({Delta}E/E {approx} 5%) bandpasses around 66, 71, and 93 eV. During each 50 second satellite rotation period the six telescopes, each with a 30{degrees} field, of:view and a spatial resolution of 0.25{degrees}, scan most of the antisolar hemisphere of the sky. The project is a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the University of California-Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory. It is controlled entirely from a small ground station located at Los Alamos. The mission was launched on a Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle on April 25, 1993. An incident at launch delayed our ability to properly analyze the data until November of 1994. In January of 1995, we brought on line automated software to routinely carry out the transient search. After the data is downlinked from the satellite, the software processes and transforms it into sky maps that are automatically searched for new sources. The software then sends the results of these searches by e-mail to the science team within two hours of the downlink. This system has successfully detected the Cataclysmic Variables VW Hyi, U Gem and AR UMa in outburst, and has detected at least two unidentified short duration EUV transients (Roussel-Dupre et al 1995, Roussel-Dupre 1995).

  19. Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.

  20. Testing foreign language impact on engineering students' scientific problem-solving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in the Degree Programme of Aviation at the FH JOANNEUM University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Half of each test group were given a set of 12 physics problems described in German, the other half received the same set of problems described in English. It was the goal to test linguistic reading comprehension necessary for scientific problem solving instead of physics knowledge as such. The results imply that written undergraduate English-medium engineering tests and examinations may not require additional examination time or language-specific aids for students who have reached university-entrance proficiency in English as a foreign language.

  1. Multicylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Two diesel engines representative of the four-stroke cycle and two-stroke cycle main propulsion units installed in U.S. Coast Guard WPB class cutters were operated in a test environment in an attempt to demonstrate significant fuel savings associated...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1910 - How must I prepare and test my in-use engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (including auxiliary loads such as air conditioning in the cab), normal ambient conditions, and the normal... engines? 86.1910 Section 86.1910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... document that the owner/operator of the prospective test vehicle has a history of normally using the fuel...

  3. The operating experience and incident analysis for High Flux Engineering Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guang

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the incidents analysis for High Flux Engineering test reactor (HFETR) and introduces operating experience. Some suggestion have been made to reduce the incidents of HFETR. It is necessary to adopt new improvements which enhance the safety and reliability of operation. (author)

  4. Dynamic material characterization by combining ballistic testing and an engineering model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Wal, R. van der

    2013-01-01

    At TNO several energy-based engineering models have been created for various failure mechanism occurring in ballistic testing of materials, like ductile hole growth, denting, plugging, etc. Such models are also under development for ceramic and fiberbased materials (fabrics). As the models are

  5. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  6. Free Fall Misconceptions: Results of a Graph Based Pre-Test of Sophomore Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…

  7. Testing Foreign Language Impact on Engineering Students' Scientific Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in…

  8. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  9. Output Only Modal Testing of a Car Body Subject to Engine Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Møller, Nis

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a car body subject to engine excitation is presented. The response data were analyzed using two different techniques: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.310 - How must I select vehicles or engines for production-line testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines, randomly select and test one more engine. Then, calculate the required sample size for the model... distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission... sample size for the model year as described in paragraph (c) of this section. (3) In the first test...

  11. EUV lithography for 30nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, sensitivity, and LWR tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Chandhok, Manish; Frasure, Kent

    2009-03-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 32nm half-pitch node and beyond. Readiness of EUV materials is currently one high risk area according to assessments made at the 2008 EUVL Symposium. The main development issue regarding EUV resist has been how to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity, high resolution, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes the strategy and current status of EUV resist development at Intel Corporation. Data is presented utilizing Intel's Micro-Exposure Tool (MET) examining the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=30nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=10mJ/cm2 with <=4nm LWR.

  12. Mix-and-match considerations for EUV insertion in N7 HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Gabor, Allen; Samudrala, Pavan; Meyers, Sheldon; Hosler, Erik; Johnson, Richard; Felix, Nelson

    2017-03-01

    An optimal mix-match control strategy for EUV and 193i scanners is crucial for the insertion of EUV lithography at 7nm technology node. The systematic differences between these exposure systems introduce additional cross-platform mixmatch overlay errors. In this paper, we quantify the EUV specific contributions to mix-match overlay, and explore the effectiveness of higher-order interfield and intrafield corrections on minimizing the on-product mix-match overlay errors. We also analyze the impact of intra-field sampling plans in terms of model accuracy and adequacy in capturing EUV specific intra-field signatures. Our analysis suggests that more intra-field measurements and appropriate placement of the metrology targets within the field are required to achieve the on-product overlay control goals for N7 HVM.

  13. Inverse problems in the design, modeling and testing of engineering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifanov, Oleg M.

    1991-01-01

    Formulations, classification, areas of application, and approaches to solving different inverse problems are considered for the design of structures, modeling, and experimental data processing. Problems in the practical implementation of theoretical-experimental methods based on solving inverse problems are analyzed in order to identify mathematical models of physical processes, aid in input data preparation for design parameter optimization, help in design parameter optimization itself, and to model experiments, large-scale tests, and real tests of engineering systems.

  14. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FIRST MEASUREMENTS OF THE MASS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THE EUV DIMMING OBSERVED WITH STEREO EUVI A+B SPACECRAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Wuelser, Jean-Pierre; Lemen, James R.; Sandman, Anne; Vourlidas, Angelos; Colaninno, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    The masses of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have traditionally been determined from white-light coronagraphs (based on Thomson scattering of electrons), as well as from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) dimming observed with one spacecraft. Here we develop an improved method of measuring CME masses based on EUV dimming observed with the dual STEREO/EUVI spacecraft in multiple temperature filters that includes three-dimensional volume and density modeling in the dimming region and background corona. As a test, we investigate eight CME events with previous mass determinations from STEREO/COR2, of which six cases are reliably detected with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) using our automated multi-wavelength detection code. We find CME masses in the range of m CME = (2-7) x 10 15 g. The agreement between the two EUVI/A and B spacecraft is m A /m B = 1.3 ± 0.6 and the consistency with white-light measurements by COR2 is m EUVI /m COR2 = 1.1 ± 0.3. The consistency between EUVI and COR2 implies no significant mass backflows (or inflows) at r sun and adequate temperature coverage for the bulk of the CME mass in the range of T ∼ 0.5-3.0 MK. The temporal evolution of the EUV dimming allows us to also model the evolution of the CME density n e (t), volume V(t), height-time h(t), and propagation speed v(t) in terms of an adiabatically expanding self-similar geometry. We determine e-folding EUV dimming times of t D = 1.3 ± 1.4 hr. We test the adiabatic expansion model in terms of the predicted detection delay (Δt ∼ 0.7 hr) between EUVI and COR2 for the fastest CME event (2008 March 25) and find good agreement with the observed delay (Δt ∼ 0.8 hr).

  16. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  17. Investigation of the loss of forced cooling test by using the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Goto, Minoru; Tochio, Daisuke

    2007-09-01

    The three gas circulators trip test and the vessel cooling system stop test as the safety demonstration test by using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) are under planning to demonstrate inherent safety features of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. All three gas circulators to circulate the helium gas as the coolant are stopped to simulate the loss of forced cooling in the three gas circulators trip test. The stop of the vessel cooling system located outside the reactor pressure vessel to remove the residual heat of the reactor core follows the stop of all three gas circulators in the vessel cooling system stop test. The analysis of the reactor transient for such tests and abnormal events postulated during the test was performed. From the result of analysis, it was confirmed that the three gas circulators trip test and the vessel cooling system stop test can be performed within the region of the normal operation in the HTTR and the safety of the reactor facility is ensured even if the abnormal events would occur. (author)

  18. A Combined Ethical and Scientific Analysis of Large-scale Tests of Solar Climate Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Our research group recently published an analysis of the combined ethical and scientific issues surrounding large-scale testing of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI; Lenferna et al., 2017, Earth's Future). We are expanding this study in two directions. The first is extending this same analysis to other geoengineering techniques, particularly marine cloud brightening (MCB). MCB has substantial differences to SAI in this context because MCB can be tested over significantly smaller areas of the planet and, following injection, has a much shorter lifetime of weeks as opposed to years for SAI. We examine issues such as the role of intent, the lesser of two evils, and the nature of consent. In addition, several groups are currently considering climate engineering governance tools such as a code of ethics and a registry. We examine how these tools might influence climate engineering research programs and, specifically, large-scale testing. The second direction of expansion is asking whether ethical and scientific issues associated with large-scale testing are so significant that they effectively preclude moving ahead with climate engineering research and testing. Some previous authors have suggested that no research should take place until these issues are resolved. We think this position is too draconian and consider a more nuanced version of this argument. We note, however, that there are serious questions regarding the ability of the scientific research community to move to the point of carrying out large-scale tests.

  19. Enhancement of EUV emission from a liquid microjet target by use of dual laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Rajyaguru, Chirag; Koga, Masato; Kawasaki, Keita; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yugami, Noboru; Kawata, Shigeo; Andreev, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at the wavelength of around 13nm waws observed from a laser-produced plasma using continuous water-jet. Strong dependence of the conversion efficiency (CE) on the laser focal spot size and jet diameter was observed. The EUV CE at a given laser spot size and jet diameter was further enhanced using double laser pulses, where a pre-pulse was used for initial heating of the plasma.

  20. Nanoparticle Photoresists: Ligand Exchange as a New, Sensitive EUV Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Kryask, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid nanoparticle photoresists and their patterning using DUV, EUV, 193 nm lithography and e-beam lithography has been investigated and reported earlier. The nanoparticles have demonstrated very high EUV sensitivity and significant etch resistance compared to other standard photoresists. The current study aims at investigating and establishing the underlying mechanism for dual tone patterning of these nanoparticle photoresist systems. Infrared spectroscopy and UV absorbance studies supported by mass loss and dissolution studies support the current model. © 2013SPST.

  1. Research program of the high temperature engineering test reactor for upgrading the HTGR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Takeda, Takeshi; Saikusa, Akio; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    1997-07-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet power of 30 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950degC, and its first criticality will be attained at the end of 1997. In the HTTR, researches establishing and upgrading the technology basis necessary for an HTGR and innovative basic researches for a high temperature engineering will be conducted. A research program of the HTTR for upgrading the technology basis for the HTGR was determined considering realization of future generation commercial HTGRs. This paper describes a research program of the HTTR. (author)

  2. Development of an Optimal Controller and Validation Test Stand for Fuel Efficient Engine Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Jack G., III

    There are numerous motivations for improvements in automotive fuel efficiency. As concerns over the environment grow at a rate unmatched by hybrid and electric automotive technologies, the need for reductions in fuel consumed by current road vehicles has never been more present. Studies have shown that a major cause of poor fuel consumption in automobiles is improper driving behavior, which cannot be mitigated by purely technological means. The emergence of autonomous driving technologies has provided an opportunity to alleviate this inefficiency by removing the necessity of a driver. Before autonomous technology can be relied upon to reduce gasoline consumption on a large scale, robust programming strategies must be designed and tested. The goal of this thesis work was to design and deploy an autonomous control algorithm to navigate a four cylinder, gasoline combustion engine through a series of changing load profiles in a manner that prioritizes fuel efficiency. The experimental setup is analogous to a passenger vehicle driving over hilly terrain at highway speeds. The proposed approach accomplishes this using a model-predictive, real-time optimization algorithm that was calibrated to the engine. Performance of the optimal control algorithm was tested on the engine against contemporary cruise control. Results indicate that the "efficient'' strategy achieved one to two percent reductions in total fuel consumed for all load profiles tested. The consumption data gathered also suggests that further improvements could be realized on a different subject engine and using extended models and a slightly modified optimal control approach.

  3. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  4. Establishing a Ballistic Test Methodology for Documenting the Containment Capability of Small Gas Turbine Engine Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heady, Joel; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Bobula, George A.

    2009-01-01

    A test methodology currently employed for large engines was extended to quantify the ballistic containment capability of a small turboshaft engine compressor case. The approach involved impacting the inside of a compressor case with a compressor blade. A gas gun propelled the blade into the case at energy levels representative of failed compressor blades. The test target was a full compressor case. The aft flange was rigidly attached to a test stand and the forward flange was attached to a main frame to provide accurate boundary conditions. A window machined in the case allowed the projectile to pass through and impact the case wall from the inside with the orientation, direction and speed that would occur in a blade-out event. High-peed, digital-video cameras provided accurate velocity and orientation data. Calibrated cameras and digital image correlation software generated full field displacement and strain information at the back side of the impact point.

  5. Free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator 1000-hour endurance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, J.; Dochat, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) has the potential to be a long lived, highly reliable, power conversion device attractive for many product applications such as space, residential or remote site power. The purpose of endurance testing the FPSE was to demonstrate its potential for long life. The endurance program was directed at obtaining 1000 operational hours under various test conditions: low power, full stroke, duty cycle and stop/start. Critical performance parameters were measured to note any change and/or trend. Inspections were conducted to measure and compare critical seal/bearing clearances. The engine performed well throughout the program, completing more than 1100 hours. Hardware inspection, including the critical clearances, showed no significant change in hardware or clearance dimensions. The performance parameters did not exhibit any increasing or decreasing trends. The test program confirms the potential for long life FPSE applications.

  6. Liquid chromatographic analysis of a formulated ester from a gas-turbine engine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Morales, W.

    1983-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) utilizing mu-Bondagel and mu-Styragel columns with a tetrahydrofuran mobile phase was used to determine the chemical degradation of lubricant samples from a gas-turbine engine test. A MIL-L-27502 candidate, ester-based lubricant was run in a J57-29 engine at a bulk oil temperature of 216 C. In general, the analyses indicated a progressive loss of primary ester, additive depletion, and formation of higher molecular weight material. An oil sample taken at the conclusion of the test showed a reversal of this trend because of large additions of new oil. The high-molecular-weight product from the degraded ester absorbed strongly in the ultraviolet region at 254 nanometers. This would indicate the presence of chromophoric groups. An analysis of a similar ester lubricant from a separate high-temperature bearing test yielded qualitatively similar results.

  7. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  8. A reliability as an independent variable (RAIV) methodology for optimizing test planning for liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Richard; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-01

    The hot fire test strategy for liquid rocket engines has always been a concern of space industry and agency alike because no recognized standard exists. Previous hot fire test plans focused on the verification of performance requirements but did not explicitly include reliability as a dimensioning variable. The stakeholders are, however, concerned about a hot fire test strategy that balances reliability, schedule, and affordability. A multiple criteria test planning model is presented that provides a framework to optimize the hot fire test strategy with respect to stakeholder concerns. The Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator, a program of the European Space Agency, is used as example to provide the quantitative answer to the claim that a reduced thrust scale demonstrator is cost beneficial for a subsequent flight engine development. Scalability aspects of major subsystems are considered in the prior information definition inside the Bayesian framework. The model is also applied to assess the impact of an increase of the demonstrated reliability level on schedule and affordability.

  9. Biphasic Finite Element Modeling Reconciles Mechanical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Constructs Across Testing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Gregory R; Fisher, Matthew B; Stoeckl, Brendan D; Dodge, George R; Mauck, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a promising treatment for osteoarthritis, and the field has progressed toward utilizing large animal models for proof of concept and preclinical studies. Mechanical testing of the regenerative tissue is an essential outcome for functional evaluation. However, testing modalities and constitutive frameworks used to evaluate in vitro grown samples differ substantially from those used to evaluate in vivo derived samples. To address this, we developed finite element (FE) models (using FEBio) of unconfined compression and indentation testing, modalities commonly used for such samples. We determined the model sensitivity to tissue radius and subchondral bone modulus, as well as its ability to estimate material parameters using the built-in parameter optimization tool in FEBio. We then sequentially tested agarose gels of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% weight/weight using a custom indentation platform, followed by unconfined compression. Similarly, we evaluated the ability of the model to generate material parameters for living constructs by evaluating engineered cartilage. Juvenile bovine mesenchymal stem cells were seeded (2 × 10 7 cells/mL) in 1% weight/volume hyaluronic acid hydrogels and cultured in a chondrogenic medium for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Samples were planed and tested sequentially in indentation and unconfined compression. The model successfully completed parameter optimization routines for each testing modality for both acellular and cell-based constructs. Traditional outcome measures and the FE-derived outcomes showed significant changes in material properties during the maturation of engineered cartilage tissue, capturing dynamic changes in functional tissue mechanics. These outcomes were significantly correlated with one another, establishing this FE modeling approach as a singular method for the evaluation of functional engineered and native tissue regeneration, both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE MACH 2 RAMGEN ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2001-09-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of combustion engine is presented. The engine is designed to convert the thrust from ramjet modules into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. An aggressive test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the existing engine, as well as incorporation of novel improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with Vortex Generators and bluff body flame holders illuminated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Air film cooling studies demonstrated that acceptable combustor life could be achieved with optimized air film distribution patterns and thermal barrier coatings.

  11. Use of an expert system data analysis manager for space shuttle main engine test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Ken

    1988-01-01

    The ability to articulate, collect, and automate the application of the expertise needed for the analysis of space shuttle main engine (SSME) test data would be of great benefit to NASA liquid rocket engine experts. This paper describes a project whose goal is to build a rule-based expert system which incorporates such expertise. Experiential expertise, collected directly from the experts currently involved in SSME data analysis, is used to build a rule base to identify engine anomalies similar to those analyzed previously. Additionally, an alternate method of expertise capture is being explored. This method would generate rules inductively based on calculations made using a theoretical model of the SSME's operation. The latter rules would be capable of diagnosing anomalies which may not have appeared before, but whose effects can be predicted by the theoretical model.

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning of the initial engine test facility and the IET two-inch hot-waste line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, F.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Initial Engine Test Decommissioning Project is described in this report. The Initial Engine Test facility was constructed and operated at the National Reactor Testing Station, now known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, to support the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program and the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power Transient test program, circa 1950 through 1960s. Due to the severe nature of these nuclear test programs, a significant amount of radioactive contamination was deposited in various portions of the Initial Engine Test Facility. Characterizations, decision analyses, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning were prepared from 1982 through 1985. Decontamination and decommissioning activities were performed in such a way that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory remains. These decontamination and decommissioning activities began in 1985 and were completed in 1987. 13 figs

  13. Engine performance testing using variable RON95 fuel brands available in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Riduan Aizuddin Fahmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various gasoline fuel producers available in Malaysia. The effects of fuel variations from different manufacturers on vehicle performance have always been a debate among users and currently the facts still remains inconclusive. Hence, this study focuses on analyzing various RON95 fuel brands available in the Malaysian market and finding the differences towards engine performance. In terms of engine output, the important data of power (hp and torque (Nm will be gathered by using an engine dynamometer. Another data that would also be taken into account is the knocking where the relative knock index can be measured in percentage using the knock sensor accelerometer. Results have shown that the performance of different fuel brands tested are indeed different albeit by only a small margin even though all fuels are categorized with the same octane rating. The power and torque results also imply that both are influenced by the amount of vibration generated due to engine knocking. Based from the overall outcome, consumers would not need to only focus on a certain type of gasoline brand as all differentiates the engine performance marginally.

  14. Test results of pongamia pinnata methyl esters with direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, MG.; Chattha, J.A.; Khan, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pongamia Pinnata oil is considered as a potential source of biodiesel production in Pakistan. When selecting source for commercial production of biodiesel several criteria are used. One of them is that biodiesel or biodiesel/diesel fuel blends must provide satisfactory performance and emissions of the diesel engine without or with a little engine modification. In this research performance and emissions characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine running on Pongamia Pinnata methyl esters were discussed. Discussion was supported by an analysis of combustion characteristics derived from in-cylinder pressure data. Engine running on a neat biodiesel showed higher brake specific fuel consumption and lower brake fuel conversion efficiency at all loads, whereas emissions were improved except of carbon monoxide emission at high loads. Decrease in brake efficiency and reduction of nitrogen oxides emissions were attributed solely to the change in the rate of heat release. Deposits on fuel infector nozzle were observed when engine was running on the neat biodiesel. Based on test results conclusion was made that Pongamia biodiesel/diesel fuel blends can effectively be used as a diesel oil substitute. (author)

  15. Basic data for surveillance test on core support graphite structures for the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2007-02-01

    Both of the visual inspection by a TV camera and the measurement of material properties by surveillance test on core support graphite structures are planned for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to confirm their structural integrity and characteristics. The surveillance test is aimed to investigate the change of material properties by aging effects such as fast neutron irradiation and oxidation. The obtained data will be used not only for evaluating the structural integrity of the core support graphite structures of the HTTR but also for design of advanced Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) discussed at generation IV international forum. This report describes the initial material properties of surveillance specimens before installation and installed position of surveillance specimens in the HTTR. (author)

  16. Development and test of combustion chamber for Stirling engine heated by natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie; Song, Xiange; Gui, Xiaohong; Tang, Dawei; Li, Zhigang; Cao, Wenyu

    2014-04-01

    The combustion chamber is an important component for the Stirling engine heated by natural gas. In the paper, we develop a combustion chamber for the Stirling engine which aims to generate 3˜5 kWe electric power. The combustion chamber includes three main components: combustion module, heat exchange cavity and thermal head. Its feature is that the structure can divide "combustion" process and "heat transfer" process into two apparent individual steps and make them happen one by one. Since natural gas can mix with air fully before burning, the combustion process can be easily completed without the second wind. The flame can avoid contacting the thermal head of Stirling engine, and the temperature fields can be easily controlled. The designed combustion chamber is manufactured and its performance is tested by an experiment which includes two steps. The experimental result of the first step proves that the mixture of air and natural gas can be easily ignited and the flame burns stably. In the second step of experiment, the combustion heat flux can reach 20 kW, and the energy utilization efficiency of thermal head has exceeded 0.5. These test results show that the thermal performance of combustion chamber has reached the design goal. The designed combustion chamber can be applied to a real Stirling engine heated by natural gas which is to generate 3˜5 kWe electric power.

  17. Eddy current testing for blade edge micro cracks of aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min; Xu, Min-dong; Gao, Xuan-yi; Jin, Xin; Qin, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Based on the problems of low detection efficiency in the micro cracks detection of aircraft engine blades, a differential excitation eddy current testing system was designed and developed. The function and the working principle of the system were described, the problems which contained the manufacture method of simulated cracks, signal generating, signal processing and the signal display method were described. The detection test was carried out by taking a certain model aircraft engine blade with simulated cracks as a tested specimen. The test data was processed by digital low-pass filter in the computer and the crack signals of time domain display and Lissajous figure display were acquired. By comparing the test results, it is verified that Lissajous figure display shows better performance compared to time domain display when the crack angle is small. The test results show that the eddy current testing system designed in this paper is feasible to detect the micro cracks on the aeroengine blade and can effectively improve the detection efficiency of micro cracks in the practical detection work.

  18. Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

  19. Construction and operational experiences of engineered barrier test facility for near surface disposal of LILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Se Moon; Kim, Chang Lak

    2003-01-01

    Engineered barrier test facility is specially designed to demonstrate the performance of engineered barrier system for the near-surface disposal facility under the domestic environmental conditions. Comprehensive measurement systems are installed within each test cell. Long-and short-term monitoring of the multi-layered cover system can be implemented according to different rainfall scenarios with artificial rainfall system. Monitoring data on the water content, temperature, matric potential, lateral drainage and percolation of cover-layer system can be systematically managed by automatic data acquisition system. The periodic measurement data are collected and will be analyzed by a dedicated database management system, and provide a basis for performance verification of the disposal cover design

  20. Engineering analysis activities in support of susquehanna unit 1 startup testing and cycle 1 operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.D.; Kukielka, C.A.; Olson, L.M.; Refling, J.G.; Roscioli, A.J.; Somma, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering analysis group is responsible for all nuclear plant systems analysis and reactor analysis activities, excluding fuel management analysis, at Pennsylvania Power and Light Company. These activities include making pretest and posttest predictions of startup tests; analyzing unplanned or unexpected transient events; providing technical training to plant personnel; assisting in the development of emergency drill scenarios; providing engineering evaluations to support design and technical specification changes, and evaluating, assessing, and resolving a number of license conditions. Many of these activities have required the direct use of RETRAN models. Two RETRAN analyses that were completed to support plant operations - a pretest analysis of the turbine trip startup test, and a posttest analysis of the loss of startup transformer event - are investigated. For each case, RETRAN results are compared with available plant data and comparisons are drawn on the acceptability of the performance of the plant systems

  1. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  3. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze ...

  4. The feature of high flux engineering test reactor and its role in nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Guangquan

    1987-01-01

    The High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR) designed and built by Chinese own efforts reached to its initial criticality on Dec. 27, 1979, and then achieved high power operation on Dec. 16, 1980. Until Nov. 11. 1986, the reactor had been operated for thirteen cycles. The paper presents briefly main feature of HFETR and its utilization during past years. The paper also deals with its role in nuclear power development. Finally, author gives his opinion on comprehensive utilization of HFETR. (author)

  5. Prospects of DUV OoB suppression techniques in EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hwang, Myung-Soo; Kang, Soon-Nam; Park, Cheolhong; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Yeo, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Seong-Sue

    2014-04-01

    Though scaling of source power is still the biggest challenge in EUV lithography (EUVL) technology era, CD and overlay controls for transistor's requirement are also precondition of adopting EUVL in mass production. Two kinds of contributors are identified as risks for CDU and Overlay: Infrared (IR) and deep ultraviolet (DUV) out of band (OOB) radiations from laser produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. IR from plasma generating CO2 laser that causes optics heating and wafer overlay error is well suppressed by introducing grating on collector to diffract IR off the optical axis and is the effect has been confirmed by operation of pre-production tool (NXE3100). EUV and DUV OOB which are reflected from mask black boarder (BB) are root causes of EUV-specific CD error at the boundaries of exposed shots which would result in the problem of CDU out of spec unless sufficiently suppressed. Therefore, control of DUV OOB reflection from the mask BB is one of the key technologies that must be developed prior to EUV mass production. In this paper, quantitative assessment on the advantage and the disadvantage of potential OOB solutions will be discussed. EUV and DUV OOB impacts on wafer CDs are measured from NXE3100 & NXE3300 experiments. Significant increase of DUV OOB impact on CD from NXE3300 compared with NXE3100 is observed. There are three ways of technology being developed to suppress DUV OOB: spectral purity filter (SPF) as a scanner solution, multi-layer etching as a solution on mask, and resist top-coating as a process solution. PROs and CONs of on-scanner, on-mask, and on-resist solution for the mass production of EUV lithography will be discussed.

  6. EUV and Magnetic Activities Associated with Type-I Solar Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Ruan, G. P.; Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Kong, X. L.

    2017-06-01

    Type-I bursts ( i.e. noise storms) are the earliest-known type of solar radio emission at the meter wavelength. They are believed to be excited by non-thermal energetic electrons accelerated in the corona. The underlying dynamic process and exact emission mechanism still remain unresolved. Here, with a combined analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), radio and photospheric magnetic field data of unprecedented quality recorded during a type-I storm on 30 July 2011, we identify a good correlation between the radio bursts and the co-spatial EUV and magnetic activities. The EUV activities manifest themselves as three major brightening stripes above a region adjacent to a compact sunspot, while the magnetic field there presents multiple moving magnetic features (MMFs) with persistent coalescence or cancelation and a morphologically similar three-part distribution. We find that the type-I intensities are correlated with those of the EUV emissions at various wavelengths with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 - 0.8. In addition, in the region between the brightening EUV stripes and the radio sources there appear consistent dynamic motions with a series of bi-directional flows, suggesting ongoing small-scale reconnection there. Mainly based on the induced connection between the magnetic motion at the photosphere and the EUV and radio activities in the corona, we suggest that the observed type-I noise storms and the EUV brightening activities are the consequence of small-scale magnetic reconnection driven by MMFs. This is in support of the original proposal made by Bentley et al. ( Solar Phys. 193, 227, 2000).

  7. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  8. Breakout Reconnection Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R⊙ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R⊙ above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s-1. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5-4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario.

  9. BREAKOUT RECONNECTION OBSERVED BY THE TESIS EUV TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V., E-mail: reva.antoine@gmail.com [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-10

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R{sub ⊙} from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R{sub ⊙} above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s{sup −1}. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5–4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario.

  10. Grazing incidence EUV study of the Alcator tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of impurity radiation to examine plasma conditions is a well known technique. To gain access, however, to the hot, central portion of the plasma created in the present confinement machines it is necessary to be able to observe radiation from medium and heavy elements such as molybdenum and iron. These impurities radiate primarily in the extreme ultra violet region of the spectrum and can play a role in the power balance of the tokamak. Radiation from highly ionized molybdenum was examined on the Alcator A and C tokamaks using a photometrically calibrated one meter grazing incidence monochromator. On Alcator A, a pseudo-continuum of Mo emissions in the 60 to 100 A ranges were seen to comprise 17% of the radiative losses from the plasma. This value closely matched measurements by a broad band bolometer array. Following these preliminary measurements, the monochromator was transferred to Alcator C for a more thorough examination of EUV emissions. Deviations from predicted scaling laws for energy confinement time vs density were observed on this machine

  11. Automated Identification of Coronal Holes from Synoptic EUV Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Amr; Asikainen, Timo; Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2018-04-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) are regions of open magnetic field lines in the solar corona and the source of the fast solar wind. Understanding the evolution of coronal holes is critical for solar magnetism as well as for accurate space weather forecasts. We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) synoptic maps at three wavelengths (195 Å/193 Å, 171 Å and 304 Å) measured by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SOHO/EIT) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) instruments. The two datasets are first homogenized by scaling the SDO/AIA data to the SOHO/EIT level by means of histogram equalization. We then develop a novel automated method to identify CHs from these homogenized maps by determining the intensity threshold of CH regions separately for each synoptic map. This is done by identifying the best location and size of an image segment, which optimally contains portions of coronal holes and the surrounding quiet Sun allowing us to detect the momentary intensity threshold. Our method is thus able to adjust itself to the changing scale size of coronal holes and to temporally varying intensities. To make full use of the information in the three wavelengths we construct a composite CH distribution, which is more robust than distributions based on one wavelength. Using the composite CH dataset we discuss the temporal evolution of CHs during the Solar Cycles 23 and 24.

  12. BREAKOUT RECONNECTION OBSERVED BY THE TESIS EUV TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R ⊙ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R ⊙ above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s −1 . At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5–4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario

  13. RCI Simulation for EUV spectra from Sn ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, T; Tanuma, H; Ohashi, H; Nishihara, K

    2007-01-01

    Using the relativistic-configuration-interaction atomic structure code, RCI simulations for EUV spectra from Sn 10+ , Sn 11+ and Sn 12+ ions are carried out, where it is assumed that each ion is embedded in a LTE plasma with the electron temperature of 30 eV. To make clear assignment of the measured spectra, the value of the excitation energy limit, which is introduced to limit the number of excited states in the simulation, is changed to see the excitation-energy-limit dependence of the spectral shape. The simulated spectra are obtained as a superposition of line intensities due to all possible transitions between two states whose excitation energy from the ground state is lower than the excitation energy limit assumed. The RCI simulated spectra are compared to the spectra measured with the chargeexchange- collision experiment in which a rare gas such as Xe or He as a target is bombarded by a charge-selected tin ion. Applicability of the LTE model to a decay model in the charge exchange collision experiment is also discussed

  14. EUV emission from Kr and Xe capillary discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juschkin, L.; Ellwi, S.; Kunze, H-J.; Chuvatin, A.; Zakharov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Kr and Xe plasmas are very intensive emitters in the spectral range of 100-150 A, which is relevant for a number of applications (for example microlithography). We present investigations of the extreme utraviolet (EUV) emission from a slow capillary discharge with Kr and Xe fillings. The emission of Kr ions (Kr VIII to Kr XI) within the range of 70-150 A consists of three bands of lines of about 10 A width with maxima at 116, 103 and 86 A. Xe emission bands of about 15 A width have their maxima at 136 and 115 A (Xe IX to Xe XII). The radiation duration in this spectral range is ∼150 ns for both elements. At the optimum conditions, the Kr emission at 103 A is 2-3 times more intense than the Xe emission at 136 A. The measured spectral energy of Kr radiation is about 0.1 J sr -1 A -1 . Experimental results are compared with numerical modellings of the dynamics and emission of the capillary discharge plasma, which enables the determination of plasma parameters and the future use of the codes as additional instruments for plasma diagnostics. (author)

  15. The EUV chromospheric network in the quiet Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations on the structure and intensity of the chromospheric network from quiet solar regions have been carried out with EUV data obtained from the Harvard spectroheliometer on the Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab. The distribution of intensities within supergranulation cell interiors follows a near normal function, where the standard deviation exceeds the value expected from the counting rate, which indicates fine-scale structure below the 5 arc sec resolution of the data. The intensities from the centers of supergranulation cells appear to be the same in both quiet regions and coronal holes, although the network is significantly different in the two types of regions. The average halfwidth of the network elements was measured as 10 arc sec, and was independent of the temperature of formation of the observing line for 3.8< logTsub(e)<5.8. The contrast between the network and the centers of cells is greatest for lines with logTsub(e)approximately5.2, where the network contributes approximately 75% of the intensity of quiet solar regions. The contrast and fractional intensity contributions decrease to higher and lower temperatures characteristic of the corona and chromosphere. (Auth.)

  16. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  17. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo

    2013-01-01

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS

  18. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS.

  19. System engineering approach in the EU Test Blanket Systems Design Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, D.; Sardain, P.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Salavy, J.-F.; Cismondi, F.; Jourd'Heuil, L.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the Test Blanket Systems demands diverse and comprehensive integration activities. Test Blanket Modules - Consortia of Associates (TBM-CA) applies the system engineering methods in all stages of the Test Blanket System (TBS) design integration. Completed so far integration engineering tasks cover among others status and initial set of TBS operating parameters; list of codes, standards and regulations related to TBS; planning of the TBS interfaces and baseline documentation. Most of the attention is devoted to the establishment the Helium-Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed Lead (HCPB) TBS configuration baseline, TBS break down into sub-systems, identification, definition and management of the internal and external interfaces, development of the TBS plant break down structure (PBS), establishment and management of the required TBS baseline documentation infrastructure. Break down of the TBS into sub-systems that is crucial for the further design and interfaces' management has been selected considering several options and using specific evaluation criteria. Process of the TBS interfaces management covers the planning, definition and description, verification and review, non-conformances and deviations, and modification and improvement processes. Process of interfaces review is developed, identifying the actors, input, activities and output of the review. Finally the relations and interactions of system engineering processes with TBM configuration management and TBM-CA Quality Management System are discussed.

  20. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of heat recovery from engine test cell by Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokati, Naser; Mohammadkhani, Farzad; Farrokhi, Navid; Ranjbar, Faramarz

    2014-12-01

    During manufacture of engines, evaluation of engine performance is essential. This is accomplished in test cells. During the test, a significant portion of heat energy released by the fuel is wasted. In this study, in order to recover these heat losses, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is recommended. The study has been conducted assuming the diesel oil to be composed of a single hydrocarbon such as C12H26. The composition of exhaust gases (products of combustion) have been computed (and not determined experimentally) from the stoichiometric equation representing the combustion reaction. The test cell heat losses are recovered in three separate heat exchangers (preheater, evaporator and superheater). These heat exchangers are separately designed, and the whole system is analyzed from energy and exergy viewpoints. Finally, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of different variables on the system performance characteristics such as the ORC net power, heat exchangers effectiveness, the first law efficiency, exergy destruction and heat transfer surfaces. The results of the study show that by utilizing ORC, heat recovery equivalent to 8.85 % of the engine power is possible. The evaporator has the highest exergy destruction rate, while the pump has the lowest among the system components. Heat transfer surfaces are calculated to be 173.6, 58.7, and 11.87 m2 for the preheater, evaporator and superheater, respectively.

  1. Propulsion health monitoring of a turbine engine disk using spin test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark; Oza, Nikunj; Matthews, Bryan; Baakilini, George

    2010-03-01

    On line detection techniques to monitor the health of rotating engine components are becoming increasingly attractive options to aircraft engine companies in order to increase safety of operation and lower maintenance costs. Health monitoring remains a challenging feature to easily implement, especially, in the presence of scattered loading conditions, crack size, component geometry and materials properties. The current trend, however, is to utilize noninvasive types of health monitoring or nondestructive techniques to detect hidden flaws and mini cracks before any catastrophic event occurs. These techniques go further to evaluate materials' discontinuities and other anomalies that have grown to the level of critical defects which can lead to failure. Generally, health monitoring is highly dependent on sensor systems that are capable of performing in various engine environmental conditions and able to transmit a signal upon a predetermined crack length, while acting in a neutral form upon the overall performance of the engine system. Efforts are under way at NASA Glenn Research Center through support of the Intelligent Vehicle Health Management Project (IVHM) to develop and implement such sensor technology for a wide variety of applications. These efforts are focused on developing high temperature, wireless, low cost and durable products. Therefore, in an effort to address the technical issues concerning health monitoring of a rotor disk, this paper considers data collected from an experimental study using high frequency capacitive sensor technology to capture blade tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a rotating engine-like-disk-to predict the disk faults and assess its structural integrity. The experimental results collected at a range of rotational speeds from tests conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory will be evaluated using multiple data-driven anomaly detection techniques to identify anomalies in the disk. This study

  2. Engineering design and analysis of an ITER-like first mirror test assembly on JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizvary, Z.; Bourdel, B.; Garcia-Carrasco, A.

    2017-01-01

    is underway on JET, under contract to ITER, with primary objective to test if, under realistic plasma and wall material conditions and with ITER-like first mirror aperture geometry, deposits do grow on first mirrors. This paper describes the engineering design and analysis of this mirror test assembly......The ITER first mirrors are the components of optical diagnostic systems closest to the plasma. Deposition may build up on the surfaces of the mirror affecting their ability to fulfil their function. However, physics modelling of this layer growth is fraught with uncertainty. A new experiment...

  3. Assessment of engineering plant analyzer with Peach Bottom 2 stability tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.

    1992-01-01

    Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) has been developed to simulate plant transients for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Recently, this code has been used to simulate LaSalle-2 instability event which was initiated by a failure in the feed water heater. The simulation was performed for the scram conditions and for the postulated failure in the scram. In order to assess the capability of the EPA to simulate oscillatory flows as observed in the LaSalle event, EPA has been benchmarked with the available data from the Peach Bottom 2 (PB2) Instability tests PT1, PT2, and PT4. This document provides a description of these tests

  4. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    ) workshop in Washington, D.C. and serves as the point of depature for this paper. Here we present the main outcomes by describing and defining the use of ATS for ENMs as well as discussing its future role in environmental risk science. We conclude that diversity in testing should be encouraged to avoid...... chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) through ATS was discussed in September 2014 at an international Society for Risk Analysis (SRA...... be utilized to skip uncertain environmental extrapolations and give rise to more accurate risk analysis....

  5. TIBER II/ETR [Engineering Test Reactor] nuclear shielding and optional tritium breeding system: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Sawan, M.

    1987-01-01

    TIBER II, the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II, is a design concept developed as the US candidate for an International Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). An important objective of this design is to minimize cost by minimizing major radius while providing a wall loading greater than 1.0 MW/m2 and a total fluence greater than 3.0 MWY/m2 needed for blanket module testing. The shielding required for the superconducting TF coils is an important element in setting TIBER II's 3.0m major radius. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Lawrence Berkeley laboratory neutral-beam engineering test facility power-supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, I.C.; Arthur, C.A.; deVries, G.J.; Owren, H.M.

    1981-10-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is upgrading the neutral beam source test facility (NBSTF) into a neutral beam engineering test facility (NBETF) with increased capabilities for the development of neutral beam systems. The NBETF will have an accel power supply capable of 170 kV, 70 A, 30 sec pulse length, 10% duty cycle; and the auxiliary power supplies required for the sources. This paper describes the major components, their ratings and capabilities, and the flexibility designed to accomodate the needs of source development

  7. Engineering-scale tests of in situ vitrification to PCB and radioactive contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology applicable to the remediation of hazardous chemical and radioactive contaminated soil and sludge sites. The ISV process utilizes electricity, through joule heating, to melt contaminated soil and form an inert glass and microcrystalline residual product. Applications of ISV to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclides have been demonstrated at engineering-scale in numerous tests (1,2,3). An updated evaluation of ISV applicability to treatment of PCBs and radionuclides, and recent test results are presented herein

  8. Testing of a Stirling engine for heat + power cogeneration; Test eines Stirlingmotors zur Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, M.; Heinen, J. [RWE Energy AG, Essen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    As part of a technology evaluation of distributed energy generators, RWE Energy AG extensively tested a micro combined heat and power appliance, powered by a Stirling engine developed by the British firm Microgen Energy Limited. Microgen Energy Limited is a specialist in micro combined heat and power (microCHP) based on unique Free-Piston Stirling generator technology Microgen is working with leading appliance manufacturers to integrate its core technology into a range of innovative microCHP products. The investigations concentrated on the determination of capacity, efficiency and emissions, the grid connection and behaviour at start-up and under varying loads. This article summarises the results of the tests and gives an overview of micro-CHP technologies (CHP=combined heat and power) and their possible significance to the market in the future. (orig.)

  9. Vibration Diagnostics as an effective Tool for Testing Engines of Internal Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Dömötör

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods of automotive diagnostics used in services to detect a large variety of faults and damages of various parts of engines of internal combustion. Undoubtedly, they are effective, but they are simply unable to find all types of mechanical faults occurring during the operation. This is the reason why authors of this paper tried to use a special tool, which has been proven for years for detecting faults of rolling element bearing in rotating machinery. During their research, the authors tried to find valuable results by measuring vibration of various parts of engines. Three items were tested, a Diesel engine and two Otto motors. A large number of measurements have been taken at various speed, at different points, in different directions, with different parameter setup, etc. However, there was one setup which has been applied to all three engines. It is the measurement setup of vibration velocity, in the frequency range of 2 Hz-300 Hz. Valuable consequences have been found regarding the clogging of the air filters and the exhaust systems. As a conclusion the authors expressed their opinion, that, apart from the traditional diagnostic methods used in services, vibration measurements can also be useful, especially for detecting faults of rolling element bearings.

  10. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  11. JANNAF "Test and Evaluation Guidelines for Liquid Rocket Engines": Status and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas; VanLerberghe, Wayne M.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base has performed remarkably in developing complex liquid rocket engines that can propel critical payloads into service for the nation, as well as transport people and hardware for missions that open the frontiers of space exploration for humanity. This has been possible only at considerable expense given the lack of detailed guidance that captures the essence of successful practices and knowledge accumulated over five decades of liquid rocket engine development. In an effort to provide benchmarks and guidance for the next generation of rocket engineers, the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Interagency Propulsion Committee published a liquid rocket engine (LRE) test and evaluation (T&E) guideline document in 2012 focusing on the development challenges and test verification considerations for liquid rocket engine systems. This document has been well received and applied by many current LRE developers as a benchmark and guidance tool, both for government-driven applications as well as for fully commercial ventures. The USAF Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has taken an additional near-term step and is directing activity to adapt and augment the content from the JANNAF LRE T&E guideline into a standard for potential application to future USAF requests for proposals for LRE development initiatives and launch vehicles for national security missions. A draft of this standard was already sent out for review and comment, and is intended to be formally approved and released towards the end of 2017. The acceptance and use of the LRE T&E guideline is possible through broad government and industry participation in the JANNAF liquid propulsion committee and associated panels. The sponsoring JANNAF community is expanding upon this initial baseline version and delving into further critical development aspects of liquid rocket propulsion testing at the integrated stage level as well as engine component level, in

  12. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar spectral irradiance (SSI) for ionospheric application - history and contemporary state-of-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.; Jacobi, Ch.; Nikutowski, B.; Erhardt, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    After a historical survey of space related EUV measurements in Germany and the role of Karl Rawer in pursuing this work, we describe present developments in EUV spectroscopy and provide a brief outlook on future activities. The group of Karl Rawer has performed the first scientific space project in Western Europe on 19th October 1954. Then it was decided to include the field of solar EUV spectroscopy in ionospheric investigations. Starting in 1957 an intensified development of instrumentation was going on to explore solar EUV radiation, atmospheric airglow and auroral emissions until the institute had to stop space activities in the early nineteen-eighties. EUV spectroscopy was continued outside of the institute during eight years. This area of work was supported again by the institute developing the Auto-Calibrating Spectrometers (SolACES) for a mission on the International Space Station (ISS). After more than six years in space the instrument is still in operation. Meanwhile the work on the primary task also to validate EUV data available from other space missions has made good progress. The first results of validating those data and combine them into one set of EUV solar spectral irradiance are very promising. It will be recommended for using it by the science and application community. Moreover, a new low-cost type of an EUV spectrometer is presented for monitoring the solar EUV radiation. It shall be further developed for providing EUV-TEC data to be applied in ionospheric models replacing the Covington index F10.7. Applying these data for example in the GNSS signal evaluation a more accurate determination of GNSS receiver positions is expected for correcting the propagation delays of navigation signals traveling through the ionosphere from space to earth. - Latest results in the field of solar EUV spectroscopy are discussed, too.

  13. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  14. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  15. Mission definition study for Stanford relativity satellite. Volume 2: Engineering flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The need is examined for orbital flight tests of gyroscope, dewar, and other components, in order to reduce the technical and financial risk in performing the relativity experiment. A program is described that would generate engineering data to permit prediction of final performance. Two flight tests are recommended. The first flight would test a dewar smaller than that required for the final flight, but of size and form sufficient to allow extrapolation to the final design. The second flight would use the same dewar design to carry a set of three gyroscopes, which would be evaluated for spinup and drift characteristics for a period of a month or more. A proportional gas control system using boiloff helium gas from the dewar, and having the ability to prevent sloshing of liquid helium, would also be tested.

  16. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  17. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle, and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data, and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  18. Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a high-efficiency generator being developed for potential use on a Discovery 12 space mission. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in 2008 and has been undergoing extended operation testing to generate long-term performance data for an integrated system. It has also been used for tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs, both when controlled with an alternating current (AC) bus and with a digital controller. The ASRG EU currently has over 27,000 hours of operation. This paper summarizes all of the tests that have been conducted on the ASRG EU over the past 3 years and provides an overview of the test results and what was learned.

  19. Engineering design of a fusion test reactor (FTR) and fusion engineering research facility (FERF) based on a toroidal theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Burke, R.J.; Dauzvardis, P.V.; Foss, M.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Maroni, V.A.; Pierce, A.W.; Turner, A.F.; Krakowski, R.A.; Linford, R.K.; Oliphant, T.A.; Ribe, F.L.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes two advanced toroidal theta-pinch devices which are being proposed for future construction. The Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is being designed to produce thermonuclear energy (at 20 MeV/neutron) equal to the maximum plasma energy (Q=1) and to demonstrate α-particle heating. The Fusion Engineering and Research Facility (FERF) is being designed to test materials in a fusion environment where the average 14-MeV neutron flux from the plasma is greater than or of the order of 5.10 13 n/cm 2 .s over large surface areas. These devices employ the staged theta-pinch principle where the heating is accomplished by rapid (about 0.1 μs) implosion and expansion followed by a slow compression of the plasma. The rapid implosion injects as much heat as possible at as large a plasma radious as possible so that the plasma remains stable even after further compression. The final compression to ignition requires the transfer of a large amount of magnetic energy which implies a long transfer time (about 1 ms) for realistic voltages in the driving circuit. Throughout the heating and burn cycle the plasma must remain in equilibrium and stable to the dominant MHD-modes. A sufficiently large plasma radius guarantees stability against the m = 1 modes. These equilibrium and stability conditions and the requirements on thermonuclear burn determine the design parameters for either machine. The design parameters must also be consistent with economic limitations and technological feasibility of components. In addition to these requirements, the FERF must provide a steady and reliable source of fusion neutrons. (author)

  20. The inner-relationship of hard X-ray and EUV bursts during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emslie, A.G.; Brown, J.C.; Donnelly, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison is made between the flux-versus-time profile in the EUV band and the thick target electron flux profile as inferred from hard X-rays for a number of moderately large solar flares. This complements Kane and Donnelly's (1971) study of small flares. The hard X-ray data are from ESRO TD-1A and the EUV inferred from SFD observations. Use of a chi 2 minimising method shows that the best overall fit between the profile fine structures obtains for synchronism to < approximately 5 s which is within the timing accuracy. This suggests that neither conduction nor convection is fast enough as the primary mechanism of energy transport into the EUV flare and rather favours heating by the electrons themselves or by some MHD wave process much faster than acoustic waves. The electron power deposited, for a thick target model, is however far greater than the EUV luminosity for any reasonable assumptions about the area and depth over which EUV is emitted. This means that either most of the power deposited is conducted away to the optical flare or that only a fraction < approximately 1-10% of the X-ray emitting electrons are injected downwards. Recent work on Hα flare heating strongly favours the latter alternative - i.e. that electrons are mostly confined in the corona. (Auth.)

  1. Registration performance on EUV masks using high-resolution registration metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Steffen; Solowan, Hans-Michael; Park, Jinback; Han, Hakseung; Beyer, Dirk; Scherübl, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation lithography based on EUV continues to move forward to high-volume manufacturing. Given the technical challenges and the throughput concerns a hybrid approach with 193 nm immersion lithography is expected, at least in the initial state. Due to the increasing complexity at smaller nodes a multitude of different masks, both DUV (193 nm) and EUV (13.5 nm) reticles, will then be required in the lithography process-flow. The individual registration of each mask and the resulting overlay error are of crucial importance in order to ensure proper functionality of the chips. While registration and overlay metrology on DUV masks has been the standard for decades, this has yet to be demonstrated on EUV masks. Past generations of mask registration tools were not necessarily limited in their tool stability, but in their resolution capabilities. The scope of this work is an image placement investigation of high-end EUV masks together with a registration and resolution performance qualification. For this we employ a new generation registration metrology system embedded in a production environment for full-spec EUV masks. This paper presents excellent registration performance not only on standard overlay markers but also on more sophisticated e-beam calibration patterns.

  2. Advanced 0.3-NA EUV lithography capabilities at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Erik; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Hoef, Brian; Jackson, Keith

    2005-01-01

    For volume nanoelectronics production using Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography [1] to become a reality around the year 2011, advanced EUV research tools are required today. Microfield exposure tools have played a vital role in the early development of EUV lithography [2-4] concentrating on numerical apertures (NA) of 0.2 and smaller. Expected to enter production at the 32-nm node with NAs of 0.25, EUV can no longer rely on these early research tools to provide relevant learning. To overcome this problem, a new generation of microfield exposure tools, operating at an NA of 0.3 have been developed [5-8]. Like their predecessors, these tools trade off field size and speed for greatly reduced complexity. One of these tools is implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility. This tool gets around the problem of the intrinsically high coherence of the synchrotron source [9,10] by using an active illuminator scheme [11]. Here we describe recent printing results obtained from the Berkeley EUV exposure tool. Limited by the availability of ultra-high resolution chemically amplified resists, present resolution limits are approximately 32 nm for equal lines and spaces and 27 nm for semi-isolated lines

  3. Reconstruction of the solar EUV irradiance from 1996 to 2010 based on SOHO/EIT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberreiter Margit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV spectrum has important effects on the Earth’s upper atmosphere. For a detailed investigation of these effects it is important to have a consistent data series of the EUV spectral irradiance available. We present a reconstruction of the solar EUV irradiance based on SOHO/EIT images, along with synthetic spectra calculated using different coronal features which represent the brightness variation of the solar atmosphere. The EIT images are segmented with the SPoCA2 tool which separates the features based on a fixed brightness classification scheme. With the SOLMOD code we then calculate intensity spectra for the 10–100 nm wavelength range and each of the coronal features. Weighting the intensity spectra with the area covered by each of the features yields the temporal variation of the EUV spectrum. The reconstructed spectrum is then validated against the spectral irradiance as observed with SOHO/SEM. Our approach leads to good agreement between the reconstructed and the observed spectral irradiance. This study is an important step toward understanding variations in the solar EUV spectrum and ultimately its effect on the Earth’s upper atmosphere.

  4. Bentonite engineered barrier building method for radioactive waste on sub-surface disposal test project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takuo; Takahashi, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Kunifumi; Namiki, Kazuto

    2008-01-01

    The engineering barriers such as clay and concrete materials are planned to use for covering radioactive waste in cavern-type disposal facility. The requirement to clay barrier is very low permeability, which could be satisfied by high density Bentonite, and such a compaction method will be needed. Two methods, compaction and air shot, were tested in engineering scale for constructing a high-density clay barrier. Two types of compaction equipments, 'Teasel plate' and 'Plate compacter', were developed and engineering scale experiments were performed for compacting Bentonite only and Bentonite-sand-aggregate mixture. As a result, the Teasel plate can reach higher density Bentonite in relatively short time in comparison to other equipments. While, regarding air shot method, an air-shot machine in a tunnel construction site was tested by different water adding methods (wet, dry, and half wet). It is concluded that the dry and half wet constructing methods will achieve reasonable workability. As a result, the best construction option can be chosen according to the locations of radioactive waste facility. (author)

  5. Human factors engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, M.P.; Banks, W.W.

    1980-12-01

    The information presented here represents preliminary findings related to an ongoing human engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Control Room. Although many of the problems examined in this report have been previously noted by ATR operations personnel, the systematic approach used in this investigation produced many new insights. While many violations of Human Engineering military standards (MIL-STD) are noted, and numerous recommendations made, the recommendations should be examined cautiously. The reason for our suggested caution lies in the fact that many ATR operators have well over 10-years experience in operating the controls, meters, etc. Hence, it is assumed adaptation to the existing system is quite developed and the introduction of hardware/control changes, even though the changes enhance the system, may cause short-term (or long-term, depending upon the amount of operator experience and training) adjustment problems for operators adapting to the new controls/meters and physical layout

  6. Tests of a Higgins contactor for the engineering-scale resin loading of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The loading of uranium on weak-acid ion exchange resin is a basic step in the production of fuel particles for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In the work reported here, an engineering-scale continuous resin loader (2-in.-ID Higgins contactor) was tested with existing engineering-scale process equipment. The Higgins contactor was first successfully used to convert Na + -form resin to the H + -form; then it was evaluated as a uranium loader. Results show that the 2-in.-ID Higgins contactor can easily load 25 kg of uranium per day, indicating that a 4-in.-ID contactor could load 100 kg/day. Process control was achieved by monitoring and controlling the density, pH, and inventory volume of the uranium feed solution. This control scheme is amenable to remote operation

  7. Laser ultrasonics for civil engineering : some applications in development for concrete non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, O; Cottineau, L-M; Durand, O; Popovics, J S

    2011-01-01

    Non destructive testing of civil engineering infrastructures is becoming of primary importance for their diagnosis, residual time life estimation and/or structural health monitoring. A particularity of civil engineering application is the large size of the survey zones and the expected low cost of inspection. In this context non contact ultrasonics may offer the possibility to built robots that can automatically scan large areas (or eventually be integrated in moving vehicles) to recover mechanical properties of material or to perform imagery for geometrical information recovery. In this paper we present two possible applications of in situ laser ultrasonics : one is the detection of voids in tendon duct with the impact echo method, the other is the use of surface waves to recover mechanical properties of the first centimetres of concrete structures (here after called cover concrete).

  8. Effect of distributive mass of spring on power flow in engineering test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Meiping; Wang, Ting; Wang, Minqing; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Xuan

    2018-06-01

    Mass of spring is always neglected in theoretical and simulative analysis, while it may be a significance in practical engineering. This paper is concerned with the distributive mass of a steel spring which is used as an isolator to simulate isolation performance of a water pipe in a heating system. Theoretical derivation of distributive mass effect of steel spring on vibration is presented, and multiple eigenfrequencies are obtained, which manifest that distributive mass results in extra modes and complex impedance properties. Furthermore, numerical simulation visually shows several anti-resonances of the steel spring corresponding to impedance and power flow curves. When anti-resonances emerge, the spring collects large energy which may cause damage and unexpected consequences in practical engineering and needs to be avoided. Finally, experimental tests are conducted and results show consistency with that of the simulation of the spring with distributive mass.

  9. Heat removal performance of auxiliary cooling system for the high temperature engineering test reactor during scrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Takenaka, Satsuki

    2003-01-01

    The auxiliary cooling system of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is employed for heat removal as an engineered safety feature when the reactor scrams in an accident when forced circulation can cool the core. The HTTR is the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan with reactor outlet gas temperature of 950 degree sign C and thermal power of 30 MW. The auxiliary cooling system should cool the core continuously avoiding excessive cold shock to core graphite components and water boiling of itself. Simulation tests on manual trip from 9 MW operation and on loss of off-site electric power from 15 MW operation were carried out in the rise-to-power test up to 20 MW of the HTTR. Heat removal characteristics of the auxiliary cooling system were examined by the tests. Empirical correlations of overall heat transfer coefficients were acquired for a helium/water heat exchanger and air cooler for the auxiliary cooling system. Temperatures of fluids in the auxiliary cooling system were predicted on a scram event from 30 MW operation at 950 degree sign C of the reactor outlet coolant temperature. Under the predicted helium condition of the auxiliary cooling system, integrity of fuel blocks among the core graphite components was investigated by stress analysis. Evaluation results showed that overcooling to the core graphite components and boiling of water in the auxiliary cooling system should be prevented where open area condition of louvers in the air cooler is the full open

  10. Analysis and Testing of a Composite Fuselage Shield for Open Rotor Engine Blade-Out Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the Aircraft. The NASA Glenn Research Center and The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test lightweight composite shields for protection of the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. LS-DYNA® was used to predict the thickness of the composite shield required to prevent blade penetration. In the test, two composite blades were pyrotechnically released from a running engine, each impacting a composite shield with a different thickness. The thinner shield was penetrated by the blade and the thicker shield prevented penetration. This was consistent with pre-test LS-DYNA predictions. This paper documents the analysis conducted to predict the required thickness of a composite shield, the live fire test from the full scale rig at NAWC China Lake and describes the damage to the shields as well as instrumentation results.

  11. Operation, test, research and development of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). FY1999-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    The HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) with the thermal power of 30 MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850/950 degC is the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan, which uses coated fuel particle, graphite for core components, and helium gas for primary coolant. The HTTR, which locates at the south-west area of 50,000 m{sup 2} in the Oarai Research Establishment, had been constructed since 1991 before accomplishing the first criticality on November 10, 1998. Rise to power tests of the HTTR started in September, 1999 and the rated thermal power of 30 MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850 degC was attained in December 2001. JAERI received the certificate of pre-operation test, that is, the commissioning license for the HTTR in March 2002. This report summarizes operation, tests, maintenance, radiation control, and construction of components and facilities for the HTTR as well as R and Ds on HTGRs from FY1999 to 2001. (author)

  12. Data on loss of off-site electric power simulation tests of the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    2002-07-01

    The high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR), the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan, achieved the first full power of 30 MW on December 7 in 2001. In the rise-to-power test of the HTTR, simulation tests on loss of off-site electric power from 15 and 30 MW operations were carried out by manual shutdown of off-site electric power. Because helium circulators and water pumps coasted down immediately after the loss of off-site electric power, flow rates of helium and water decreased to the scram points. To shut down the reactor safely, the subcriticality should be kept by the insertion of control rods and the auxiliary cooling system should cool the core continuously avoiding excessive cold shock to core graphite components. About 50 s later from the loss of off-site electric power, the auxiliary cooling system started up by supplying electricity from emergency power feeders. Temperature of hot plenum block among core graphite structures decreased continuously after the startup of the auxiliary cooling system. This report describes sequences of dynamic components and transient behaviors of the reactor and its cooling system during the simulation tests from 15 and 30 MW operations. (author)

  13. An engineering methodology for implementing and testing VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Walter F., II

    1989-03-01

    The engineering methodology for producing a fully tested VLSI chip from a design layout is presented. A 16-bit correlator, NPS CORN88, that was previously designed, was used as a vehicle to demonstrate this methodology. The study of the design and simulation tools, MAGIC and MOSSIM II, was the focus of the design and validation process. The design was then implemented and the chip was fabricated by MOSIS. This fabricated chip was then used to develop a testing methodology for using the digital test facilities at NPS. NPS CORN88 was the first full custom VLSI chip, designed at NPS, to be tested with the NPS digital analysis system, Tektronix DAS 9100 series tester. The capabilities and limitations of these test facilities are examined. NPS CORN88 test results are included to demonstrate the capabilities of the digital test system. A translator, MOS2DAS, was developed to convert the MOSSIM II simulation program to the input files required by the DAS 9100 device verification software, 91DVS. Finally, a tutorial for using the digital test facilities, including the DAS 9100 and associated support equipments, is included as an appendix.

  14. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 6U reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m(sub 2) solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA has launched to date. NEA Scout is currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis was able to capture understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system as well as mature an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. Full scale system testing on the ground is the optimal way to demonstrate system robustness, repeatability, and overall performance on a compressed flight schedule. To physically test the system, the team developed a flight sized engineering development unit with design features as close to flight as possible. The test suite included ascent vent, random vibration, functional deployments, thermal vacuum, and full sail deployments. All of these tests contributed towards development of the final flight unit. This paper will address several of the design challenges and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. Testing on the component level all the way to the integrated subsystem level. From optical properties of the sail material to fold and spooling the single sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. The team completed several deployments of the sail system in preparation for flight at half scale (4m) and full scale (6.8m): boom only, half scale sail deployment, and full scale sail deployment. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  15. Design, fabrication, and testing of a sodium evaporator for the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, K.S.; Adkins, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the development and testing of a compact heat-pipe heat exchanger kW(e) designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases. The liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine, where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15 kW(t) of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760 C. Four of these prototype units were eventually used to power a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this report.

  16. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION OF AN H{alpha} MORETON WAVE, EUV WAVE, AND FILAMENT/PROMINENCE OSCILLATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Ayumi; Isobe, Hiroaki [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; UeNo, Satoru; Nagata, Shin' ichi; Morita, Satoshi; Nishida, Keisuke; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oi, Akihito [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Akioka, Maki, E-mail: asai@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Hiraiso Solar Observatory, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    We report on the first simultaneous observation of an H{alpha} Moreton wave, the corresponding EUV fast coronal waves, and a slow and bright EUV wave (typical EIT wave). We observed a Moreton wave, associated with an X6.9 flare that occurred on 2011 August 9 at the active region NOAA 11263, in the H{alpha} images taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory of Kyoto University. In the EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory we found not only the corresponding EUV fast 'bright' coronal wave, but also the EUV fast 'faint' wave that is not associated with the H{alpha} Moreton wave. We also found a slow EUV wave, which corresponds to a typical EIT wave. Furthermore, we observed, for the first time, the oscillations of a prominence and a filament, simultaneously, both in the H{alpha} and EUV images. To trigger the oscillations by the flare-associated coronal disturbance, we expect a coronal wave as fast as the fast-mode MHD wave with the velocity of about 570-800 km s{sup -1}. These velocities are consistent with those of the observed Moreton wave and the EUV fast coronal wave.

  17. Time Variabilities of Solar Wind Ion Fluxes and of X-ray and EUV Emissions from Comet Hyakutake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.; Cravens, T.; Lisse, C.; Ipavich, F.; von Steiger, R.; Shah, P.; Armstrong, T.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2 made by the Rontgen X-ray satellite (ROSAT) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) revealed a total X-ray luminosity of about 500 MW.

  18. EUV blank defect and particle inspection with high throughput immersion AFM with 1nm 3D resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, M.H. van; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2016-01-01

    Inspection of EUV mask substrates and blanks is demanding. We envision this is a good target application for massively parallel Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We envision to do a full surface characterization of EUV masks with AFM enabling 1nm true 3D resolution over the entire surface. The limiting

  19. Review on the solar spectral variability in the EUV for space weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lilensten

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The solar XUV-EUV flux is the main energy source in the terrestrial diurnal thermosphere: it produces ionization, dissociation, excitation and heating. Accurate knowledge of this flux is of prime importance for space weather. We first list the space weather applications that require nowcasting and forecasting of the solar XUV-EUV flux. We then review present models and discuss how they account for the variability of the solar spectrum. We show why the measurement of the full spectrum is difficult, and why it is illusory to retrieve it from its atmospheric effects. We then address the problem of determining a set of observations that are adapted for space weather purposes, in the frame of ionospheric studies. Finally, we review the existing and future space experiments that are devoted to the observation of the solar XUV-EUV spectrum.

  20. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.